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Eduandrea, a new generic name for Andrea.

Taxonomic history

Andrea selloana (Baker) Mez was originally described as Quesnelia selloana Baker (Baker 1889), based on the specimen no. 1414 of Friedrich Sello (or Sellow; 1789-1831) deposited in the Berlin Botanical Garden and Museum Herbarium (B). Mez (1892) questioned the placement in Quesnelia, noting the unusual grass-like habit ("Species adhuc omnino dubiae sedis, caule gramineo-foliato ab omnibus reliquis Aechmeinis recedens, habitu Sodiroae species in memoriam revocat"). Four years later, Mez (1896) established the genus Andrea, in honor of the French botanist and horticulturalist Eduard-Francois Andre (1840-1911), to accommodate this unusual species, A. selloana. The monotypic Andrea was originally classified in the nomenclaturally invalid "section" Aechmeinae close to the genus Orthophytum (Mez, 1896). Years later Mez (1934) still maintained Andrea within Aechmeinae (now a subtribe) close to Orthophytum. In 1955, Smith (1955) placed Andrea between Nidularium and Bromelia, but this view had changed in Smith and Downs (1979) where it was positioned between Greigia and Bromelia.

Pereira and Leme (1986) transferred Andrea selloana to Nidularium subg. Canistropsis when they expanded the concept of the subgenus to include species with well-developed scapes. Within Nidularium, N. selloanum (Baker) E. Pereira & Leme, N. seidelii L. B. Sm. & Reitz and N. billbergioides (Schult. & Schult. f.) L. B. Sm., formed a group characterized by inflorescences elevated well above the leaf rosette. These authors acknowledge the unusual vegetative aspects of N. selloanum, but considered the then-known other morphological characteristics to be consistent with the placement in their expanded concept of subgenus Canistropsis.

In a revision of the nidularioid-complex, Leme (1998) elevated Nidularium subg. Canistropsis to generic status as Canistropsis, indicating Nidularium pubisepalum Mez [= Canistropsis burchellii (Baker) Mez] as the type species for the genus, since it was the only species that was originally retained by Mez (1891, 1894, 1896) in Canistropsis. Therefore, the choice of Nidularium microps (E. Morren ex Mez [= Canistropsis microps (E. Morren ex Mez) Leme] as the type of Canistropsis by Smith & Downs (1979) and Pereira & Leme (1986) was then considered in conflict with the protologue of Canistropsis.

According to Leme (1998), in the absence of new collections and data and despite the known discrepancies, the retention of C. selloana (Baker) Leme within Canistropsis seemed reasonable (Brown and Leme 2000). At that point, there was a problem involving the legitimacy of the generic name Canistropsis, since Andrea was an earlier generic name. However, Canistropsis was not illegitimate because it was based on a legitimate basionym, but it was simply nomenclaturally incorrect under the application of article 52.3 of the Vienna Code (McNeill, Barrie et al. 2006), since "a name that was nomen-claturally superfluous when published is not illegitimate on account of its superfluity if it is based on a name-bringing or epithet-bringing synonym (basionym) (...). When published it is incorrect, but it may become correct later". This problem was solved by Brown and Leme (2005) on the basis of parsimony analysis of improved morphological data involving 130 species from ten Bromelioideae genera (Aechmea, Canistropsis, Canistrum, Cryptanthus, Edmundoa, Greigia, Neoregelia, Nidularium, Orthophytum, and Wittrockia) with special refinement of the study of Andrea based on new collected samples from few vigorous wild population. Brown & Leme (2005) concluded that maintaining Andrea selloana within Canistropsis is not warranted because it has closer relationship with elements of Aechmea, high-lighting the many distinctive morphological features exhibited by this taxon. So, they re-established the genus Andrea, thus revalidating Canistropsis under article 52.3 (last part) and provided an enlarged description for Andrea selloana and a new identification key to Andrea and the remaining nidularioid genera (Canistropsis, Edmundoa, Nidularium, and Wittrockia).

Finally, the Committee for Spermatophyta of the International Association for Plant Taxonomy voted on the request for decision on homonymy by R. Govaerts (Brummitt 2005). By the vote of 13-2, the Committee recommended that the name Andrea be treated as a homonym of the earlier name of mosses of 1801, Andreaea Hedw., thus rendering Canistropsis correct. The Committee agreed with the argument that despite the etymological independence of Andrea and Andreaea, Canistropsis is a much larger genus and has come to a rather wide usage in bromeliad literature, and it would be convenient if the competing Andrea could be disregarded as being illegitimate. In consequence, the Vienna Congress ruled on the basis of Art. 53.5 of the Code and accepted the report of the IAPT General Committee, which followed the opinion of the Committee for Spermatophyta, that Andreaea and Andrea were sufficiently alike to be confused (McNeill, Redhead et al. 2006). Accordingly, under Art. 53.3, Andrea is treated as an illegitimate later homonym of Andreaea

Facing the formal need of the adoption of a new generic name to substitute Andrea, we here propose the new name Eduandrea retaining the same etymology honoring the well known collector Eduard-Francois Andre.

Taxonomic Treatment

Eduandrea Leme, W. Till, G. K. Brown, J. R. Grant & Govaerts, nom. nov. for Andrea Mez, in C. DC., Monogr. phan. 9: 114. 1896; nom. illeg. Type: Quesnelia selloana Baker, Handb. Bromel.: 87. 1889.

Eduandrea selloana (Baker) Leme, W. Till, G. K. Brown, J. R. Grant & Govaerts, comb. nov.

Basionym: Quesnelia selloana Baker, Handb. Bromel.: 87. 1889. Type: Brazil, without precise locality, Sellow 1414 (Holotype, B; photo F, HB).

Synonyms: Andrea selloana (Baker) Mez, in C. DC., Monogr. phan. 9: 114-115. 1896, "sellowiana".

Nidularium selloanum (Baker) E. Pereira & Leme, Bradea 4 (32): 235-236, fig. 13. 1986.

Canistropsis selloana (Baker) Leme, Canistropsis Bromelias da Mata Atlantica: 55, figs. 56, 138. 1998.

Additional remarks

Eduandrea selloana is a species endemic to gallery forests above the elevation of 1,000 m in the domain of the Campos Rupestres of the Espinhaco range in the regions of Ouro Preto, Antonio Pereira, Santa Barbara and Santana do Riacho of Minas Gerais State. Within these forests it is associated with the sandy soil of the stream margins, where the plants root and propagate vegetatively by means of stout, rigid, underground rhizomes.

Besides the few known localities cited by Brown & Leme (2005) where E. selloana can be currently encountered, a new population site was recently found in Parque Estadual da Serra do Rola-Moca, about 25 km from Belo Horizonte city--the largest city of the State of Minas Gerais--by the researchers of the University of Vicosa, in an area under strongly negative influence of mining activities and uncontrolled urban expansion (C.C. Paula, pers. comm.).

Based on all current available information, E. selloana was considered by Brown & Leme (2005) under threat of extinction which recommends the adoption of urgent protection measures, hopefully to neutralize the threat of extinction, and the promotion of research to develop an understanding of the biology of this unique bromeliad species.

Acknowledgements

The authors sincerely thank Dr. John McNeill, Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, Scotland, for his so-valuable assistance on nomenclatural aspects of Andrea vs. Andreaea.

References

Baker, J. G. (1889). Handbook of the Bromeliaceae. London, George Bell and Sons.

Benzing, D. H. (1999). "Dispersao de sementes em bromelias de frutos carnosos: interpretacoes incorretas e orientacao para estudos mais aprofundados." Bromelia 5: 23-35.

Benzing, D. H. (2000). Bromeliaceae: Profile of an Adaptive Radiation. Cambridge, UK, Cambridge University Press.

Brown, G. K. and E. M. C. Leme (2000). Cladistic Analysis in the Nidularioid Complex. Nidularium--Bromeliads of the Atlantic Forest. Rio de Janeiro, Sextante: 240-247.

Brown, G. K. and E. M. C. Leme (2005). "The re-establishment of Andrea (Bromeliaceae: Bromelioideae), a monotypic genus from Southeastern Brazil threatened with extinction." Taxon 54(1): 63-70.

Brummitt, R. K. (2005). "Report of the Committee for Spermatophyta." Taxon 54(2): 527-536.

Foster, M. B. (1958). "Andrea selloana." J. Bromeliad Soc. 8(2): 27-28.

Halbritter, H. and W. H. Till (1998). Morfologia Polinica do Complexo Nidularioide. Canistropsis--Bromeliads of the Atlantic Forest. E. M. C. Leme. Rio de Janeiro, Salamandra: 114-121.

Leme, E. M. C. (1998). Canistropsis--Bromeliads of the Atlantic Forest. Rio de Janiero, Salamandra.

Leme, E. M. C. (2000). Nidularium: Bromeliads of The Atlantic Forest. Rio de Janeiro, Marcos da Veiga Pereira & Andrea Jakobsson.

McNeill, J., H. M. Barrie, et al. (2006). "International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (Vienna Code)." Regnum Vegetabile 146(i-xvii): 1-568.

McNeill, J., S. A. Redhead, et al. (2006). "Report of the General Committee: 9." Taxon 55(3): 795-800.

Mez, C. (1892). Bromeliaceae. Flora Brasiliensis Vol. 3, part 3. C. P. Martius, A. W. Eichler and I. Urban. Leipzig, Muchen, Wien.

Mez, C. (1896). Bromeliacae. C. Monogt. Phan. 9:483. de Candolle.

Mez, C. (1934). "Bromeliaceae." Engler, Das Pflanzenjreich 4(32): 1-667.

Pereira, E. and E. M. C. Leme (1986). "Contribuicao ao estudo do genero Nidularium (Bromeliaceae)--Parte I--subgenero Canistropsis." Bradea, Boletim do Herbarium Bradeana 4(32): 219-254.

Smith, L. B. (1955). "The Bromeliaceae of Brazil." Smithsonian Misc. Collect. 126(1): 290.

Smith, L. B. and R. J. Downs (1979). Flora Neotropica Monograph No. 14, Part 3 Bromelioideae (Bromeliaceae). New York, The New York Botanical Garden.

The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, K. (2006). "World Checklist of Selected Plant Families." Retrieved November 11, 2006, from http://www.kew.org/wcsp/

Authors

Elton M.C. Leme: Herbarium Bradeanum, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; leme@tj.rj.gov.br.

Walter Till: Department of Plant Systematics and Evolution, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, Austria

Gregory K. Brown: University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming, USA.

Jason R. Grant: Laboratoire de Botanique Evolutive, Universite de Neuchatel, Switzerland.

Rafael Govaerts: Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, U. K.

Elton M. C. Leme (1), Walter Till, Gregory K. Brown, Jason R. Grant & Rafael Govaerts
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Article Details
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Title Annotation:Scientific
Author:Leme, Elton M. C.; Till, Walter; Brown, Gregory K.; Grant, Jason R.; Govaerts, Rafael
Publication:Journal of the Bromeliad Society
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Mar 1, 2008
Words:1561
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