Edgar Allan Poe on the silver screen.
The macabre melancholy of Edgar Allan (January 19, 1809; Boston, Massachusetts--October 7, 1849; Baltimore, Maryland) has attracted American and European filmmakers since the beginnings of the seventh art in the attempt to translate both the lure of the poetics established by the great writer of the fantastic / horror genre and his "imaginative imagery into movie visuals" (Gifford 1973: 185). As of the fall of 2014 one can count about 300 films made for theatre audiences, TV presentation, or video exclusives, as long, short or animated features. Producers and directors have regularly used Poe's gothic fiction for ideas and images despite the fact that the intense nature of his short stories has not always been suitable for transcription into the feature film format. This is the reason why many allusions, quotations or entire fragments from Poe's works are to be found in non-related movies rather than in direct adaptations.
After the silent era films, the talkies were a new and fresh start for the fantastic, supernatural and horror productions. Robert Florey's Murders in the Rue Morgue (United States, Universal Pictures, 1932) was greatly influenced by the German Expressionism (especially Das Kabinet des Dr. Caligari / The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari, Decla-Bioscop AG, Robert Wiene, 1920), while Edgar G. Ulmer's The Black Cat (United States, Universal Pictures, 1934) and Louis Friedlander's The Raven (United States, Universal Pictures, 1935) bore almost no resemblance to Poe, but for the titles.
The 1960s Poe cycle, made up by seven films --House of Usher (1960), Pit and the Pendulum (1961), The Premature Burial (1962), Tales of Terror (1962), The Raven (1963), The Masque of the Red Death (1964), The Tomb of Ligeia (1964)--, the eighth one, The Haunted Palace (1963), being in fact based on a Howard P. Lovecraft story, all directed by Roger Corman for American International Pictures (AIP), managed "to evoke some of Poe's morbidity" (Hutchings 2008: 245) and to focus on some extreme psychological states of the characters, although the scripts had, for the most part, little or nothing to do with the works of the 19-th century American writer. In fact, Richard Matheson's screenplays for Corman's films were adaptations only in the loosest of senses, and they gave him the opportunity to develop his own version of psychological horror and alienation, one that made the films in question, for all their period settings, seem very modern in their outlook (Hutchings 2008: 218). The same could be said of much too many films of the last four or five decades that credited Poe's works as a source of inpiration, or Poe himself as a character, such as that played by Geoffrey Wallace in The Man Who Collected Poe, the fourth segment of the Torture Garden (United Kingdom, Amicus Productions, Freddie Francis, 1967).
Poe in the silent era
The silent period registered about twenty Poe-inspired movies, from Sherlock Holmes in the Great Murder Mystery (United States, Crescent Film Company, 1908, short; in spite of the title suggestive of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, this was really adapted from The Murders in the Rue Morgue) to The Fall of the House of Usher (United States, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, 1928, short). The most notable film of the period was that made by the Polish-born French director Jean Epstein (1897, Warsaw-1953, Paris), the surrealist La chute de la maison Usher / The Fall of the House of Usher (France, Films Jean Epstein).
La chute de la maison Usher was released on October 5, 1928, having 63 minutes running time, starring Jean Debucourt as Roderick Usher, Marguerite Gance as Madeline Usher and Charles Lamy as Allan, the visitor at the Usher mansion and the story-teller. Greatly influenced by the sets of the German expressionist films, Epstein designed the enormous hall of the mansion--scarcely furnished, with leaves spread over the marble floor and fluttering long white curtains--as a closed space to continuously haunt Roderick and Madeline. In the script they are husband and wife, not brother and sister as in the original story because Epstein wanted to remove any implications of incest. Shadows are everywhere and an odd staircase can be seen in a corner, perhaps as a symbol of the family decay. Obsessed both with his wife and the dread of her possibly being buried alive, the fear-struck Roderick lives in a phantasmagoric alternative reality, possibly symbolized by the scene in which Madeline's white bridal veil spills outside her coffin and blows in the wind. That is why Roderick starts trying to resurrect her spirit by painting her portrait, one which, like the one in Oscar Wilde's The Picture of Dorian Gray (1890), may eternalize her youth; his art work becomes, in Roderick's words, the only place where Madeline can live: "c'est la qu'elle vit" (apud Chion 1995: 292). After being buried alive, Madeline makes her ghostly appearance only in front of Roderick; he goes mad, the painting suddenly bursts into flames, and the entire mansion falls apart. Thus, the past and the present become almost identic, as the essence of the cinema, in Epstein's conception stated in Intelligence dune machine (1946), lies in the circulation in any sense and at various speeds over a time period "reduit au rang d'une dimension analogue a celle de l'espace." (apud Morin 1985: 69)
August Dupin, the first detective of the 19-th century, on the screen
The first film adaptation of the Murders in the Rue Morgue was a short silent, now lost, made by the Paragon Photo Plays Company in 1914 (Silverman 1991: 171).
The first full-length version, released by Universal Pictures on February 21, 1932, starred Bela Lugosi as Dr. Mirakle, the mad scientist who, in order to prove his rather unusual theory of human evolution, abducted women and injected them with blood taken from Erik (Charles Gemora), his caged gorilla, trained to kill people and stuff their corpses up the chimneys. The other stars were Sidney Fox as Camille L'Espanaye, the planned future mate for Erik--somewhat similar to the "companion" Mary Shelley's Monster requested from Victor Frankenstein--, Leon Ames as the medical student Pierre Dupin--not Auguste as in Poe's story--, Noble Johnson as the hunched Janos the Black One. Shot in 23 days with an initial budget of $164,220 (Fischer 1991: 402)--the final one reaching $186,090 (Brunas, Brunas & Weaver 1990: 32)--, this stylish expressionistic film had little resemblance with the original story (Sova 2001: 162-163). Focused on desire, rage, revenge, sordid and perverse sexual implications, it included some scenes violent enough to make the studio's executives cut the running time from the initial 80 minutes to only 61 minutes, despite the fact that the censorship Motion Picture Production Code, usually known as the Hays Code, adopted in 1930, was not to become effective till 1934. Nowadays the DVD restored director's cut runs 75 minutes.
The original theatre poster showing a gorilla carrying an unconscious woman, had a text which matched the Universal producers' intention to frighten the audience:
CARL LAEMMLE presents "MURDERS IN THE RUE MORGUE"
EDGAR ALLAN POE'S DRAMATIC STORY OF THE HORRORS OF PARIS
Grimmer than that grim picture, "DRACULA," more gruesome and awe-inspiring than "FRANKENSTEIN," EDGAR ALLAN POE'S remarkable mystery story "MURDERS IN THE RUE MORGUE," laid in the dark caverns of Paris, will thrill you to your finger-tips. Beautifully enacted by
BELA LUGOSI The Original "DRACULA" and SIDNEY FOX Star of "STRICTLY DISHONORABLE"
Directed by ROBERT FLOREY (apud Gifford 1973:93)
Unfortunately, Florey's artistic conception is more like a remaking of the Gothic mountain village of Holstenwall, as shown in The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari, than as a real depiction of the 1845 Paris. Even the plot seems to have been inspired rather from Hans Janowitz and Carl Mayer's script than from Poe's story, as Dr Mirakle, a "pioneer of demonic Darwinism" (Gifford 1973: 92), more interested in the pursuit of knowledge than human life, is secretly carrying out his sadistic experiments involving strung-up prostitutes and transfusions of gorilla blood. A modern fancy-clad Lugosi, in fetching curls and overgrown eyebrows, looks much more sinister than in Tod Browning's Dracula (Universal Pictures, 1931), and gives one of his best performances. He is portrayed like a modern hot-blooded and rage-driven psychopath, a fact especially evident in the sequence when, with penetrating eyes moving out of the fog, he uses a sadomasochistic rack to chain up a prostitute and take a blood sample from her; the result being medically disastrous after the blood analysis--"Your blood is rotten, black as your sins. You have cheated me. Your beauty was a lie!" as Mirakle exclaims furiously (apud Fischer 1991: 404)--, he cannot control his actions anymore, and he kills her, dumping the body in the river. This sequence as well as the one in which Camille is seen laying prostrate, breathing excitedly in her lover's arms, can be considered two of the most perverse sexualized scenes shown in a 1932 film. Dupin, also a man of learning, uses forensic examination--carried on in his morgue-like attic dwelling full of test tubes, Bunsen beakers and microscopes--to prove Dr. Mirakle's guilt.
The Mystery of Marie Roget, released by Universal Pictures on April 23, 1942, having 61 minutes running time, is a fair adaptation, starring Patric Knowles as Dr. Paul Dupin, the police forensic chemist, Maria Montez as Marie Roget, a popular musical comedy star, Maria Ouspenskaya as Mme. Cecile Roget, John Litel as Henri Beauvais, Minister of Naval Affairs, Lloyd Corrigan as Inspector Gobelin, Nell O'Day as Camille, Marie's stepsister and Edward Norris as Marcel Vigneaux. Dupin, portrayed as a kind of Sherlock Holmes, and Gobelin, as a combination of Dr. Watson and Inspector Lestrade, work together in order to solve the mysteries concerning both Marie's disappearance and the discovery of some mutilated and faceless bodies of young women dragged out of the Seine; finally, they find out that the killer is Marcel, Marie's former lover and Camille's fiance.
The 3-D production of Phantom of the Rue Morgue was released by Warner Bros. on March 19, 1954, having 84 minutes running time, starring Karl Malden as Dr. Marais (a mad scientist conducting weird animal experiments, as well as using Sultan, a trained gorilla, to kill his enemies), Steve Forrest as the psychology professor Paul Dupin, Claude Dauphin as Inspector Bonnard, Patricia Medina as Jeanette Rovere, Dupin's sweetheart. In advertising the film, the producers played coy with the nature of the menace by art picturing a suit-clad hairy humanoid figure and a challenging text: "It mauls ... it rips ... it vanishes! A mammoth monstrous man-or-creature rising out of the depths beneath the city! Can it be human ? " In spite of a box office of about $1,500,000, of a standard and decent director for a horror B-picture, of the interesting idea of a gorilla trained to kill when hearing the small bells attached to certain women's bracelets, of the good performances of the stars, of the inherent grisly murders and gory bodies, all displayed in full color, the film was not well received by reviewers. The main criticism was pointed towards the script considered both as lacking the emotional force of the original story, and as being an uninspired mixture of plot strands and scenes not really pertinent to the whole (for instance, the trapeze artists and trampoline routines at the carnival, the knife-throwing demonstration in the cabaret show).
Murders in the Rue Morgue, released by American International Pictures in September 1971, 87 minutes theatre running time, 98 minutes restored director's cut, departed from Poe's text in several significant aspects, being evidently influenced in some sequences by Gaston Leroux's Le fantome de l'Opera / The Phantom of the Opera (1910). The action takes place in the early 20-th century Paris where a theatre troupe, owned by Cesar Charron (Jason Robards) and specialized in gory, naturalistic horror plays, stages an adaptation of Poe's classic story. Madeleine Charron (Christine Kauffman), whose mother (Lili Palmer) was murdered by axe, is haunted by nightmares of an axe-wielding man; these fascinating and stylish monochrome-shot dreams can be considered either a reflection on her past or a glimpse into her future as they so blend with reality that it is really difficult to tell where one leaves off and the other begins (Smith 2009: 115). Rene Marot (Herbert Lom), a former lover of Madeline's mother, thought long dead after being horribly disfigured on stage, mysteriously returns and begins murdering members and ex-members of the troupe. The action slips back and forth from the play Madeleine is into her dreams and then to her waking experience , every sequence building up enough dramatic development to get, as David Pirie puts it, to a "pleasingly obsessional --and genuinely Poe-like climax--, with the heroine completely isolated from reality." (Milne 1993:472)
The TV Murders in the Rue Morgue, produced by International Film Productions & Robert Halmi, aired by Columbia Broadcasting System on December 7, 1986, 100 minutes running time, is a fair adaptation of Poe's story. George C. Scott, starring as the police expert Auguste Dupin, forced to retire from active duty by the incompetent and villainous prefect of police (Ian McShane), is persuaded by his daughter Claire (Rebecca De Mornay) to solve a puzzling case in which her fiance, a bank clerk, was charged with the brutal murder of two women whom he had escorted to their home with a treasure in gold coins. Few clues were left behind; the killer could not have escaped by the windows as they were nailed shut, and, more importantly, he was not seen leaving the apartment by any of the victims' neighbours.
A poem and a film
The Raven, released by Universal Pictures on July 8, 1935, having 61 minutes running time, starring Boris Karloff as Edmond Bateman, Bela Lugosi as Dr. Richard Vollin, Irene Ware as Jean Thatcher, Lester Matthews as Jerry Halden, her fiance, Samuel S. Hinds as Judge Thatcher, with a budget of $115,209 (Brunas, Brunas & Weaver 1990: 137) but not with a great box office success, was inspired, as mentioned in the Universal pressbook, from both The Raven and The Pit and the Pendulum. To attract the audience, the pressbook focussed on the top-billed Karloff, "the uncanny master of make-up"--a clear reference to James Whale's Frankenstein (1931)--, not forgetting to mention that Poe's characters were "but a reflection of himself" and asking the very insidious yet blunt question "Was Edgar Allan Poe a mental derelict?" (apud Smith 1999: 57-58)
A theatre poster, art by Karoly Grosz, focussed on the sinister figures of Boris Karloff, in the upper left-hand corner, and Bela Lugosi, in the lower right-hand corner; a frightened Irene Ware is pictured in the lower left-hand corner:
The uncanny master of make-up in a new amazing thriller!
CARL LAEMMLE presents KARLOFF in an adaptation of
EDGAR ALLAN POE'S THE RAVEN with BELA (DRACULA) LUGOSI
IRENE WARE "LESTER MATTHEWS" INEZ COURTNEY
Directed by Louis Friedlander "Associate producer David Diamond
A UNIVERSAL PICTURE (apud Nourmand & Marsh 2004: 178)
The story, considered by the Photoplay Magazine an "absurd melange" (apud Shipman 1995a: 328), is that of a Poe-obsessed mad brain and plastic surgeon with a stuffed raven kept on his desk as a good-omen talisman, and a torture chamber built in his cellar as a shrine to his "mentor", a place full of home-made lethal devices (pit, pendulum with a razor sharp scythe, moving walls to make the room shrink) designed to put his enemies (the Thatchers) to a slow and agonizing death. Some striking sequences, with sparkling dialogues, may be worth singling out. When Bateman, the beared murderer fugitive from San Quentin, comes demanding a new face, Vollin gives him one. He unveils it in six long mirrors, all of which the snarling prison-breaker smashes with the threatening remark "maybe if a man looks ugly, he does ugly things" (apud Gifford 1973: 117). After the "good doctor" has tampered with his seventh cranial nerves, Bateman looks much uglier than before, a fact just perfect for Vollin: "Your monstrous ugliness creates monstrous hate! [...] I can use your hate" (apud Gifford 1973: 117). Forced to assist in Vollin's diabolic plan to win the beautiful dancer Jean Thatcher--his "Lenore"--by torturing her father, the mutilated and partially paralised Bateman is shot saving her; although badly hurt, he succeeds in exploding the master switchboard, and the doctor dies screaming between his in-crushing walls; the stuffed raven falls symbolically to the floor while Vollin ecstatically cries "Poe, you are avenged!" (apud Gifford 1973: 117)
Roger Corman, the ultimate master of Poe's adaptations
Roger Corman was born on April 2, 1926, in Detroit, Michigan; although he graduated in engineering at Stanford University, California, he decided cinematography would be his world. He tried his hand, more or less successfully, at almost every exploitation genre of the seventh art (western, adventure, thriller, science fiction, horror). He was the director who succeeded in making low-budget movies become great box office hits, the best example being the Poe cycle shot for American International Pictures:
Corman is fond of recalling his childhood fascination with Poe's stories. Certainly the decision to make these adaptations was driven by commerce, but never has an author been better matched with a filmmaker who consistently understood the essence of his stories. The unofficial series of eight films, all bizarrely compelling, wildly atmospheric (and all shot on fifteen-day schedules), contain several unquestionable masterpieces (House of Usher, Pit and the Pendulum, The Masque of the Red Death, The Tomb of Ligeia). Poe's deviant decadence is incarnated through the third partner in the pact, Vincent Price. Price, who once called Corman dead serious, humorless [...] and full of a lot of psychological exploration for nose picking', revels in misanthropic madness, sometimes in blackest humor, other times in dispirited grief, but always deeply disturbed. (Nasr 2011: x)
Generally speaking, Corman's series of intensely psychologized adaptations had some artificial similarities such as the buildings and the sets, the fog or the color scheme, all these being determined by the director's inflexible aesthetic conception, the small budgets he was forced to work with as well as by the unwritten laws of the American horror movies of the 1960s:
It was hard for me to change anything at all in a genre that was very successful. I thought on the other hand that it would give me the chance to use color as a precision tool. Through color, I could home in on the meaning of certain details, highlight such and such a notion. I didn't want it to be perfunctory. I used fog at first to cover up the lack of set designs. In the majority of cases there was nothing but the studio wall. And also because Poe requires stylization and rejects realism. Fog is the easiest means of creating a romantic atmosphere even if it means demystifying it. (apud Tavernier, Eisenschitz & Wicking 2011: 12)
As he himself acknowledged, Corman had always felt a special kinship with the author of Al Aaraaf:
In fact, there are undertones of comedy in Poe that people do not notice because he's not as good when he writes comedy. But a great number of things have commonalities with satire and even with farce, and I liked all of that. On the other hand, and this hasn't been spoken about enough, Poe wrote in the first person. He was one of the first subjective writers, and also one of the first writers to have pierced human consciousness. The nineteenth century saw several artists, several men like Dostoyevsky, attack the unconscious. What Freud did consciously, Poe had done unconsciously. He literally penetrated the interior of the human spirit. I think I've stayed faithful to his spirit, even though over the course of the series I've gotten further and further away from him, notably in The Masque of the Red Death. Usher is very faithful. In The Pit and the Pendulum, we wrote the first and second acts and ended with Poe. In his exploration of the consciousness, Poe uses a symbolism that is very close to modern psychoanalysis. (apud Tavernier, Eisenschitz & Wicking 2011: 12)
Technically speaking, Corman had to deal with a series of problems, as he mentioned in a 1974 interview:
We ran into some difficulties. First, there's the brevity of Poe's stories, which rarely go beyond a few pages. That meant that we had to explore Poe's psychology and recreate the atmosphere in which he worked as well as his themes. Then we went back to the story in order to check and to clarify. [...] In 'The Pit and the Pendulum,' Poe describes only the torture chamber itself. So in a sense we invented a prologue, a first and a second act. The characters end up in the chamber, that is, in the third act. What counts is in the chamber and that's where Poe's story begins. That, in fact, is one of our techniques: using Poe's story as the conclusion to a story whose premise we came up with. The second point is that, in my view, Poe worked quite a bit in terms of the unconscious, in a middle world that Freud tried to explore in Austria in the nineteenth century. Poe [...] in America, Dostoyevsky in Russia, Maupassant in France, even other artists, in literature, music, and painting, have followed the same path--the subjective exploration of the unconscious. I firmly believe that the artistic and scientific fields are tightly interwoven, that numerous, apparently contradictory or opposing facets are in fact joined together, but in a context that is not always self-evident. And yet, since Poe's works are situated directly in terms of the unconscious, I've tried to recreate a completely imaginary world by using technical studio equipment [...] At that time, however, I tended to work in a more realistic manner, in the outdoors. [...] Poe brought me back to more intellectualized studio work. There, I had perfect control over the film's atmosphere with lighting, scenery, accessories, photos, etc. (apud Schupp 2011: 84)
The scripts, especially Matheson's, did not follow Poe's stories very closely. As Corman recalled:
One of the reasons that the scripts didn't follow the Poe stories faithfully was because many of those stories were no more than ten or twelve pages long; they were really short stories. In a sense, they were fragments, and there wasn't really enough there for a feature script. We would very often take the Poe story and use it as a climax. For instance, in The Pit and the Pendulum, Poe's story took place entirely in the room where the pit and the pendulum were located. It was the experience of the man under the pendulum, and we invented a story, which became the first two acts of the film, to get us to that point. Later on, we started taking even greater liberties. The Raven became a comedy. (apud Dixon 2011: 145)
House of Usher was the closest to the original story, while The Pit and the Pendulum had a new storyline added to it, a plot devised by Matheson on the basis of some of Poe's ideas:
Actually The Pit and the Pendulum was one of the most difficult of the Poe pictures to write, because Poe's original story had almost no characterization at all, whereas in The Fall of the House of Usher there was at least enough characterization to build a screenplay from the story. So although we tried whenever we could to be faithful to Poe, we had to vary them to a large extent. Otherwise the picture would only be twenty-five minutes long, because most of Poe's stories were only five or ten pages. With The Pit and the Pendulum, the original story was about a man in a room being tortured. So we simply utilized that, by having John Kerr come to Vincent Price's castle and then putting him under the pendulum for the climax of the film. You could think of it as our creating a two-act prologue that leads up to the third act--which would be the actual Poe story. But in creating the first two acts, Dick Matheson attempted to use concepts and themes that Poe developed in his other stories. For example, the idea of Vincent Price walling up his unfaithful wife was something Poe had used in his other stories, particularly in 'The Cask of Amontillado'. So, although we were inventing a story of our own, we generally tried to maintain a consistency of thought towards Poe's work, by incorporating similar ideas taken from his other stories. (apud French 2011: 177-178)
An almost similar point of view was expressed by Vincent Price when speaking about The Pit and the Pendulum:
Pit and the Pendulum was one of Roger's triumphs, because that was a really difficult thing to bring off. You know, one of the problems with doing Edgar Allan Poe is that those are short stories, and you've got to make them into long films! And Poe doesn't take the trouble to explain why people are where they are, so you have to explain that. It was a difficult film to do. (apud Weaver 1994: 114)
As devised by Corman and his team, all Poe's adaptations were considered a really undetachable entity:
I think that the series makes up a whole. There's a progression from one film to the next, especially in the directing. These films are full of dialogue, and to create movement, I made my actors move constantly, and the camera as well. I tried to locate with my camera the motivation behind each movement, for each gesture, for each shift. Maybe in the beginning, there was something gratuitous about it. In the final films in the series, there's less movement in terms of the equipment. Maybe I was wrong. [...] We tried to build sets that were faithful with respect to the time in which Poe lived. I was greatly helped by my set designer Daniel Haller and I don't think (unless you pay great attention) that you would notice the degree to which the sets are almost identical from one film to the next. The audience doesn't see it. But this faithfulness is more a question of the story than the sets, details or design. It's the whole that counts, that stylization that is faithful to Poe. (apud Tavernier, Eisenschitz & Wicking 2011: 13-14)
Consequently, the same male star had to be cast, one to perfectly embody Poe's most mentally disturbed characters; Corman's choice was Vincent Price (May 27, 1911; St. Louis, Missouri-October 25, 1993; Los Angeles, California):
Vincent fulfills several requirements. Poe's heroes are all highly cultured and intelligent. A horror film hero must not be a benighted brute. I think that people identify horror with something that is above them, a superior force, an intelligence, a culture that they may make fun of but that they in fact fear. Price offers a very interesting and very personal interpretation of fear. He recreates the basic feeling of horror: that felt by a child alone in the night whose parents have left home alone. There's a storm, a vast and terrifying world around him. There is a bit of child in every character that I've had Price take on. At the same time, he plays characters who are very refined, but whose culture does not dispel fear. Quite the contrary. The more things they learn, the more their fear in the face of the unknown increases, and the closer they get to the child. Price is the last descendant of a civilization of refinement, that has been driven to the brink of decadence by an excess of culture, another element of concern. It's the end of a civilization, or the beginning of its decadence. (apud Tavernier, Eisenschitz & Wicking 2011: 13)
Characteristic for Corman and Matheson's adaptations were their constant usage of dream sequences, replaced, in some cases, by flashbacks:
It was a chance to experiment and really do whatever we wanted. I loved shooting the dream sequences, as did the cast and crew, and eventually they became signature segments in all of the Poe pictures. I think we put a dream sequence into almost every Poe film. What went into those dream sequences and how I expressed them would usually be based on certain theories of my own. One idea I had was to dispense with everything other than the purely visual, so they were all shot silent and in black and white. I thought of them as exercises in cinema technique, where we could depart from reality, by using special lenses, surreal sets, gels, and afterwards a lot of optical printing. From a theoretical standpoint, they were pure cinema. Actually, quite a bit of the dream sequences were Danny's thoughts on how to do it, as well, because after I shot them in black and white, Dan got together with Larry Butler [Lawrence W. Butler, visual effects specialist, our note] and Don Glouner [Donald C. Glouner, visual effects specialist, our note]. (apud French 2011: 181)
Everything was done to keep up with Corman's aesthetic conception on the unconscious mind, clearly stated in a 2008 interview:
My theory, for better or for worse, was that Poe in the mid-nineteenth century and Freud in the late nineteenth century, were working on similar things. They were working on the concept of the unconscious mind. I then built from that my own theory which is that the unconscious mind is not directly aware of the real world. The unconscious mind does not see. The eyes are connected to the conscious mind. It does not hear. It has no relationship. I have no idea whether this theory is right or wrong, but it could well be right. It seemed logical to me at the time and still does. All the unconscious mind can do is filter through the conscious mind what the real world is, and interpret or misinterpret what is happening. So therefore I said I wanted all of my pictures to be unreal. I do not ever want to go into the real world because the unconscious mind does not see the real world. I wanted everything to be shot inside the studio and therefore to be artificial. And, if I do go outside, I go outside only for brief periods because it's essential to the story, and I will go outside at night. [...] I think Poe was one of the first to work with the concept of the unconscious. For that reason, he was writing stories that worked on two levels; one, as we as say in method acting, on the surface or textual level, which would be the narrative storyline and characters, but subtextually he was exploring universal concepts of fear, of horror, of fantasy and so forth. And that doubt-edged sword as it were is what has enabled him to stay significant. (apud Nasr 2011b: 212-213)
Corman shot almost all of his Poe cycle on studio-made sets, making creative use of sound stages and matte paintings; the only exception was Ligeia, done on location in a twelfth-century Cluniac monastery--the Castle Acre Priory--in the English countryside of Norfolk:
As Bob Towne began writing the script, it became clear it [The Tomb of Ligeia, our note] was developing more into an exterior picture. The previous Poe films had all used stylized sets to follow my theory about the unconscious mind. My theory was that Poe was working with the concept of the unconscious mind shortly before Freud was, both from a scientific and an artistic standpoint. It was almost as if the world was ready for this type of thinking. Now, if Poe were writing largely from his unconscious, his unconscious mind would not be aware of the exterior world. All the sight and sounds of the world come through the eyes and ears to the conscious mind, so the unconscious mind is not aware of what the outside world looks like. On that basis, I decided to build all the sets for the Poe films as interiors, on studio soundstages, since I wanted to express the interior world of the mind. I did this consistently on all the Poe films, trying to make the sets very stylized. But on Ligeia, although I still believed in my theory, I realized it was becoming more of an exterior picture, so I decided to vary the series by going out on location. So we shot in the English countryside in natural daylight for the first time. (apud French 2011: 191)
After only fifteen-day shooting in Pathecolor and CinemaScope, House of Usher, 79 minutes running time, opened on June 22, 1960. Estimates of its budget ranged from $250,000 as stated by Corman himself (Dixon 2011: 137138), $270,000--of which $35,000 was Vincent Price's salary--(Smith 2009: 91), $300,000 (McGee 1996: 179) to $750,000 (Fischer 1991: 226), the last amount almost incredible and highly improbable because American International Pictures was till then producing black-and-white low-budget movies, generally from $70,000 to $90,000, sometimes $100,000 (Dixon 2011: 137). The stars were Vincent Price as the aristocratic Roderick Usher, the last surviving member of a cursed and degenerate family, Myrna Fahey as Madeline Usher, his sister, Mark Damon as Philip Winthrop, her fiance and Harry Ellerbe as Bristol, lifelong servant to the Ushers. The total box office, rentals included, as given by the weekly Variety Magazine on January 4, 1961, was $1,450,000. Considered nowadays a cult film, House of Usher was the first AIP production to be inducted into the Library of Congress' National Film Registry (January 2006).
The theatre posters were almost identical on both sides of the Atlantic. The American one pictured the Usher mansion on the upper part, Madeline's glass coffin on the lower part; three male figures are seen coming down a staircase right in the center. A variant of the same poster added three stills, two of Price, one of Damon and Fahey, placed just beneath the coffin:
AMERICAN INTERNATIONAL presents
EDGAR ALLAN POE'S classic tale of THE UNGODLY ... THE EVIL HOUSE OF USHER
Cinemascope and color Starring VINCENT PRICE
"I heard her first feeble movements in the coffin ... we had put her in the tomb!" Poe
Co-starring MARK DAMON "MYRNA FAHEY with HARRY ELLERBE" Executive Producer JAMES M. NICHOLSON "Produced and Directed by ROGER CORMAN "Screenplay by RICHARD MATHESON" Music by LES BAXTER
The English poster, not forgetting to mention the X certificate given by British Board of Film Censors, included, besides the usual data, three stills with their appropriate captures, on the left side: "For centuries these walls have known foul thoughts and deeds!", "Madeline rose from the tomb with the terrible madness of the Ushers", and "I will soon die! My coffin is waiting in the crypt", respectively. On the right side, three male figures are seen coming down the stairs to enter the crypt where the white-clad Madeline is laying in her glass coffin:
EDGAR ALLAN POE'S overwhelming tale of EVIL & TORMENT
In Cinemascope & Eastman Colour
THE FALL OF THE HOUSE OF USHER Cert X Adults only
"I heard her first feeble movements in the coffin ... we had put her living in the tomb!"
VINCENT PRICE "MARK DAMON" MYRNA FAHEY
Produced and Directed by ROGER CORMAN "Screenplay by RICHARD MATHESON" Music by LES BAXTER
Distributed by ANGLO AMALGAMATED FILM DISTRIBUTORS LTD. (apud Nourmand & Marsh 2004:182)
Although designed to cash in on the success of the Hammer Studios horrors, the film had a more pronounced interest in exploring weird psychologies than did the British productions. As would be the case with Corman's subsequent Poe adaptations, a mysterious and sinister house became a representation of the disturbed mind of its owner. (Hutchings 2008: 76)
Full of Poesque forebodings, Richard Matheson's script for the House of Usher succeeded in depicting a hypersensitive, pensive, and menacing Roderick Usher, a person with incestuous desires for his sister and with a morbid aversion to strangers, one who could only partake and enjoy the dullest food, and could never give up the idea that his bloodline should die out because of his family's "foul thoughts and deeds" (apud Fischer 1991: 226). That was why he, as the perfect embodiment of morbid masculine psychology, always had to state that Madeline could not leave the old dwelling house and could never marry as she was afflicted with an ancient family curse that was slowly driving her to insanity. The color scheme, so characteristic for Corman's film conception, was here revealed by the contrast between the bright blue clothes worn by Winthrop and the dull red ones worn by Roderick, a color which might symbolize the fact that his life was constantly and irremediable going towards a doomed end (Fischer 1991: 226). Clad in these red clothes, Roderick ordered Madeline to be buried although she was only in a coma-like sleep because of the catalepsy fits she was often subjected to. Clawing her way out of the casket in screams after coming back to herself in the tomb drove her entirely mad, and, at the same time, induced the final fits of madness in her brother. In the end their creepy New England mansion, possessed in itself by an evil and destructive spirit, caught fire and collapsed, entombing the two. This evil spirit was emphasised by two lines in the script, one in which Roderick affirmed that "Evil is not just a word--it is a reality", another when he stated that "the house lives", three words just enough to support Corman's assertion to Samuel Z. Arkoff vice-president of AIP, that "the house is the monster" (apud Dixon 2011: 138). The film is notable for its claustrophobic, doom-laden and necrophilic atmosphere, for the weird and intelligent cinematography of Floyd Crosby (1899-1985) as well as for the stylish and elegant sets, full of terrifying dark passages and shadowy Baroque chambers, designed by Daniel Haller (1926-).
Critics had various opinions. Considering some obvious differences from Poe's text to Matheson's script (for instance, the unnamed narrator in the tale is Roderick's friend, not Madeline's fiance; Madeline does not attack Roderick, but falls on him, both dying instantly; the house does not burn, it just breaks in two before sinking), Eugene Archer wrote in his review that the
American International, with good intentions of presenting a faithful adaptation of Edgar Allan Poe's classic tale of the macabre [...] blithely ignored the authors's style, and fell right in. Poe's prose style, as notable for ellipses as imagery, compressed or eliminated the expository passages habitual to nineteenth-century fiction and invited the readers' imaginations to participate. By studiously avoiding explanations not provided by the text, and stultifying the audiences' imaginations by turning Poe's murky mansion into a cardboard castle encircled by literal green mist, the film producers have made a horror film that provides a fair degree of literacy at the cost of a patron's patience. Just why the handsome young visitor at the Ushers' residence didn't demand some logical explanation for the strange behavior of his fiancee and her mysterious brother is never satisfactorily explained. The young man--his own motivations as unclear as the nature of the curse of the Ushers--is rebuffed by the butler, ordered from the house by his brother-in-law-to-be and offered no explanations at all by his fiancee, who confines her conversations with her betrothed to a few vague syllables before vanishing into a handy secret passageway. When the hero manifests only polite bemusement, he seems less illustrative of well-bred Victorian manhood than j'ust emasculated. Under the low-budget circumstances, Vincent Price and Myrna Fahey should not be blamed for portraying the decadent Ushers with arch affectation, nor Mark Damon held to account for the traces of Brooklynese that creep into his stiffy costumed impersonation of the mystified interloper. (The New York Times, September 15, 1960)
After noting that House of Usher was one of the most faithful Poe's adaptations, Geoff Andrew went to state that
it is Corman's overall direction that lends the film the intelligence and power. The sickly decadence and claustrophobia of the Usher household--which is both disturbed and temporary cleansed by the fresh air that accompanies Damon's arrival as suitor to Madeleine Usher--is admirably evoked by Floyd Crosby's Scope photography and Daniel Haller's art direction, the latter's sets dominated by a putrid, bloody crimson. But Richard Matheson's script is also exemplary: lucid, imaginatively detailed and subtle. (Milne 1993: 321)
Another fifteen-day shooting, another film. The Pit and the Pendulum, 85 minutes running time, opened on August 12, 1961, starring Vincent Price in a dual role as Nicholas Medina and his sadistic father, Sebastian Medina, a notorious member of the Spanish Inquisition, Barbara Steele as Elizabeth, Nicholas' wife, John Kerr as Francis Barnard, Elizabeth's brother, Luana Anders as Catherine Medina, Nicholas' younger sister, Antony Carbone as Dr. Charles Leon, Elizabeth's lover. With a budget of approximately $300,000 (Corman 1990: 83)--from which $125,000 was Price's wage (Fischer 1991: 227)--, the total box office was around $2,000,000 (Corman 1990: 83). For the network television release, a special prologue was filmed to pad the running time. This prologue, featuring Luana Anders, is included on the DVD release but it is incorrectly listed as the "theatrical prologue" (Smith 2009: 124).
The theatre poster featured a big pendulum oscillating above a strapped form lying on a stone slab while a woman and a frock-clad monk are surveying the scene:
THE GREATEST TERROR TALE EVER TOLD!
EDGAR ALLAN POE'S THE PIT AND THE PENDULUM
Filmed in PANAVISION and COLOR
Starring VINCENT PRICE "JOHN KERR" BARBARA STEELE "LUANA ANDERS
Screenplay by RICHARD MATHESON" Produced and Directed by ROGER CORMAN "Music by LES BAXTER" An AMERICAN INTERNATIONAL PICTURE (apud Nourmand & Marsh 2004: 182)
Matheson's script was in fact his own narrative, freely adapted after Poe's tale, with only the climax scene having any similarity with the original short story; however, the oppressive atmosphere and the neurosis of the main character are very well pointed out (Hutchings 2008: 76); the flashbacks Corman decided to use helped to make the plot easier to develop. Francis Barnard travels to the forbidding 16-th century Spanish castle of Nicholas Medina to learn the circumstances surrounding Elizabeth's death, presumably of a heart failure caused by a terrible fright. As the plot develops, one finds out that Nicholas had his wife imprisoned alive in a coffin in the same way in which his mother, Isabella, had been entombed alive behind a brick wall. Everything ends up in sinister betrayal (Dr. Leon and Elizabeth), insanity (Nicholas) and death (Dr. Leon, Nicholas).
Corman and Haller had to plan everything in advance before shooting, working out up to eighty or ninety per cent of the shots in advance by sketching them in the script-book. As the sets could not be built up from scratch because of their limited low-budget, they had to rent different pieces (stairways, archways, doorways, windows, fireplaces, entire stone walls) discarded by other studios. Some other accesories were built on the set, for instance, the iron maiden, and the pendulum, the latter being eighteen feet long, weighing over a tone, having a sharp steel-painted metalized blade and swinging out a fifty foot arc. On the other hand, some sequences put problems to the cinematographer Floyd Crosby. Trying to make Nicholas Medina's madness as real as possible and to emphasize the process of his mind gradually being driven insane, Corman wanted the character's subconscious distorted mind to be revealed by dream-like monochrome flashbacks. Crosby used 35 and 40 mm Panavision wide angle-lens cameras; the frames were then printed on blue-tinted stock, then subsequently toned red, thus a two-tone image--blue highlights and red shadows--being obtained; this deep, bloody-looking image was then run through an optical printer where the brightness was reduced at the periphery and a twisted linear distorsion was introduced. The camera movements are usually fluid, although sometimes rather violent and placed at odd angles (for instance, in the sequences when the pendulum is oscillating above Francis Bernard strapped to a stone slab in the torture chamber); the matte shots of the castle perched on the seaside cliff are beautifully done (Lightman 1961).
Generally speaking, one can render evident Corman's shock tactics of nightmare castles, cobwebbed dungeons, torture chambers, entombed coffins or things that screamed fiendishly in the night. The gigantic pendulum in the dungeon swinging ever more precariously near to the manacled victim below made this a rare treat for horror addicts who appreciate "imagination with the macabre" (McAsh 1977: 17). There are also some very interesting sequences which act unconsciously on any audience. For instance, the one in which Nicholas is awakened by a noise that sounds like the voice of his dead wife. Instantly frightened, he walks down the hall to find out the source of the sound, then he keeps going further and further down the stairway and into the underground crypt; thinking his voice is coming from Elizabeth's tomb, he breaks through the wall and opens the coffin just to see his wife sitting up quickly and staring right in his face.
Critical opinions were different. Thus, for instance, Stephen King considered that
in AIP's The Pit and the Pendulum we see another facet of the bad death--perhaps the absolute worst. Vincent Price and his cohorts break into a tomb through its brickwork, using pick and shovel. They discover that the lady, his late wife, has indeed been buried alive; for just a moment the camera shows us her tortured face, frozen in a rictus of terror, her bulging eyes, her clawlike fingers, the skin stretched tight and gray. Following the Hammer films, this becomes, I think, the most important moment in the post-1960 horror film, signaling a return to an all-out effort to terrify the audience and a willingness to use any means at hand to do it. (King 1986: 135)
For an unnamed contributor to a well-known film guide, The Pit and the Pendulum showed
Corman at his intoxicating best, drawing a seductive mesh of sexual motifs from Poe's story through a fine Richard Matheson script. Vincent Price is superbly tormented as the 16-th century Spanish nobleman obsessed by the fear that his wife was entombed alive in his castle's torture chamber, a repetition of family history that entails his takeover by the personality of his dead father, the Inquisitor who built the fiendish dungeon. And Barbara Steele, as the faithless wife who faked her own death, embodies all the contradictions of Poe's quintessential female to perfection. (Milne 1993:547)
Taking into account the scene in which Nicholas pointed to the torture chamber and said "This room was my father's life", a film historian stated that
only Vincent Price has the right kind of scenery-caressing style, a blend of oily solicitude and cissy sadism ideally suited to the orotund dialogue. (Shipman 1995b: 473)
The Premature Burial, released on March 7, 1962, 81 minutes running time, starring Ray Milland as Guy Carrell, Hazel Court as Emily Gault, his wife, Heather Angel as Kate, Carrell's sister, Richard Ney as Miles Archer, Carrell's close friend, Alan Napier as Dr. Gideon Gault, was not so profitable, registering only $1,000,000 at the box office (Corman 1990: 83-84). Focussing on Milland's figure, all the theatre posters carried almost similar captures such as "Within this coffin lies a man ... yet alive" (completed by Poe's quotation, "Deep, deep, and forever, into some ordinary and nameless grave"), "It's going to happen! You are there in sudden darkness when the heart beat starts ... Will YOU be the first to crack? ", "As his coffin was laid to rest, his brain screamed 'I am not dead' ... life remained only in his fevered mind, in his tormented eyes. To those at his graveside--he was a corpse, the latest victim of a family curse!"
Of all the Corman-Poe films, The Premature Burial most resembles the "drawing room horror" (Smith 2009: 126) of a Hammer film due to the primarily British cast and the splendid production design by Daniel Haller. The cataleptic medical student and wealthy landowner Carrell has an obsessive fear of being buried alive. This death-haunted phobia (best revealed in the psychedelic dream sequence) leads him to build an elaborate tomb devised with no less than five means of escape, including pulleys, levers, ropes, hidden doors, contraptions which would enable him to get out if he accidentally be interred prematurely. All these because in the 19-th century, on account of the fact that doctors were often unable to distinguish between the vegetative or cataleptic coma and the real death, the widespread fears of premature burial was so frequent and fearful so that many people built escape hatches from their family crypts or, in the case of simple tombs, put cords connected to above ground flags or bells. Carrell's phobia puts a considerable strain on his marriage to the beautiful Emily and an even greater strain on his mental condition.
Although acknowledging that the production has some macabre sequences, for instance the one when Carrell shows his friends his tomb, Geoff Andrew considers that in this nightmarish story of revenge
the predictability of the plotting clearly led Corman to focus his attention, somewhat decoratively, on conjuring up a gloomy Gothic atmosphere that, while effective, too often seems an end in itself, rather than a means of creating horror. (Milne 1993: 556)
The film does not go without powerful and eerie visual sequences such as the funeral procession in which there can be seen, through the windowed, partially fog-shrouded coffin, the open-eyed Carrell silently pleading for help; this visually plastic weird sequence, evidently inspired from the classic German psychological Vampyr (Carl Theodor Dreyer, 1932) is really dramatically disturbing.
After three weeks of shooting, Tales of Terror was released on July 4, 1962, 89 minutes running time, starring Vincent Price as Locke / Fortunato Luchresi / Ernest Valdemar, Maggie Pierce as Lenora Locke, Leona Gage as Morella Locke, Debra Paget as Helene Valdemar, Peter Lorre as Montresor Herringbone, Basil Rathbone as Mr. Carmichael, Joyce Jameson as Annabelle Herringbone. Advertised on the theatre posters as "A Trilogy of Shock and Horror", it reached a total box office of $1,500,000 (Corman 1990: 84). This segment-made production consists of a series of frightening, dramatic sequences inspired by Morella (the vengefUl spirit of a mummified wife returns from the grave to possess her daughter, Lenora, and to kill her husband, Locke), The Black Cat (the alcoholic and vulgar Montresor Herringbone, walls up his wife Annabelle and her lover, the wine connoisseur Fortunato Luchrese, only to be betrayed to the police by Annabelle's wailing black cat he accidentally sealed up with them), The Facts in the Case of M. Valdemar (the devious mesmerist Carmichael hypnotizes the terminally-ill Valdemar so deeply that his soul remains in a suspended animation state even after his death, but the evil doctor is frightened to death by the decaying body of the vengeful Valdemar in the film's most powerful and schocking sequence).
On account of his usual low budget, Corman was forced to recycle several elements from his previous Poe's screenings by redressing some of the same sets and using footage from the end of the House of Usher for the conclusion to Morella; he also used the post-production processing to bleach some of the sequences of the segment to make black, white and green the prevalent colors. In spite of Haller's set designs, of Crosby's splendid color photography, of the inspired, effective and varied performances given by Price as well as the outstanding support of the veterans Lorre as a vengeful husband, and Rathbone as an evil mesmerist, this production had rather bad reviews, such as the one given in the New York Times, July 5, 1962: "A dull, absurd and trashy adaptation of three Edgar Allan Poe stories." (apud Smith 2009: 150)
According to Corman, Tales of Terror was something new in his Poe's cycle, as he and Matheson wanted to change the entire approach:
There was a feeling in my mind, and to a certain extent in Dick Matheson's mind, that we were in danger of repeating ourselves. I was starting to set up shots too closely to the way I set shots up in the previous pictures. Even some sequences would start to become too similar to what I had done before. So, to make the films different we decided to vary the approach. We felt a nice way to vary them was with comedy. Since we were doing a trilogy of Poe stories we decided to break things up a bit and bring something totally different into the film. So The Black Cat is a full comedy. Actually, I shouldn't say full comedy; it's really a comedy with horror, where the other films might be horror with some comedy. (apud French 2011: 180)
Shot in fifteen days in Panavision and Pathecolor, with a budget of $350,000 (Jacobs 2011: 455), The Raven, 86 minutes running time, opened on January 25, 1963, starring Vincent Price as the magician Dr. Erasmus Craven, Peter Lorre as the wizard Dr. Adolphus Bedlo, Boris Karloff as the sorcerer Dr. Scarabus, Hazel Court as Lenore, Craven's wife; the cast also included Olive Sturgess as Estelle, Craven's daughter, and Jack Nicholson as Rexford, Bedlo's son. The total box office as given by the weekly Variety Magazine on January 8, 1964, was $1,400,000.
A theatrical poster displays, on the entire left side, the images of the three male stars, near a black raven sitting on a skull, and looking towards an open castle gate bathed in yellowish light, placed in the centre; a skeleton is hanging from a blazing torch in the lower right-hand corner while some torture scenes are pictured on the entire lower side; a quotation from the seventeenth stanza of the poem can be read in the upper right-hand corner:
THE MACABRE MASTERPIECE OF TERROR!
Take thy beak from out my heart, and take thy form from off my door! Quoth the RAVEN "NEVERMORE"
AMERICAN INTERNATIONAL PRESENTS
EDGAR ALLAN POE'S THE RAVEN
In Panavision & Pathecolor
Starring VINCENT PRICE PETER LORRE BORIS KARLOFF
Co-starring HAZEL COURT "OLIVE STURGESS JACK NICHOLSON "Produced and Directed by ROGER CORMAN" Screenplay by RICHARD MATHESON "Executive Producers JAMES H. NICHOLSON "SAMUEL Z. ARKOFF" Music by LES BAXTER An AMERICAN INTERNATIONAL Picture
Completely decided, as already mentioned, to do something different in his series of Poe's adaptations, Corman asked Matheson to make The Raven a comedy. With only the poem as a starting point and a considerable freedom to work with, the author of I Am Legend scripted the film as a parody and a fairytale, as David Pirie pointed out (Milne 1993: 581), or a Grand Guignol comedy than a Poe-inspired horror movie. In England during the Middle Ages, Craven is visited by a raven tap-tap-tapping at his window; the visitant proves to be Bedlo turned, in spite of his resistance, into the famous black bird by the superior magic of the evil Scarabus. Restored to his human form by Craven, Bedlo tells him about a woman he has seen around Scarabus castle, not knowing she is Lenore, Craven's lost wife who has faked her death to help Scarabus find out Craven's magical secrets. Craven and Bedlo set out to confront Scarabus in his lair. The production contains the classic line: "Shall he ever see the rare and radiant Lenore?" to be met with the raven's angry retort: "How the hell should I know. What am I--a fortune teller?" (apud McAsh 1977: 20). Much of the success of The Raven is due to the wonderful performances of Price, Lorre, and Karloff as the trio of medieval sorcerers engaged in a fantastic duel of magic to outdo each other. The critical reception was different, from "It's fun to see the old horrors all together--sort of like watching an Ugly Contest", a Time review on February 1, 1963 (apud Smith 2009: 130), to "[Karloff's] studied dry humor is a perfect foil for the far broader comedy of Lorre and the charmingly bemused Price, whose technique falls somewhere in between the two" (Smith 2009: 130). One should also mention the marvelous sets designed by Daniel Haller, especially the flamespewing gargoyles of Scarabus' castle.
Shot in five weeks in the United Kingdom as a co-production of the American International Pictures and the Anglo-Amalgamated Film Productions, The Masque of the Red Death, 89 minutes running time, opened on June 24, 1964, starring Vincent Price as the Satanist Prince Prospero, Hazel Court as Julianna, his mistress, Jane Asher as Francesca and John Westbrook as the Red Death.
The theatre poster is dominated by Price's red wrinkled face, on the right side, and by some extremely suggestive captures on the left side:
LOOK INTO THIS FACE SHUDDER ... at the blood-stained dance of the Red Death! TREMBLE ... to the hideous tortures of the catacombs of Kali! GASP ... at the sacrifice of the innocent virgin to the vengeance of Baal!
Basically inspired by the story of the same title, but also incorporating some sub-plots from Poe's Hop-Frog and from Auguste Villiers de l'Isle-Adam's La torture par l 'esperance / The Torture of Hope (Nouveaux contes cruels, 1888), and having some similarities with the classic Det sjunde inseglet / The Seventh Seal (Ingmar Bergman, 1957), the film deals with a twelfth century devil worshipper, Prince Prospero, who tries to escape the plague by summoning his fellow gentry and their pretty women to a merry party and macabre masked ball to be held under the multi-colored candelabra of his baroque castle. But Death, a figure robed and cowled in deep-blood crimson, makes his appearance as an uninvited guest because, as usual in Poe, one cannot escape death, since it is already and always within any living being. And that is why in Corman's adaptation life is seen as a masquarade that inevitably ends with decay and death. Corman's "mise en scene [...] accentuates the putrid, the mouldy, the dusty --the crumbling of a hopeless adult world" (Clarens 1968: 219). This may sound like a direct contradiction to the film's aesthetic of rainbow-hued excess but, strangely, it is not. Most scenes that do not take place in a kaleidoscopic ballroom are set deep underground, in dungeons where the dampness drips off the screen. And even the colors, dazzling though they are, seem to glow like the over-bright make-up on a newly embalmed corpse. (Clarens 1968: 220)
The movie starts with the Red Death taking a white rose and turning it into a red one, then giving it to an old woman to take it to her already doomed village, thus sending everybody to an early grave (Fischer 1991: 237). This production, one of Corman's best, raises issues concerning faith and death, good and evil, the meaning of life, man's attitude toward the inevitability of death. At the same time, it is a unique work in the British and American horror cinema, strongly resembling Italian Gothics such as Beatrice Cenci / Castle of the Banned Lovers (Ricardo Freda, 1956), La maschera del demonio / Black Sunday (Mario Bava, 1960), or La frusta e il corpo / The Whip and the Body (Mario Bava, 1963), and paving the way for future gialli like Danza macabra / Castle of Blood (Antonio Margheriti, Sergio Corbucci, 1964), I lunghi capelli della morte / The Long Hair of Death (Antonio Margheriti, 1964), Suspiria (Dario Argento, 1977), Profondo rosso / Deep Red (Dario Argento, 1975), La casa con la scala nel buio / A Blade in the Dark (Lamberto Bava, 1983).
Instead of splashing blood everywhere as a source of horror, Corman prefers to employ a genuine chill of intellectual evil in the philosophical speculations of Prospero safely immured, as he wrongly believes, in the castle while the deadly plague plays havoc all over his lands. (Milne 1993: 443)
Director Corman, cinematographer Nicholas Roeg, and editor Ann Chegwidden craftly use tracking shots and long takes (for instance, the camera makes a 360-degree pan while Prospero lectures his followers on the nature of terror) as well as carefully calibrated montage such as the sequences when the Prince forces two protagonists into an one-survivor life-or-death game, the reactions shots of the other guests enjoying the entertainment intercut with Prospero's increasing dismay as neither victim betrays any sign of fear. Corman's predilection for distorted camera lens and strange shooting angles is once again evident in the sequence in which Juliana dreams she is being sacrificed through the ages by various high priests; she is confident that she has passed the test, but when she triumphantly strolls into the great hall, a raven swoops down and pecks her to death, a fact that, as Prospero considers, completes her marriage with Satan. (Fischer 1991: 239)
In shooting his powerfully visual Pathecolor sequences, Corman was evidently inspired by two essential fragments from Poe's story. The first one was the description of the seven suits:
At the eastern extremity was [...] blue--and vividly blue were its windows. The second chamber was purple in its ornaments and tapestries, and here the panes were purple. The third was green throughout, and so were the casements. The fourth was furnished and lighted with orange--the fifth with white--the sixth with violet. The seventh apartment was closely shrouded in black velvet tapestries that hung all over the ceiling and down the walls, falling in heavy folds upon a carpet of the same material and hue. But in this chamber only, the color of the windows failed to correspond with the decorations. The panes here were scarlet--a deep blood color. (Poe 1986: 255)
The second one made the connection between fancies, dreams and weird actions:
There were delirious fancies such as the madman fashions. There were much of the beautiful, much of the wanton, much of the bizarre, something of the terrible, and not a little of what might have excited disgust. To and fro in the seven chambers there stalked, in fact, a multitude of dreams. (Poe 1986: 257)
The director's and, implicitly, the cinematographer's expressionistic images reveal the suite of rooms, each having a different color --from blue to yellow, purple, and white--, the last one black with deep red light, the very room in which Francesca sees the Satanist Prince prostrated on an altar, apparently in a drug-induced black magic ritual. When Prospero suddenly awakens, the frightened girl runs out the way she has come, through several rooms and corridors, until her path is blocked by a frightening masked figure. In fact, similar scenes occur in several other Poe's adaptations as part of the formula Corman applied to the horror genre, based on his understanding of Freudian symbolism.
On one hand, the devil-worshipper Prospero is an ambiguous traditional Gothic villain, capable of great cruelty as an incarnation of supreme evil; on the other hand, he is a witty and sophisticated person, capable of genuine and affectionate feelings for the young virginal peasant Francesca, whose flame-red hair is a symbolic image of the Red Death, the only person whose faith rivals, in a way, with his own. In fact, Prospero's frequent blasphemies are contrasted with the Christian faith of Francesca:
Can you look around the world and believe in the goodness of a god who rules it? Famine, Pestilence, War, Disease, and Death! They rule this world! (apud Ognjanovic 2009: 149-150)
Interesting both for their terse dialogue and plastic imagery are the sequences when Prospero meets the mysterious red-clothed stranger. Assuming that this has to be either Satan or his emissary, Prospero boldly demands to see the figure's face, only to receive the answer he truly deserves: "There is no face of death until your own death" (apud Fischer 1991: 239). While in the great ball-room the infected guests are turning red and dying, the Satanist Prince asks the stranger who is he subjected to. The answer is worthy of the question: "Death has no master" because "each man creates his own heaven, his own hell" (apud Fischer 1991: 239). Determined to find out the identity of the stranger, Prospero snatches his red mask only to look into his own face. Trying in vain to escape and save his life, Prospero is finally confronted by the Red Death: "Why should you be afraid to die? Your soul has been dead for a long time." (apud Fischer 1991: 239)
When filming was completed, the British Board of Film Censors insisted that Juliana's black mass sequence be cut out or the movie could not be released in England; the AIP producers reluctantly had to agree. But the American audience had the benefit to enjoy this hallucinatory scene in which Prospero's mistress, dressed in a diaphanous gown, imagined a series of demonic figures attacking her while she way lying on a slab as part of the Satanic ceremony in which she pledged herself to the Devil.
As usual, critical opinions differed. A reviewer (Time, May 15, 1964) said that Corman "dusts off a trifling Poe classic and adapts it to fit the collected smirks of Vincent Price" (apud Smith 2009: 110), while a biographer, after mentioning the imaginative Gothic scenary, the brilliance of the costumes and the quality of the color photography, highlighted Price's acting which combined "cruelty with more subtle moments of finely controlled gentleness" (McAsh 2009: 23). Referring to the symbolism of the movie, a specialized critic wrote down:
Though Corman's movie lacks the intellectual rigours of Bergman's The Seventh Seal, its use of the figure of Death, and its ending, where Death's messengers report to their Master that only the dwarf jester and five others remain alive in all the world, has a quality worthy of Poe and Bergman's own vision of the plague and the apocalypse. (London 1975: 67)
A pertinent and possible final summing-up may be the following:
Instead of Bergman's Seventh Seal Grim Reaper, Corman provides the Scarlet Reaper in a vivid blood-red cloak. Corman opts to capture the spirit of Poe better than any other adaptation; his Masque of the Red Death successfully alternates between profundity and pulp, crudity and cleverness, humor and horror, goose bumps and gore, cliches and creativity with a balance and power that no one, not even Corman, has managed to capture again. Poised on the tiny border between B-movie exploitation and art film, this Red Death manages to be both at once--in the same manner that Poe's story bridged pulp and classic fiction over a century earlier. (Ognjanovic 2009: 150)
Shot in England as a co-production of the American International Pictures and the Anglo-Amalgamated Productions, The Tomb of Ligeia, 81 minutes running time, opened on December 6, 1964 in United Kingdom, and on January 20, 1965, in United States, starring Vincent Price as Verden Fell, Elizabeth Shepherd (in a dual role as Lady Rowena Trevanion, a strong proto-Jane Austin heroine, and Ligeia, Fell's deceased wife who haunts him from the grave in the form of a black cat), John Westbrook as Christopher Gough and Derek Francis as Lord Trevanion.
Advertised on the original theatrical poster as "Even in her wedding night she must share the man she loved with the 'Female Thing' that lived in the Tomb of the Cat," this production combines the challenging sense of evil and doomed atmosphere given by the settings of the Castle Acre Priory, Swaffham, Norfolk, with the well-chosen color schemes and camera mobility characteristic for the cinematographer Arthur Grant. The ruined abbey seemed perfect for the atmosphere of decay which the director wanted to stamp on this tale of possession and necrophilia (Smith 2009: 157). As Price remembered:
The Tomb of Ligeia was the closest to Poe. Roger and I had often talked about the idea of doing a film in an actual location. We had this wonderful 12-th century abbey, and most of it was done right in there. (apud Weaver 1994: 114)
As written by Robert Towne [Robert Bertram Schwartz, 1934-], The Tomb of Ligeia is a script full of hauntings and disturbing visual images, a real ghost supernatural story with influences from the Val Lewton thrillers of the 1940s. Lady Rowena Trevanion becomes infatuated with the mysterious and troubled Verden Fell. She hastily marries him only to discover that he is still under the spell of his dead first wife Ligeia with whom she bears an uncanny resemblance. The plot is very similar to that of Jane Eyre (Charlotte Bronte, 1847), Rebecca (Daphne du Maurier, 1938) or Dragonwyck (Anya Seton, 1944), with a second wife unable to comprehend the secretive husband she has so impulsively married.
While earlier Poe adaptations were marked by creative licenses in expanding the source material, The Tomb of Ligeia remained quite close to the original story. In John Brady's The Craft of the Screenwriter (1982), Robert Towne recalled the genesis of his script:
Ligeia was a very short story [...] and I felt the best thing to do would be to take Poe's themes and expand on them. There was a strong hint of mesmerism in the story [...] Also in Poe there is a lot of necrophilia --implied if not expressed. So I took the combination of mesmerism, which was there, and necrophilia, which was sort of there (because the first wife was always in the background) and brought them together. It provided a natural explanation for this woman. She had hypnotized the protagonist, and he was making love to this body under posthypnotic suggestion, literally being controlled by someone who was dead which is kind of a gruesome notion, but perfectly consistent with Poe. I was trying to use a theme consistent with him, even though it wasn't in the story. (apud Fischer 1991: 240)
The film opens with Ligeia's burial during which a black cat--the same one who will constantly haunt Rowena as Ligeia's reincarnated spirit--jumps on Ligeia's coffin and her eyes spring open to be seen through the glass window of the coffin; Verden, after checking the corpse and shutting her eyes, says that is is just a postmortem response, "a nervous contraction, nothing more" (apud Fischer 1991: 240), although he believes within himself that his wife is not truly dead because she once denounced the concept of death itself as a lack of will. And when the black cat perches on her headstone, Fell takes it as a further sign of his wife's living spirit. Several months after Ligeia's death, Verden aids his neighbour Lady Rowena when she is thrown from her horse, landing near Ligeia's gravesite. They fall in love and marry in spite of Lord Trevanion's opposition. Soon, weird circumstances--possible signs of Ligeia's influence from beyond the grave--come out: Verden disappears for hours at a time without remembering anything, Rowena has constant nightmares in which a vicious black cat roams the estate.
The Tomb of Ligeia earned some of the most favourable critical opinions ever expressed for the Poe cycle. A reviewer wrote in Films and Filming (March 1965) that The Tomb of Ligeia "is certainly the most sensitive of the Poe stories that Corman has directed, and in some ways is probably his best work. Very Impressive" (apud Smith 2009: 157). After asserting that this production was one of the best in the whole series, "an ambiguous, open-ended film which features one of Vincent Price's most decisive performances," David Pirie concluded that the long early sequence involving a long monologue by Verden, juxtaposed against Rowena climbing a Gothic tower, "has a syntactic originality that has rarely been equalled in horror movies." (apud Milne 1993: 723)
Poe's haunted palace and Lovecraft's haunted mansion
In an attempt to take a break from the Poe series, Roger Corman convinced AIP to let him screen some of Howard Phillips Lovecraft's stories. Initially entitled The Haunted Village, Charles Beaumont's script was adapted both from the 1927 novella The Case of Charles Ward Dexter (published in abridged form in Weird Tales, May-July, 1941, in complete version in the Arkham House's Beyond the Wall of Sleep collection, 1943), as well as from the April 1936 novella The Shadow over Innsmouth--especially the idea of mating Ann with the amphibious froglike creature in the pit, an idea suggested in the upper capture of the theatre poster: "What was the hideous thing in the PIT that came to honor her?" However, on account of Vincent Price reciting at the end of the film the last lines ("While, like a rapid ghastly river, / Through the pale door, / A hideous throng rush our forever, / And laugh--but smile no more" [Poe 1986: 148]) of The Haunted Palace--published in April 1839, subsequently incorporated in The Fall of the House of Usher (September 1839) as a song written by Roderick--, the AIP advertising department decided it would be best to change the title and to label it as one of their Poe's cycle. Thus, The Haunted Palace, 87 minutes running time, was released on August 28, 1963, starring Vincent Price in a dual role as Charles Dexter Ward and Joseph Curwen, Debra Paget as Ann, Ward's wife, Lon Chaney Jr. as Simon Orne; the box office, rentals included, as given by the weekly Variety Magazine on January 8, 1964, was $1,200,000. Charles Dexter Ward and Ann arrive in 1855 in the village of Arkham to claim the palace he has inherited. They are met with hostility from the townspeople because Ward is the great-grandson of Joseph Curwen, a New England doctor who placed a curse on Arkham before being burned as a warlock in 1745. The longer Charles stays in the old family mansion, the more is he haunted by Curwen's evil spirit which soon takes over and begins his reign of terror anew by setting about to create a mutant race to overtake the world. Price is outstanding in the dual role, with a "skillful change of expression and tone of voice to denote his transformation from Curwen to Ward". (Smith 2009: 82)
In spite of Beaumont's inspired script, of the evocative sets of the town of Arkham, filmed in forced perspective so that they appear to cover more ground than they actually did, of some very good make-ups of the wandering mutants and of the striking special effects, of the use of the newly-developed zoom lenses--in fact, much slower than the normal fixed lenses and, therefore, needing more light during the shooting --Corman has not much to boast about this production. However, he insisted on rendering evident some important things:
My approach to Lovecraft came about in unfortunate circumstances. We had to make Poe's The Haunted Palace, but the script wasn't ready in time. In our drawers there was a script for The Case of Charles Dexter Ward that had some similarities to Poe. But the distributors only wanted films from the Poe series (given the success of the earlier ones). We used Lovecraft's short story, mixed in elements of Poe, and introduced The Haunted Palace of Edgar Poe. It was actually cheating. It was only partly Lovecraft, and I didn't really try to penetrate the inside of his universe. However, I prefer Poe. His symbols are subtler. Lovecraft is direct. He consciously applied what Poe had found unconsciously. For example, we see pits in Lovecraft, but they're presented as an obvious sexual symbol, whereas in Poe, there is something more. The symbolism in The Pit and the Pendulum with the author of The Raven is obvious after reading Freud, but while Poe didn't present it as such, Lovecraft did. [...] He ascribes importance to landscapes, which are more tortured with Poe, where everything, in my opinion, is artificial. That's why I filmed all my outside shots in the studio. A real-life landscape would introduce a realism that I reject. In The Pit, you see the ocean twice but it's only because of the strange effect of the flood tide and the ebb tide, an almost hypnotic effect. At the beginning of Usher, we see a forest. There had just been a big fire in the area and I wanted to film that sequence in a burned-down forest. But I can't compare for the reasons I've told you: Poe's and Lovecraft's styles. I could set them against the style in The Intruder [Roger Corman, 1962, writing credits Charles Beaumont, our note] where each scene is filmed in a natural setting, where there are fewer complicated movements, less searching with the camera. It's a more direct way of looking at life. But the audience accepts Poe's stories more easily because they occur in the past. You're forced to rely on plastic effects. You couldn't show one of those characters. You couldn't show a monster walking down a modern street. Though yes, that would be interesting. (apud Tavernier, Eisenschitz & Wicking 2011: 15)
Poe's black cat; or, just a name for credits
Universal Pictures' The Black Cat, 65 minutes running time, opened in New York on May 18, 1934 (Brown 1995: 119), starring Boris Karloff as Hjalmar Poelzig, Bela Lugosi as Dr. Vitus Werdegast, David Manners as Peter Allison, Jacqueline Wells [Julie Bishop] as Joan Allison and Lucille Lund in the dual role of Karen Werdegast, mother and daughter. With a budget of $95,745 (Brunas, Brunas & Weaver 1990: 83), the total box office registered $236,000 (Jacobs 2011: 155), making it the studios' biggest box office hit of that year. Although exploiting the boom of horror talkies, the popularity of horror and supernatural literature as well as the interest of the 1930s public in psychiatry (Neimeyer 2002: 216-217), this production had little to do with Poe's story but for the credits, as shown on the theatrical poster in which Lugosi seemed to hypnotize a young girl under the gleaming yellow eyes of a black cat:
CARL LAEMMLE presents
KARLOFF and BELA LUGOSI in EDGAR ALLAN POE'S The BLACK CAT
with DAVID MANNERS "JACQUELINE WELLS" LUCILLE LUND "EGON BRECHER" HARRY CORDING "HENRY ARMETTA" ALBERT CONTI" LOUIS ALBERNI
Screenplay by PETER RURIC "Directed by EDGAR G. ULMER" Produced by CARL LAEMMLE JR. A UNIVERSAL PICTURE (apud Humphries 2009: 68)
A first early script entitled The Brain Never Dies, written by Stanley Bergeman and Jack Cunningham, combined elements from Poe's The Black Cat and The Fall of the House of Usher with the tale of a brain surgeon who transplanted a portion of a human brain into a cat. A second script, closer to Poe's story, was about a man who, after gouging out the eye of a black cat, accidentally walled it up when he buried his wife's body in his cellar (Fischer 1991: 682). However, these scripts were dropped out when George Sims, under his Peter Ruric pen name, was asked by Edgar G. Ulmer to rewrite the script. Thus, to paraphrase And Then There Were None--the American title of Agatha Christie's Ten Little Niggers--we could say that there was nothing left of Poe's story. In fact, Ruric drew inspiration from the life of the English occultist and writer Aleister Crowley (1875-1947) when creating the character of Poelzig (Weldon 1983: 60; Fischer 1991: 683). Combining Hollywood Art Nouveau with German Expressionism, and having death as its central theme, the action centered around Hjalmar Poelzig, an Austrian architect turned devil cult leader who kept embalmed dead women on display in glass cases and carried a black cat around his ultramodern European house with deadly dungeons built deep under. While his former friend, the Hungarian psychiatrist Wendegast, was in prison after the end of the First World War, Poelzig married first Karen, then her young daughter, also named Karen. The film's perverse intimations of necrophilia (Hutchings 2008: 317) and satanic sacrificial rituals were without doubt topped by the notorious sequence in which Poelzig was skinned alive by the vindicative Wendegast.
A mere flavor of Poe
Filmed in England as City Under the Sea, released in United States as War Gods of the Deep on May 26, 1965, having 85 minutes running time, the production directed by Jacques Tourneur, on a script by Charles Bennett and Louis M. Heyward, looks more like a science fiction film or a spoof screening of Jules Verne's 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea than that an adaptation of Poe's poem of the same title. Vincent Price stars as the Captain, a Nemo-like ruler of a fantastic underwater city set somewhere off the coast of Cornwall, who kidnaps the young Jill Tregellis (Susan Hart) and takes her to his sunken city because he believes she is a reincarnation of his long-dead wife. Price complained--in a Films and Filming article published at the time of the movie release--that Poe's poem
had nothing to do with what was in the script [...] and that is very bad, because if there are twenty people in a cinema who know Poe's poem you've lost them. There is an atmosphere of a lack of genuineness [...] and it dies. (apud Smith 2009: 163-164)
Despite the discovery of Lyonesse, the lost underwater city, sliding panels in draughty Cornish mansions, ferocious humanoid gill-men and an impressive underwater earthquake as a climax, the movie was tame stuff by previous standards of suspense (McAsh 2009: 23). A review published in the Variety magazine (June 1, 1965) seemed to say it all: "Excellent direction and special effects, plus good performances, provide zip for standard plot." (apud Smith 2009: 164)
The Torture Chamber of Dr. Sadism (October 5, 1967), 85 minutes running time, is a German film directed by Harald Reinl based loosely on The Pit and the Pendulum, starring Lex Barker in a dual role as Roger Mont Elise and Roger von Marienberg, Karin Dor as Baroness Lilian von Brabant, and Christopher Lee in a dual role as Count Frederic Regula and Graf von Andomai. In a Mario Bava-style creepy atmosphere (for instance, the ride through a haunted forest at night with corpses hanging off from the trees), and with some terrifying scenes (the baroness suspended over a pit of spiders and snakes, Roger strapped down a razor-sharp pendulum), this production depicts the return of Count Regula, quartered thirty-five years before for torturing and killing twelve virgins; in search for immortality, Regula decides to seek revenge on the daughter of his intended thirteenth victim and on the son of his prosecutor.
Apart from the title, The Oblong Box (June 11, 1969), 91 minutes running time, directed by Gordon Hessler, and starring Vincent Price as Julian Markham, Christopher Lee as Dr. Newhartt, Alister Williamson as Edward Markham, Rupert Davis as Kemp, Uta Levka as Heidi, Sally Geeson as Sally, has little in common with Poe's story. Lawrence Huntington and Christopher Wicking mixed in the script scenes including premature burial, grave robbing, black magic, African witchcraft, torture and voodoo. The plot concerns Edward and Julian Markham, two brothers who have returned to England after living many years on their plantation in Africa. Edward, the victim of a witch doctor's sorcery, now a crazed, disfigured lunatic, kept a prisoner by Julian in the attic, asks his lawyer Trench and the African sorcerer N'Galo to heal him. After faking his death, Edward is brought to the unscrupulous Dr. Newhartt as a "research body."
Two Evil Eyes (January 25, 1990), 120 minutes running time, directed by Dario Argento and George Romero, and starring Harvey Keitel, Adrienne Barbeau, E. G. Marshall, Martin Balsam, is based on The Facts in the Case of M. Valdemar and The Black Cat. In spite of a nine million dollars budget, the box office was only $350,000, making this adaptation a huge flop.
The Pit and the Pendulum (May 31, 1991), 97 minutes running time, directed by Stuart Gordon and starring Lance Henriksen as the Grand Inquisitor Torquemada, Stephen Lee as Gomez, William J. Norris as Dr. Huesos, Mark Margolis as Mendoza, Carolyn Purdy-Gordon as Contessa D'Alba Molina, Jeffrey Combs as Francisco, Oliver Reed as the Cardinal and Rona De Ricci as Maria, is considered nowadays a cult gory horror with scenes of nudity and torture in which many such specially designed devices--a pendulum included --could not have been missing. The plot centers on Maria, a girl who speaks out against the Spanish Inquisition is arrested and accused of being a witch.
The fascination exerted by Poe's works--and Poe's troubled life--, as evidenced by the large number of more or less faithful adaptations in the 20th century, appears to continue in the 21st century as well, with recently released films, as well as future planned ones. It appears, then, that every generation shares the need to investigate and reveal Poe's explorations of the psyche.
Screen adaptations (selected titles): The Great Murder Mystery, United States, Crescent Film Company, 1908, short (a Sherlock Holmes investigation based on The Murders in the Rue Morgue); The Sealed Room, United States, Biograph Company, 1909, short, director: D. W. Griffith, writing credits: Frank E. Woods, loosely based on The Cask of Amontillado, cinematography: G. W. Bitzer, cast: Arthur V. Johnson, Marion Leonard, Henry B. Walthall; The Raven, United States, Eclair American, 1912, short, cast: Guy Oliver, Muriel Ostriche; Une vengeance d "Edgar Poe / The Vengeance of Edgar Poe, France, Pathe Freres, 1912, short, director: Gerard Bourgeois, writing credits: Abel Gance, cast: Edouard de Max, Jean Worms, Pierre Pradier, Louis Tunc; The Pit and the Pendulum, United States, Solax Film Company, 1913, director: Alice Guy, cast: Darwin Karr, Fraunie Fraunholz, Blanche Cornwall, Joseph Levering; Der Student von Prag / The Student of Prague / A Bargain with Satan, Germany, Deutsche Bioscop GmbH, 1913, producer: Paul Wegener, director: Hanns Heinz Ewers, writing credits: Hanns Heinz Ewers, loosely based on William Wilson and the Faust legend, cinematography: Guido Seeber, special effects: Guido Seeber, art directors: Robert A. Dietrich, Klaus Richter, cast: Paul Wegener, John Gottowt, Grete Berger, Lyda Salmonova, Lothar Korner, Fritz Weidemann; The Murders in the Rue Morgue, United States, Paragon Photo Plays Company, 1914, short, writing credits: Sol A. Rosenberg; The Avenging Conscience, or "Thou Shalt Not Kill", United States, Majestic Motion Film Company, 1914, producer: D. W. Griffith, director: D. W. Griffith, writing credits: D. W. Griffith, based on The Tell-Tale Heart, The Pit and the Pendulum, Annabel Lee, cinematography: G. W. Bitzer, film editing: James Smith, Rose Smith, cast: Henry B. Walthall, Spottiswoode Aitken, Blanche Sweet, George Siegmann, Ralph Lewis, Mae Marsh, Robert Harron, George A. Berranger, Walter Long; Die Pest in Florenz / The Plague in Florence, Germany, Decla-Bioscop AG, 1919, producer: Erich Pommer, director: Otto Rippert, writing credits: Fritz Lang, loosely based on The Masque of the Red Death, cinematography: Willy Hameister, Carl Hoffmann, Emil Schunemann, art directors: Franz Jaffe, Walter Reimann, Walter Rohrig, Hermann Warm, cast: Otto Mannstaedt, Anders Wikman, Karl Bernhard, Hans Walter, Julie Brandt, Franz Knaak, Erner Huebsch, Marga von Kierska; The Fall of the House of Usher, United States, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, 1928, short, directors: James Sibley Watson Jr., Melville Webber, cinematography: James Sibley Watson, Melville Webber, art directors: James Sibley Watson, Melville Webber, cast: Herbert Stern, Hildegarde Watson, Melville Webber, Friedrich Haak, Dorthea House; La chute de la Maison Usher / The Fall of the House of Usher, France, Films Jean Epstein, 1928, producer: Jean Epstein, director: Jean Epstein, writing credits: Jean Epstein, Luis Bunuel, cinematography: Georges Lucas, Jean Lucas, art director: Pierre Kefer, cast: Jean Debucourt, Marguerite Gance, Charles Lamy, Fournez-Goffard, Luc Dartagnan, Abel Gance, Pierre Hot; Murders in the Rue Morgue, United States, Universal Pictures, 1932, producers: Carl Laemmle Jr., E. M. Asher, director: Robert Florey, writing credits: Robert Florey, Tom Reed, Dale Van Every, John Huston, cinematography: Karl Freund, film editing: Milton Carruth, special effects: John P Fulton, make-up: Jack P. Pierce, art director: Charles D. Hall, set decoration: Herman Rosse, cast: Sidney Fox, Bela Lugosi, Leon Ames, Bert Roach, Betty Ross Clarke, Brandon Hurst, D'Arcy Corrigan, Noble Johnson, Arlene Francis, Charles Gemora; Unheimliche Geschichten / Tales of the Uncanny / Unholy Tales / The Living Dead, Germany, Roto Film, G. P. Film GmbH, 1932, producers: Richard Oswald, Gabriel Pascal, director: Richard Oswald, writing credits: Heinz Goldberg, Richard Oswald, Eugen Szatmari, based on The Black Cat, The System of Doctor Tarr and Professor Fether, and on Robert Louis Stevenson's The Suicide Club, cinematography: Heinrich Gartner, film editing: Max Brenner, Friedel Buckow, art directors: Walter Reimann, Franz Schroedter, music: Rolf Marbot, Bert Reisfeld, cast: Paul Wegener, Maria Koppenhofer, Blandine Ebinger, Eugen Klopfer, Harald Paulsen, Roma Bahn, Mary Parker, Paul Henckels, Gerhard Bienert, John Gottowt, Gretel Berndt, Ilse Furstenberg; The Black Cat / The House of Doom / The Vanishing Body, United States, Universal Pictures, 1934, producers: Carl Laemmle Jr., E. M. Asher, director: Edgar G. Ulmer, writing credits: Peter Ruric, Tom Kilpatrick, story Edgar G. Ulmer, Peter Ruric, loosely based on The Black Cat, cinematography: John J. Mescall, film editing: Ray Curtiss, special effects: John P. Fulton, Jack Cosgrove, David S. Horsley, Russell Lawson, make-up: Jack P. Pierce, art director: Charles D. Hall, music: Heinz Roemheld, cast: Boris Karloff, Bela Lugosi, David Manners, Julie Bishop, Egon Brecher, Harry Cording, Lucille Lund, Henry Armetta, Albert Conti; Maniac, United States, Roadshow Attractions, 1934, producers: Dwain Esper, Louis Sonney, Hildagarde Stadie, director: Dwain Esper, writing credits: Hildagarde Stadie, very loosely based on The Black Cat, The Murders in the Rue Morgue, cinematography: William Thompson, film editing: William Austin, art director: Dan Sonney, cast: Bill Woods, Horace Carpenter, Ted Edwards, Phyllis Diller, Theo Ramsey, Jenny Dark, Marvel Andre, Celia McCann, J. P. Wade, Marion Blackton; The Tell-Tale Heart / Bucket of Blood, United Kingdom, Clifton-Hursts Productions, 1934, producer: Harry Clifton, director: Brian Desmond Hurst, writing credits: Brian Desmond Hurst, David Plunkett Greene, cinematography: Walter Blakeley, Van Der Horst [Brian Desmond Hurst], film editing: Vernon Clancey, special effects: Denis Cantlay, art director: David Plunkett Greene, cast: Norman Dryden, John Kelt, Yolande Terrell, Thomas Shenton, James Fleck, Colonel Cameron; The Raven, United States, Universal Pictures, 1935, producers: Carl Laemmle Jr., David Diamond, Stanley Bergerman, director: Louis Friedlander [Lew Landers], writing credits: David Boehm, Guy Endore, Florence Enright, Michael L. Simmons, John Lynch, Dore Schary, Clarence Marks, Jim Tully, loosely based on The Raven, cinematography: Charles J. Stumar, film editing: Albert Akst, special effects: John P. Fulton, make-up: Jack P. Pierce, Otto Lederer, art director: Albert S. D'Agostino, music: Clifford Vaughan, cast: Boris Karloff, Bela Lugosi, Lester Matthews, Irene Ware, Samuel S. Hinds, Spencer Charters, Inez Courtney, Ian Wolfe, Maidel Turner, Raine Bennett, Al Ferguson; The Crime of Dr. Crespi, United States, Liberty Pictures, 1935, producers: John H. Auer, Herb Hayman, director: John H. Auer, writing credits: Lewis Graham, Edward Olmstead, John H. Auer, loosely based on The Premature Burial, cinematography: Larry Williams, film editing: Leonard Wheeler, make-up: Fred C. Ryle, art director: William Saulter, cast: Erich von Stroheim, Harriet Russell, Dwight Frye, Paul Guilfoyle, John Bohn, Geraldine Kay, Jean Brooks, Patsy Berlin, Joe Verdi, Dean Raymond; The Tell-Tale Heart, United Kingdom, British Broadcasting Corporation, 1939, short, producer: Dallas Bower, director: Frank Wisbar, writing credits: Michael Hogan, art director: Edmund Hogan, music: James Hartley, cast: Basil Cunard, Stuart Latham, Ernest Milton, Olaf Olsen, Esme Percy, A, Harding Steerman; The Tell-Tale Heart, United States, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, 1941, short, director: Jules Dassin, writing credits: Doane R. Hoag, cinematography: Paul Vogel, film editing: Adrianne Fazan, art director: Richard Duce, music: Sol Kaplan, cast: Joseph Schildkraut, Roman Bohnen, Oscar O'Shea, Will Wright; Mystery of Marie Roget / Phantom of Paris, United States, Universal Pictures, 1942, producer: Paul Malvern, director: Phil Rosen, writing credits: Michael Jacoby, cinematography: Elwood Bredell, film editing: Milton Carruth, art director: Jack Otterson, set decoration: Russell A. Gausman, music: Hans J. Salter, Franz Waxman, Charles Previn, cast: Patric Knowles, Maria Montez, Maria Ouspenskaya, John Litel, Edward Norris, Lloyd Corrigan, Nell O'Day, Frank Reicher, Clyde Fillmore, Paul E. Burns, Norma Drury, William Ruhl; The Fall of the House of Usher, United Kingdom, G. I. B., Vigilant, 1949, producer: Ivan Barnett, director: Ivan Barnett, writing credits: Dorothy Catt, Kenneth Thompson, cinematography: Ivan Barnett, music: W. L. Trytel, cast: Gwen Watford, Kay Tendeter, Irving Steen, Vernon Charles, Connie Goodwin, Gavin Lee, Keith Lorraine, Lucy Pavey, Tony Powell-Bristow, Robert Wolard; The Fall of the House of Usher, United States, National Broadcasting Company, 1949, TV series Lights Out episode, producer: Fred Coe, music: Fred Howard, cast: Stephen Courtleigh, Helmut Dantine, Jack La Rue, Oswald Marshall; A Cask of Amontillado, United States, Columbia Broadcasting System, 1949, TV series Suspense episode, producer: Robert Stevens, director: Robert Stevens, writing credits: Halsted Welles, music: Fred Howard, cast: Bela Lugosi, Romney Brent, Rex Marshall, Frank Marth, Ray Walston; Der Rabe / The Raven, Austria, 1951, short, producers: Kurt Steinwendner, Wolfgang Kudrnofsky, director: Kurt Steinwendner, writing credits: Wolfgang Kudrnofsky, Kurt Steinwendner, cinematography: Wolfgang Kudrnofsky, music: Paul Kont, cast: Leopold Rudolf, Margit Jergins; The Masque of the Red Death, United States, National Broadcasting Company, 1951, TV series Lights Out episode, writing credits: Hal Hackady, cast: Hurd Hatfield, Berry Kroeger, Monica Lang; The Purloined Letter, United States, Columbia Broadcasting System, 1952, TV series Suspense episode, producer: Robert Stevens, director: Robert Stevens, writing credits: Raphael Hayes, set decoration: Paul Sylbert, music: Hank Sylvern, cast: Mary Sinclair, Arnold Moss, Edgar Stehli, Douglas Watson, Leon Askin, Henry Beckman, Rex Marshall; The Gold Bug, United States, ZIV Television Programs, 1953, TV series Your Favorite Story episode, director: Robert Florey, writing credits: Jerome Lawrence, Robert E. Lee, Robert Libott, cinematography: Daniel B. Clark, film editing: Asa Boyd Clark, cast: Adolphe Menjou, Neville Brand, Lloyd Corrigan, Jester Hairston, Noreen Nash, Dan White; The Tell-Tale Heart, United Kingdom, Alliance Productions Ltd., 1953, short, producer: Isadore Goldsmith, director: J. B. Williams, writing credits: J. B. Williams, cinematography: Basil Emmott, music: Hans May, cast: Stanley Baker; Phantom of the Rue Morgue, United States, Warner Bros., 1954, producer: Henry Blanke, director: Roy Del Ruth, writing credits: Harold Medford, James R. Webb, cinematography: J. Peverell Marley, film editing: James Moore, make-up: Gordon Bau, art director: Bertram Tuttle, set decoration: William L. Kuehl, music: David Buttolph, cast: Karl Malden, Claude Dauphin, Patricia Medina, Steve Forrest, Allyn McLerie, Anthony Caruso, Veola Vonn, Dolores Dorn, Merv Griffin, Paul Richards, Rolphe Sedan, Erin O'Brien-Moore; Berenice, France, 1954, short, director: Eric Rohmer, writing credits: Eric Rohmer, cinematographer: Jacques Rivette, cast: Teresa Gratia, Eric Rohmer; Auguste Dupin findet den entwendeten Brief, Germany, Sudwestfunk, 1954, TV series Die Galerie der grofien Detektive episode, director: Peter A. Horn, writing credits: Peter A. Horn, based on The Purloined Letter, set decoration: Lothar Regentrop-Boncoeur, cast: Walter Andreas Schwarz, Heins Schimmelpfennig, Alfred Schnos, Gert Michenfelder; The Fall of the House of Usher, United States, National Broadcasting Company, 1956, TV series Matinee Theatre episode, producers: Ethel Frank, Albert McCleeny, Darrell Ross, George Lowther, Kent McCray, director: Boris Sagal, writing credits: Robert Esson, Albert McCleery, cinematography: Roger Shearman, make-up: Armand Davies, art director: Spencer Davies, music: Edward Truman, cast: John Conte, Tom Tryon, Marshall Thompson, Eduardo Ciannelli, Joan Elan, Helen Wallace, Alan Kramer; The Tell-Tale Heart, United States, National Broadcasting Company, 1956, TV series Matinee Theatre episode, producers: Albert McCleeny, George Lowther, director: Boris Sagal, writing credits: William Templeton, cast: John Abbott, John Drew Barrymore, John Carradine; The Cask of Amontillado, United States, National Broadcasting Company, 1957, TV series Matinee Theatre episode, producers: Albert McCleeny, George Lowther, director: Walter Grauman, writing credits: Robert Esson, cast: John Conte, Eduardo Ciannelli, Joe De Santis, Grace Gaynor; The Cask of Amontillado, United Kingdom, ABC Weekend Television, 1957, TV series Armchair Theatre episode, producer: Dennis Vance, director John Knight, writing credits: Juan Cortes, cast: Adrienne Corri, Raymond Huntley, Lorenza Colville, Paul Stassino, Janet Barrow; The Tell-Tale Heart, United States, 1958, short, director: Joseph Marzano, cinematography: Bob James, set decoration: Joe Pacelli, cast: Joseph Marzano; Berenice, Argentina, Canal 7 Buenos Aires, 1959, director: Marta Reguera, writing credits: Narciso Ibanez Serrador, art director: Narciso Ibanez Menta, cast: Narciso Ibanez Menta, Narciso Ibanez Serrador; Ligeia, Argentina, Canal 7 Buenos Aires, 1959, director: Marta Reguera, writing credits: Narciso Ibanez Serrador, art director: Narciso Ibanez Menta, cast: Narciso Ibanez Menta, Myriam de Urquijo; House of Usher / The Fall of the House of Usher, United States, American International Pictures, Alta Vista Productions, 1960, producers: Samuel Z. Arkoff, Roger Corman, James H. Nicholson, director: Roger Corman, writing credits: Richard Matheson, cinematography: Floyd Crosby, film editing: Anthony Carras, special effects: Pat Dinga, Lawrence W. Butler, Ray Mercer, make-up: Fred Phillips, set decoration: Daniel Haller, music: Les Baxter, cast: Vincent Price, Mark Damon, Myrna Fahey, Harry Ellerbe, David Andar, Bill Borzage, Mike Jordan, Ruth Oklander, Eleanor LeFaber, George Paul, Geraldine Paulette, Phil Sulvestre, John Zimeas; Obras maestras del terror / Masterworks of Terror, Argentina, Argentina Sono Film S. A. C. I., 1959, producers: Nicolas Carreras, Jaime Gates, Enrique Torres Tudela, director: Enrique Carreras, writing credits: Narciso Ibanez Serrador, Rodolfo M. Taboada, based on The Facts in the Case of M. Valdemar, The Cask of Amontillado, The Tell-Tale Heart, cinematography: Americo Hoss, film editing: Jose Gallego, make-up: Narciso Ibanez Menta, Blanca Olavego, art director: Mario Vanarelli, music: Victor Slister, cast: Narciso Ibanez Menta, Narciso Ibanez Serrador, Carlos Estrada, Ines Moreno, Osvaldo Pacheco, Mercedes Carreras, Alberto Barcel, Francisco Cardenas, Adolfo Lonvel, Luis Orbegozo, Jesus Pampin, Miguel Paparelli, Luis Sorel, Lilian Valmar; The Tell-Tale Heart, United States, Columbia Broadcasting System, 1960, TV series The Robert Herridge Theater episode, producer: Robert Herridge, director: Karl Genus, writing credits: Robert Herridge, music: Tom Scott, cast: Robert Herridge, Michael Kane; The Tell-Tale Heart, United Kingdom, Danziger Productions Ltd., 1960, producers: Edward J. Danziger, Harry Lee Danziger, director: Ernest Morris, writing credits: Brian Clemens, Eldon Howard, cinematography: James Wilson, film editing: Derek Parsons, make-up: Aldo Manganaro, art directors: Norman G. Arnold, Peter Russell, music: Tony Crombie, Bill LeSage, cast: Laurence Payne, Adrienne Corri, Dermot Walsh, Sella Vaz Dias, John Scott, John Martin, Annette Carell, David Lander, Rosemary Rotheray, Suzanne Fuller, Yvonne Buckingham, David Courtney, Richard Bennett, Elizabeth Paget; William Wilson, United States, Talent Associates, National Broadcasting Company, 1961, TV series Great Ghost Tales episode, producer: Audrey Maas, director: Daniel Petrie, writing credits: James Lee, cast: Peter Brandon, Robert Duvall, Joanne Linville, Laurie Main; The Pit and the Pendulum, United States, American International Pictures, Alta Vista Productions, 1961, producers: Roger Corman, Samuel Z. Arkoff, James H. Nicholson, director: Roger Corman, writing credits: Richard Matheson, cinematography: Floyd Crosby, film editing: Anthony Carras, special effects: Pat Dinga, Ray Mercer, Albert Whitlock, make-up: Ted Coodley, art director: Daniel Haller, set decoration: Harry Reif, music: Les Baxter, cast: Vincent Price, John Kerr, Barbara Steele, Luana Anders, Anthony Carbone, Patrick Westwood, Lynette Bernay, Larry Turner, Mary Menzies, Charles Victor; The Premature Burial, United States, Hubbell Robinson Productions, National Broadcasting Company, 1961, TV series Boris Karloff's Thriller episode, producers: William Frye, Douglas Benton, director: Douglas Heyes, writing credits: William D. Gordon, Douglas Heyes, cinematography: Bud Thackery, film editing: Danny B. Landres, make-up: Jack Barron, art director: George Patrick, set decoration: Julia Heron, John McCarthy Jr., music: Jerry Goldsmith, Morton Stevens, cast: Boris Karloff, Sidney Blackmer, Scott Marlowe, Patricia Medina, William D. Gordon, Richard Flato, Lillian O'Malley, J. Pat O'Malley; Le scarabee d'or / The Gold-Bug, France, Les Films du Carrosse, 1961, short, producer: Francois Truffaut, director: Robert Lachenay, writing credits: Robert Lachenay, cinematography: Andre Mrugalski, film editing: Helene Plemiannikov, music: Geoffroy Dechaume, cast: Didier Pontet, Odile Geoffroy, Karim Seck; The Pit, United Kingdom, British Film Institute Experimental Film Fund, 1962, short, producer: Edward Abraham, director: Edward Abraham, writing credits: Edward Abraham, based on The Pit and the Pendulum, cinematography: Gus Coma, film editing: Barrie Vince, set decoration: Gregory Lawson, music: Leslie Haverson, cast: Burt Letts, Dave Lloyd, Brian Peck; Premature Burial, United States, American International Pictures, Santa Clara Productions, 1962, producers: Roger Corman, Samuel Z. Arkoff, Gene Corman, director: Roger Corman, writing credits: Charles Beaumont, Ray Russell, cinematography: Floyd Crosby, film editing: Ronald Sinclair, make-up: Lou LaCava, art director: Daniel Haller, music: Ronald Stein, Les Baxter, cast: Ray Milland, Hazel Court, Richard Ney, Heather Angel, Alan Napier, John Dierkes, Dick Miller, Clive Halliday, Brendan Dillon; Tales of Terror / Edgar Allan Poe's Tales of Terror, United States, American International Pictures, Alta Vista Productions, 1962, producers: Roger Corman, Samuel Z. Arkoff, James H. Nicholson, director: Roger Corman, writing credits: Richard Matheson, based on Morella, The Black Cat, The Facts in the Case of M. Valdemar, cinematography: Floyd Crosby, film editing: Anthony Carras, special effects: Pat Dinga, Ray Mercer, makeup: Lou LaCava, art director: Daniel Haller, set decoration: Harry Reif, music: Les Baxter, cast: Vincent Price, Maggie Pierce, Leona Gage, Edmund Cobb (segment Morella), Vincent Price, Peter Lorre, Joyce Jameson, John Hackett, Wally Campo, Lennie Weinrib, John Hackett, Paul Bradley, Kenner G. Kemp (segment The Black Cat, combined with The Cask of Amontillado), Vincent Price, Basil Rathbone, Debra Paget, David Frankham, Scott Brown (segment The Facts in the Case of M. Valdemar); The Raven, United States, American International Pictures, Alta Vista Productions, 1963, producers: Roger Corman, Samuel Z. Arkoff, James H. Nicholson, director: Roger Corman, writing credits: Richard Matheson, cinematography: Floyd Crosby, film editing: Ronald Sinclair, special effects: Pat Dinga, make-up: Ted Coodley, art director: Daniel Haller, set decoration: Harry Reif, music: Les Baxter, cast: Vincent Price, Peter Lorre, Boris Karloff, Hazel Court, Olive Sturgess, Jack Nicholson, Connie Wallace, William Baskin, Aaron Saxon, Dick Johnstone, Mark Sheeler; The Haunted Palace, United States, American International Pictures, Alta Vista Productions, 1963, producers: Roger Corman, Ronald Sinclair, Samuel Z. Arkoff, James H. Nicholson, director: Roger Corman, writing credits: Charles Beaumont, based on The Haunted Palace and Howard Phillips Lovecraft's The Case of Charles Dexter Ward, cinematography: Floyd Crosby, film editing: Ronald Sinclair, make-up: Ted Coodley, Verne Langdon, art director: Daniel Haller, set decoration: Harry Reif, music: Ronald Stein, cast: Vincent Price, Debra Paget, Lon Chaney Jr., Frank Maxwell, Leo Gordon, Elisha Cook, John Dierkies, Milton Parsons, Cathie Merchant, Guy Wilkerson, Stanford Jolley, Harry Ellerbe, Barboura Morris, Darlene Lucht, Bruno Ve Sota; Ett fat amontillado / The Cask of Amontillado, Finland, 1963, short, director: William Markus, writing credits: William Markus, art director: Jorma Lindfors, music: Einar Englund, cast: Leif Wager, Nils Brandt; Le puits et la pendule / The Pit and the Pendulum, France, Radio-Television Frangaise, 1964, short, director: Alexandre Astruc, writing credits: Alexandre Astruc, cinematography: Nicolas Hayer, film editing: Sophie Bhaud, Monique Chalmandrier, set decoration: Andre Bakst, music: Antoine Duhamel, cast: Maurice Ronet; The Masque of the Red Death, United States, United Kingdom, American International Pictures, Anglo-Amalgamated Film Productions, Alta Vista Productions, 1964, producers: Roger Corman, George Willoughby, writing credits: Charles Beaumont, R. Wright Campbell, cinematography: Nicholas Roeg, film editing: Ann Chegwidden, special effects: George Blackwell, Ray Caple, Bob Cuff, make-up: George Partleton, art directors: Daniel Haller, Robert Jones, set decoration: Colin Southcott, music: David Lee, cast: Vincent Price, Hazel Court, Jane Asher, David Weston, Nigel Green, Patrick Magee, Paul Whitsun-Jones, Robert Brown, Julian Burton, Skip Martin, Gaye Brown, Verina Greenlaw, Doreen Dawne, Brian Hewlett, Sarah Brackett; The Tomb of Ligeia / Edgar Allan Poe's The Tomb of Ligeia / Last Tomb of Ligeia / Ligeia / Tomb of the Cat, United Kingdom, American International Pictures, Amglo-Amalgamated Film Productions, Alta Vista Productions, 1964, producers: Pat Green, Samuel Z. Arkoff, Roger Corman, David Deutsch, James H. Nicholson, writing credits: Robert Towne, cinematography: Arthur Grant, film editing: Alfred Cox, special effects: Ted Samuels, make-up: George Blackler, art directors: Colin Southcott, Daniel Haller, music: Kenneth V. Jones, cast: Vincent Price, Elizabeth Shepherd, John Westbrook, Oliver Johnson, Derek Francis, Richard Vernon, Frank Thornton, Ronald Adam, Denis Gilmore, Penelope Lee; The City Under the Sea / City in the Sea / War-Gods of the Deep, United Kingdom, Bruton Film Productions, 1965, producers: Daniel Haller, George Willoughby, Samuel Z. Arkoff, director: Jacques Tourneur, writing credits: Charles Bennett, Louis M. Heyward, David Whitaker, loosely based on The City in the Sea, cinematography: Stephen Dade, film editing: Gordon Hales, special effects: Les Bowie, Frank George, Bob Cuff, make-up: Geoffrey Rodway, W. T. Partleton, art director: Frank White, set decoration: Colin Southcott, music: Stanley Black, cast: Vincent Price, David Tomlinson, Tab Hunter, Susan Hart, John Le Mesurier, Harry Oscar, Derek Newark, Roy Patrick, Dennis Blake, Barbara Bruce, Michael Heyland; The Black Cat / Edgar Allan Poe's The Black Cat, United States, Falcon International Corp., Hemisphere Pictures, 1966, producer: Patrick Sims, director: Harold Hoffman, writing credits: Harold Hoffman, cinematography: Walter Schenk, film editing: Charles G. Schelling, special effects: Manel De Aumente, Sheilds Mitchell, make-up: Beverly Gilbert, art director: Robert Dracup, cast: Robert Frost, Robyn Baker, Sadie French, Scotty McKay, George R. Russell, George Edgley, Anne MacAdams, Jeff Alexander, Tommie Russell, Scott Shewmaker, Bill Thurman, Nelson Spencer; The Fall of the House of Usher, United Kingdom, Independent Television, 1966, TV series Mystery and Imagination episode, producer: Jonathan Alwyn, director: Kim Mills, writing credits: David Campton, set decoration: Assheton Gorton, cast: David Buck, Denholm Elliott, Susannah York, Dudley Jones, Oliver MacGreevy, Mary Miller; Die Schlangengrube und das Pendel / The Torture Chamber of Dr. Sadism / Castle of the Walking Dead / Pendulum / The Snake Pit / The Snake Pit and the Pendulum / The Blood Demon / The Torture Room / Blood of the Virgins / Torture Chamber, Germany, 1967, producers: Wolfgang Kuhnlenz, Erwin Gitt, director: Harald Reinl, writing credits: Manfred R. Kohler, loosely based on The Pit and the Pendulum, cinematography: Ernst W. Kalinke, Dieter Liphardt, film editing: Hermann Haller, special effects: Erwin Lange, Theo Nischwitz, make-up: Gerda Bublitz, Erich L. Schunckel, art directors: Gabriel Pellon, Rolf Zehetbauer, set decoration: Gabriel Pellon, music: Peter Thomas, cast: Lex Barker, Karin Dor, Christopher Lee, Carl Lange, Vladimir Medar, Christiane Rucker, Dieter Eppler; The Tell-Tale Heart, United Kingdom, 1968, Independent Television, TV series Mystery and Imagination episode, producer: Jonathan Alwyn, director: Robert Tronson, writing credits: Peter Van Greenaway, set decoration: David Marshall, cast: Norman Eshley, Gillian French, Leslie French, Bob Hornery, Freddie Jones, Sandra Tallent, Kenneth J. Warren, Antony Webb, Avril Yarrow; The Murders in the Rue Morgue, United Kingdom, British Broadcasting Corporation, 1968, TV series Detective episode, producer: Verity Lambert, director: James Cellan Jones, writing credits: James MacTaggart, set decoration: Tim Gleeson, cast: Guido Adorni, Philip Anthony, Christopher Benjamin, Ray Callaghan, John DeVaut, Dennis Edwards, Jimmy Gardner, Beatrice Greek, James Hall, Walter Horsbrugh, Charles Kay, Edward Woodward, Geoffrey Rose, Marguerite Young; Histoires extraordinaires / Tales of Mystery / Tales of Mystery and Imagination / Spirits of the Dead, France, Italy, Les Films Marceau, Produzioni Europee Associati, Cocinor, 1968, producer: Raymond Eger, directors: Federico Fellini (segment Toby Dammit / Never Bet the Devil Your Head), Louis Malle (segment William Wilson), Roger Vadim (segment Metzengerstein), writing credits: Federico Fellini, Bernardino Zapponi (segment Toby Dammit / Never Bet the Devil Your Head), Louis Malle, Clement Biddle Wood, Daniel Boulanger, Roger Vadim, Pascal Cousin (segment Metzengerstein), based on Never Bet the Devil Your Head, William Wilson, Metzengerstein, cinematography: Tonino Delli Colli, Claude Renoir, Giuseppe Rotunno, film editing: Franco Arcalli, Suzanne Baron, Ruggero Mastroianni, Helene Plemiannikov, art directors: Fabrizio Clerici, Carlo Leva, set decoration: Jean Andre, Piero Tosi, Ghislain Uhry, special effects: Joseph Nathanson, music: Diego Masson, Jean Prodromides, Nino Rota, cast: Brigitte Bardot, Alain Delon, Katia Christine, Umberto D'Orsi, Renzo Palmer, Daniele Vargas (segment William Wilson), Jane Fonda, James Robertson Justice, Franpoise Prevost, Peter Fonda, Marlene Alexandre, Georges Douking, Philippe Lemaire, Carla Marlier, Serge Marquand (segment Metzengerstein), Terence Stamp. Salvo Randone, Anne Tonietti, Marina Yaru (segment Toby Dammit / Never Bet the Devil Your Head); The Oblong Box / Edgar Allan Poe's The Oblong Box / Dance, Mephisto, United Kingdom, American International Productions, American International Pictures, 1969, producers: Gordon Hessler, Pat Green, Louis M. Heyward, director Gordon Hessler, writing credits: Lawrence Huntington, Christopher Wicking, cinematography: John Coquillon, film editing: Max Benedict, make-up: Jimmy Evans, art director: George Provis, music: Harry Robinson, cast: Vincent Price, Christopher Lee, Rupert Davies, Uta Levka, Sally Geeson, Alister Williamson, Peter Arne, Hillary Dwyer, Maxwell Shaw, Carl Rigg, Harry Baird, Godfrey James, James Mellor, John Barrie, Ivor Dean, Danny Daniels, Michael Balfour, Hira Talfrey; Murders in the Rue Morgue / Edgar Allan Poe s Murders in the Rue Morgue, United Kingdom, American International Pictures, 1971, producers: Louis M. Heyward, Samuel Z. Arkoff, James H. Nicholson, Clifford Parkes, director Gordon Hessler, writing credits: Christopher Wicking, Henry Slesar, cinematography: Manuel Berenguer, film editing: Max Benedict, make-up: Francisco Ferrer, Carmen Martin, Jack H. Young, set decoration: Jose Luis Galicia, music: Waldo de los Rios, cast: Jason Robards, Herbert Lom, Christine Kaufmann, Adolfo Celi, Maria Perschy, Michael Dunn, Lilli Palmer, Peter Arne, Rosalind Elliot, Marshall Jones, Ruth Plattes, Rafael Hernandez, Pamela McInnes, Sally Longley; The Tell-Tale Heart, United States, 1971, short, producer: Steve Carver, director: Steve Carver, cinematography: Irv Goodnoff, make-up: Doug Kelly, Bob Stein, music: Elmer Bernstein, cast: Sam Jaffe, Alex Cord, Edward Binns, Dennis Cross, Dan Desmond; Hjertet der sladrete / The Tell-Tale Heart, Denmark, Danmark Radio, Jorgen Vestergaard Film ApS, 1971, short, director: Jorgen Vestergaard, writing credits: Jorgen Vestergaard, cinematography: Jorgen Vestergaard, film editing: Jorgen Vestergaard, art director: Per Tonnes Nielsen, special effects: Erik Sorensen, music: Jorgen Plaetner, cast: Erik Mork; Beczka amontillado / The Cask of Amontillado, Poland, Zespol Filmovy Kraj, 1972, short, director: Leon Jeannot, writing credits: Leon Jeannot, Ireneusz Iredynski, Boreslaw Michalek, cinematography: Witold Sobocinski, film editing: Miroslawa Jaworska, ma. Hanna Smiech, art director: Tadeusz Wybult, set decoration: Marek Iwaszkiewicz, cast: Franciszek Pieczka, Henryk Boukolowski, Jolanta Lothe, Maciej Malek; One Minute Before Death / Edgar Allan Poe's One Minute Before Midnight / El retrato ovalado / The Oval Portrait, United States, Mexico, 1972, producer: Enrique Torres Tudela, director: Rogelio A. Gonzales, writing credits: Enrique Torres Tudela, cinematography: Leon Sanchez, film editing: Sigfrido Garcia, music: Les Baxter, cast: Wanda Hendrix, Barry Coe, Gisele MacKenzie, Maray Ayres, Ty Haller, Pia Shandel, Doris Goldrick, Terrance Kelly, Doris Buckingham, Leanna Heckey, Pamela Allen, Jack Ammon, Dax Logan, Ivor Harris; The Sabath of the Black Cat, Australia, Ralph Lawrence Marsden Productions, 1973, producer: Ralph Lawrence Marsden, director: Ralph Lawrence Marsden, writing credits: Ralph Lawrence Marsden, loosely based on The Black Cat, cinematography: Ralph Lawrence Marsden, cast: Ralph Lawrence Marsden, Barbara Brighton, Tracey Tombs, David Bingham, Jim Fitch; Le double assassinat de la Rue Morgue / The Murders in the Rue Morgue, France, 1973, director: Jacques Nahum, writing credits: Jacques Nahum, Albert Simonin, cinematography: Jean Limousin, cast: Georges Descrieres, Daniel Gelin, Jean Danet, Philippe Ogouz, Nadine Alari, Catherine Rich, Jacques Duby, Henri Gilabert, Edmond Tamiz, Eva Damien, Evelyne Ker, Tony Rodel, Paul Pavel, Jacques Marin; La mansion de la locura / The Mansion of Madness / Dr. Tarr's Pit of Horrors / Dr. Tarr's Torture Dungeon, Mexico, Producciones Prisma, 1973, producers: Roberto Viskin, Jose Borchowsky, Jacobo Guss, director: Juan Lopez Moctezuma, writing credits: Carlos Illescas, Juan Lopez Moctezuma, Gabriel Weiss, loosely based on The System of Doctor Tarr and Professor Fether, cinematography: Rafael Corkidi, film editing: Federico Landeros, make-up: Gradela Gonzales, art director: Gabriel Wiss, music: Nacho Mendez, cast: Claude Brook, Arthur Hansel, Ellen Sherman, Martin LaSalle, David Silva, Monica Serna, Max Kerlow, Susana Kamini, Francisco Cordova, Roberto Dumont, Henry West, Jorge Bekris, Victorio Blanco; Le Chevalier Dupin: La lettre volee, France, Germany, Antenne-2, Bavaria-Filmkunst Verleih, Mars International Productions, 1974, TV series Lesgrandes detectives episode, director: Alexandre Astruc, writing credits: Michel Andrieu, Jacques Nahum, based on The Purloined Letter, cast: Laurent Terzieff, Corinne Merchand, Franpois Simon, Horst Janson, Georg Marischka, Patrick Le Gall, Guy Mairesse, Pierre Duncan, Marcel Gassouk, Raoul Curet; Satanas de todos los horrores, Mexico, Estudios America, 1974, producer: Alfredo Ruanova, director: Julian Soler, writing credits: Alfredo Ruanova, loosely based on The Fall of the House of Usher, cinematography: Javier Cruz, film editing: Raul Casso, special effects: Ricardo Sainz, make-up: Antonio Ramirez, music: Ernesto Cortazar, cast: Enrique Lizalde, Enrique Rocha, Carlos Lopez Moctezuma, Illya Shanell, Jesus Gomez; El trapero, Argentina, Teleonce, 1974, producer: Rodolfo Vivas, director: Narciso Ibanez Serrador, writing credits: Luis Penafiel [Narciso Ibanez Serrador], loosely based on Berenice, art director: Narciso Ibanez Menta, cast: Narciso Ibanez Menta, Aida Luz, Luis Medina Castro, Beto Gianola, Noemi Laserre, Adolfo Linvel; El gato negro, Spain, Television Espanola, 1975, TV series El quinto jinete, producer: Fernanso Moreno, director: Jose Antonio Paramo, writing credits: Jose Antonio Paramo, loosely based on The Black Cat, cinematography: Rafael Casenave, film editing: Jose Luis Gil, make-up: Fernando Martinez, Francisco Puyol, art director: Rafael Borque, set decoration: Fernando Saenz, music: Francesco Medina, cast: Jose Vivo, Lola Gaos, Ana del Arco; The Fall of the House of Usher, United States, Avatar Learning, 1976, short, producers: Alan R. Sloan, Stephen Singer, director: Guerdon Trueblood, writing credits: David Wilson, cinematography: Douglas H. Knapp, film editing: Graham Lee Mahin, cast: Clifford Dodd, Tara Leigh, Michael MacRae, Logan Ramsey, Lucan Scott; The Imp of the Perverse, United Kingdom, British Broadcasting Corporation, 1975, TV series Centre Play episode, producer: Louis Marks, director: James Ormerod, writing credits: Andrew Davies, makeup: Sylvia James, art director: Peter Kindred, cast: Gerald Cross, Milton Johns, Michael Kitchen, Philip Stone, Lalla Ward; William Wilson, United Kingdom, British Broadcasting Corporation, 1976, TV series Centre Play episode, producer: Louis Marks, director: James Ormerod, writing credits: Hugh Whitemore, cast: Norman Eshley, Stephen Murray, Matthew Stones, Charles Spicer, Thomas Bulman, Peter Demin, Anthony Daniels, Robert Tayman, Nigel Bowden, Anthony Herrick, Ludmila Nova; Valdemar, el homunculus dormido, Spain, Sebastian Dan Producciones Cinematograficas, 1977, short, director: Tomas Munoz Torres, writing credits: Tomas Munoz Torres, loosely based on The Facts in the Case of M. Valdemar, cinematography: Carles Gusi, film editing: Jose Maria Aragones, cast: Carlos Bernabeu Sender, Juan Manuel Garcia, Luis Pinto Rey, Jose Reig, Juan Reverte, Jose Siles; I racconti fantastici di Edgar Allan Poe, Italy, Produzioni Cinematografiche C.E.P., 1979, TV miniseries, four episodes, producer: Arturo La Pegna, director: Daniele D'Anza, writing credits: Daniele D'Anza, Biagio Proietti, based on The Fall of the House of Usher, William Wilson, Ligeia, Morella, cinematography: Blasco Giurato, film editing: Marcello Malvestito, music: Pooh, cast: Philippe Leroy, Giuseppe Pertile, Nino Castelnuovo, Janet Agren, Umberto Orsini, Sergio Doria, Dagmar Lassander, Cristina Businari, Vanni Materassi, Victoria Zinny, Silvia Dionisio, Emilio Marchesini, Dario Mazzoli, Paola Gassman, Sergio Nicolai; The Tell-Tale Heart, United States, Scott Nollen Films, 1979, short, producer: Scott Allen Nollen, director: Scott Allen Nollen, writing credits: Scott Allen Nollen, cinematography: Scott Allen Nollen, film editing: Scott Allen Nollen, cast: Steve Svendsen, Jay Tiarks; The Fall of the House of Usher, United States, Sunn Classic Pictures, National Braodcasting Company, 1979, producers: James L. Conway, Charles E. Sellier Jr., director: James L. Conway, writing credits: Stephen Lord, cinematography: Paul Hipp, film editing: Trevor Jolly, special effects: John Eggett, art director: Paul Staheli, music: Bob Summers, cast: Martin Landau, Charlene Tilton, Ray Walston, Robert Hays, Dimitra Arliss, Peggy Stewart, Michael Ruud, H. E. D. Redford; The Gold Bug, United States, Highgate Pictures, American Broadcasting Company, 1980, TV series ABC Weekend Specials episode, producers: Doro Bachrach, Linda Gottlieb, director: Robert Fuest, writing credits: Edward Pomerantz, cinematography: Alex Thompson, film editing: Dennis O'Connor, make-up: Steve Atha, art director: Charles Bennett, set decoration: J. Edward Hudson, cast: Robert Blossom, Geoffrey Holder, Anthony Michael Hall, Robert Moberly, Sudie Bond, Anne Haney, Alix Elias, Philip Bruns; The Raven, United States, Scott Nollen Films, 1980, short, producer: Scott Allen Nollen, director: Scott Allen Nollen, writing credits: Scott Allen Nollen, cinematography: Scott Allen Nollen, film editing: Scott Allen Nollen, cast: Jeff Clothier; Le joueur d'echecs de Maelzel, France, Mexico, France Regions 3, 1981, TV series Histoires extraordinaires episode, writing credits: Juan Luis Bunuel, Helene Peychayrand, cinematography: Gabriel Figueroa, music: Gerard Anfosso, cast: Jean-Claude Drouot, Diana Bracho, Martin LaSalle, Julio Lucena, Rafael Munoz, Elpidia Carrillo, Eduardo Alcaraz, Pablo Mandoki, Ely Menz; Le scarabee d'or, France, Mexico, France Regions 3, 1981, TV series Histoires extraordinaires episode, director: Maurice Ronet, writing credits: Claudine Reinach, Maurice Ronet, music: Gerard Anfosso, cast: Vittorio Caprioli, Dominique Zardi, Leopoldo Frances, Martin LaSalle, Miguel Gurza, Humberto Gurza, Ligeia, France, Mexico, France Regions 3, 1981, TV series Histoires extraordinaires episode, director: Maurice Ronet, writing credits: Napoleon Murat, Maurice Ronet, art director: Jean Thomas, music: Gerard Anfosso, cast: Josephine Chaplin, Georges Claisse, Arielle Dombasle, Arlette Balkis, Albert Michel; Le systeme du docteur Goudron et du professeur Plume, France, Mexico, France Regions 3, 1981, TV series Histoires extraordinaires episode, director: Claude Chabrol, writing credits: Paul Gegauff cinematography: Jean Rabier, film editing: Monique Fardoulis, art director: Hilton McConnico, music: Gerard Anfosso, cast: Ginette Leclerc, Pierre Le Rumeur, Jean-Franpois Garreaud, Coco Ducados, Vincent Gauthier, Sacha Briquet, Henri Attal, Noelle Noblecourt, Pierre Risch, Jacques Galland; Le lettre volee, France, Mexico, France Regions 3, 1981, TV series Histoires extraordinaires episode, director: Ruy Guerra, writing credits: Ruy Guerra, Gerard Zingg, Viviane Zingg, cast: Pierre Vaneck, Michel Pilorge, Henrique Viana, Rui Mendes, Maria do Ceu Guerra, Jose Gomes, Amilcar Botica; La chute de la maison Usher, France, Mexico, France Regions 3, 1981, TV series Histoires extraordinaires episode, director: Alexandre Astruc, writing credits: Pierre Pelegri, set decoration: Pierre Cadiou, music: Georges Delerue, cast: Fanny Ardant, Mathieu Carriere, Pierre Clementi, Jacques Dacqmine, Fernand Guiot, Jean Rupert, Georges Lucas, Tugot Doris, France Anerfo; El hundimiento de la casa Usher / La chute de la maison Usher / Fall of the House of Usher / Nevrose / Neurosis: The Fall of the House of Usher / Revenge in the House of Usher / Zombie 5, Spain, France, Elite Films, 1982, producers: J. P. Johnson [Jesus Franco], Marius Lesoeur, Daniel Lesoeur, director: Jesus Franco, writing credits: Jesus Franco, loosely based on The Fall of the House of Usher, cinematography: Jesus Franco, Alain Hardy, film editing: Laura Arias, music: Pablo Villa [Jesus Franco], Daniel White, cast: Howard Vernon, Lina Romay, Robert Foster, Ana Galan, Antonio Marin, Fata Morgana, Daniel Villiers, Jose Llamas, Frangoise Blanchard, Joan Virly, Oliver Mathot; El trapero, Spain, Television Espanola, 1982, TV series Historias para no dormir episode, producer: Carlos Rapallo, director: Narciso Ibanez Serrador, writing credits: Luis Penafiel [Narciso Ibanez Serrador], based on Berenice, film editing: Fernando Pardo, Manuel Salvadores, special effects: Pedro Coronado, make-up: Rafael Barraquero Gonzales, Consuelo Blasco, Elvira Garcia, set decoration: Ana del Castillo, music: Waldo de los Rios, cast: Narciso Ibanez Menta, Daniel Dicenta, Amparo Baro, Javier Loyola, Aurora Redondo, Jose Albert, Ricardo Alpuente, Cris Huerta, Emilio Fornet, Luisa Fernanda Gaona; En busca del dragon dorado, Spain, Golden Films Internacional, 1983, director: Jesus Franco, writing credits: Jesus Franco, loosely based on The Gold-Bug, cinematography: Juan Soler, film editing: Jesus Franco, music: Pablo Villa [Jesus Franco], cast: James P. Johnson [Jesus Franco], Flavia Hervas, Ivana Mayans, Josette Graff, Luis Rodriguez, Cesar Antonio Serrano, Trino Trives; Berenice, Spain, Italy, 1985, short, director: Juan Manuel Chumilla-Carbajosa, writing credits: Juan Manuel Chumilla-Carbajosa, Edi Liccioli, cinematography: Fabio Zamarion, film editing: Michael Esser, Annalisa Forgione, Diego Tapia Figueroa, set decoration: Giacomo Calo Carducci, Michele Della Cioppa, music: Matt Bianco, cast: Luigi Di Gianni, Alberto Di Stasio, Francesca Giordani; Der wilde Rabe / The Wild Raven, Germany, Blitze im Eierbecher, 1985, producer: Peter Sempel, director: Peter Sempel, writing credits: Peter Sempel, loosely based on The Raven, cinematography: Peter Sempel, music: Mona Mur, cast: Jochen Abegg, Marion Buchmann, Hellena Stemm, Gitta Luckau, Yves Musard; The Sphinx, United States, Scott Nollen Films, 1985, short, producer: Scott Allen Nollen, director: Scott Allen Nollen, writing credits: Scott Allen Nollen, cinematography: Scott Allen Nollen, film editing: Scott Allen Nollen, cast: Bart Aikens; The Murders in the Rue Morgue / Le tueur de la Rue Morgue, United States, France, International Film Productions, Robert Halmi, Columbia Broadcasting System, 1986, producers: Robert Halmi, David Epstein, Edward J. Pope, David L. Watters, director: Jeannot Szwarc, writing credits: David Epstein, cinematography: Bruno De Keyser, film editing: Eric Albertson, special effects: Lyle Conway, Moses Weitzman, make-up: Del Acevedo, Patrick Archambault, art director: Andre Guerin, set decoration: Nady Chauviret, music: Charles Gross, cast: George C. Scott, Rebecca De Mornay, Ian McShane, Neil Dickson, Val Kilmer, Maud Rayer, Maxence Mailfort, Fernand Guiot, Patrick Floersheim, Roger Lumont, Erick Desmarestz, Yvette Petit; The Tell-Tale Heart, United States, JM Pictures, 1986, short, director: Joseph Marzano, writing credits: Joseph Marzano, cinematography: Nathan Schiff, cast: Joseph Marzano, Joseph F. Parda, Joseph Cacace, Nathan Schiff; The House of Usher / The Fall of the House of Usher, United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Breton Film Productions, 1989, producers: Harry Alan Towers, Avi Lerner, John Stodel, director: Alan Birkinshaw, writing credits: Michael J. Murray, cinematography: Yossi Wein, film editing: Michael J. Duthie, special effects: Greg Pitts, make-up: Scott Wheeler, art director: Leith Ridley, set decoration: Leonardo Coen Cagli, music: George S. Clinton, Gary Chang, cast: Oliver Reed, Donald Pleasence, Romy Windsor, Rufus Swart, Norman Coombes, Anne Stradi, Philip Godawa, Lenorah Ince, Jonathan Fairbirn, Carole Farquhar; Masque of the Red Death, United States, Concorde Pictures, 1989, producers: Roger Corman, Sally Mattison, Adam Moos, director: Larry Brand, writing credits: Daryl Haney, Larry Brand, cinematography: Edward J. Pei, film editing: Stephen Mark, special effects: Pony R. Horton, make-up: Dean Jones, Robin Slater, art director: Stephen Greenberg, music: Mark Governor, cast: Patrick Mcnee, Adrian Paul, Clare Hoak, Jeff Osterhage, Tracy Reiner, Kelly Ann Sabatasso, Maria Ford, Paul Michael, Michael Leopard, Daryl Haney, Gregory Alcus, Richard Keats, Marc Tubert, Charles Zucker, Patrick McCord; The Masque of the Red Death, United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Breton Film Productions, 1989, producers: Avi Lerner, Harry Alan Towers, John Stodel, director: Alan Birkinshaw, writing credits: Michael J. Murray, cinematography: Yossi Wein, film editing: Jason Krasucki, special effects: Greg Pitts, make-up: Colin Polson, Scott Wheeler, art director: Leith Reidley, set decoration: Lisa Hart, Lauren Wiliensky, music: Coby Recht, cast: Frank Stallone, Brenda Vaccaro, Herbert Lom, Michelle McBride, Christine Lunde, Christobel d'Ortez, Simon Poland, Foziah Davidson, Lindsay Reardon, Godfrey Charles, Andrew Barrett, Paul Andrews, Deon Opperman; Due occhi diabolici / Two Evil Eyes, Italy, United States, ADC Films, Gruppo Berna, 1990, producers: Achille Manzotti, Claudio Argento, Dario Argento, directors: Dario Argento (segment The Black Cat), George A. Romero (segment The Facts in the Case of M. Valdemar), writing credits: Dario Argento, Franco Ferrini, Peter Koper (segment The Black Cat), George A. Romero (segment The Facts in the Case of M. Valdemar), cinematography: Peter Reniers, film editing: Pasquale Buba, special effects: Tom Savini, Kevin McTurk, J. C. Brotherhood, make-up: Tom Savini, Everett Burrell, Will Huff, John Vulich, art director: Cletus Anderson, set decoration: Diana Stoughton, music: Pino Donaggio, cast: Adrienne Barbeau, Ramy Zada, Bingo O'Malley, Jeff Howell, E. G. Marshall, Chuck Aber, Jonathan Adams, Tom Atkins, Christine Forrest, Christina Romero (segment The Facts in the Case of M. Valdemar), Harvey Keitel, Madeleine Potter, John Amos, Martin Balsam, Kim Hunter, Sally Kirkland, Holter Graham, Julie Benz, Barbara Bryne, Tom Savini (segment The Black Cat); The Haunting of Morella, United States, Concorde-New Horizons, 1990, producers: Roger Corman, Alida Camp, Rodman Flender, director: Jim Wynorski, writing credits: R. J. Robertson, Jim Wynorski, cinematography: Zoran Hochstatter, film editing: Diane Fingado, make-up: Dean Jones, Starr Jones, art director: Gary Randall, set decoration: Stephan Bataillard, cast: David McCallum, Nicole Eggert, Christopher Halsted, Lana Clarkson, Maria Ford, Jonathan Farwell, John O'Leary, Brewster Gould, Gail Harris, Clement von Franckenstein, R. J. Robertson; Haunting Fear, United States, American Independent Productions, 1990, producers: Fred Olen Ray, Diana Jaffe, director: Fred Olen Ray, writing credits: Fred Olen Ray, loosely based on The Premature Burial, cinematography: Gary Graver, film editing: Christopher Roth, special effects: Bret Mixon, music: Chuck Cirino, cast: Brinke Stevens, Jan-Michael Vincent, Jay Richardson, Delia Sheppard, Karen Black, Robert Clarke, Robert Quarry, Michael Berryman, Hoke Howell; The Pit and the Pendulum / The Inquisitor, United States, Empire Pictures, Full Moon Entertainment, 1991, producers: Albert Band, Charles Band, Michael Catalano, director: Stuart Gordon, writing credits: Dennis Paoli, cinematography: Adolfo Bartoli, film editing: Andy Horvitch, special effects: Giovanni Corridori, make-up: Rolland Blancaflor, Greg Cannom, Robert Clark, Mitch Devane, Todd Tucker, Matt Falls, Keith Edmier, Larry Odien, Pietro Tenoglio, art director: Giovanni Natalucci, set decoration: Maurizio Garrone, music: Richard Band, cast: Lance Henriksen, Stephen Lee, William J. Norris, Mark Margolis, Carolyn Purdy-Gordon, Barbara Bocci, Benito Stefanelli, Jeffrey Combs, Tom Towles, Rona De Ricci, Oliver Reed, Jonathan Fuller, Frances Bay, Larry Dolgin; The Tell-Tale Heart, United States, Monterey Media, 1991, short, producer: Jere Rae-Mansfield, director: Scott Mansfield, writing credits: Scott Mansfield, cast: Robert E. Reynolds, Michael Sollazzo; The Tell-Tale Heart, United Kingdom, Hawkmoor, 1991, short, producer: John Carlaw, Carol Haslam, director: John Carlaw, writing credits: Steven Berkoff, cinematography: Peter Middleton, film editing: Jonathan Cooke, music: Mark Glentworth, cast: Steven Berkoff, Tony Bluto, Peter Brennan, Neil Caplan, Richard Hawley, Tanya Wade; La chute de la maison Usher / The Fall of the House of Usher, Belgium, Lux Fugit Film, 1992, short, producer: Arnaud Demuynck, director: Marc Julian Ghens, writing credits: Marc Julian Ghens, film editing: Henri Erismann, music: Guy Drieghe, cast: Carine Francois, Isabelle Hubert, Claudine Laroche; Fool's Fire, United States, Public Broadcasting Service, 1992, producers: Kerry Orent, Julie Taymor, Christopher Goode, Lindsay Law, Jane Leal, director: Julie Taymor, writing credits based on Hop-Frog, cinematography: Bobby Bukowski, film editing: Alan Miller, special effects: Mark O. Forker, Neil Smith, Nikolai Galitzine, art director: G. W. Mercier, set decoration: Steve Booth, music: Elliot Goldenthal, cast: Michael J. Anderson, Mireille Mosse, Tom Hewitt, Paul Kandel, Reg E. Cathey, Kelly Walters, Thomas Derrah, Patrick Breen, Glenn Santiago, Patrick O'Connell, Robert Dorfman, Joan MacIntosh, Cynthia Darlow, Pippa Pearthree, Betsy Aidem, Harriet Sansom Harris; The Mummy Lives, United States, Global Pictures, 1993, producers: Harry Alan Towers, Yoram Globus, Anita Hope, Allan Greenblatt, Christopher Pearce, director: Gerry O'Hara, writing credits: Nelson Gidding, loosely based on Some Words with a Mummy, cinematography: Avi Koren, film editing: Danny Shick, special effects: Ken Speed, make-up: Scott Wheeler, art director: Yoram Shayer, set secoration: Kuli Sander, music: Dov Seltzer, cast: Tony Curtis, Leslie Hardy, Greg Wrangler, Jack Cohen, Mohammed Bakri, Mosko Alkalai, Moshe Ivgy, Yosi Chiloch, Uri Gavriel, Igal Naor, Eli Danker, Yossi Graber, Charlie Buzaglo, Rafi Weinstock; The Fall of the House of Usher, United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Dark Film Productions, Jadran Films, 1995, TV series Tales of Mystery and Imagination episode, producers: Carrie Dempsey, Terry Dempsey, Boris Dmitrovic, director: James Ryan, writing credits: Hugh Whysall, cast: Jeremy Crutchley, Graham Hopkins, Kruno Simon, Christopher Lee; The Black Cat, United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Dark Film Productions, Jadran Films, 1995, TV series Tales of Mystery and Imagination episode, producers: Carrie Dempsey, Terry Dempsey, Boris Dmitrovic, cast: Angela Crow, Susan George, Jon Laurimore, Christopher Lee, Michael McGovern; The Oval Portrait, United States, 1997, short, producers: Michael M. Murata, Phillip A. Boland, Garth Hammers, C. Clifford Jones, director: Phillip A. Boland, writing credits: Phillip A. Boland, cinematography: Rodney Taylor, film editing, C. Clifford Jones Jr., make-up: Krystine Ferhervari, Dawn Garcia, art directors: Matthew Donaldson, Jane Van Tamelen, music: Gregor Narholz, cast: Jeanne Bates, Sam Bologna, Laura Erlich, Danny Grossman, Sara Hammerman, Leslie Hunt, John Kirtley, Lalla Lezlie, Tony Maggio, Zale Morris, Robert Nairn; El escarabajo de oro, Spain, Grup Somni, 1999, producers: Jose Ortega, Primitivo Rodriguez, director: Vicente J. Martin, writing credits: Juan Piquer Simon, based on The Gold-Bug, cinematography: Tomas Mas, cast: Andres Alexis, Frank Brana, Stephen Charlwood, Tsung Cheng, Juan Carlos Gabarda, Ruben Galvez, Juan Carlos Lee, John Legget, Antonio Mayans; The Raven ... Nevermore / Edgar Allan Poe's The Raven ... Nevermore / El cuervo, Spain, Tinieblas Films, 1999, short, producer: Tinieblas Gonzalez, director: Tinieblas Gonzalez, writing credits: Tinieblas Gonzalez, Karra Elejalde, cinematography: Unax Mendia, special effects: Oscar del Monte, Ursula Garcia, cast: Gary Piquer, Savitri Ceballos; Usher, United States, 2000, short, director: Curtis Harrington, writing credits: Curtis Harrington, cinematography: Gary Graver, film editing: Tyler Hubby, Jeffrey Schwarz, music: Dan Schmeidler, cast: G. C. Harrington [Curtis Harrington], Sean Nepita, Fabrice Uzan, Renate Druke, Robert Mundy, Nicholas Schreck, Ruth-Ellen Taylor, Zeena Taylor, Ashley Clark; Le portrait ovale, Belgium, Ambiences, PBC Pictures, 2001, short, producer: Patrice Bauduinet, director: Marc Julian Ghens, writing credits: Marc Julian Ghens, cinematography: Federico D'Ambrosio, Jean Christophe Delinaoumis, Michel Mondo, film editing: Nathalie Julien, music: Marc Geonet, cast: Sandrine Blancke, Bernard Breuse, Annemiek Coenen, Claudine Laroche, Veronique Lemaire; The Fall of the Louse of Usher: A Gothic Tale for the 21st Century, United Kingdom, 2002, producer: Ken Russell, director: Ken Russell, writing credits: Ken Russell, loosely based on The Fall of the House of Usher, cinematography: Ken Russell, film editing: Ken Russell, set decoration: Bob Harding, Alex Russell, music: James Johnston, cast: James Johnston, Lisi Tribble, Marie Findley, Ken Russell, Lesley Nunnerley, Emma Millions, Peter Mastin, Sandra Scott, Alex Russell, Roger Wilkes, Claire Cannaway, Sam Kitcher, Suki Uruma, Jackie Lowe, Ann Thomas; The Mesmerist, United States, Roxbury Films, 2002, producers: Terry Douglas, Peter Raskin, Jack Ernandes, Michael Feifer, Manuel Nardi, Kostas Sommer, director: Gil Cates Jr., writing credits: Michael A. Goorjian, Ron Marasco, loosely based on The Facts in the Case of M. Valdemar, cinematography: Tom Harting, make-up: Vera Zay, Edie Stanley, art directors: Aaron Osborne, Ryan Cochran, set decoration: Dimitri Farougias, music: Brahm Wenger, cast: Neil Patrick Harris, Jessica Capshaw, Howard Hesseman, Jason Carter, Jo Champa, George Wyner, Galina Jovovich, Michael A. Goorjian, Richmond Arquette; The Raven, United States, Trilobite Pictures, 2003, short, producer: Peter Bradley, director: Peter Bradley, writing credits: Peter Bradley, cinematography: Chris Webb, film editing: Peter Bradley, special effects: David Fino, make-up: Rachel C. Hunter, art director: John Jerard, music: Steven Lovelace, cast: Jenny Guy, Louis Morabito, Michael G. Sayers; The Tell-Tale Heart, United States, Button Pictures, 2003, short, producers: Jeff Hoffman, Terry McCoy, director: Jeff Hoffman, cinematography: Eric Leach, film editing: Yusaku Mizoguchi, cast: John Fava, James R. Taber, Ronald Roberts, Bob Peterson, Steven Stedman; El barril del amontillado, Argentina, Canal 7, 2003, producer: Maria Rosa Grandinetti, director: Alexis Puig, writing credits: Alexis Puig, cinematography: Hugo Ponce, film editing: Ernesto Zabatarelli, special effects: Rolo Villar, cast: Lola Cordero, Gaia Rosviar, Nicolas Scarpino, Jorge Schubert; El corazon delator, Spain, Verite de Cinematografia, 2003, producers: Alfonso S. Suarez, director: Alfonso S. Suarez, writing credits: Alfonso S. Suarez, based on The Tell-Tale Heart, cinematography: Gregorio Torre, film editing: Fernando Rodriguez, music: Juan Carlos Casimiro, cast: Paul Naschy, Eladio Sanchez, Francisco Hernandez, Javier Franquelo; The Tell-Tale Heart, United Kingdom, Dragonfly Films, Silk Road Productions, 2003, short, producers: Stephanie Sinclaire, Brian Freeston, Nigel Wooll, Phil Gates, Cressida Reese, Stephen Willis, director: Stephanie Sinclaire, writing credits: Stephanie Sinclaire, cinematography: Jack Cardiff, film editing: Jack Cardiff, music: David Schweitzer, cast: Oliver Bradshaw, Stephen Lord, Michael Roberts, Mark White; Berenice, United States, Mushroom Cloud Productions LLC, 2004, producers: Geoffrey Ciani, S. E. Hackett, Christian Twiste, directors: Geoffrey Ciani, Christian Twiste, writing credits: Geoffrey Ciani, Christian Twiste, cinematography: Christian Twiste, film editing: Geoffrey Ciani, Christian Twiste, music: Ariel Ramos, Gama Viesca, cast: Trisha Hershberger, Christian Twiste, Robert Twiste, Billy Ehrlacher, Tesia Nicoli, John Cusumano, Bob Weick, Paul Boccadoro, Dan Quigley, Dick Nepon; The Raven, United States, SidisHull Productions, 2005, short, producers: Kurt Hull, Robert Sidis, directors: Kurt Hull, Robert Sidis, cinematography: Kurt Hull, film editing: Kurt Hull, music: Steve Biodrowski, cast: Aaron Cutler, Vanessa Rivero; Berenice, Brazil, Universidade Federal Fluminense, 2005, short, producers: Bruno Duarte, Luciana Penna, directors: Bruno Duarte, Luciana Penna, writing credits: Bruno Duarte, Luciana Penna, Anna Karinne Ballalai, cinematography: Thiago Lima Silva, film editing: Marina Meliande, make-up: Juka Goulart, music: Marcelo Neves, cast: Fernando Eiras, Cristina Flores, Afonso Henriques Neto; The House of Usher, United States, Abernathy Productions, 2006, producers: Boyd Hancock, Collin Chang, Karie Koppel, Alyssa Weisberg, Melissa DeSimone, director: Hayley Cloake, writing credits: Collin Chang, Boyd Hancock, cinematography: Eric Trageser, film editing: Jo Francis, make-up: Christina LaPointe, Ann Marie Shimanoski, Stephanie Noyes, Shauna Shay, art director: Lawrence Sampson, set decoration: Kurt Bergeron, J. M. Hunter, cast: Austin Nichols, Izabella Miko, Beth Grant, Stephen C. Fischer, Danielle McCarthy, Elizabeth Duff, Robin Kurian, Jason Fields, Ann Richardson Howland, Jamey Jasta, Henry Ebinger, Chris Eagan, Tim Hancock, Nicholas Lapolla, Margaret Buff; The Raven, United States, Hollywood House of Horror, The Shadow Factory Inc., 2006, producers: Ulli Lommel, Jeff Frentzen, Nola Roeper, director: Ulli Lommel, writing credits: Ulli Lommel, cinematography: Bianco Pacelli [Ulli Lommel], film editing: Brian Lancaster, Christian Behm, special effects: John M. Ferguson, Aimee Galicia Torres, make-up: Aimee Galicia Torres, set decoration: Patricia Devereaux [Ulli Lommel], music: Robert J. Walsh, cast: Jillian Swanson, Jack Quinn, Victoria Ullmann, Michelle Guest, Sharon Senina, Tisha Franklin, Joella Mabusa, Willis Russell, Michael Barbour, Jacquelyn Aurora, Carsten Frank, Nicole Cooke, Ulli Lommel; The Black Cat, United States, Canada, Starz Productions, Nice Guy Productions, Industry Entertainment, 2007, TV series Masters of Horror episode, producers: Lisa Richardson, Tom Rowe, Mick Garris, Stephen R. Brown, Ben Browning, Adam Goldworm, Morris Berger, director: Stuart Gordon, writing credits: Stuart Gordon, Dennis Paoli, cinematography: Jon Joffin, film editing: Marshall Harvey, special effects: Lisa Sepp-Wilson, Lee Wilson, Wayne Szybunka, John Wheaton, Steve Katz, Sebastien Bergeron, Matthew Belbin, K.N.B. EFX Group, makeup: Howard Berger, George Nicotero, Mike Fields, Sarah Graham, art directors: Don Macauley, Margot Ready, set decoration: Ide Foyle, music: Richard Ragsdale, cast: Elyse Levesque, Jeffrey Combs, Aaron Tager, Patrick Gallagher, Christopher Heyerdahl, Ian Alexander Martin, Eric Keenleyside, Ken Kramer, Ryan Crocker, Never Bet the Devil Your Head, United States, Jarvis Films, 2007, short, producer: Christopher Jarvis, director: Christopher Jarvis, writing credits: Christopher Jarvis, cinematography: Christopher Jarvis, film editing: Christopher Jarvis, cast: Evan Andrews, Drew Marquardt, Codi Sharp, Erin Keller, Shelby Curwen-Garber, Alan Freeman, Nathan Schuur, Zack Ford; Berenice, Mexico, Ultima Realidad Films, 2007, producers: Alejandro Aguilera, J. Marcos Morales, director: Alejandro Aguilera, cinematography: Alejandro Aguilera, special effects: Sarai Uribe, cast: Mayela Hurtado, David Nava; The Raven, United States, Canada, Rapid Heart Pictures, 2007, producers: David DeCoteau, Paul Colichman, Stephen P. Jarchow, Jeffrey Schenck, Debi Nethersol, director: David DeCoteau, writing credits: Matthew Jason Walsh, David DeCoteau, cinematography: Vincent G. Cox, film editing: Christopher Bavota, special effects: Sergey Musin, make-up: Heidi Gray, art director: Robert Van De Coolwijk, set decoration: Rika Horn, music: Joe Silva, Richard Band, cast: Andre Velts, Brian Mitchell, Litha Booi, Andre Dellow, Tristan McConnell, Colin Sutcliffe, Justin Mancer, Justin McGibbon, Nicholas Wickstrom, Joy Lucelle De Gee, Ivan Botha, Graeme Richards, Traverse Le Goff, Rick Armando, Zipporah Benn, Richard Johnson; Congestion of the Brain, Canada, Blue House Productions, 2007, short, producers: Blaine Anderson, Torrance Garret Jestdadt, director: Blaine Andersin, writing credits: Blaine Anderson, based on The Tell-Tale Heart, cinematography: Ishi Dinim, film editing: David Willinsky, make-up: Rick Shorope, music: Ben Peever, cast: Blaine Anderson, Kelvin Vaughter, Lori Ann Triolo, James Clayton, Brady Schlecker; The Tell-Tale Heart, United States, 2007, short, producer: Martin Gwinup, director: Luke Brown, writing credits: Luke Brown, Juli Tidwell, cinematography: Justin Uhr, film editing: Luke Brown, set decoration: Rocky Schneider, music: John Bescup, cast: Eric Holm, Alex Needham, Elliot Eustis, Matthew McNabb, Jami Rasmussen; The Bottle of Chateau Margaux, United States, 2007, short, producer: Eli Obus, director: Eli Obus, writing credits: Eli Obus, loosely based on The Cask of Amontillado, cinematography: Antonio Cisneros, film editing: Eli Obus, cast: Dan Reiss, Carly Seward; El cuervo, Argentina, 2007, short, producers: Richie Ercolalo, Jose Ercolalo, director: Richie Ercolalo, writing credits: Richie Ercolalo, based on The Raven, cinematography: Malco Alonso, film editing: Richie Ercolalo, make-up: Mariana Rosselli, Marian Talta, art director: Richie Ercolalo, music: Pablo Borghi, cast: Veronica Belloni, Gianni Sabbione, Maria Patitucci, Jose Andrada, Fernando A. Beracochea, Santiago Cadenas, Nestor Cunzo, Javier Dario Alfonso, Maria Victoria Baldomir, Carmela Dardick, Marcelo Farias; The Tell-Tale Heart, United States, Freak Daddy Productions, 2008, short, producer: Ryan Shovey, director: Ryan Shovey, writing credits: Ryan Shovey, cinematography: Chris Tharp, film editing: Ryan Shovey, special effects: Ryan Shovey, music: Vaughn Morris, cast: John Archer Lundgren, Glenn Bain, Sebastian Montoya, John Salamone, C. J. Smith; The Tell-Tale Heart, United States, 2008, short, producer: Jamie Russo, director: Jamie Russo, cinematography: Jamie Russo, film editing: Jamie Russo, music: Jamie Russo, cast: Ted Yudain, Marina Neary, Andy Farley, Jim Moavero; Morella, United States, Morella Films, 2008, short, producer: Jeff Ferrell, director: Jeff Ferrell, writing credits: Jeff Ferrell, cinematography: Jeff Vigil, film editing: Jeremy Schmidt, music: Semih Tareen, cast: Dennis Kleinsmith, Losa Coronado, Hannah Morwell; The Raven, United States, No Limits Media, 2008, short, producers: Dan Jones, Artemis Joukowsky, Steve Marx, director: Alexander Freeman, cinematography: Michael King, film editing: Alexander Freeman, Michael King, Peter Scheehle, special effects: Peter Scheehle, art directors: Devon Govoni, Andre Hankerson, music: Lee Martin, cast: Paul Horn, Marianne Ryan; The Tell-Tale Heart, United States, Palehorse Productions, 2008, short, producers: Maura Anderson, Michael Neal, director: Robert Eggers, writing credits: Robert Eggers, cinematography: Jarin Blaschke, film editing: Louise Ford, special effects: Gordon Arkenberg, art director: Robert Eggers, set decoration: Edouard Langlois, music: Thomas Ulrich, cast: Carrington Vilmont, Richard Easton, Dan Charlton, Nathan Allison, Dan Murphy; The Cask of Amontillado, United States, Weird City Films, 2008, short, producer: John F. Carroll, director: John F. Carroll, writing credits: John F. Carroll, cinematography: John F. Carroll, film editing: John F. Carroll, music: Nox Arcana, cast: Kevin Gouldthorpe, John W. Smith; Annabel Lee / Edgar Allan Poe's Annabel Lee, United States, Maria Lydia Pictures, Rissi Productions, 2009, producers: Christopher Perez, Maria Lydia Rissi, Bill Bordy, director: Michael Rissi, writing credits: Michael Rissi, cinematography: Keiko Nakahara, film editing: Michael Rissi, make-up: Teddie Bergman, music: Jason Solowsky, cast: Kristen Hagen, Jon Woodward Kirby, Jon Morgan Woodward, Bill Bordy, Ken Wolt, Ron Becks, Raquel Rosser, John DiAntonio, Kevin Ging, Jacqueline Hickel, Michael Rissi; The Tell-Tale Heart, United States, Wonderful Nightmares, 2009, short, producer: Killian McGregor, director: Killian McGregor, writing credits: Killian McGregor, cinematography: Jake Chapman, film editing: Killian McGregor, music: Jake Chapman, cast: Shari Gulley, Danette Hurst, Killian McGregor, Lak Rana, Matt Ryan; The Tell-Tale Heart, United States, Outcast Productions, 2009, short, producer: Alexander Freeman, director: Alexander Freeman, writing credits: Alexander Freeman, cinematography: Harrison Mantas, Steve Marx, film editing: Alexander Freeman, cast: Paul Horn, Jim W. LaBerge; The Pit and the Pendulum, United States, Rapid Heart Pictures, 2009, producers: Paul Colichman, Stephen P. Jarchow, John Schouweiler, director: David DeCoteau, writing credits: Simon Savory, cinematography: Howard Wexler, film editing: Jack Harkness, make-up: April Metcalf, set decoration: David Lordan, music: Jerry Lambert, cast: Lorielle New, Stephen Hansen, Bart Voitila, Danielle Demski, Amy Paffrath, Tom Sandoval, Michael King, Jason-Shane Scott, Andrew Bowen, Jason Stuart, Greg Sestero; The Tell-Tale Heart, United States, Future Films, 2009, short, producers: Travis Mays, Darren Walker, directors: Travis Mays, Darren Walker, writing credits: Travis Mays, Darren Walker, cinematography: Travis Mays, film editing: Travis Mays, special effects: Hector Moncada, make-up: Gaby Chavez, art director: Sarah Brandes, cast: B. J. Britt, Robert Brown, Randy Dalmas, Ted Taylor, Tony Tsendeas; Ligeia / The Tomb, United States, Jeff Most Productions, Lamplight Films, Most Films, Yalta-Film, 2009, producers: Jeff Most, Donald P. Borchers, Robert Crombie, Artur Novikov, Naz Tliachev, Chris Benson, Randall Emmett, George Furla, Jeff Rice, director: Michael Staininger, writing credits: John Shirley, cinematography: Chris Benson, film editing: Danny Saphire, Mihcal Shemesh, special effects: Greg Goad, Kevin Carter, David A. Davidson, Joseph Emerling, Amy Werges, make-up: Lisa Brockman-Kalz, art director: Jim Tudor, set decoration: Cat Cacciatore, music: Patrick Cassidy, cast: Wes Bentley, Kaitlin Doubleday, Sofya Skya, Cary-Hiroyuki Tagawa, Joel Lewis, Michael Madsen, Christa Campbell, Jerome Samuel Lewis, Jared Sanz-Agero, Joseph Hanrahan, Lydia Hull, Eric Roberts, Mackenzie Rosman, Jeff Most; The Gold Bud, United States, Never-Films, 2009, producers: Spike Carpenter, Andrew J. Tornow, director: Spike Carpenter, writing credits: Spike Carpenter, cinematography: Spike Carpenter, Andrew J. Tornow, film editing: Spike Carpenter, art directors: Spike Carpenter, Andrew J. Tornow, set decoration: Spike Carpenter, music: Daniel James Carpenter, cast: Andrew J. Tornow, Allan Joseph-Gentle, Megan Captaine, Spike Carpenter; The Masque of the Red Death, United States, University of North Carolina School of the Arts, 2010, short, producer: John Harvey, director: Daniel Woiwode, writing credits: Daniel Woiwode, cinematography: Alexa Reass, film editing: George Liu, art director: Austin Taylor, music: Jeremy Phillips, cast: Cameron Bass, Greg Loebell, Daniel Parra, Timothy Passetto, Sydnea Rhinehart, Alec Shaw, Sydney Shepherd, Austin Taylor, Graham Waldrop; Mea maxima culpa, Canada, Bombboys Productions, Spoeth Productions, 2010, short, producers: Eric B. Spoeth, Jason Sacha, director: Eric B. Spoeth, writing credits: Jason Sacha, based on The Tell-Tale Heart, cinematography: Aaron Munson, film editing: Eric B. Spoeth, special effects: Eric B. Spoeth, art director: Ryan Halun, music: Wolfgang Lackner, cast: John Byrne, Patrick Creery, Brent Kuhn, Aidan Lucas-Buckland, Ben Myckan, Frank C. Turner; The Tell-Tale Heart, United States, Creative House Studios, Dream-Maker Productions, Jeff Yanik Productions, 2010, short, producers: Cynthia Graham, Jeff Yanik, Jonathan Orosz, Andy Schofield, Dan Hammer, director: Jeff Yanik, writing credits: Jonathan Orosz, Kristy Rinas, Jeff Yanik, loosely based on Poe, cinematography: Peter Sampson, film editing: Jeff Yanik, special effects: Tom Luhtala, John Ruggieri, make-up: Cynthia Graham, Anna Roth, Amber Wahpepah, art director: Donna Williams, music: Jonathon Cox, cast: Stephen Brockway, Jonathan Orosz, Michael Regnier, Kyle Znamenak, Don Mannarino, Dale Kennedy, James Orosz; The Raven, United States, Smalltown Pictures, 2010, short, director: Ryan Cultrera, film editing: Ryan Cultrera, special effects: Mark McCune, make-up: Ariel Todd, cast: Ariel Todd, Ari Wilford; The Raven, United Kingdom, 2010, short, producers: Chris Wright, Lawrence Mallinson, director: Lawrence Mallinson, writing credits: Lawrence Mallinson, cinematography: Chris Wright, film editing: Chris Wright, special effects: Saranne Bensusan, art director: Chris Wright, set decoration: Chris Wright, music: Saranne Bensusan, cast: Daniel Tinmouth; The Oval Portrait, United States, AZ Pictures, Moonlight Entertainment, Pirosman Films, 2011, short, producers: Zurab Match, Oswaldo Cedillo, director: Michael Rumie, Zurab Match, writing credits: Michael Rumie, film editing: Michael Rumie, Zurab Match, cast: Nicole Kinsley, Zurab Match; Morella, United Kingdom, 2011, short, producer: Francesca Castelbuono, director: Francesca Castelbuono, cinematography: Lawrence Martin, film editing: Francesca Castelbuono, make-up: Laura McNair, set decoration: Nicola Block, music: Andrew Kinnear, cast: Katy Annand, Fiona Doyle, Bruno Humberto, James Hunter; Requiem for the Damned, United States, Allegheny Image Factory, 2012, producers: Jason Baker, Mike Berry, Johnny Bones, Theresa Danko, Richard L. Nelson, Jeffrey Tinnell, directors: Robert Tinnell (segment The Fall of the House of Usher), Tony Baez Milan (segment The Pit and the Pendulum), Johnny Bones (segment The Black Cat), Aaron J. Shelton (segment The Tell-Tale Heart), Anthony Vingas (segment The Murders in the Rue Morgue), writing credits: Robert Tinnell (segment The Fall of the House of Usher), Tony Baez Milan (segment The Pit and the Pendulum), Robert F. Keith (segment The Black Cat), Aaron J. Shelton (segment The Tell-Tale Heart), Jason Baker (segment The Murders in the Rue Morgue), cinematography: Anthony Vingas, film editing: Jason Baker, Josh Donahue, Robert F. Keith, Richard R. Nelson, Anthony Vingas, special effects: Jason Baker, Joe Daft, Sarah Danko, Charles Gellak, J. Allen Harvilla, Jay B. Maloney, Shad Hixenbaugh, Matthew Wise, Matthew Stovarsky, make-up: Remington Brimmer, Tarynn Cariuty, Ian Cromer, Emily Emerson, Rodolfo Fajardo, Kayla Free, Charles Gellak, Jake Gianforte, Melissa Haley, J. Allen Harvilla, Samantha Meier, Christopher Patrick, Paul Silva, James Tevlin, Eric Zapata, art directors: Jason Baker, Johnny Bones, Dirian Cleavenger, Emily Emerson, set decoration: Jason Baker, Emily Emerson, Mike Berry, music: Elon Arbiture, Wesley Avery, Duncan Blickenstaff, Dorian Cleavenger, Pete Martin, cast: Alexander Aloi, Richard Deal, Sean Donnelly, Cathy O'Dell, Paula Silva, Daniel Stevens, Rebecca VanGlider (segment The Fall of the House of Usher), Travis Ayers, Remington Brimmer, Sarah Danko, Charles Gellak (segment The Pit and the Pendulum), Johnny Bones, Theresa Danko, Robert F. Keith, Jay B. Maloney, Christopher Patrick (segment The Black Cat), James Grassi, Melissa Hurley, Katlin Montali, Aeyron Moore (segment The Tell-Tale Heart), Keaghlan Ashley, Kayla Free, Keith Holt, Samantha Meier (segment The Murders in the Rue Morgue); Berenice, United States, 2012, short, producer: Jesse Walker, directors: Zhao Liu, Jesse Walker, writing credits: Jesse Walker, cinematography: Avi Michael, Terry Quinn, film editing: Melissa Richlen, Jesse Walker, cast: Winston Barclay, Lindsay Fox, Aaron Meyer; Music Box, United States, 2012, short, producers: Ryan Caldwell, Chris Grega, Dan Lester, director: Ryan Caldwell, writing credits: Ryan Caldwell, loosely based on The Tell-Tale Heart, cinematography: Ryan Caldwell, film editing: Ryan Caldwell, make-up: Rachel Rieckenberg, art director: Ryan Caldwell, cast: Daniel Ludwig, Adam Zanzie, Sarah Hitzel, Sherard E. Curry, Alyse Watson; An Cridhe Cabaireach, United States, Axis Mundi Media, 2012, short, producer: Jim Lawrence, director: Jim Lawrence, writing credits: Jim Lawrence, loosely based on The Tell-Tale Heart, cinematography: Jim Lawrence, film editing: Jim Lawrence, music: Anne Rhymer Schwabland, cast: Matthew Hand, Angus MacLeod, Joseph Webb; The Bells, United States, Slothberg Productions, 2013, short, producers: Jamie Junction, Shaun Springer, director: Shaun Springer, writing credits: Jamie Junction, Shaun Springer, cinematography: Bryan Gosline, film editing: Adam Harum, cast: Jeremy Lindholm, Kendra Ann Sherrill; Under, United States, Lone Rebel Productions, 2013, short, producers: Alma Rosa Esquer, Michael Nunoz, Crystal Valenzuela, director: Michael Nunoz, writing credits: Michael Nunoz, loosely based on The Tell-Tale Heart, cinematography: Michael Nunoz, film editing: Michael Nunoz, special effects: Michael Nunoz, makeup: Crystal Valenzuela, cast: Anthony Auriemma, George Chatalas, David Talton, Luis Aviles, Sofia Orduno; The Man of the Crowd, United States, Running Wild Films, 5J Media, 2014, short, producers: Travis Mills, Isabel Bardsley, Larry Fleming, Barbara A. Gresser, Hanifah Holsome, Louis Mills, director: Travis Mills, writing credits: Travis Mills, cinematography: Parco Richardson, film editing: Talha Hussaini, cast: Jason Coleman, Michael Coleman, Hanifah Holsome, John Miller, Katrina Murray, Jon Ray, Adal Robles, Cameron Sablan; The Cask, United States, Running Wild Films, 5J Media, 2014, short, producers: Travis Mills, Isabel Bardsley, Larry Fleming, Barbara A. Gresser, Hanifah Holsome, Louis Mills, director: Travis Mills, writing credits: Travis Mills, loosely based on The Cask of Amontillado, cinematography: Parco Richardson, film editing: Derek Cloud, cast: Manda Leigh Crosby, Courtney Gibson, Mark Grossman, Angela Haines, Michael Hanelin, Heidi Lynn Krauss, Keylor Leigh, Carlos Morales, Emily O'Brien, Jon Ray, Christopher Sanders, Donna Wacker; Berenice, United States, Running Wild Films, 5J Media, 2014, short, producers: Travis Mills, Isabel Bardsley, Larry Fleming, Barbara A. Gresser, Hanifah Holsome, Louis Mills, director: Travis Mills, writing credits: Travis Mills, loosely based on Poe, cinematography: Mike Gustie, film editing: John Haas, cast: Preston Hill, Carol Mayka, Tommy Schaeffer, Amy Searcy, Shellie Ulrich; Lenore, United States, Stellarblade, 2014, producers: William G. Gil, Griffith Mehaffey, Rena Jean Schmieg, director: Griffith Mehaffey, writing credits: Griffith Mehaffey, cinematography: William G. Gil, Griffith Mehaffey, Skipper Landry, film editing: Griffith Mehaffey, cast: Danielle Davis, Adam Dillon, Gideon Hodge, Eric Lewis; Gamens oga, Sweden, Filmgymnasiet Gotland, 2014, short, producer: Staffan Enstrom, director: Jonatan Bokman, writing credits: Jonatan Bokman, loosely based on The Tell-Tale Heart, cinematography: Daniel Engstrand, make-up: Bitte Bokman, art director: Melica Olovsson, cast: Jonas Larsson Gronstrom, Anders Eng, Bitte Bokman, Johan Lundgren; The Madness of Roderick Usher, United States, Hollinsworth Productions, 2014, short, TV series Theatre Fantastique episode, producers: Ansel Faraj, Rosa Taylor-Faraj, director: Ansel Faraj, writing credits; Ansel Faraj, cinematography: Ansel Faraj, film editing: Ansel Faraj, art director: Aurick Michaels, music: Bill Wandel, cast: Christopher Pennock, Elyse Ashton, J. R. Cox; A Descent into the Maelstrom, United States, Hollinsworth Productions, 2014, short, TV series Theatre Fantastique episode, producers: Ansel Faraj, Rosa Taylor-Faraj, Michael Hessamian, director: Ansel Faraj, writing credits; Ansel Faraj, cinematography: Ansel Faraj, film editing: Ansel Faraj, art director: Aurick Michaels, music: Bill Wandel, cast: Christopher Pennock, Kelsey Hewlett, Jackson Gutierrez; Eliza Graves / Stonehearst Asylum, United States, Icon Productions, Sobini Films, 2014, producers: Mark Amin, Bruce Davey, Mel Gibson, Rene Besson, Mark Gill, Lati Grobman, David Higgins, Avi Lerner, Cami Winikoff, director: Brad Anderson, writing credits: Joe Gangemi, loosely based on The System of Doctor Tarr and Professor Fether, cinematography: Tom Yatsko, film editing: Brian Gates, special effects: Simon Giles, Elin Kothe, Daniel Nielsen, Magnus Olsson, Jessie Rosback, Gustav Tornroth, Sean Wheelan, Filmgate, Worldwide FX, make-up: Lorraine Hill, Mariana Love, Paul Pattison, art directors: Carlos Bodelon, Alexei Karagyaur, set decoration: Alain Bainee, music: John Debney, cast: Kate Beckinsale, Jim Sturgess, David Thewlis, Brendan Gleeson, Ben Kingsley, Michael Caine, Jason Flemyng, Sophie Kennedy Clark, Sinead Cusack, Edmund Kingsley, Robert Hands, Clara Flynn, Christopher Fulford, Andrew Dallmeyer.
Biographical movies (selected titles): Edgar Allan Poe, United States, American Mutoscope & Biograph, 1909, short, director: D. W. Griffith, writing credits: D. W. Griffith, Frank E. Woods, cinematography: G. W. Bitzer, cast: Barry O'Moore (E. A. Poe), Linda Arvidson, Clara T. Bracy, Anita Hendrie, Arthur V. Johnson, James Kirkwood, David Miles, Charles Perley; The Raven, United States, Essanay Film Manufacturing Company, 1915, director: Charles Brabin, writing credits: Charles Brabin, play The Raven: The Love Story of Edgar Allan Poe George Cochran Hazelton, cast: Henry B. Walthall (E. A. Poe), Warda Howard, Ernest Maupain, Eleanor Thompson, Marion Skinner, Harry Dunkinson, Grant Foreman, Hugh Thompson, Peggy Meredith, Frank Hamilton, W. C. Robinson, Bert Weston, Charles Harris; The Loves of Edgar Allan Poe, United States, Twentieth Century Fox Corporation, 1942, producer: Bryan Foy, director: Harry Lachman, writing credits: Arthur Caesar, Samuel Hoffenstein, Tom Reed, cinematography: Lucien Andriot, film editing: Fred Allen, art directors: Richard Day, Nathan Juran, set decoration: Thomas Little, music: David Buttolph, Cyril J. Mockridge, Alfred Newman, cast: Linda Darnell, John Shepperd (E. A. Poe), Virginia Gilmore, Jane Darwell, Mary Howard, Frank Conroy, Henry Morgan, Walter Kingsford, Morris Ankrum, Erville Alderson, William Bakewell, Frank Melton, Morton Lowry, Gilbert Emery, Edwin Stanley; The Spectre of Edgar Allan Poe, United States, Cintel, First Leisure, 1974, producer: Mohy Quandour, director: Mohy Quandour, writing credits: Mohy Quandour, Kenneth Hartford, Denton Foxx, cinematography: Robert Birchall, film editing: Abbas Amin, make-up: Byrd Holland, art director: Michael Milgrom, music: Allen D. Allen, cast: Robert Walker Jr. (E. A. Poe), Cesar Romero, Tom Drake, Carol Ohmart, Mary Grover, Mario Milano, Karen Hartford, Dennis Fimple, Paul Bryar, Marcia Mae Jones, Robert Pearson, Ethel Corn, Carolyn Alban, Peter Riches; Edgar Allan Poe: Terror of the Soul, United States, Film Odyssey, Eagle Entertainment, WNET Channel 13 New York, 1995, documentary, TV series American Masters episode, producers: Karen Thomas, Robert J. Sloane, Cindy E. Vaughn, directors: Joyce Chopra, Karen Thomas, writing credits: Joyce Chopra, Karen Thomas, Kenneth Silverman, David Blake Smith, cinematography: James Glennon, film editing: Joseph Gutowski, Mark Muheim, special effects: Paul Staples, make-up: Felicity Bowring, art directors: David Wasco, Bernardo Munoz, set decoration: Sandy Wasco, music: Peter Rogers Melnick, cast: Anthony Maggio (E. A. Poe), Eric Christmas, Sky Rumph, Michelle Joyner, Pam Van Sant, Devyn Puett, Marianne Muellerleile, Robert Dowdell, Val Bettin, Rene Auberjonois, John Heard, Heidi Schooler; The Death of Poe, United States, Redfield Arts, 2006, producers: Mark Redfield, Stuart Voytilla, Tom Brandau, Wesley Nolan, Jennifer Rouse, Robert Sprowls, J. I. Weber, director: Mark Redfield, writing credits: Mark Redfield, Stuart Voytilla, cinematography: Jeff Herberger, film editing: Jay Carroll, Sean Paul Murphy, make-up: Eric Supensky, set decoration: William Kelley, Clay Supensky, music: Jennifer Rouse, cast: Mark Redfield (E. A. Poe), Kevin G. Shinnick, Jennifer Rouse, Tony Tsendeas, Kimberly Hannold, Wayne Shipley, Jonathon Ruckman, George Stover, J. R. Lyston, Kurt Bouschell, Sandra Lynn O'Brien, Chuck Richards, Debra Murphy, David Ellis, Thomas E. Cole; Nightmares from the Mind of Poe, United States, Willing Hearts Productions, 2006, producers: Linda Thornton, Ric White, Clayton Laurence Cheek, Tom Dolan, Toni Sowell, Tom Varenchick, director: Ric White, writing credits: Ric White, cinematography: John Gerhart, music: Joe Riley, cast: Ric White (E. A. Poe), Jamie Vincent, Mickey Love, Clayton Laurence Cheek, David Ballasso, Ron Cushman, Deanne Collins, Tom Dolan, Judith Draper, John Huber, Carey Kotsionis, Jean Massena, Doug Moore, Michael Roark, Linda Thornton; E. A. P, United States, OpenMinds LLC, 2007, short, producers: Bradford R. Youngs, Gina Youngs, director: Bradford R. Youngs, writing credits: Bradford R. Youngs, cinematography: John Darbonne, Bradford R. Youngs, film editing: Robert Dias, Allen Kaufman, cast: Colin Branca, Elwood Carlisle; Poe: Last Days of the Raven, Canada, 2008, producers: Brent Fidler, Barry Backus, Bob Bottieri, Mackenzie Gray, directors: Brent Fidler, Eric Goldstein, writing credits: Brent Fidler, cinematography: Eric J. Goldstein, film editing: Barry Backus, special effects: Sebastian Bruski, Garret Biles, Ted Gervan, Alex Ouzande, Paula Requa, Kelvin Yee, make-up: Courtney Frey, Stacey Butterworth, Shimona Henry, Monica Haynes, art directors: Phil Trumbo, Bob Bottieri, set decoration: Sebastian Bruski, music: Tuomas Kantelinen, cast: Brent Fidler (E. A. Poe), Mackenzie Gray, Richard Keats, Emily Tennant, Lisa Langlois, Alex Diakun, Alec Willows, Jerry Rector, Shannon Jardine, Sarah Deakins, Olivia Rameau, David Newman, Arjun Shapovalov, Bob Bottieri, Janaki Singh, Elizabeth Volpe, Irina Fidler.
Edgar Allan Poe as film character (selected titles): Torture Garden, United Kingdom, Amicus Productions, Columbia Pictures, 1967, producers: Max J. Rosenberg, Milton Subotsky, director: Freddie Francis, writing credits: Robert Bloch, story The Man Who Collected Poe Robert Bloch, cinematography: Norman Warwick, film editing: Peter Elliott, make-up: Jill Carpenter, art directors: Don Mingaye, Scott Slimon, set decoration: Bill Constable, music: Don Banks, James Bernard, cast for the The Man Who Collected Poe segment: Jack Palance, Peter Cushing, Geoffrey Wallace (E. A. Poe), Roy Godfrey; Nella stretta morsa del ragno / Les fantdmes de Hurlevent / Edgar Poe chez les morts vivants / Dracula im Schlof des Schreckens / Web of the Spider / In the Grip of the Spider, Italy, France, Germany, Paris-Cannes Productions, Produzione DC7, Terra-Filmkunst, 1971, producer: Giovanni Addessi, director: Anthony M. Dawson [Antonio Margheriti], writing credits: Bruno Corbucci, Giovani Grimaldi, Antonio Margheriti, cinematography: Guglielmo Mancori, Sandro Mancori, Silvano Spagnoli, film editing: Otello Colangeli, Fima Noveck, special effects: Cataldo Galliano, make-up: Maria Luisa Jilli, Marisa Tilly, art director: Ottavio Scotti, set decoration: Camillo Del Signori, music: Riz Ortolani, cast: Anthony Franciosa, Michele Mercier, Klaus Kinski (E. A. Poe), Peter Carsten, Silvano Tranquilli, Karin Field, Raf Baldassarre, Irina Malewa, Enrico Osterman, Marco Bonetti; The Raven, United States, Intrepid Pictures, FilmNation Entertainment, Galavis Film, 2012, producers: Marc D. Evans, Trevor Macy, Aaron Ryder, Carolyn Harris, Richard Sharkey, Glen Basner, James D. Stern, director: James McTeigue, writing credits: Hannah Shakespeare, Ben Livingston, cinematography: Danny Ruhlmann, film editing: Niven Howie, special effects: Paul Stephenson, Sven Bliedung, Michael Gobel, Calle Halldin, Marcus Hindborg, Filmgate, Trixter, Molinare, make-up: Fruzsina Banhalmi, Lisa Taylor Roberts, Laura Schiavo-Reyneri, art directors: Roger Ford, Paul Laugier, Frank Walsh, set decoration: Kerrie Brown, music: Lucas Vidal, cast: John Cusack (E. A. Poe), Luke Evans, Alice Eve, Brendan Gleeson, Kevin McNally, Oliver JacksonCohen, Jimmy Yuill, Sam Hazeldine, Pam Ferris, Brendan Coyle, Adrian Rawlins, Aidan Feore, Dave Legeno, Michael Poole, Michael Shennon.
Paperback novels tie-in with Roger Corman films Lee Sheridan, The Pit and the Pendulum, New York, Lancer Books, 1961
Max Hallan Danne, Premature Burial, New York, Lancer Books, 1962
Eunice Sudak, Tales of Terror, New York, Lancer Books, 1962
Eunice Sudak, The Raven, New York, Lancer Books, 1963
Elsie Lee, The Masque of the Red Death, New York, Lancer Books, 1964
Brown G (1995) Movie time: a chronology of Hollywood and the movie industry from its beginnings to the present. New York: Macmillan.
Brunas M, Brunas J, Weaver T (1990) Universal horrors: the studio's classic films, 1931-1946. Jefferson, NC: McFarland.
Chion M (1995) La chute de la maison Usher. Dictionnaire des films. Rapp B, Lamy JC, eds. Paris: Larousse.
Clarens C (1968) Horror movies: an illustrated survey. London: Seeker and Warburg.
Corman R (1990) How I made a hundred movies in Hollywood and never lost a dime. Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press.
Dixon WW (2011) The Orson Welles of the Z picture: an interview with Roger Corman. Roger Corman interviews. Nasr C, ed. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi.
Fischer D (1991) Horror film directors, 1931-1990. Jefferson, NC: McFarland.
French L (2011) California Gothic: the Corman / Haller collaboration. Roger Corman interviews. Nasr C, ed. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi.
Gifford, D (1973) A pictorial history of horror movies. London: The Hamlyn Publishing Group.
Humphries R (2009) The Black Cat. 101 horror movies you must see before you die. Schneider SJ, ed. London: Cassell Illustrated, Octopus Publishing Group.
Hutchings P (2008) Historical dictionary of horror cinema. Lanham, MD: The Scarecrow Press.
Jacobs S (2011) Boris Karloff: more than a monster. The authorized biography. Sheffield: Tomahawk Press.
King S (1986) Danse macabre. New York: Berkley Books.
Lightman HA (1961) The pit and the pendulum: a study in horror film photography. American Cinematographer 10 (492). Hollywood, CA: American Society of Cinematographers.
London R (1975) Cinema of mystery. London: Lorrimer.
McAsh IF (1977) The films of Vincent Price. Bembridge, Isle of White: BCW Publishing Limited.
McGee M (1996) Faster and furiouser: the revised and fattened fable of American International Pictures. Jefferson, NC: McFarland.
Milne T, ed. (1993) Time out film guide. London: Penguin Books.
Morin E (1985) Le cinema ou l homme imaginaire. Paris: Les Editions de minuit.
Nasr C (2011a) Introduction. Roger Corman interviews. Nasr C, ed. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi.
Nasr C (2011b) Corman: godfather of the A's. Roger Corman interviews. Nasr C, ed. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi.
Nasr C, ed. (2011c) Roger Corman interviews. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi.
Neimeyer M (2002) Poe and popular culture. The Cambridge companion to Edgar Allan Poe. Hayes KJ, ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Nourmand T, Marsh G, eds. (2004) Horror poster art. London: Aurum Press.
Ognjanovic D (2009) The Masque of the Red Death. 101 horror movies you must see before you die. Schneider SJ, ed. London: Cassell Illustrated, Octopus Publishing Group.
Poe EA (1986) The fall of the House of Usher and other writings. Poems, tales, essays and reviews. Galloway D, ed. London: Penguin Books.
Schupp P (2011) Meeting with Roger Corman. Roger Corman interviews. Nasr C, ed. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi.
Shipman D (1995a) The great movie stars: the golden years. Boston, New York & London: Little, Brown and Company.
Shipman D (1995b) The great movie stars: the international years. Boston, New York & London: Little, Brown and Company.
Silverman K (1991) Edgar A. Poe: mournful and never-ending remembrance. New York: HarperCollins Publishers.
Smith DG (1999) The Poe cinema: a critical filmography of theatrical releases based on the works of Edgar Allan Poe. Jefferson, NC: McFarland.
Smith GA (2009) The American International Pictures video guide. Jefferson, NC: McFarland.
Sova DB (2001) Edgar Allan Poe A to Z: the essential reference to his life and work. New York: Checkmark Books.
Tavernier B, Eisenschitz B, Wicking C (2011) Corman speaks. Roger Corman interviews. Nasr C, ed. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi.
Weaver T (1994) Priceless. Fangoria's best horror films. Timpone A, ed. New York: Crescent Books.
Weldon M (1983) The psychotronic encyclopedia of film. New York: Ballantine Books.
Gheorghe Asachi Technical University
Correspondence concerning this article may be addressed to firstname.lastname@example.org
|Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback|
|Title Annotation:||Poe, Poe, Poe ...|
|Publication:||Romanian Journal of Artistic Creativity|
|Date:||Dec 22, 2014|
|Previous Article:||The imp of the perverse.|
|Next Article:||The (pre-/post-)romantic bedlam.|