Economic geology of prospecting areas of Moein Abad, Qaen, South Khorasan, East of Iran.
The exploratory area of Moein Abad is the east of Iran in South Khorasan (170 km to south east of Qaen-figure 1). This area is located in the north west of 1:250000 sheets of Shahrakht and 1:100000 of Ahangaran. The studied area with north-south trend covered a part of topography sheet 1:50000 of Ardcole (Gomenj). For having access to Moein Abad area one can use the road of Qaen- Esfeshad- Esfedan passing a distance about 150 km, after passing from Degh Bala (about 5km from Haji Abad village) and after passing from Bashiran village (in the south eastern corner of the area.
The project of exploration of mineral materials in the Moein Abad area (Qaen) is performed by consultation engineers of Zarnab Company aiming at searching and exploration of mineral metal materials. According to the previous studies the presence of anomalies elements such as gold, copper, Iron, Molybdenum and tungsten are approved and this subject specified the necessity of doing more exploratory studies. In this article, shortly it is tried to represent exploratory activities in the Qaen city around Moein Abad.
1.1. Literature review:
In the Ahangaran area different geological studies were performed with different purposes that most of these studies performed by Ministry of Industries and Mines (Industries and Mines organization of South Khorasan), geology organization and mineral exploratory of the country and companies like consultation engineers of Zarnab Company and connection consulter of Madan Ara were done during tens of years. the oldest of these studies were performed in 1978 by geology organization and mineral exploratory of the country and the newest of such studies performed in 2007 by consultation engineers of Zarnab Company. Below, some of these activities are represented:
A: geology sheet 1:250000 Shahrakht (Geological quadrangle map of Iran-No. L7), 1978, the geology and mineral exploration organization of Iran, this sheet is prepared by Geometal Tehran -B.R.G.M Orleans(France) and under supervision of Dr. Mansour Alavi naeini.
B: Exploratory design of gold and orpiment in the east of Qaen (geochemical of stream sediments, 1:20000) the connection consulter of Madan Ara Company in 2001 performed this project in an area about 80 [km.sup.2]. On the basis of conclusions from reports, this area is rich in mineralization of Fe, Cu, Au and As, and geochemical abnormalities and heavy minerals have conformity. Four prone areas in the 2 km distance from Dezak Village, the 3 km diagonal of Hosain Abad Village, 3 km to the south east of Ali Abad until Souround Village and one km from Manavand Village to Dezak were introduced for exploratory activities.
C: The gold semi-detailed exploratory of gold and orpiment in the east of Naein (Lito-geochemical exploration 1:5000) connection consulter of Madan Ara Company in 2003 performed this project in an area with 10 [km.sup.3]. Geographically, the area of the project is located in the northern areas of Manavand village to the south east of Moein Abad that is centralized in line with Skarn outcrop. On the basis of conclusion, generally mineralization is formed in the lower strip of limestone and in its border with meta-volcanic unit and one skarni environment.
D: Geochemical and geological exploratory in the Manavand area of the scale 1:10000 by consultation engineers of Zarnab Company, in the year 2006, this project was performed in an approximate area 99.5 [km.sup.3] that covers 24.6 [km.sup.3] of the studying area. Economically in this area there are indexes of Cu, Fe, Mn, and Cr and observations for exploitation of Cu and Fe were specified.
The project of exploring mineral materials in the Qaen city (Moein Abad Area) during several stages was discovered by consultation engineers of Zarnab Company for exploring, primary exploitation and detailed exploitation. Some of these activities included preparing of geology-mineral map with scale 1:5000 in the two east and west area of Moein Abad with 22.5 km and preparing geological-mineral map 1:1000 in the 300 hectare space , geophysical exploratory operation using IP-RS methods and measuring the agnatic by picking from 1360 points of measuring magnetics and 1358 points of IP and different sampling. During the performance of preparing geological-mineral map in western and eastern Moein Abad mineralization zones were introduced and were selected. In the next stage on important zones with more importance respecting mineralization totally 305 M3 in the form of 12 chis in the east and western areas were excavated. While geological studies in the three areas of the map of mineral geology (figure 2), the eastern area of Moein Abad with 8 [km.sup.2] and the western area of Moein Abad with 14.5 [km.sup.3] were geologically studies in the 1:5000 scale. Also, in an area as wide as 300 hectare in the 1:1000 scales the geological-mineral and topography was depicted. Area 1: 1000 is located inside area 1: 5000 east of Moein Abad, that after preparing the geographical map 1:5000 are performed for studying and more precise analysis.
3: Analysis and Discussion:
3.1: geology of the studied area:
The stone units that are found in this area are as follow :
The oldest rocks of Proterozoic period are composed by metg units (metagabro- diorite). On this unit mb and metv units are composed of limestone (crystal limestone), and metalava -amphibolite schist. Meantime gd intrusive bodies with Hornblende granodiorite to monzonite permeated between meta-gabbro and limestone. This unit in most of the points is situated on other units by fault contact. Outcrop of units belonging to Proterozoic are seen in the western parts of understudied area. Generally the unit of limestone as the host rock of mineralization of copper and iron played the role in this area. The principal parts of north- north eastern parts of the areaare composed by previous cretaceous units. This category from old to new respectively are Klsl (Asparayt sandstone and shale), Kcl (red sandstone and conglomerate), Kll (Massive limestone with Orbitolina and Rodsite), kfl (shale and cutting of limestone), meantime the unit of kll has the most of permeate and it is highly tachtonized. Stones belonging to the late cretaceous from the old to the newest includes Kgd2 (tonalite) and Kg2 (weathered granite). The unit of Kg2 that is seen in the form of contacted with orbitolina limestone units and separated from north western part to south eastern part and has a fault contact, these rocks generally are outcropped in the center of understudied area. The unit of kgd2 (tonalite) are outcropped in the center, North west and west of the area that are situated on the Amphibolite and amphibolite schist. The unit of Kg2 permeated in the north western part of the area into the late cretaceous limestone. The rocks belonging to Cenozoic period (Paleocene-Eocene) are PEL, PEc, and PEms units that include bioasparaite, red conglomerate horizons, red conglomerate horizons, and sandstone, and also in the south of the area and in neighboring with tonalite units are outcropped. Also from units belonging to quaternary we can refer to the following rock stone units: OP1cg unit (conglomerate and sandstone), Qt1 and Qt2 unit (old and new traces in the area), Qal unit (Alluvial deposits).
4. Structural geology and tectonics:
The tectonics position of Ahangaran area (Qhaen) is so that situated between the two main and great faults of Nehnandan in the west and Harirood in the east. The entire geological structures in this area are affected by these two faults. Understudied area with respect to structural geology is located in the north western block of the map 1:100000 of Ahangaran and on northern tails of Nehbandan fault .
The general trend of the area faults is north west-south east and a number of small secondary faults in a low number with different trends are seen in the north west of the area.
In a greater scale the line of structures is NNW--SSE and WNW--ESE that is affected from movement of Nehbandan fault. In the view of structural geology the most important structures of the area is Rastalghaz with compressive component that in most of the contact points of the units (mb) with other neighboring units. The borders of units are generally faulting and in the border of permeating units such as craterous granite (kgr) with craterous limestone the performance of the fault is specified and no metamorphosed are seen, and most of mineralization is done in the border between metamorphosed limestone units and meta-volcanic unit. This issue represents relationship between performance of faults and mineralization in the area (figure3).
According to the desert observations and the prepared map the faults in the area can be divided as follow:
Faults with NNW-SSE direction:
This fault are more observable in the south eastern tail of the area and follow the main trends of Nehbandan fault and their length is from several hundreds of meters to mostly two KMs of oscillation and their length is between several hundreds of meters to at most two KMs of oscillation. The principle movements of these faults are in the form of Rastalghaz, rightward and compressive component.
B: The fault with WNW-ESE trend:
These faults are seen mostly in the northern part of the area and their length is around several hundreds of meters to at most 2 KM of oscillation. The movement of these faults is most of the time in reversal direction along with the component of Rastalghaz right ward. Of the impacts of these faults that forms the connection of the metamorphosed limestone (mb) and limestone (Kl) in the north of the area that provides necessary ground for permeation of fluids and mineralization . Figure 4 shows a look of performance of this group of faults.
In the figure (5) the diagram of the red soil (rose diagram) is depicted for faults in the Moein Abad area. As seen in this rose diagram, the trends of faults in the area has a great deal of verity, therefore, processes of NW SE and NE-SW benefit more relative importance (figure 3).
Mineralization in the exploratory area (estern and western) of Moein Abad is formed of sheets and zones of silica that includes the copper and iron sulfite minerals. Also, these sheets includes some amounts of gold, zinc, tungsten and molybdenum
Most of the separable sheets that have a great length have outcropped in the north western part of the area (figure 7). Such cases of mineralization in the ground level by experienced miners (the current century and before) were exploited. Such sheets have the trend of north -north eastern and thickness of 2-4 meter and have a length from 20 to 25 meter. These sheets are developed in the eastern part of Moein Abad and have little development in the western Moein Abad area. Such sheets mostly are rich in silica, carbonate, and silica carbonate (figure 7). According to the depth of the opening and the volume of exploited depots from the old wells it seems that in some of the areas to several meters of the land sheets are exploited (figure 6). Mineralization in the Moein Abad area occurred in the contact points of limestone metamorphosed with metavolcanic units or granodiorite. The studied mineralization with respect to the host rock is divided into two groups: the first group is mineralization in which their host rock is meta-volcanic units (metv) and the second host group is metamorphosed limestone (mb).
The general process of this mineralization follows intrusion units so that in the northern part of area it has an eastern-western process, but from the center of the area toward south until the east of Moein Abad village the process is from north west-south east. In the east of Moein Abad the impact of the old holes is seen more than other parts. The copper mineralization in this part is of malachite and azurite type, while mineralization with eastern-western trend includes iron mineralization with magnetite type. Mineralization in this section is performed inside metamorphosed limestone. Result of studies of the polished section and the element analysis using ICP-OES method from harvested cases from the sheets with mineralization represents this issue that the average copper grade is about 0.9%, and tungsten, molybdenum and gold respectively are about 180, 59, 0.35 g/t. In some points such as a point with coordinate (233173, 3691344) is based on UTM of silica sheets are seen brightly that despite thickness and appropriate outcrop lack mineralization. The stated sheet with observable length about 5 meters is in the extension of 150 with thickness of about 20 meters in the granite unit (figure 7). To analyze the type and the method of mineralization, 27 cases aiming at element analysis using ICP-OES method were harvested from the place of depo of the old works that the elicited results with respect to elements of gold, arsenic, copper, molybdenum, cadmium, tungsten and zinc are observed (table1).
Totally, 10 cases of aiming at chemical analysis using ICP-MS methodology were harvested from the current sheets in the area that result of this analysis is indicated in the table (2).
The result of harvested cases of analysis during the recent studies and previous ones shows that some of the sheets have a considerable amount of gold. These results show that paragenesis of mineralization of chalcopyrite, pyrite, malachite, azurite, garnet and magnetite occurred. But most of the observed minerals in the hand specimens are malachite and magnetite. The 2 cases from one mineralized sheet include mineralization of malachite, magnetite and epidote that has a thickness about 2.5 meter and length of 22 meters and extended in line with N70E degree and steep of 85degree in line with the limestone layer. According to the result of the element analysis of the first hand sample using ICP-MS method around 0.4% of copper and 8.1% iron is reported along with a little amount of tungsten. The study of the polished area of the second sample showed presence of magnetite and chalcopyrite in the Cong silica set (figure 8).
The study of polished sections of the area from the sheets and silica zones shows that mineralization of chalcopyrite, pyrite, malachite, azurite, garnet and magnetite occurred. In the hand specimens also malachite and magnetite are seen (figure 10).
The superficial mineralization are mostly oxidized in the surface and in the study of the sections a great volume of metamorphosed sulfite minerals are seen, so that healthy chalcopyrite is seen in the form of remaining among oxides and iron hydroxides and they are dissolved to secondary minerals of chalcocite and covelite (figure 11).
All over the skarn area in the form of a narrow strip with thicknesses of several meters to several of 10 meters are seen in an approximate trend of North West -southeast. This skarn occurred in the contact place of meta-volcanic unit with metamorphosed limestone unit that is seen all over the area. The sets of minerals of this skarn include quartz, calcite, grossular, augite, and gypsum. The host rock of that unit was metamorphosed limestone unit and therefore the calcium garnets are composed. The result of the harvested samples from this skarn for analysis of XRD shows presence of these minerals (table3, 4).
In the ZMT--336 samples that is harvested from Zone Skarn are mineral garnet, plagioclase, epidote along with diopcide in the background of rock in the strip form of diopcide and epidote minerals. Their stretching mode can be a sign of stress on the rock the tangible quartzite sheets also cut the rock. The sample ZMT--372 is also one Garnet, epidote, diopside calc-silicate with similar conditions (figure 12).
Generally studies of alternation (including desert observations, petrography studies and harvested samples for XRD analysis-table 3,4)in the Moein Abad area specifically specified epidotic- chlorite and iron oxide. These alternations most of the time is observed in the meta-volcanic rocky units and border of this unit with metamorphosed limes. The argillic alternation in lower width is seen in the granite units that seems mostly they are effected by atmosphere solutions and also considering this issue that most of the existent alternations in the region in the view of mineralization are useless, therefore we conclude that there is no relationship between alternations and mineralization, description of these alternations are presented below:
5.1: Epidoty- chlorite:
Epidoty- chlorite alternation from the center-west of the area and to some extent occurs from south to center. Epidote, chlorite, calcite and quartz minerals composed these alternations.
Epidoty alternation in the meta-volcanic units (metv) occurred beside tactonized and metamorphosed limestone. In a microscopic study of the sample ZMT--375 that is removed from this zone plagioclases of the rock became sosority and changed to the set of epidote and albite. In the chlorite rock it is observed to a great extent, because actinolite is not formed in this stone and we can conclude that the rock still is not reached at the green sheet mass (figure 13).
5.2: Average Argillic:
Average argillic alternation in the west of the area is developed by a relatively low width. The host rock of these alternations is outcrops of granite to granodiorite unit (gr-gd). It seems that this alternation that is influenced by atmosphere solutions and with respects to mineralization it has no value.
Because of intrusion of the granite masses to the late cretaceous age
into limestone unit mb and metamorphosing these limes and because of reaction between magmatic-hydrothermal solutions and limestone mineralization is formed in the Moein Abad area in the border of metamorphosed limes and volcanic rocks and zone skarn that in this zone grossular, diopside, magnetite, epidote, malachite, chalcopyrite, pyrite, galena, hematite minerals are constituted. Studies showed that these minerals with respect to elements such as copper, iron, gold, tungsten and molybdenum are important. We can indicate that a good space is formed for intrusive and injection of hydrothermal solutions in the Moein Abadarea by means of faults and existent breaks in the border of the two metamorphosed rock unit of (mb) and meta-volcanic (metv) and as the mineralized host rock is the unit of metamorphosed limestone; therefore, calcium-rich garnets are formed , in this way considering this subject that garnet and existent pyroxene in the area arch rich in calcium and minerals rich and such minerals are found highly in the area; therefore, the type of mineralization in the Moein Abad area is a calcic skarn copper type.
Received 25 September 2014
Received in revised form 26 October 2014
Accepted 25 November 2014
Available online 30 December 2014
 Geological sheet 1:100000 Ahangaran (Geological map of Iran 1:100000 series,Sheet 8056), 2001. geology and mineral exploitation organization in the country, prepared by Geometal Tehran--B.R.G.M (france) Orleans, supervisor: Mansour Alavi Naeini.
 The potential finding report and primary exploitation in the Qaen city, 2006. Consultation engineers of Zarnab Company, South Khorasan Mine and Industries organization
 The detailed exploitation report of mineral materials in the Qaen city, 2007. Consultation engineers of Zarnab Company, South Khorasan Mine and Industries organization
 Karim Pour, M.H. and S. Saadat, 2002. Applied economical geology, Ferdosi Mashhad University
(1) Morteza Karim Baghban and (2) Zahra Zandi
(1) Young Researchers and Elite Club, Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran
(2) Department of Geology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Corresponding Author: Morteza Karim Baghban, Young Researchers and Elite Club, Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran
Table 1: The result of analysis ICP-OES of depo cases of the old works including mineralization Row Sample ID X y Au(ppb) Fe As 1 ZM 1-284 223119 3693294 39 86946 203 2 ZM 1-285 223119 3693288 100 161074 335.7 3 ZMI-286 223082 3693321 88 81191 136.7 4 ZM 1-287 223075 3693343 445 48240 114.2 5 ZM 1-289 233066 3693346 97 164913 152.2 6 ZMI-290 233105 3693314 246 183517 60 7 ZMI-291 233136 3693305 32 87491 1153 e ZMI-292 233151 3693308 39 126192 237.6 0 ZMI-293 233161 3693287 15 95341 95 7 10 ZMI-295 233187 3693234 102 128809 73 6 11 ZMI-296 233206 3693233 123 140137 258.8 12 ZMI-297 233210 3693225 235 77090 87.1 13 ZMI-298 233212 3693216 143 75455 135.1 14 ZMI-299 233212 3693172 63 39778 128.2 15 ZMI-307 233014 3693576 122 96932 30 2 16 ZMI-308 233052 3693550 290 115074 454 17 ZMI-316 232160 3694680 239 227562 96.1 18 ZMI-320 231850 3694920 1828 121931 502.9 19 ZMI-321 231855 3694615 2190 260991 1926.6 20 ZMI-322 231900 3694940 11 28097 122.1 21 ZMI-323 231913 3694914 2170 252721 3268.2 22 ZMI-332 230470 3695550 37 108321 574 23 ZMI-337 230335 3695758 25 74756 5.4 24 ZMI-345 230836 3695927 246 229549 65.3 25 ZMI-352 229490 3695886 155 147424 1853 26 ZMI-354 229301 3695891 284 126138 24.6 27 ZMI-367 229110 3695925 199 203529 378 Average 354.185 131081 327.43 Row Cd Cu Mn Mo W Zn 1 143.44 15554 3184 37.11 540.13 47387 2 55.38 13707 2475 215.5 121.17 6971 3 17.39 4929 5616 14.02 118.31 3959 4 108.17 12564 6197 13.28 129.49 13239 5 52.88 4459 4299 90.69 202.91 10864 6 29.62 9046 5871 13.16 90.47 6739 7 86.06 13562 5705 15.93 654,61 49829 e 73.09 13568 3658 67.37 475.99 42491 0 44.17 5263 7273 8.6 1235.58 79903 10 42 55 6823 4568 99.68 134.32 10179 11 21.43 12934 4824 97.26 457.38 37931 12 31.38 24790 6259 11.34 121.14 9637 13 25.22 17699 10973 12.92 183.59 15885 14 46.19 3712 4159 16.93 282.3 22561 15 0.37 9358 3152 6.02 0.93 660 16 204 9949 6043 40.48 1.17 792 17 0.29 9162 2264 12.42 1.2 396 18 1.98 2238 938 15.73 25.32 241 19 8.03 4732 1269 147.75 30.06 1144 20 0.28 64 543 369 Z15 73 21 10.99 4476 704 639.56 54.34 2253 22 0.31 13640 2964 3.61 0.5 423 23 0.28 1340 3863 0.36 1.44 195 24 41 1369 2264 1 35 Z18 500 25 0.36 16115 3852 5.05 0.5 478 26 4.31 8657 5515 0.98 5.33 367 27 9.21 8077 2346 8 33 1 91 303 30.354 9177 4103 59.245 180.571 13570 Table 2: The result of ICP-MS analysis from harvested cases of existent sheets in the Moein Abad area Hon RMt Coordinate X Y ZMI1-305 Granite-Granodiorite 232404 3691113 ZMI1-309 Silica vein 232609 3691151 ZMI1-312 Meta volcanic 231048 3692193 ZMI1-314 Meta volcanic 229638 3693692 ZMI1-318 Granite-Granodiorite 227331 3695318 ZMI1-326 Granite-Granodiorite 229237 3694139 ZMI1-333 Metagranodiorite 227569 3695822 ZMI1-334 Meta volcanic 227624 3696351 ZMI1-354 Meta volcanic 230490 3694576 ZMI1-355 Silica vein 230561 3694631 Hon RMt value of elements based on ppb All Fe Aq ZMI1-305 Granite-Granodiorite 24 23626 0.35 ZMI1-309 Silica vein < 5096 0.22 ZMI1-312 Meta volcanic 717 95007 1.47 ZMI1-314 Meta volcanic 7 34329 0.23 ZMI1-318 Granite-Granodiorite 4 18039 0.27 ZMI1-326 Granite-Granodiorite 2 39987 0.22 ZMI1-333 Metagranodiorite 2 129163 0.24 ZMI1-334 Meta volcanic 44 53453 2.63 ZMI1-354 Meta volcanic 222 219136 0.31 ZMI1-355 Silica vein 41 243834 0.31 Hon RMt value of elements based on ppb As Bi Cd ZMI1-305 Granite-Granodiorite 7.7 0.63 0.28 ZMI1-309 Silica vein 8.1 1.49 0.28 ZMI1-312 Meta volcanic 8.3 1.49 0.31 ZMI1-314 Meta volcanic 8.3 0.6 0.3 ZMI1-318 Granite-Granodiorite 7.9 0.52 0.3 ZMI1-326 Granite-Granodiorite 3.9 0.63 0.28 ZMI1-333 Metagranodiorite 7.8 6.2 0.3 ZMI1-334 Meta volcanic 8.5 0.31 5.24 ZMI1-354 Meta volcanic 57.1 13.74 0.3 ZMI1-355 Silica vein 17.8 6.2 0.27 Hon RMt value of elements based on ppm Cu Mil Mo Pb ZMI1-305 Granite-Granodiorite 7562 555 21.1 21 ZMI1-309 Silica vein 129 92 1.8 18 ZMI1-312 Meta volcanic 11899 1936 1 24 ZMI1-314 Meta volcanic 102 187 2.3 21 ZMI1-318 Granite-Granodiorite 42 73 2.3 18 ZMI1-326 Granite-Granodiorite 28 93 6.1 22 ZMI1-333 Metagranodiorite 1024 642 3.9 23 ZMI1-334 Meta volcanic 21163 5657 1 23 ZMI1-354 Meta volcanic 144 100 1.8 74 ZMI1-355 Silica vein 214 312 1 59 Hon RMt value of elements based on ppm S Te w Zn ZMI1-305 Granite-Granodiorite 223 0.13 0.55 133 ZMI1-309 Silica vein 86 0.13 0.75 17 ZMI1-312 Meta volcanic 2806 0.15 0.55 208 ZMI1-314 Meta volcanic 212 0.13 0.77 34 ZMI1-318 Granite-Granodiorite 331 0 13 0.89 21 ZMI1-326 Granite-Granodiorite 2798 0.13 1.15 23 ZMI1-333 Metagranodiorite 412 0 15 0.78 62 ZMI1-334 Meta volcanic 493 0.13 0.55 1170 ZMI1-354 Meta volcanic 7419 0.18 0.73 61 ZMI1-355 Silica vein 9554 0.18 1.44 83 Table 3: Characteristics and results of harvested samples for mineralization analysis using XRD method Row Sample Host rock Main mineral Secondary mineral number 1 ZMD-261 Meta-volcanic Quartz, albite, -- hornblende 2 ZMD1-304 Granite and Quartz, albite Epidote granodiorite 3 ZMD-311 Granite and Quartz, albite Calcite, granodiorite hornblende, chlorite, orthoclase Table 4: Characteristics and results of harvested samples for mineralization analysis using XRD methodology Row Sample Host rock Main mineral number 1 ZMD-273 Marble Calcite, Vezoyanite, quartz 2 ZMD-274 Marble Calcite, grossular, Vezoyanite, montmorillonite 3 ZMD-368 Marble Calcite 4 ZMD-376 Marble grossular, Vezoyanite and augite Row Secondary mineral 1 montmorillonite 2 Gypse and quartz 3 grossular, Vezoyanite, ad augite 4 --
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|Author:||Baghban, Morteza Karim; Zandi, Zahra|
|Publication:||Advances in Environmental Biology|
|Date:||Oct 1, 2014|
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