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Ecological features of cultivated stands of Aquilaria malaccensis Lam.

1. Introduction

Aquilaria malaccensis (Thymelaeaceae), locally known as "Sanchi" or "Agaru" in Assamese, is an evergreen tropical forest tree highly priced for its resin or agarwood. The species is valued in many cultures for centuries because of its distinctive fragrance and used extensively in incense, perfume, and traditional medicine. Natural populations of Agaru are distributed in south and southeast Asia and in India; it occurs mostly in foothills of northeastern region (Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Manipur, and Tripura) as well as West Bengal [1]. However, large scale harvesting of the species from natural population caused rapid depletion in the wild and is listed in Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) in 1994 [2]. The species is "vulnerable" globally according to the current IUCN red list [3]. On the other hand, Agaru is extensively cultivated in homegardens of upper Assam and contributes significantly up to 20% of the total annual income of the family with a mean of 4% [+ or -] 0.46 to the economy of the local people [4]. A good population stock of Agaru with highest density and frequency in homegardens of upper Assam was also reported by Saikia et al. [5]. Two distinct morphs of Agaru (Bhola Sanchi and Jati Sanchi) are cultivated in homegardens of upper Assam with different life form characteristics [6]. Bhola Sanchi is fast growing and less agarwood yielding than the other variant Jati Sanchi which is slow growing but high agarwood yielding and preferred for commercial cultivation. Nath and Saikia [7] also reported similar variations among the population of Agaru growing in homegarden and they identified three "races" from different areas of Assam. According to them, "variant I (RRLJ 2729)" is a medium sized tree with slender trunk, oblong-lanceolate leaves known as Bhola Sanchi; "variant II (RRLJ2726)" is a large sized tree with obovate lanceolate leaves known as Sanchi; "variant III (RRLJ 2730)" is a much branched small to medium sized tree with lanceolate leaves known as Jati Sanchi.

Quantitative inventories help in identifying species that are in different stages of vulnerability as well as various factors that influence the existing vegetation in any region [8, 9]. Considering the scarcity of information on Agaru cultivation in homegardens of upper Assam, we attempted to study the ecological features, mainly, the quantitative characteristics of A. malaccensis Lam. in homegardens of upper Assam, northeast India.

2. Materials and Methods

2.1. Study Sites. The study was conducted in twenty-seven selected villages located in Jorhat and Golaghat districts of upper Assam, northeast India (25[degrees]48' to 27[degrees]10' N and 93[degrees]17' to 94[degrees]36' E) (Figure 1). The site is surrounded by Sibsagar and Dibrugarh districts on the east, Nagaon and Karbi Anglong districts on the west, Lakhimpur and Sonitpur districts on the north, and the bordering state of Nagaland on the south. The total numbers of villages of Jorhat and Golaghat districts are 855 and 1089 with population density of 354 and 236 individuals per square kilometer, respectively [10]. The climate of the study area is classified as tropical type having distinct hot and humid summer (34.0[degrees]C during June-July) and cool winter (10.0[degrees]C during December-January). The mean annual rainfall of Golaghat and Jorhat districts ranges between 1200 mm and 1900 mm. The relative humidity remains very high throughout the year [11].

2.2. Vegetation Analysis. A total of twenty-seven different sites (16 from Golaghat and 11 from Jorhat district) of Jorhat and Golaghat districts of upper Assam, northeast India, were selected randomly from the pool of Agaru cultivating areas based on informal knowledge which roughly represented about 30% of all Agaru growing areas in the site. A total of 135 homegardens (with a mean of 5 homegardens per site) were selected randomly and studied during 2007-2010 (Table 1). Vegetation was studied using quadrat method covering a minimum of 30% of the area in each homegarden. Random quadrats of 10 m x 10 m size were used for trees and, within the same 10 m x 10 m quadrat, one 5 m x 5 m quadrat for shrubs and two 1 m x 1 m quadrats for herbs were used in the studied homegardens. Diameter at breast height (DBH) of all the individual trees was recorded during the study at 1.37 m above ground. Plant species were identified on the basis of vernacular names, published field inventories, floras, and consulting available herbaria of the region. Herbarium specimens were collected and deposited in the Department of Forestry, North Eastern Regional Institute of Science and Technology (Deemed University), Arunachal Pradesh.

2.3. Data Analysis. Quantitative analysis of vegetation was done following Misra [12]. Importance value index (IVI) was computed by summing up relative density, relative frequency, and relative dominance. The species richness was calculated by using the method "Margalef's index of richness" (Dmg) [13]:

Dmg = (S - 1)/ln n, (1)

where S = total number of species and n = total number of individuals.

The Shannon-Wiener Diversity Index [14] was calculated from the IVI values using the formula given by Magurran [13]:

H = -[s.summation over (i = 1)] [p.sub.i] ln [p.sub.i], (2)

where [p.sub.i] is the proportion of the IVI of ith species and the IVI of all the species ([n.sub.i]/N).

Concentration of dominance was assessed by Simpson's Index [15]:

CD = [s.summation over (i = 1)] [([p.sub.i]).sup.2], (3)

where [p.sub.i] is the same as for the Shannon-Wiener information function.

Evenness index was calculated from Shannon-Wiener Diversity Index using the formula

E = H'/H' max, (4)

where H' is Shannon-Wiener Diversity Index and H' max = ln S (where S = total number of species).

Sorensen's similarity index was calculated using the formula given by Sorenson [16]:

Sorensens similarity index = 2C/[A + B] x 100, (5)

where C is the number of species common to two sites, A is the total number of species in site A, and B is the total number of species in site B.

The ratio of abundance to frequency was used to interpret the distribution pattern of the species [17]. The ratio of abundance to frequency indicates regular distribution if below 0.025, random distribution if between 0.025 and 0.05, and contagious distribution if >0.05 [18].

Statistical analysis (Standard error and f-test) has been done using statistical software like MS-Excel and ORIGIN.

3. Results

3.1. Ecological Features of A. malaccensis. A. malaccensis is the most dominant tree species in twenty-seven different study sites of upper Assam contributing 10-54% of total tree density with a mean of 34% [+ or -] 2. Density of the species varied from 429 individuals [ha.sup.-1] to 6,236 individuals [ha.sup.-1] with a mean of 1,609 individuals [ha.sup.-1] [+ or -] 217. Areca catechu L. is the most dominant tree associate in twenty-six different study sites, whereas Mesuaferrea L. was the most dominant tree associate in BMG, Jorhat (Table 1). Similarly, A. malaccensis is the most frequent species followed by A. catechu and Bambusa pallida L. and frequency of occurrence of A. malaccensis ranged from 93% to 100% with a mean of 98% [+ or -] 0.53 in different study sites. 100% frequency was recorded at most of the study sites including BS, BMG, DG, DK, ETG, HK, HCG, JTG, KWG, KNG, KG, KBG, NG, NMG, PS, PFG, SMG, and SNG. Total basal cover was the highest (1.25 [cm.sup.2] [ha.sup.-1]) in NG, Jorhat, and the lowest (0.34 [cm.sup.2] [ha.sup.-1]) in JN, Golaghat. Among different sites, IVI of A. malaccensis ranged between 17.94 and 72.63 with a mean of 49.36 [+ or -] 2.64. On the other hand, abundance of the species in different study sites ranged from 4 to 62 with a mean of 16 [+ or -] 2 and it was the highest in NMG, Golaghat, and the lowest in KBG, Golaghat. Distribution of A. malaccensis is found contagious in all twenty-six study sites on the basis of abundance to frequency ratio except in KBG, Golaghat, where its distribution is random with 0.04 abundance to frequency ratio (Table 2).

3.2. Floristic Composition of Study Sites. A total of 323 plant species belonging to 241 genera under 95 families consisting of 106 (33%) herbs, 61 (19%) shrubs, and 156 (48%) trees were recorded from twenty-seven study sites of upper Assam (Table 5). Although the number of documented trees was higher than that of herbs and shrubs, differences were not statistically significant. Overall data showed that family Euphorbiaceae had the highest number of species (15) followed by Moraceae (13) and Poaceae (12). Species richness was very high at all study sites ranging from 63 to 188 species with a mean of 113 [+ or -] 7, but the highest richness was recorded from GG, Jorhat, and the lowest from BMG, Jorhat (Table 3). A high variability in density of plant species was also noticed in different study sites. Tree density was the highest in NMG, Golaghat (13,418 individuals [ha.sup.-1]), and the lowest in BMG, Jorhat (1,400 individuals [ha.sup.-1]). On the other hand, basal area of tree species was the highest in SMG, Golaghat (4.40 [m.sup.2] [ha.sup.-1]), and the lowest in NG, Jorhat (0.54 [m.sup.2] [ha.sup.-1]).

Peak richness index of tree species of 10.54 was recorded in KWG, Golaghat, whereas it was the lowest in DG, Jorhat (3.53). Concentration of dominance (Simpson's Index) and diversity (Shannon-Wiener Diversity Index) of tree species were showing reverse trend in study sites. Concentration of dominance (Simpson's Index) of tree species was the highest in DG, Jorhat (0.12), and the lowest in KBG, Golaghat (0.03); on the other hand, the highest diversity of tree species (Shannon-Wiener Diversity Index) was found in KbG, Golaghat (3.78,) and it was the lowest in DG, Jorhat (2.52). However, species evenness index of tree species ranged from 0.77 to 0.93 with a mean of 0.86 [+ or -] 0.01 and it was peak in KBG, Golaghat, and the lowest in KNG, Golaghat. Sorensen's similarity indices showed a high degree of similarity with a range from 34.25% to 75.38% among different study sites (Table 4).

4. Discussion

Floristic inventory, survey, and diversity studies help us to understand the species composition and diversity status of any community [19]. A. malaccensis is one of the most dominant tree species in study sites of upper Assam representing 10-54% of the total tree density (with a mean of 34% [+ or -] 2) showing a trend towards monoculture. In general, monoculture has a great impact on species diversity. Introduction of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) into homegardens resulted in a reduction of species diversity in homegardens of Kerela [20]. But this is not evident in the present study and may be due to the fact that owners tried to produce all the possible species of common household utilities in their homegarden itself.

Density of a species provides an index to competition between individuals of the species. Higher densities can cause greater competitive stresses, leading to poor growth and lower reproductive capacity. We recorded A. malaccensis with high density (429 to 6,236 individuals [ha.sup.-1] with a mean of 1,609 individuals [ha.sup.-1] [+ or -] 217), frequency (93% to 100% with a mean of 98% [+ or -] 0.53), and abundance (4 to 62 with a mean of 16 [+ or -] 2). One potential explanation of higher density, frequency, and abundance could be extensive cultivation of the species in study sites because of its high commercial value. Total basal cover of trees (>3.18 cm DBH) is very low and ranged from 0.34 [cm.sup.2] [ha.sup.-1] to 1.25 [cm.sup.2] [ha.sup.-1] with a mean of 0.67 [cm.sup.2] [ha.sup.-1] [+ or -] 0.04, may be because of the highest density of lower diameter class individuals of A. malaccensis. Importance value index (IVI) of the species represents the ecological success of any species in a community and it gives an excellent idea about varying environmental factors [21]. It provides a complete picture of sociological structure of a species, because the frequency provides information about the dispersal of a species in an area, density gives numerical strength of the species, and dominance represents the basal area. In almost all study sites, the highest IVI is contributed by A. malaccensis which is ranged from 17.94 to 72.63 with a mean of 49.36 [+ or -] 2.64. Dispersal limitation is an important ecological factor for controlling species distribution pattern [22]. Contagious distribution has been accepted as a characteristic pattern of plant occurrence in nature [23] and it is an indication of clusteredness. Contagious distribution of A. malaccensis is found in all study sites except in KBG, Golaghat, where its distribution is random with abundance to frequency ratio of 0.04. Contagious distribution of all the species irrespective of their habit in homegardens of northeast India is also reported by Sahoo et al. [24].

Ecological and socioeconomic factors including geographic location, climate, water availability, garden size and history, agricultural policy, market needs, food culture, and household preferences influence the species diversity of traditional homegardens [25-27]. Needs and interest of homegarden owners may also play a vital role in regulating floristic compositions of homegardens apart from edaphic, cultural, and socioeconomic factors [5]. Species richness provides an easily comprehensible expression of diversity which is affected by long term factors like community stability and evolutionary time as the heterogeneity of micro- and macro environments impact on the diversification of different communities [28]. Our investigation recorded 323 plant species (156 trees, 61 shrubs, and 106 herbs) indicating a high species richness of the study site. It is much higher than the earlier reports from Assam [29] as well as other parts of the world [30, 31]. This may be due to the diverse cultural practices of the region and prevailing microclimatic conditions which provide suitable growing conditions for different plant species. Constituent of high floristic diversity is perhaps the potential of homegardens to serve as repositories of genetic diversity [5]. Very high species richness at all study sites is recorded in the present study ranging from 63 to 188 species with a mean of 113 [+ or -] 7 which is much higher than the earlier report from other parts of the world [25, 32]. Although tree density (1,400 to 13,418 individuals [ha.sup.-1]) in different study sites was much higher than the recorded tree density in homegardens of other parts of India [29, 31], the basal cover of tree species (0.54 to 4.40 [m.sup.2] [ha.sup.-1]) was much lesser than earlier report from Assam [29]. This may be due to the dominance of narrow range diameter class species in the study sites of upper Assam, northeast India.

Higher species richness indices (3.53 to 10.54) and species evenness indices (0.77 to 0.93) represent the floristic richness of all the study sites of upper Assam, northeast India. Shannon-Wiener diversity index is generally high for tropical forests of Indian subcontinent and ranged from 0.81 to 4.1 [33-36]. Shannon-Wiener diversity indices ranging from 2.52 to 3.78 represent the same structure of study sites of upper Assam and tropical forests of Indian subcontinent. Differences in species diversity between communities generally resulted from variations in site specificity [37]. Moreover, it is often correlated with rainfall and nutrient status of the site [38]. Although species diversity was high, the high similarity indices (34.25% to 75.38%) among different study sites indicate that floristic composition is characteristically similar in the region, may be because of common cultural interest of household owners. High diversity and low concentration dominance in study sites may be due to different levels of anthropogenic pressure in different sites.

5. Conclusions

The widespread cultivation of A. malaccensis in upper Assam, northeast India, offers a potential ex situ reservoir for the future conservation and management of this threatened tree. However, genetic diversity of such rare species of forest origin may be affected in managed ecosystems due to limited gene flow, inbreeding, and selection pressure. A thorough investigation of the genetic variation of the A. malaccensis cultivations investigated here is needed before their potential value to the ex situ conservation of this species can be confirmed.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/140926

Conflict of Interests

The authors (Dr. P. Saikia and Professor M. L. Khan) declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper.

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to express their sincere gratitude towards the people of upper Assam, for the free access to their homegardens, for their cooperation during the survey and interviews, and for the permission to collect plant samples. Financial support from DBT, Govt. of India, through the project "Mapping and quantitative assessment of geographic distribution and population status of plant resources of Eastern Himalayan region" is highly acknowledged.

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P. Saikia (1) and M. L. Khan (2)

(1) Centre for Environmental Sciences, Central University of Jharkhand, Brambe, Ranchi, Jharkhand 835205, India

(2) Department of Botany, Dr. Hari Singh Gour Central University, Sagar, Madhya Pradesh 470003, India

Correspondence should be addressed to P. Saikia; purabi.saikia@cuj.ac.in

Received 10 February 2014; Accepted 22 June 2014; Published 8 July 2014

Academic Editor: Sunil Nautiyal

TABLE 1: Number of studied homegardens and their mean size and
number of associated species and dominant tree associate of
different studied villages.

Study sites (villages)            HG studied   Mean HG area in ha
                                   (number)       ([+ or -]SE)

Buralikson (BS)                       2        0.17 [+ or -] 0.04
Bhumuraguri Missing Gaon (BMG)        2        0.13 [+ or -] 0.00
Doloigaon (DG)                        2        0.11 [+ or -] 0.02
Dulakhariya (DK)                      2        0.16 [+ or -] 0.11
Elengi Thekela Gaon (ETG)             5        0.24 [+ or -] 0.03
Ganakpukhuri (GP)                     5        0.16 [+ or -] 0.03
Gayan Gaon (GG)                       17       0.17 [+ or -] 0.02
Habungia Bamun Gaon (HBG)             6        0.15 [+ or -] 0.04
Hatiyekhuwa (HK)                      2        0.09 [+ or -] 0.01
Hensowa Chengkola Gaon (HCG)          4        0.23 [+ or -] 0.06
Jalukonibari Thengal Gaon (JTG)       6        0.21 [+ or -] 0.03
Junakinagar (JN)                      5        0.13 [+ or -] 0.04
Kabarugaon (KWG)                      14       0.16 [+ or -] 0.01
Kakati Gaon (KG)                      4        0.15 [+ or -] 0.03
Kamarbandha Bamun Gaon (KBG)          8        0.22 [+ or -] 0.02
Kamarbandha Namsonia Gaon (KNG)       8        0.17 [+ or -] 0.02
Khumtai (KH)                          3        0.18 [+ or -] 0.02
Konhar Gaon (KHG)                     2        0.23 [+ or -] 0.04
Natun Gaon (NG)                       3        0.11 [+ or -] 0.01
Naharani Maj Gaon (NMG)               2        0.17 [+ or -] 0.10
Pohusora (PS)                         4        0.12 [+ or -] 0.01
Pulibor (PB)                          8        0.21 [+ or -] 0.02
Puronimati Fatagaon (PFG)             2        0.22 [+ or -] 0.01
Sapani (SP)                           3        0.16 [+ or -] 0.02
Sialekhati (SK)                       3        0.18 [+ or -] 0.02
Sumoni Gaon (SMG)                     9        0.21 [+ or -] 0.03
Sunari Gaon (SNG)                     4        0.09 [+ or -] 0.02

Study sites (villages)            Associated     Dominant tree
                                   species         associate
                                  (numbers)

Buralikson (BS)                       63       Areca catechu L.
Bhumuraguri Missing Gaon (BMG)        62       Mesua ferrea L.
Doloigaon (DG)                        70       Areca catechu L.
Dulakhariya (DK)                      74       Areca catechu L.
Elengi Thekela Gaon (ETG)            140       Areca catechu L.
Ganakpukhuri (GP)                     99       Areca catechu L.
Gayan Gaon (GG)                      187       Areca catechu L.
Habungia Bamun Gaon (HBG)            117       Areca catechu L.
Hatiyekhuwa (HK)                      68       Areca catechu L.
Hensowa Chengkola Gaon (HCG)         163       Areca catechu L.
Jalukonibari Thengal Gaon (JTG)      138       Areca catechu L.
Junakinagar (JN)                     110       Areca catechu L.
Kabarugaon (KWG)                     168       Areca catechu L.
Kakati Gaon (KG)                      95       Areca catechu L.
Kamarbandha Bamun Gaon (KBG)         159       Areca catechu L.
Kamarbandha Namsonia Gaon (KNG)      135       Areca catechu L.
Khumtai (KH)                         120       Areca catechu L.
Konhar Gaon (KHG)                     67       Areca catechu L.
Natun Gaon (NG)                       91       Areca catechu L.
Naharani Maj Gaon (NMG)               85       Areca catechu L.
Pohusora (PS)                        115       Areca catechu L.
Pulibor (PB)                         138       Areca catechu L.
Puronimati Fatagaon (PFG)             90       Areca catechu L.
Sapani (SP)                          108       Areca catechu L.
Sialekhati (SK)                       85       Areca catechu L.
Sumoni Gaon (SMG)                    163       Areca catechu L.
Sunari Gaon (SNG)                    106       Areca catechu L.

TABLE 2: Community characteristics of different study sites of
upper Assam, northeast India.

Study   Number of   Number of   Species    Species      Density
sites   families     genera     richness   richness   (individuals
                                            index     [ha.sup.-1])

BS         39          57          64        4.27        4,410
BMG        39          54          63        5.16        1,400
DG         43          63          71        3.53        3,100
DK         41          64          75        4.13        8,000
ETG        64          113        141        8.22        3,625
GP         52          85         100        7.72        3,197
GG         73          150        188        9.49        3,332
HBG        53          99         118        7.78        3,239
HK         44          63          69        4.15        6,100
HCG        67          136        164        8.30        5,341
JTG        67          122        139        6.86        7,947
JN         52          96         111        9.39        2,384
KWG        71          141        169       10.54        4,370
KG         53          83          96        6.20        3,710
KBG        64          135        160        7.69        4,133
KNG        60          116        136        7.60        3,531
KH         52          103        121        6.47        10,381
KHG        38          58          68        4.58        4,043
NG         52          82          92        5.49        4,455
NMG        52          78          86        5.21        13,418
PS         58          95         116        5.27        6,200
PB         67          119        139        9.23        2,731
PFG        49          82          91        6.10        3,885
SP         63          97         109        5.62        4,033
SK         52          79          86        7.14        2,380
SMG        65          132        164        7.77        5,205
SNG        59          94         107        5.47        5,577

Study    Basal area    Diversity     CD    Evenness
sites    ([m.sup.2]    (Shannon's           index
        [ha.sup.-1])      H')

BS          1.08          3.01      0.06     0.91
BMG         0.78          2.89      0.09     0.88
DG          0.65          2.52      0.12     0.84
DK          1.25          2.97      0.07     0.88
ETG         2.48          3.37      0.07     0.82
GP          1.74          3.44      0.05     0.86
GG          2.11          3.58      0.06     0.82
HBG         2.14          3.41      0.05     0.86
HK          0.76          2.94      0.07     0.91
HCG         3.09          3.56      0.05     0.86
JTG         2.23          3.37      0.07     0.84
JN          0.99          3.62      0.05     0.87
KWG         2.29          3.66      0.06     0.82
KG          0.93          3.22      0.06     0.86
KBG         2.58          3.78      0.03     0.93
KNG         3.81          3.10      0.10     0.77
KH          1.63          3.26      0.08     0.84
KHG         0.59          3.11      0.06     0.92
NG          0.54          3.21      0.05     0.90
NMG         0.99          3.22      0.07     0.88
PS          1.05          3.10      0.08     0.86
PB          2.19          3.50      0.07     0.83
PFG         1.79          3.27      0.06     0.89
SP          2.37          3.07      0.07     0.85
SK          0.71          3.28      0.06     0.86
SMG         4.40          3.29      0.07     0.79
SNG         0.78          3.22      0.06     0.89

TABLE 3: Ecological parameters of different populations of
A. malaccensis (> 3.18 cm DBH).

Study   Frequency     Density      TBC ([cm.sup.2]   Abundance
sites      (%)      (individuals     [ha.sup.1])
                    [ha.sup.1])

BS         100         1,140            0.63            11
BMG        100          709             0.64             7
DG         100         1,686            0.65            17
DK         100         3,273            0.93            33
ETG        100         1,792            0.53            18
GP         93           647             0.48             7
GG         97          1,261            0.77            13
HBG        96           896             0.50             9
HK         100         1,700            0.57            17
HCG        100         1,972            0.69            20
JTG        100         1,700            0.57            17
JN         94           858             0.34             9
KWG        100         1,563            0.69            16
KNG        100         1,793            0.70            18
KG         100          965             0.75            10
KBG        100          429             0.64             4
KHG        93          1,121            0.77            12
KH         94          1,756            0.68            19
NG         100          927             1.25             9
NMG        100         6,236            0.40            62
PS         100         3,080            0.61            31
PB         96          1,275            0.72            13
PFG        100         1,254            0.69            13
SP         93          1,467            1.08            16
SK         95           905             0.42            10
SMG        100         1,425            0.78            14
SNG        100         1,623            0.68            16

Study    IVI     Density     A/F
sites           share (%)   ratio

BS      39.26     25.85     0.11
BMG     72.63     50.65     0.07
DG      72.45     54.38     0.17
DK      59.12     40.91     0.33
ETG     66.46     49.43     0.18
GP      34.57     20.23     0.07
GG      55.71     37.85     0.13
HBG     42.42     27.67     0.10
HK      37.19     27.87     0.17
HCG     50.45     36.92     0.20
JTG     35.07     21.39     0.17
JN      50.56     35.99     0.10
KWG     52.26     35.77     0.16
KNG     68.41     50.79     0.18
KG      42.44     26.01     0.10
KBG     17.94     10.37     0.04
KHG     43.50     27.74     0.13
KH      30.05     16.92     0.20
NG      35.22     20.82     0.09
NMG     58.46     46.48     0.62
PS      63.78     49.68     0.31
PB      65.47     46.69     0.14
PFG     46.64     32.28     0.13
SP      50.54     36.36     0.17
SK      55.42     38.03     0.10
SMG     43.02     27.08     0.14
SNG     43.66     29.10     0.16

TABLE 4: Sorensen's similarity index (%) for different study sites
of upper Assam, northeast India.

        BS      BMG      DG      DK      ETG     GP      GG

BS     0.00
BMG    47.24    0.00
DG     56.3    49.25    0.00
DK     41.73   34.78    49.32   0.00
ETG    47.80   46.08    53.77   48.15   0.00
GP     48.78   49.08    52.63   46.86   57.26   0.00
GG     43.65   49.40    49.42   45.63   60.79   75.06   0.00
HBG    45.05   34.25    48.68   51.81   61.78   83.87   54.90
HK     52.63   45.45    54.29   45.83   51.43   89.12   44.36
HCG    44.74   38.77    43.40   46.03   62.95   73.11   60.80
JTG    51.23   44.55    51.43   43.93   63.57   69.10   67.28
JN     50.29   48.28    53.85   47.31   60.32   78.44   55.52
KWG    46.35   44.83    50.00   41.80   69.68   60.00   66.67
KNG    51.00   44.22    52.17   50.24   64.98   77.31   60.49
KG     47.50   55.35    57.49   46.78   59.07   79.20   61.97
KBG    51.79   41.26    49.35   43.40   67.11   64.68   63.79
KHG    51.52   36.64    74.82   46.15   46.89   98.43   46.09
KH     46.49   43.478   56.25   51.02   64.12   79.57   58.25
NG     55.13   54.19    61.35   47.90   57.51   83.30   54.29
NMG    52.00   41.61    48.41   45.96   47.58   96.61   47.45
PS     52.22   39.11    52.41   48.17   60.70   79.35   56.58
PB     49.26   43.56    51.43   44.86   62.86   71.37   61.77
PFG    54.19   45.45    51.85   48.19   58.62   82.21   54.48
SP     49.71   52.33    57.78   44.57   61.60   72.35   62.63
SK     50.67   46.98    48.41   47.20   50.22   94.00   48.91
SMG    47.37   46.70    50.21   50.21   67.54   74.34   65.91
SNG    53.80   50.59    59.55   41.76   62.10   67.25   56.27

        HBG     HK      HCG     JTG     JN      KWG     KNG

BS
BMG
DG
DK
ETG
GP
GG
HBG    0.00
HK     48.13   0.00
HCG    65.25   46.35   0.00
JTG    56.03   53.85   66.01   0.00
JN     49.78   53.33   54.55   64.80   0.00
KWG    57.14   47.90   62.46   66.23   70.00   0.00
KNG    66.14   51.71   62.67   65.45   63.97   71.48   0.00
KG     52.34   50.91   53.08   55.32   62.80   62.64   60.34
KB G   57.55   54.15   67.90   71.57   61.25   68.09   69.59
KHG    46.24   45.26   37.93   46.38   45.81   47.26   48.04
KH     61.09   61.05   61.75   57.69   60.34   61.38   62.26
NG     54.29   54.66   52.34   58.01   59.11   57.47   58.77
NMG    51.96   56.77   50.40   51.56   56.85   55.69   50.45
PS     58.12   51.89   58.57   61.96   57.27   58.95   58.73
PB     63.81   51.92   66.01   69.78   68.80   70.13   68.36
PFG    49.76   53.75   47.06   60.87   53.47   58.46   56.39
SP     52.86   55.06   56.41   61.29   58.18   61.15   59.59
SK     47.06   55.48   53.60   51.56   65.99   55.69   53.15
SMG    62.41   50.64   40.24   66.67   61.09   65.47   66.67
SNG    56.89   59.09   57.56   61.79   62.39   63.77   61.73

        KG      KBG     KHG     KH      NG      NMG     PS

BS
BMG
DG
DK
ETG
GP
GG
HBG
HK
HCG
JTG
JN
KWG
KNG
KG     0.00
KBG    57.03   0.00
KHG    51.22   40.35   0.00
KH     56.22   61.92   49.74   0.00
NG     59.57   53.97   51.25   55.40   0.00
NMG    54.95   53.66   44.16   56.04   51.69   0.00
PS     56.60   61.59   48.91   58.23   51.92   47.52   0.00
PB     62.98   66.89   45.41   61.54   55.41   56.89   61.18
PFG    58.82   55.78   57.86   53.77   57.92   53.11   57.97
SP     67.32   62.45   49.72   56.52   61.69   55.38   55.11
SK     58.24   55.28   40.26   50.24   53.93   52.33   49.50
SMG    53.85   68.52   44.83   67.37   57.81   54.40   61.43
SNG    64.04   64.42   49.14   57.02   75.38   53.89   55.61

        PB      PFG     SP      SK      SMG

BS
BMG
DG
DK
ETG
GP
GG
HBG
HK
HCG
JTG
JN
KWG
KNG
KG
KBG
KHG
KH
NG
NMG
PS
PB     0.00
PFG    55.65   0.00
SP     61.29   55.00   0.00
SK     59.56   49.72   58.46   0.00
SMG    64.69   54.12   58.61   50.40   0.00
SNG    61.79   59.60   66.67   53.89   61.25

TABLE 5: Density (individuals [ha.sup.-1]), frequency (%),
abundance, and IVI of tree (> 3.18 cm DBH), shrub, and herb
species in studied homegardens of upper Assam, northeast India.

Species                          Family               Density
                                                    (individuals
                                                    [ha.sup.-1])

Trees

Acacia auriculiformis Cunn.      Mimosaceae             1.06
  ex Benth.
Adenanthera pavonina L.          Mimosaceae             2.38
Aegle marmelos Corr.             Rutaceae               2.64
Ailanthus grandis Prain          Simaroubaceae          0.13
Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth.      Mimosaceae             2.11
Albizia lucida (Roxb.) Benth.    Mimosaceae             7.53
Albizia procera (Roxb.) Benth.   Mimosaceae             0.66
Alstonia scholaris (L.) R. Br.   Apocynaceae           15.85
Amoora wallichii King            Meliaceae              0.66
Anacardium occidentale L.        Anacardiaceae          0.26
Annona reticulata L.             Annonaceae             1.06
Anthocephalus chinensis (Lam.)   Rubiaceae              5.81
  Rich. ex Walp.
Antidesma ghaesembilla Gaert.    Euphorbiaceae          0.40
Aquilaria malaccensis Lam.       Thymelaeaceae        1442.67
Arabongali*                                             0.26
Araucaria heterophylla           Araucariaceae          0.53
  (Salisb.) Franco
Areca catechu L.                 Arecaceae             554.29
Artocarpus chaplasha Roxb.       Moraceae               2.25
Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.    Moraceae              34.87
Artocarpus lakoocha Roxb.        Moraceae               3.04
Averrhoa carambola L.            Averrhoaceae           4.49
Azadirachta indica Juss.         Meliaceae              1.19
Baccaurea sapida (Roxb.) Mull.   Euphorbiaceae          1.32
  Arg.
Bambusa balcooa Roxb.            Poaceae               214.93
Bambusa nutans G. C. Wall.       Poaceae                2.25
  ex Munro
Bambusa pallida Munro.           Poaceae              1157.60
Bambusa tulda Roxb.              Poaceae               50.99
Bauhinia purpurea L.             Caesalpiniaceae        0.26
Beilschmiedia brandisii          Lauraceae              1.45
  Hook. f.
Bixa orellana L.                 Bixaceae               2.38
Bombax ceiba L.                  Malvaceae              3.83
Borassus flabellifer L.          Arecaceae              0.13
Bridelia retusa (L.) A. Juss.    Euphorbiaceae          0.66
Butea monosperma (Lam.)          Papilionaceae          0.40
  Taubert
Callistemon lanceolatus D.C.     Myrtaceae              0.53
Canarium strictum Roxb.          Burseraceae            0.53
Carallia lucida Roxb. ex Kurz.   Rhizophoraceae         1.72
Carica papaya L.                 Caricaceae            34.48
Caryota urens L.                 Arecaceae              1.98
Cassia fistula L.                Caesalpiniaceae       12.15
Cassia siamea Lam.               Caesalpiniaceae        1.85
Castanopsis indica (Roxb. Ex     Fagaceae               1.19
  Lindl.) A. D.C.
Chukrasia tabularis Juss.        Meliaceae              1.06
Cinnamomum glanduliferum         Lauraceae              0.26
  (Wall.) Meisn.
Cinnamomum tamala (Buch.-Ham.)   Lauraceae              5.28
  Nees and Eberm.
Citrus limon (L.) Burm.f.        Rutaceae               779
Citrus maxima (Merr.)            Rutaceae              10.44
Citrus medica L.                 Rutaceae               0.92
Citrus reticulata Blanco.        Rutaceae               7.13
Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck      Rutaceae               1.06
Citrus sp.                       Rutaceae               2.38
Cocos nucifera L.                Arecaceae             25.76
Cordia grandis Roxb.             Boraginaceae           2.64
Crataeva nurvala Ham.            Capparidaceae          1.32
Dalhousiea bracteata (Roxb.)     Papilionaceae          0.13
  Baker
Delonix regia (Boj. ex Hook.)    Caesalpinaceae         2.38
  Raf.
Dillenia indica L.               Dilleniaceae           0.66
Diospyros embryopteris Pers.     Ebenaceae              0.53
Dysoxylum binectariferum         Meliaceae              2.64
  (Roxb.) Hook. f. ex Bedd.
Ehretia acuminata R.Br.          Boraginaceae           1.06
Elaeocarpus floribundus Blume.   Elaeocarpaceae         5.55
Elaeocarpus ganitrus Roxb.       Elaeocarpaceae         0.13
Erythrina stricta Roxb.          Papilionaceae          2.51
Eucalyptus citriodora Hook.      Myrtaceae              0.79
Eugenia fruticosa Roxb.          Myrtaceae              1.59
Eugenia jambolana Lam.           Myrtaceae              5.55
Eugenia jambolana Lam. var.      Myrtaceae              0.40
  caryophyllifolia Duthie.
Eugenia jambos L.                Myrtaceae              3.04
Evodia meliaefolia Benth.        Rutaceae               2.77
Ficus benghalensis L.            Moraceae               0.26
Ficus cyrtophylla                Moraceae               0.53
Ficus fistulosa Reinw.           Moraceae               0.53
  ex Blume
Ficus hirta Vahl.                Moraceae               1.06
Ficus hispida L.                 Moraceae               5.28
Ficus racemosa L.                Moraceae               0.40
Ficus religiosa L.               Moraceae               0.53
Garcinia lanceaefolia Roxb.      Clusiaceae             0.26
Garcinia morella (Gaertn.)       Clusiaceae             1.45
  Desr.
Garcinia paniculata Roxb.        Clusiaceae             0.26
Garcinia pedunculata Roxb.       Clusiaceae             0.79
  Engl.
Garcinia xanthochymus Hook.      Clusiaceae             0.40
  f. ex Anderson Engl.
Gmelina arborea Roxb.            Verbenaceae           10.30
Grevillea robusta Cunn. ex       Proteaceae             1.72
  R.Br.
Heteropanaxfragrans (Roxb.)      Araliaceae             4.76
  Seem.
Ilex umbellulata (Wall.) Loes.   Aquifoliaceae          1.32
Lagerstroemiaflos reginae Retz.  Lythraceae             6.08
Litchi chinensis Sonn.           Sapindaceae            6.34
Litsea elongata Wall.            Lauraceae              0.79
Litsea monopetala (Roxb.) Pers.  Lauraceae             10.30
Litsea nitida Hook. f.           Lauraceae             12.29
Litsea sebifera Pers.            Lauraceae              1.19
Livistona jenkinsiana Griff.     Arecaceae              1.72
Macaranga peltata (Roxb.)        Euphorbiaceae          0.13
  Mueller
Magnolia sphenocarpa Roxb.       Magnoliaceae           4.76
Mallotus philippinensis          Euphorbiaceae          3.57
  Muell. Arg.
Mangifera indica L.              Anacardiaceae         62.48
Manilkara zapota (L.)            Sapotaceae             0.13
  van Royen
Melia azedarach L.               Meliaceae              9.38
Mesuaferrea L.                   Clusiaceae             5.15
Michelia champaca L.             Magnoliaceae           2.25
Mimusops elengi L.               Sapotaceae             0.66
Moringa oleifera Lam.            Moringaceae            4.62
Morus alba L.                    Moraceae               2.25
Morus laevigata Wall.            Moraceae               0.13
Murraya koenigii (L.)            Rutaceae               2.38
  Sprengel.
Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack     Rutaceae               0.13
Musa acuminata Colla.            Musaceae              64.33
Musa balbisiana Colla.           Musaceae              137.38
Musa calosperma F. Muell.        Musaceae              72.26
Musa paradisiaca L.              Musaceae               0.53
Musa sp.                         Musaceae              12.42
Myrica esculenta Buch.-Ham.      Myricaceae             2.64
  ex D. Don
Oroxylum indicum (L.) Kurz.      Bignoniaceae           5.02
Pachylarnax pleiocarpa Dandy     Magnoliaceae           0.92
Persea bombycina (King ex        Lauraceae              3.04
  Hook. f.) Kost.
Phoebe goalparensis Hutch.       Lauraceae              0.13
Phoenix dactylifera L.           Arecaceae              0.53
Phyllanthus acidus (L.)          Phyllanthaceae         1.06
  Skeels.
Phyllanthus emblica L.           Phyllanthaceae         5.15
Plumeria rubra L.                Apocynaceae            0.26
Polyalthia longifolia            Annonaceae             6.87
  (Sonn.) Thw.
Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre.    Papilionaceae          1.72
Premna bengalensis Cl.           Verbenaceae            5.55
Prunus cerasifera Ehrh.          Rosaceae               1.59
Prunus jenkinsii Hook. f. and    Rosaceae               0.53
  Thoms.
Prunus persica (L.) Batsch.      Rosaceae               0.92
Psidium gujava L.                Myrtaceae             16.64
Pyrus communis L.                Rosaceae               1.06
Salix tetrasperma Roxb.          Salicaceae             4.49
Samanea saman (Jacq.) Merr.      Mimosaceae             0.26
Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn.       Sapindaceae            1.85
Sapium baccatum Roxb.            Euphorbiaceae          1.32
Sapium eugeniaefolium Ham.       Euphorbiaceae          0.53
Schimawallichii (DC.) Korth.     Theaceae               4.76
Shorea robusta Gaertn. f.        Dipterocarpaceae       0.13
Spondias mangifera Wild.         Anacardiaceae          1.19
Stereospermum chelonoides DC.    Sterculiaceae          0.92
Streblus asper Lour.             Moraceae               3.70
Symplocos grandiflora Wall.      Symplocaceae           0.13
Talauma hodgsonii Hook. f.       Magnoliaceae           0.13
  and Thomson
Talauma rabaniana Hk.ef.         Magnoliaceae           0.40
  and Th.
Tamarindus indica L.             Caesalpiniaceae        0.26
Tectona grandis L.               Verbenaceae           25.36
Terminaba arjuna (Roxb. ex       Combretaceae           0.26
  DC.) Wight and Arn.
Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.)   Combretaceae           0.13
  Roxb.
Terminaba catappa L.             Combretaceae           0.40
Terminalia chebula Retz.         Combretaceae          14.66
Terminalia myriocarpa Van        Combretaceae           0.26
  Heurck and Muell. Arg.
Toona ciliata Roem.              Meliaceae             13.87
Tricalysia singularis            Rubiaceae              0.66
  (Korth.) K. Schum.
Vernonia travancorica J. Hk.     Asteraceae             0.13
Vitex negundo L.                 Verbenaceae            0.79
Walsura robusta Roxb.            Meliaceae              0.40
Zanthoxylum rhetsa (Roxb.) DC.   Rutaceae               1.19
Ziziphus mauritiana Lam.         Rhamnaceae             4.62
Ziziphus sp.                     Rhamnaceae             0.13

Shrubs

Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd.    Mimosaceae             7.40
Adhatoda vasica Nees             Acanthaceae           79.26
Bisalyakarani*                                          5.28
Bougainvillea spectabilis        Nyctaginaceae          5.81
  Wild.
Caesalpinia pulcherrima L.       Caesalpiniaceae        2.11
Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.       Papilionaceae         28.01
Calamus tenuis Roxb.             Arecaceae             43.33
Callicarpa arborea Roxb.         Verbenaceae           11.10
Calotropis procera (Ait.)        Asclepiadaceae         4.76
  Ait. f.
Camellia sinensis (L.) O.        Theaceae             1958.78
  Kuntze
Capsicum annum L.                Solanaceae            67.11
Capsicum annum L. var. longum    Solanaceae            86.13
Capsicum chinense Jacq.          Solanaceae            61.29
Cassia alata L.                  Caesalpinaceae        11.10
Cassia sophera L.                Caesalpinaceae         5.28
Cassia tora L.                   Caesalpinaceae         7.93
Chromolaena odorata (L.)         Asteraceae            528.40
  King and H.E. Robins.
Clerodendrum colebrookianum      Verbenaceae           33.82
  Wall.
Clerodendrum japonicum           Verbenaceae           22.72
  (Thunb.) Sweet
Clerodendrum viscosum Vent.      Verbenaceae           984.94
Codiaeum variegatum (L.) Juss.   Euphorbiaceae         56.01
Coffea benghalensis Roxb.        Rubiaceae             18.49
  ex Schult.
Dracaena steudneri Engl.         Dracaenaceae           5.28
Euonymus japonicus Thunb.        Celastraceae          144.25
Euphorbia neriifolia L.          Euphorbiaceae          8.45
Flacourtia cataphracta Roxb.     Flacourtiaceae        11.10
  ex Willd.
Flemingia strobilifera (L.)      Papilionaceae         22.19
  R. Br.
Gardenia jasminoides Ellis.      Rubiaceae             41.22
Glochidion arborescens Bl.       Euphorbiaceae          1.06
Gossypium arboreum L.            Malvaceae             25.36
Hibiscus mutabilis L.            Malvaceae              4.23
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.        Malvaceae             76.09
Hibiscus sabdariffa L.           Malvaceae             57.07
Ixora javanica (Blume) DC.       Rubiaceae             22.72
Jasminum officinale L.           Oleaceae               6.87
Jatropha gossypiifolia L.        Euphorbiaceae          5.28
Justicia gendarussa Blanco.      Acanthaceae           56.54
Lawsonia inermis L.              Lawsoniaceae          10.57
Leea indica (Burm. f.) Merr.     Leeaceae              11.62
Malvaviscus arboreus Cav.        Malvaceae             14.27
  var. drummondii
(Torr. and Gray) Schery.
Melastoma normale D. Don.        Melastomataceae       70.81
Mussaenda frondosa L.            Rubiaceae             28.01
Nerium indicum Mill.             Apocynaceae           11.10
Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L.      Oleaceae              26.95
Ocimum gratissimum L.            Lamiaceae              8.45
Ocimum sanctum L.                Lamiaceae             67.64
Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus       Acanthaceae           38.04
  (Roxb.) Nees
Pogostemon benghalensis          Lamiaceae             20.61
  (Burm. f.) O.
Kuntze
Punica granatum L.               Punicaceae            12.15
Ravenala madagascariensis        Strelitziaceae         6.87
  Sonnerat.
Ricinus communis L.              Euphorbiaceae         172.79
Rosa alba L.                     Rosaceae              33.29
Saccharum officinarum L.         Poaceae               239.37
Sida cordifolia L.               Malvaceae             15.85
Solanum indicum L.               Solanaceae             5.28
Solanum melongena L.             Solanaceae            93.00
Solanum subtrucatum              Solanaceae             0.53
Solanum torvum Swartz.           Solanaceae            11.10
Tabernaemontana divaricata       Apocynaceae           63.94
  G. Don.
Thuja occidentalis L.            Cupressaceae           3.17
Urena lobata L.                  Malvaceae             172.79

Herb

Abelmoschus esculentus (L.)      Malvaceae              244
  Moench
Achyranthes aspera L.            Amaranthaceae         18032
Acorus calamus L.                Araceae                185
Ageratum conyzoides L.           Asteraceae            22120
Alocasia odora (Lindl.) Koch.    Araceae                2583
Alpinia allughas L.              Zingiberaceae           20
Alternanthera sessilis (L.) R.   Amaranthaceae          5713
  Br. ex DC.
Amaranthusblitum L. var.         Amaranthaceae          535
  oleracea Hook. f.
Amaranthus caudatus L.           Amaranthaceae          145
Amaranthus spinosus L.           Amaranthaceae          264
Amaranthus viridis L.            Amaranthaceae          7345
Amorphophallus campanulatus      Araceae                304
  (Roxb.) Bl. ex Decne.
Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.        Bromeliaceae           7999
Asparagus racemosus Willd.       Asparagaceae            26
Atriplex hortensis L.            Chenopodiaceae         277
Axonopus sp.                     Poaceae               60885
Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennell     Scrophulariaceae       383
Benincasa hispida (Thunb)        Cucurbitaceae          178
  Cogn.
Borreria articularis (L. f.)     Rubiaceae             18336
  F. N. Will.
Borreria hispida (L.) K.         Rubiaceae              2272
  Schum.
Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.      Brassicaceae           2067
  and Cross. var. cuneifolia
  (Roxb.) Kitam.
Brassica oleracea L. var.        Brassicaceae           515
  botrytis L.
Brassica oleracea L. var.        Brassicaceae           608
  capitata L.
Brassica oleracea L. var.        Brassicaceae           872
  gongylodes L.
Bryophyllum pinnatum Lam.        Crassulaceae           1849
Cannabis sativa L.               Cannabaceae            661
Carex sp.                        Cyperaceae             211
Catharanthus roseus L.           Apocynaceae            211
Celosia sp.                      Amaranthaceae          159
Centella asiatica (L.) Urban     Apiaceae               7325
Chenopodium album L.             Chenopodiaceae         251
Chrysopogon aciculatus (Retz.)   Poaceae                6532
  Trin.
Cleome viscosa L.                Capparaceae            192
Clitoria ternatea L.             Papilionaceae           46
Coccinia cordifolia (L.) Cogn.   Cucurbitaceae          185
Coleus sp.                       Lamiaceae              159
Colocasia esculenta (L.)         Araceae               13349
  Schott
Commelina benghalensis L.        Commelinaceae          4505
Coriandrum sativum L.            Apiaceae               1572
Costus speciosus (Koen. ex       Costaceae              159
  Retz.) Smith
Crassocephalum crepidioides      Asteraceae             462
  (Benth.) Moore.
Cucumis sativus L.               Cucurbitaceae          159
Cucurbita pepo L.                Cucurbitaceae          297
Cuphea carthagenensis (Jacq.)    Lythraceae             1955
  JF Macbr.
Curcuma longa L.                 Zingiberaceae          4914
Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.      Poaceae               20086
Cyperus brevifolius (Rottb.)     Cyperaceae             3554
  Endl. ex Hassk.
Cyperus rotundus L.              Cyperaceae            14650
Cyperus sp.                      Cyperaceae             6968
Daucus carota L. var. sativa     Apiaceae               1770
  DC.
Desmodium elegans DC.            Papilionaceae           26
Dioscorea alata L.               Dioscoreaceae          476
Dioscorea deltoidea Wall.        Dioscoreaceae           40
Diplazium esculentum (Retz.)     Athyriaceae            1830
  Sw.
Dolichos lablab L.               Papilionaceae          132
Drymaria cordata (L.) Wild ex    Caryophyllaceae        7919
  Roemer and Schultes
Dryopteris sp.                   Dryopteridaceae       12450
Eclipta prostrata L.             Asteraceae             139
Eryngium foetidum L.             Apiaceae               489
Houttuynia cordata Thunb.        Saururaceae            1836
Impatiens balsamina L.           Balsaminaceae          1440
Imperata cylindrica (L.)         Poaceae                264
  Raeusch.
Justicia simplex D. Don.         Acanthaceae            8303
Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.)       Cucurbitaceae          244
  Standl.
Leucas aspera (Willd.) Spreng.   Lamiaceae              2715
Longbon *                        Rubiaceae              1030
Luffaacutangula (L.) Roxb.       Cucurbitaceae          462
Luffa cylindrica (L.) Roem.      Cucurbitaceae          304
Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.    Solanaceae             601
Mentha viridis L.                Lamiaceae              416
Mikania micrantha Kunth ex       Asteraceae             6559
  H.B.K.
Momordica charantia L.           Cucurbitaceae           79
Momordica dioica Roxb. ex        Cucurbitaceae          410
  Willd
Mimosa pudica L.                 Mimosaceae             244
Mirabilis jalapa L.              Nyctaginaceae          462
Oldenlandia corymbosa L.         Rubiaceae              4287
Oplismenus sp.                   Poaceae               37457
Oryza sativa L.                  Poaceae                449
Oxalis corniculata L.            Oxalidaceae            4822
Oxalis debilis H.B.K. var.       Oxalidaceae            5588
corymbosa (DC.) Lour.
Paederia foetida L.              Rubiaceae              198
Panicum sp.                      Poaceae               38573
Passiflora foetida L.            Passifloraceae         119
Peperomia pellucida L.           Piperaceae             5033
Phyllanthus fraternus Webster    Euphorbiaceae          6420
Piper betle L.                   Piperaceae             4868
Piper nigrum L.                  Piperaceae             1856
Piper sylvaticum Roxb.           Piperaceae             627
Pollia sp.                       Commelinaceae          165
Polygonum chinense L.            Polygonaceae           205
Polygonum hydropiper L.          Polygonaceae           1777
Polygonum microcephalum D. Don   Polygonaceae           159
Potentilla indica (Andrews)      Rosaceae               403
  Wolf.
Pteris sp.                       Pteridaceae            1110
Raphanus sativus L.              Brassicaceae           1004
Rhynchostylis retusa (L.)        Orchidaceae             99
  Blume.
Scoparia dulcis L.               Scrophulariaceae       1982
Selaginella sp.                  Selaginellaceae        1096
Siral *                          Cucurbitaceae           13
Solanum nigrum L.                Solanaceae             178
Solanum tuberosum L.             Solanaceae             1202
Spilanthes paniculata Wall. ex   Asteraceae            10416
  DC.
Spinacia oleracea L.             Chenopodiaceae         852
Tagetes patula L.                Asteraceae             1466
Vigna sinensis (L.) Savi ex      Papilionaceae          218
  Hassk.
Zingiber officinale Roscoe       Zingiberaceae          1731

Species                          Frequency   Abundance    IVI
                                    (%)

Trees

Acacia auriculiformis Cunn.        0.66          2       1.76
  ex Benth.
Adenanthera pavonina L.            2.11          1       0.94
Aegle marmelos Corr.               2.51          1       1.00
Ailanthus grandis Prain            0.13          1       0.87
Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth.        1.32          2       2.30
Albizia lucida (Roxb.) Benth.      5.28          1       1.68
Albizia procera (Roxb.) Benth.     0.66          1       0.68
Alstonia scholaris (L.) R. Br.     11.89         1       2.90
Amoora wallichii King              0.53          1       0.42
Anacardium occidentale L.          0.26          1       0.71
Annona reticulata L.               1.06          1       0.39
Anthocephalus chinensis (Lam.)     4.49          1       2.22
  Rich. ex Walp.
Antidesma ghaesembilla Gaert.      0.40          1       0.21
Aquilaria malaccensis Lam.         98.02        15       49.50
Arabongali*                        0.26          1       0.21
Araucaria heterophylla             0.53          1       0.32
  (Salisb.) Franco
Areca catechu L.                   74.37         7       24.94
Artocarpus chaplasha Roxb.         1.59          1       1.46
Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.      24.57         1       5.49
Artocarpus lakoocha Roxb.          2.77          1       1.83
Averrhoa carambola L.              4.23          1       1.19
Azadirachta indica Juss.           1.19          1       0.43
Baccaurea sapida (Roxb.) Mull.     1.19          1       0.36
  Arg.
Bambusa balcooa Roxb.              3.04         71       5.53
Bambusa nutans G. C. Wall.         0.13         17       0.07
  ex Munro
Bambusa pallida Munro.             11.23        103      28.96
Bambusa tulda Roxb.                0.53         97       1.28
Bauhinia purpurea L.               0.26          1       0.46
Beilschmiedia brandisii            0.79          2       0.48
  Hook. f.
Bixa orellana L.                   1.72          1       0.54
Bombax ceiba L.                    3.43          1       1.75
Borassus flabellifer L.            0.13          1       1.74
Bridelia retusa (L.) A. Juss.      0.40          2       0.66
Butea monosperma (Lam.)            0.26          2       0.95
  Taubert
Callistemon lanceolatus D.C.       0.40          1       0.29
Canarium strictum Roxb.            0.53          1       1.07
Carallia lucida Roxb. ex Kurz.     1.59          1       0.52
Carica papaya L.                   18.63         2       3.95
Caryota urens L.                   1.59          1       1.13
Cassia fistula L.                  7.79          2       2.04
Cassia siamea Lam.                 1.72          1       0.86
Castanopsis indica (Roxb. ex       0.66          2       0.44
  Lindl.) A. D.C.
Chukrasia tabularis Juss.          0.79          1       0.92
Cinnamomum glanduliferum           0.26          1       1.10
  (Wall.) Meisn.
Cinnamomum tamala (Buch.-Ham.)     4.36          1       1.05
  Nees and Eberm.
Citrus limon (L.) Burm.f.          4.76          2       0.97
Citrus maxima (Merr.)              9.25          1       1.91
Citrus medica L.                   0.53          2       0.13
Citrus reticulata Blanco.          4.76          2       0.97
Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck        0.66          2       0.18
Citrus sp.                         1.85          1       0.38
Cocos nucifera L.                  17.83         1       4.38
Cordia grandis Roxb.               2.11          1       0.82
Crataeva nurvala Ham.              1.19          1       0.53
Dalhousiea bracteata (Roxb.)       0.13          1       0.30
  Baker
Delonix regia (Boj. ex Hook.)      1.85          1       0.87
  Raf.
Dillenia indica L.                 0.66          1       3.00
Diospyros embryopteris Pers.       0.40          1       1.24
Dysoxylum binectariferum           1.98          1       1.08
  (Roxb.) Hook. f. ex Bedd.
Ehretia acuminata R.Br.            1.06          1       0.71
Elaeocarpus floribundus Blume.     5.02          1       1.56
Elaeocarpus ganitrus Roxb.         0.13          1       1.29
Erythrina stricta Roxb.            1.59          2       0.67
Eucalyptus citriodora Hook.        0.79          1       0.95
Eugenia fruticosa Roxb.            1.32          1       0.57
Eugenia jambolana Lam.             4.49          1       1.39
Eugenia jambolana Lam. var.        0.40          1       0.63
  caryophyllifolia Duthie.
Eugenia jambos L.                  2.91          1       0.73
Evodia meliaefolia Benth.          2.38          1       1.13
Ficus benghalensis L.              0.26          1       9.66
Ficus cyrtophylla                  0.13          1       0.03
Ficus fistulosa Reinw.             0.53          2       9.66
  ex Blume
Ficus hirta Vahl.                  0.13          1       0.04
Ficus hispida L.                   3.96         25       0.89
Ficus racemosa L.                  0.40          3       0.39
Ficus religiosa L.                 0.53          4       6.56
Garcinia lanceaefolia Roxb.        0.26          1       0.43
Garcinia morella (Gaertn.)         1.06          7       0.44
  Desr.
Garcinia paniculata Roxb.          0.26          2        0.2
Garcinia pedunculata Roxb.         0.79          6       0.96
  Engl.
Garcinia xanthochymus Hook.        0.40          3       0.39
  f. ex Anderson Engl.
Gmelina arborea Roxb.              6.87         36       2.02
Grevillea robusta Cunn. ex         1.32          8       1.37
  R.Br.
Heteropanaxfragrans (Roxb.)        3.04         11       1.16
  Seem.
Ilex umbellulata (Wall.) Loes.     1.19          8       0.38
Lagerstroemiaflos reginae Retz.    4.89         24       1.53
Litchi chinensis Sonn.             5.55         36       1.43
Litsea elongata Wall.              0.53          3       0.32
Litsea monopetala (Roxb.) Pers.    8.19         45       2.01
Litsea nitida Hook. f.             8.06         37       1.86
Litsea sebifera Pers.              1.19          7       0.47
Livistona jenkinsiana Griff.       1.45          7        1.2
Macaranga peltata (Roxb.)          0.13          1       0.22
  Mueller
Magnolia sphenocarpa Roxb.         3.17         16       0.99
Mallotus philippinensis            3.43         24       0.84
  Muell. Arg.
Mangifera indica L.                35.80        115      7.79
Manilkara zapota (L.)              0.13          1       1.07
  van Royen
Melia azedarach L.                 7.27         37       1.61
Mesuaferrea L.                     3.57         24       1.01
Michelia champaca L.               1.19          6       0.75
Mimusops elengi L.                 0.66          5       1.42
Moringa oleifera Lam.              4.10         29       1.15
Morus alba L.                      1.32          9       0.56
Morus laevigata Wall.              0.13          1        0.2
Murraya koenigii (L.)              1.85         12       0.49
  Sprengel.
Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack       0.13          1       0.19
Musa acuminata Colla.              12.42        57       3.64
Musa balbisiana Colla.             24.83        92        7.4
Musa calosperma F. Muell.          14.40        62       4.14
Musa paradisiaca L.                0.26          2       0.19
Musa sp.                           3.04         17       0.98
Myrica esculenta Buch.-Ham.        1.98         12        0.7
  ex D. Don
Oroxylum indicum (L.) Kurz.        4.36         24       1.13
Pachylarnax pleiocarpa Dandy       0.79          5       0.96
Persea bombycina (King ex          2.25         15       0.86
  Hook. f.) Kost.
Phoebe goalparensis Hutch.         0.13          1       0.19
Phoenix dactylifera L.             0.40          2       1.04
Phyllanthus acidus (L.)            1.06          8       0.35
  Skeels.
Phyllanthus emblica L.             5.02         31       1.26
Plumeria rubra L.                  0.13          1       0.24
Polyalthia longifolia              2.64         14       0.76
  (Sonn.) Thw.
Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre.      1.45         10       0.71
Premna bengalensis Cl.             4.49         25       1.14
Prunus cerasifera Ehrh.            1.32          8       0.46
Prunus jenkinsii Hook. f. and      0.53          3       0.21
  Thoms.
Prunus persica (L.) Batsch.        0.92          6       0.31
Psidium gujava L.                  12.42        63        2.5
Pyrus communis L.                  0.79          4       0.26
Salix tetrasperma Roxb.            2.11         10       0.84
Samanea saman (Jacq.) Merr.        0.26          2       4.03
Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn.         1.72         10       0.64
Sapium baccatum Roxb.              1.06          4       0.63
Sapium eugeniaefolium Ham.         0.53          4       0.53
Schimawallichii (DC.) Korth.       2.91         16       1.12
Shorea robusta Gaertn. f.          0.13          1       2.92
Spondias mangifera Wild.           0.92          7       0.54
Stereospermum chelonoides DC.      0.66          5       0.38
Streblus asper Lour.               2.11         12       0.73
Symplocos grandiflora Wall.        0.13          1       0.22
Talauma hodgsonii Hook. f.         0.13          1       4.65
  and Thomson
Talauma rabaniana Hk.ef.           0.40          2       2.06
  and Th.
Tamarindus indica L.               0.26          2       0.43
Tectona grandis L.                 9.78         40       2.83
Terminaba arjuna (Roxb. ex         0.26          2       0.57
  DC.) Wight and Arn.
Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.)     0.13          1       0.16
  Roxb.
Terminaba catappa L.               0.40          3       0.89
Terminalia chebula Retz.           12.42        64       2.95
Terminalia myriocarpa Van          0.26          2       0.39
  Heurck and Muell. Arg.
Toona ciliata Roem.                10.30        45       2.88
Tricalysia singularis              0.40          3       0.66
  (Korth.) K. Schum.
Vernonia travancorica J. Hk.       0.13          1       0.04
Vitex negundo L.                   0.79          6        0.4
Walsura robusta Roxb.              0.40          3       0.38
Zanthoxylum rhetsa (Roxb.) DC.     1.06          8       0.71
Ziziphus mauritiana Lam.           4.36         27       1.26
Ziziphus sp.                       0.13          1       0.42

Shrubs

Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd.      1.72        1.08      0.41
Adhatoda vasica Nees               4.10        4.84      1.52
Bisalyakarani *                    0.13        10.00     0.07
Bougainvillea spectabilis          1.32        1.10      0.32
  Wild.
Caesalpinia pulcherrima L.         0.53        1.00      0.13
Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.         1.72        4.08      0.59
Calamus tenuis Roxb.               2.38        4.56      0.86
Callicarpa arborea Roxb.           0.79        3.50      0.26
Calotropis procera (Ait.)          0.92        1.29      0.23
  Ait. f.
Camellia sinensis (L.) O.          21.14       23.17     21.23
  Kuntze
Capsicum annum L.                  5.42        3.10      1.68
Capsicum annum L. var. longum      6.74        3.20      2.12
Capsicum chinense Jacq.            6.21        2.47      1.80
Cassia alata L.                    0.92        3.00      0.28
Cassia sophera L.                  0.79        1.67      0.21
Cassia tora L.                     0.53        3.75      0.18
Chromolaena odorata (L.)           18.23       7.25      8.28
  King and H.E. Robins.
Clerodendrum colebrookianum        2.51        3.37      0.80
  Wall.
Clerodendrum japonicum             1.85        3.07      0.57
  (Thunb.) Sweet
Clerodendrum viscosum Vent.        29.59       8.32      14.54
Codiaeum variegatum (L.) Juss.     7.13        1.96      1.94
Coffea benghalensis Roxb.          1.59        2.92      0.48
  ex Schult.
Dracaena steudneri Engl.           0.79        1.67      0.21
Euonymus japonicus Thunb.          6.87        5.25      2.65
Euphorbia neriifolia L.            1.72        1.23      0.42
Flacourtia cataphracta Roxb.       2.38        1.17      0.58
  ex Willd.
Flemingia strobilifera (L.)        2.38        2.33      0.68
  R. Br.
Gardenia jasminoides Ellis.        5.94        1.73      1.57
Glochidion arborescens Bl.         0.26        1.00      0.06
Gossypium arboreum L.              4.62        1.37      1.16
Hibiscus mutabilis L.              0.92        1.14      0.23
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.          9.25        2.06      2.54
Hibiscus sabdariffa L.             3.30        4.32      1.17
Ixora javanica (Blume) DC.         2.64        2.15      0.74
Jasminum officinale L.             1.45        1.18      0.36
Jatropha gossypiifolia L.          0.79        1.67      0.21
Justicia gendarussa Blanco.        2.11        6.69      0.92
Lawsonia inermis L.                2.25        1.18      0.55
Leea indica (Burm. f.) Merr.       1.45        2.00      0.40
Malvaviscus arboreus Cav.          1.98        1.80      0.53
  var. drummondii
(Torr. and Gray) Schery.
Melastoma normale D. Don.          4.49        3.94      1.53
Mussaenda frondosa L.              3.57        1.96      0.97
Nerium indicum Mill.               2.11        1.31      0.53
Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L.        5.68        1.19      1.39
Ocimum gratissimum L.              1.06        2.00      0.29
Ocimum sanctum L.                  6.21        2.72      1.85
Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus         2.11        4.50      0.76
  (Roxb.) Nees
Pogostemon benghalensis            0.66        7.80      0.31
  (Burm. f.) O.
Kuntze
Punica granatum L.                 2.64        1.15      0.64
Ravenala madagascariensis          0.40        4.33      0.14
  Sonnerat.
Ricinus communis L.                5.55        7.79      2.62
Rosa alba L.                       3.17        2.63      0.93
Saccharum officinarum L.           3.70        16.18     2.82
Sida cordifolia L.                 0.53        7.50      0.24
Solanum indicum L.                 0.79        1.67      0.21
Solanum melongena L.               6.08        3.83      2.04
Solanum subtrucatum                0.13        1.00      0.03
Solanum torvum Swartz.             1.59        1.75      0.42
Tabernaemontana divaricata         7.27        2.20      2.03
  G. Don.
Thuja occidentalis L.              0.66        1.20      0.16
Urena lobata L.                    6.47        6.67      2.81

  Herb

Abelmoschus esculentus (L.)        0.40        6.17      0.11
  Moench
Achyranthes aspera L.              26.02       6.93      7.83
Acorus calamus L.                  0.13        14.00     0.06
Ageratum conyzoides L.             37.52       5.90      10.48
Alocasia odora (Lindl.) Koch.      7.46        3.46      1.71
Alpinia allughas L.                0.07        3.00      0.01
Alternanthera sessilis (L.) R.     10.17       5.62      2.78
  Br. ex DC.
Amaranthusblitum L. var.           0.99        5.40      0.27
  oleracea Hook. f.
Amaranthus caudatus L.             0.73        2.00      0.14
Amaranthus spinosus L.             0.59        4.44      0.15
Amaranthus viridis L.              9.58        7.67      3.03
Amorphophallus campanulatus        0.79        3.83      0.19
  (Roxb.) Bl. ex Decne.
Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.          9.78        8.18      3.20
Asparagus racemosus Willd.         0.13        2.00      0.03
Atriplex hortensis L.              0.46        6.00      0.13
Axonopus sp.                       34.28       17.76     18.07
Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennell       0.40        9.67      0.14
Benincasa hispida (Thunb)          0.92        1.93      0.18
  Cogn.
Borreria articularis (L. f.)       23.91       7.67      7.57
  F. N. Will.
Borreria hispida (L.) K.           4.62        4.91      1.20
  Schum.
Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.        1.65        12.52     0.69
  and Cross. var. cuneifolia
  (Roxb.) Kitam.
Brassica oleracea L. var.          0.59        8.67      0.20
  botrytis L.
Brassica oleracea L. var.          0.73        8.36      0.24
  capitata L.
Brassica oleracea L. var.          1.12        7.76      0.36
  gongylodes L.
Bryophyllum pinnatum Lam.          4.43        4.18      1.08
Cannabis sativa L.                 1.52        4.35      0.38
Carex sp.                          0.46        4.57      0.12
Catharanthus roseus L.             0.79        2.67      0.17
Celosia sp.                        0.53        3.00      0.12
Centella asiatica (L.) Urban       13.80       5.31      3.69
Chenopodium album L.               0.86        2.92      0.19
Chrysopogon aciculatus (Retz.)     3.76        17.35     1.95
  Trin.
Cleome viscosa L.                  0.79        2.42      0.16
Clitoria ternatea L.               0.40        1.17      0.07
Coccinia cordifolia (L.) Cogn.     0.92        2.00      0.18
Coleus sp.                         0.33        4.80      0.08
Colocasia esculenta (L.)           20.94       6.38      6.06
  Schott
Commelina benghalensis L.          8.72        5.17      2.30
Coriandrum sativum L.              0.59        26.44     0.42
Costus speciosus (Koen. ex         0.66        2.40      0.14
  Retz.) Smith
Crassocephalum crepidioides        1.25        3.68      0.29
  (Benth.) Moore.
Cucumis sativus L.                 0.46        3.43      0.11
Cucurbita pepo L.                  1.32        2.25      0.27
Cuphea carthagenensis (Jacq.)      3.83        5.10      1.01
  JF Macbr.
Curcuma longa L.                   3.43        14.31     1.56
Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.        19.29       10.41     7.21
Cyperus brevifolius (Rottb.)       6.08        5.85      1.69
  Endl. ex Hassk.
Cyperus rotundus L.                20.34       7.20      6.24
Cyperus sp.                        13.41       5.20      3.55
Daucus carota L. var. sativa       0.99        17.87     0.52
  DC.
Desmodium elegans DC.              0.13        2.00      0.03
Dioscorea alata L.                 2.11        2.25      0.43
Dioscorea deltoidea Wall.          0.26        1.50      0.05
Diplazium esculentum (Retz.)       4.76        3.85      1.13
  Sw.
Dolichos lablab L.                 0.79        1.67      0.15
Drymaria cordata (L.) Wild ex      9.51        8.33      3.14
  Roemer and Schultes
Dryopteris sp.                     18.23       6.83      5.45
Eclipta prostrata L.               0.86        1.62      0.16
Eryngium foetidum L.               1.06        4.63      0.27
Houttuynia cordata Thunb.          1.65        11.12     0.64
Impatiens balsamina L.             2.51        5.74      0.69
Imperata cylindrica (L.)           0.07        40.00     0.07
  Raeusch.
Justicia simplex D. Don.           16.91       4.91      4.38
Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.)         1.25        1.95      0.25
  Standl.
Leucas aspera (Willd.) Spreng.     6.74        4.03      1.62
Longbon *                          2.44        4.22      0.60
Luffaacutangula (L.) Roxb.         1.45        3.18      0.32
Luffa cylindrica (L.) Roem.        1.32        2.30      0.27
Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.      1.65        3.64      0.38
Mentha viridis L.                  0.53        7.88      0.17
Mikania micrantha Kunth ex         15.92       4.12      3.86
  H.B.K.
Momordica charantia L.             0.33        2.40      0.07
Momordica dioica Roxb. ex          1.45        2.82      0.31
  Willd
Mimosa pudica L.                   0.99        2.47      0.21
Mirabilis jalapa L.                1.06        4.38      0.26
Oldenlandia corymbosa L.           5.75        7.46      1.79
Oplismenus sp.                     28.93       12.95     12.34
Oryza sativa L.                    0.26        17.00     0.14
Oxalis corniculata L.              7.79        6.19      2.22
Oxalis debilis H.B.K. var.         8.39        6.66      2.48
corymbosa (DC.) Lour.
Paederia foetida L.                0.46        4.29      0.11
Panicum sp.                        38.64       9.98      14.09
Passiflora foetida L.              0.66        1.80      0.13
Peperomia pellucida L.             7.79        6.46      2.27
Phyllanthus fraternus Webster      14.73       4.36      3.64
Piper betle L.                     12.62       3.86      2.99
Piper nigrum L.                    5.35        3.47      1.22
Piper sylvaticum Roxb.             0.92        6.79      0.28
Pollia sp.                         0.33        5.00      0.09
Polygonum chinense L.              0.20        10.33     0.07
Polygonum hydropiper L.            1.85        9.61      0.66
Polygonum microcephalum D. Don     0.13        12.00     0.05
Potentilla indica (Andrews)        0.79        5.08      0.21
  Wolf.
Pteris sp.                         2.84        3.91      0.68
Raphanus sativus L.                0.86        11.69     0.34
Rhynchostylis retusa (L.)          0.59        1.67      0.11
  Blume.
Scoparia dulcis L.                 4.43        4.48      1.11
Selaginella sp.                    0.66        16.60     0.33
Siral *                            0.07        2.00      0.01
Solanum nigrum L.                  0.92        1.93      0.18
Solanum tuberosum L.               0.46        26.00     0.32
Spilanthes paniculata Wall. ex     16.64       6.26      4.78
  DC.
Spinacia oleracea L.               1.25        6.79      0.37
Tagetes patula L.                  3.76        3.89      0.89
Vigna sinensis (L.) Savi ex        0.86        2.54      0.18
  Hassk.
Zingiber officinale Roscoe         1.12        15.41     0.54

* Locale name.
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Title Annotation:Research Article
Author:Saikia, P.; Khan, M.L.
Publication:International Journal of Forestry Research
Article Type:Report
Date:Jan 1, 2014
Words:11302
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