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Editorial.

We present to our readers the last issue (04) of volume 39, of Acta Scientiarum. Language and Culture, dedicated to language studies in 2017. We have gathered, in this issue, after rigorous criteria that the evaluating and indexing bodies require for the higher qualification of the periodicals, 10 articles, two of them in the section of Linguistic Description, four in Teaching and Learning and four in the Text and Speech section. With great satisfaction, our editorial team starts the process of illustration of the cover of our journal, which will always be done under the inspiration of one of the articles, selected among the ones approved for the issue in edition, whether due to its impact, its innovative character (in theory, analysis or methodology), whether by the quality of the text or the argumentative consistency of the theme.

We start our presentation with the research group within the scope of the Linguistic Description. This section contains the highlight of this edition by Maria Helena Moura Neves and Felipe Vivian Goulart, from Unesp Araraquara, who deal with the exclusiveness of the individual and the realization of the subject self. The text, as a result of Neves' experience in describing the uses of spoken Portuguese and the boldness of her doctoral student in choosing the corpus and treatment of the material, explores the relation between the explanation of the subject and the presence of exclusive endings of the first-person singular. The research, with theoretical functionalist and sociolinguistic basis, was developed from the speech of 13 Brazilian vloggers, a corpus chosen particularly for its informal status. The analysis confronts the two possibilities that the PB offers with respect to the representation of the subject of the first-person singular (explanation or ellipse), with the two possibilities that it has to combine with a predicate, since the verb may or may not have a termination that points unambiguously to the first-person singular. The analysis of the data showed the strong preference of the speakers for the explicit subject self, thus a discussion was made of how the presence of exclusive endings interferes with this result. The results obtained, on the one hand, took into account the hypothesis of a clearly majority explanation in the case of non-specific ending, and, on the other hand, did not validate the hypothesis of a minority explanation in the case of specific ending; which shows the existence of other reasons behind the expression of the self, as well as the guarantee of correct remission to the desired (exophoric) referent. Also within the scope of the Linguistic Description is the article of the trio formed by the researchers Eduardo Silva, UEG (GO), Adriane Orenha-Ottaiano and Maurizio Babini, Unesp of Sao Jose do Rio Preto. In the article, entitled Identification of the most common phraseological units in the English language in academic texts: contributions coming from corpora, the authors identified and analyzed the 100 academic-scientific phraseological units (composed of 4 words) that are not specialized in English language, present in eight major areas of knowledge. Theoretical basis resorted to Corpus Phraseology and Linguistics. Regarding the methodology, an academic corpus was constituted with more than 120 million words. WordSmith Tools software was used for linguistic-textual processing. Through the Juilland coefficient of dispersion and the usage coefficient, the most recurrent phraseological units of the academic texts were identified. The list was later validated by the Wilcoxon rank sum test ([alpha] = 0.05), evidencing that the phraseological units identified have a superior use in academic communication when compared to the general language. The results indicate that the most relevant units are "the case of', "as a result of' and "at the end of', which lead them to postulate that a list with the most functional phraseological units in English can provide a valuable pedagogical linguistic reference for the study of the academic genre.

In the second section, for articles in the area of Teaching-Learning of Languages and Teacher Training, we present four papers that dialogue with each other, two more focused on the question of the training of language teachers and two concerned with the process of acquisition of language, whether of the child or of a second language. Let us then go to the first two: Bianca Franchini da Silva and Rosangela Hammes Rodrigues, from UFSC--SC, are the authors of the article Between test subjects and school hearings: Portuguese teaching contents in the primary normal school of Florianopolis Institute of Education in 1938, in which they present the analysis of the privileged contents for the teaching of the Portuguese language in the formation of the elementary school teacher in the Primary Normal School, included in the Report of the School Group "Dias Velho" of the Florianopolis Institute of Education of, in 1938. The investigation concerns only the part of this report, the contents of the hearings, included in a specific section of the report called Points drawn on statutory hearings and final examinations. This is a qualitative documentary case study, based both on the works of the Bakhtin Circle and on studies on the training of language teachers in the fields of Applied Linguistics and Education. Following the research methodology that starts from the analysis of the social dimension of the statements for later analysis of the verbal dimension, it was verified that the report, as statement, was characterized as belonging to a more standardized gender; the contents of the Portuguese language hearings resembled the contents of the Portuguese language subject of the secondary curriculum of the time (contents predominantly grammatical and approached conceptually); and, lastly, the contents of the hearings of pedagogy and psychology also encompassed predominantly conceptual definitions. They conclude, then, that the Primary Normal formation of the Florianopolis Institute of Education, in 1938, consisted more in a general curriculum and less in the teacher training for the primary action. With the focus on technological mediation in the training of language teachers, Barbra Sabota, UEG, Goias and Jose Paulo Paes de Almeida Filho, UnB, Brasilia submitted the article titled Analyzing the potential of mediation technology for the improvement of the theoretical competence of language teachers, in which they discuss some possibilities of improving theoretical competence through the use of technological tools that allow the language teachers to access and learn theories relevant to their professional practice. Under the premise that adult learning must start from significant experiences that lead to the development of their cognitive, emotional, interpersonal and intrapersonal capacities (DRAGO-SEVERSON, 2009), ten technological tools were used in a hybrid extension course, first semester of 2014, and later analyzed as to their potentialities as mediators in the process of improving the theoretical competence of the language teacher. The results allow us to affirm that mediation facilitated by digital technologies was useful and can be an important resource in the training of language teachers so that they can "act as active subjects in the transformation of lived reality, especially in regular schools". Finishing this section, we present the two works focused on language acquisition or learning. The first is that of Marlete Sandra Diedrich, from the University of Passo Fundo, RS, entitled Man in the language: the intertwining language and culture in language acquisition in an acquisitional enunciative perspective., the article addresses the experience of the triad man, language and culture manifested in the experience of language acquisition by the child. To this end, the discussion is based on principles derived from the works of Emile Benveniste and is related to an enunciative approach to the acquisition of children's language that points to the fact that the child, in its experience of language acquisition, accesses cultural values revealed in the symbolic language and always mobilized in dependence on the here-now experienced by it in its enunciations; which allows it, in its historicity, to relate in a different way to the language and to the other, covering its enunciations with particular arrangements that put it in relation with the cultural values they mobilize. These values, in the particularization of discourse, are updated and always show a subject in constitution by his/her own saying. For the author, this is the child's great experience in language: the experience of meaning. The second article deals with the problems of acquiring or mastering a second language and was elaborated four-handed by the Iranians Novid Armiun, Rouhollah Rahmatian, Parivash Safa and Hamid Reza Shairi, all from Tarbiat Modares University. Its title goes back to a common expression among students not only from there: Listening is my bugbear and in the sequence questions: Why Iranian L2 learners keep underperforming in the listening module. In it, the authors present the results of a study of how Iranian candidates to TEF or TEFAQ proficiency tests treat auditory comprehension as a skill as well as their awareness and exploration of metacognitive strategies while listening to an audio document. A Persian translation of the Metacognitive Awareness Listening Questionnaire (MALQ) was used in addition to another questionnaire specifically developed for this research in order to gauge the importance attributed by the candidates to L2 listening in comparison to other skills: how much time they spent in listening practice, and how often they take advantage of authentic documents to improve their listening. The results showed not only an underestimation of the listening ability by most Iranian L2 learners but also pointed to significant differences in the way men and women exercised their ears and treated the received audio stream. The paper concludes that the learners' awareness of listening strategies needs to be enhanced through classroom instruction and that frequent use of authentic documents outside the classroom should be encouraged.

In the third and final section of articles in this volume, readers will find an article in the Text area and three Discourse Analysis articles, one with a more theoretical character and two more analytical. We begin with the article by the trio of Iranian researchers Abbas Ali Ahangar, Giti Taki and Maryam Rahimi of the University of Sistan and Baluchestan, who begin the article entitled Identity: A Cohesive Device in Some Persian Live Sport Radio and TV Talks, remembering that identity is a cohesive resource that contributes to a better understanding of speech. In this sense, they analyze the identity resource and its subsets in live sports programs of Persian radio and TV. The theoretical framework of this research is Dooley and Levinsohn (2001). A data-driven approach based on access to the detailed discursive context was used to obtain a reliable sample for the research. So, something around 200 minutes of 20 different live radio and TV sports programs were transcribed. The authors present the scope of the functionality identity by comparing their degree of frequency using the SPSS software, while assessing the significance of the differences in the application of each of its subcategories. This evidence-based research holds that subcategories of identity can also be studied in Persian according to Dooley and Levinsohn (2001) proposals, among which pronouns receive the highest frequency, while pro-forms receive the lowest frequencies. Pronouns and ellipse show significant difference between their applications to radio and TV data. In addition, there is no significant difference between applications of repetition, substitution and other pro-forms. Finally, it is reported that identity presents a significant relation in its application in research. In a more theoretical context of the Discourse, Daiany Bonacio, from the UEL of PR, talks about The theory of discourse in the linguistic scenario: a new route for the clash interior x exterior in the studies of the language. She reminds us that, since antiquity, language has aroused the interest of scholars such as Aristotle, Plato, among others, who have discussed various controversial issues. Such discussions have, as a consequence, raised a question: at what point should language studies focus? What is happening inside the subject, in his/her ability to speak? Or what is happening outside, in the manifestation of the interior taken into account the social, the context? Rescuing theoretically that impasse that was extended throughout the linguistic studies, under the metaphor of the internal versus external, her article traces a theoretical course through the studies of the language from the classics, passing through the materialistic theory of Michel Pecheux until arriving at the concepts proposed by the philosopher Michel Foucault in the discursive analysis. Using an exemplary statement, she applies Foucauldian principles to show how discursive theory can be seen as a possible way to solve the theoretical debate pointed out, by proposing to look at the discourse whose materiality condenses the structure (the internal) and the event (the external) thus providing another object and field of study for language. The third article, with a more analytical nature, by Elaine de Moraes Santos, (UFMS--MS) and Edson Carlos Romualdo (UEM-PR) is entitled The production of a "politicized body" for Dilma Rousseff during the 2010 Brazilian presidential elections: a discourse analysis of Brazilian weekly magazines. In it, the authors discuss, from the perspective of the French Line Discourse Analysis (AD), the transformations that configure not the use of the empirical political body, but the corporeality, that is, its discursivization--as it is engendered in the pages of the Brazilian printed media. For this, they analyzed the way in which the political profile of Dilma Rousseff was materialized in the discursive threads of the current weekly magazines during the presidential elections of 2010. In order to make viable the theoretical-analytical process of this scenario, they constituted a file formed by the 208 editions of the magazines CartaCapital, Epoca, IstoE and Veja, published in the said electoral year. In the theoretical framework adopted, whose foundations are based mainly on the work of Michel Foucault, the results show that the discursive practices of the weekly magazines focused on the metamorphoses that the body of the Labor Party candidate had suffered to represent her predecessor, producing a politicized body, which was strengthened by the readability of immaterial and inhuman technological mechanisms, but insightful in the mediatization of a "body candidate", which in turn was denounced by the press as an electoral product. The fourth and last article of this section was written by Renan Belmonte Mazzola, from Unesp Araraquara, Sao Paulo, and named I, Frankstein: from media critical reception to the semiological analysis. The object of analysis is the movie I, Frankenstein, released in 2014, which elicited some comments from the media criticism of which the author lists some for the purpose of his analysis. In this, he concludes that the critical statements reveal a discourse structured in the axes of morality, profitability, traditionality and temporality, which produces a sense of disqualification of the movie as something that "hurts" the notion of "classic". From this observation, his article displaces the idea that the new Frankenstein film should respond to a tradition whose opening frame would be Mary Shelley's text to point out meanings that the re-construction of this myth means in our contemporaneousness. Thus, the new Frankenstein requires an interrelationship between technical apparatus--3D technology--and a contemporary myth--an ideal of consumption focused on interactivity.

Thus, each of the texts grouped in the three sections that make up the last issue of the year 2017 of Acta Scientiarum Language and Culture brings important contributions to the linguistic studies that can foster reflections and new research given its current and interdisciplinary character, in consonance with the demands of the most varied aspects that compose the current Linguistics.

We thank all those who worked and collaborated in this edition: authors, members of the editorial staff, and especially Gustavo Barrionuevo for the voluntary artwork in the illustration of our cover. Then, we invite our readers to download the texts; and researchers to send their proposals to our editorial team, because it will be an honor to have your article in this journal that aims to stimulate the debate in the linguistic area.

Doi: 10.4025/actascilangcult.v39i4.40082

Maria Celia Cortez Passetti

Associate Editor of Acta Scientiarum. Language and Culture
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Author:Passetti, Maria Celia Cortez
Publication:Acta Scientiarum. Language and Culture (UEM)
Article Type:Editorial
Date:Oct 1, 2017
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