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Ecological Biodiversity Measurement of Seed Mycoflora Contamination of Freshly Harvested in Maize Growing Zone-II.

Maize (Zea mays L.) is a staple food for approximately 400 million people in the worldwide for processed food and feed (1). In India, maize ranks fifth in total area and third in total production and productivity. It is susceptible to a numerous fungal species that cause ear and kernel rots including, Aspergillus, Fusarium verticillioides, F. proliferatum, F. subglutinans, Gibberella zeae Penicillium, Macrophomina phaseolina, Diplodia, Nigrospora, Botryosphaeria, Cladosporium, Trichoderma, Rhizoctonia, and Rhizopus (2-3). There has been continuous increase in the world population then consumption demand of corn to be increase in the demand from poultry and piggery sector used as a feed. In the presence of seed borne pathogens several types of abnormalities occur in the seeds. Such seeds are rejected by seed industries and for agricultural purposes. Since the fact endeavor has been made to study the maize seed mycoflora and their cheaper eco-friendly management. Seed borne mycoflora is one of the major components reducing the maize yield. Mycoflora associated with seeds both internally and externally are responsible for seed major step is to use disease free and certified seed (4, 5). Fungal species are related to corn mostly belong to Apergillus spp Fusarium spp. and Penicillium spp. There are many reports that indicate these fungal species produce dangerous mycotoxin which can be harmful for human health and animals (6, 7, 8). Usually, fungal species diversity is one of the most important indices used to evaluation of an ecosystem. A large value of Shannon-Wiener Index (H) has showed a rich ecosystem with high species diversity and low value (H') will have a low species diversity (9, 10).The present study was aimed at ecological biodiversity measurement of Seed mycoflora contamination of freshly harvested in maize growing zone-II.

MATERIALAND METHODS

The maize growing area in to three zones, i.e. zone-I, (Almora, Kullu, Bilaspur, Daulakauna Kangra and Saharanpur) zone-II (New Delhi, Karnal, Pantnagar and Ludhiana) and zone-III (Varanasi and Begusarai). In this study, four maize seed samples were taken from maize growing Zone-II. The collected seed samples of each maize variety will be critically examined and grouped into three categories with the help of hand lens i.e. original seed (OS), partially discoloured seed (PDS) and discoloured seed (DS). Myco-flora detected on maize seed by Agar plate method-APM (11) and Blotter plate method-BPM (12). One hundred seeds of each category of different varieties untreated will be place in a plastic Petri plates (90 mm dia.) lined with two layers of blotting papers moistened with distilled water for studying the association of different myco-flora with maize seeds. Ten seeds will be placed in each Petri plates equidistantly (pattern-1-3-6). The Petri plates will be incubated at 25 [+ or -] 1[degrees]C for five days and the seeds will be examined regularly for the presence of different fungi. There will be two replications each having 50 seeds. Incubated seeds will be examined visually and under Stereo-zoom microscope for the associated myco-flora. The associated fungi were isolated on PDA for further identification. Same method applied in Agar plate method also. The seed mycoflora were identified with the help of literature (13-20).

Based on the individuals fungi recorded in the distinct seed samples were analysed for density, frequency, abundance, relative density, relative frequency, relative abundance, importance value index, Simpson index of Dominance, Shannon- Weaver Index of Diversity and evenness. The importance value index of seed sample was determined as the sum of relative frequency, relative density and relative dominance (21).

Density is calculated by the equation:

Density = Total number of individuals of a species in all Petri plate/Total number of Petri plate studies

Frequency (%) is calculated by the equation:

Frequency = Number of Petri plate in which the species occurred X 100/Total number of Petri plate studied

Abundance- It is the study of the number of individuals of different species in the community per unit area. It is represented by the equation:

Abundance = Total number of individuals of a species in all Petri plate/Total number of Petri plate in which the species occurred

Relative density, relative frequency and relative abundance was calculated as:

Relative density = Number of individuals of a species x 100/Number of petri plate studied

Relative frequency = Number of occurrence of the species X 100/Number of occurrence of all the species

Relative abundance = Total basal area of the species X 100/Total Petri plate of all the species

Importance Value Index (IVI) - It was calculated by equation (22)

IVI = Relative frequency + Relative density + Relative dominance,

The maximum importance value for any one genus is 300 (100 + 100 + 100). It is useful, as it provides an overall picture of the density, frequency and cover of a genus in relation to community.

Simpson's Dominance Index (D) - The Simpson's index (D) is calculated using the following equation (23):

D = [S.summation over (i=1)] [n.sub.i] ([n.sub.i] - 1)/n(n - 1)

Where 'ni' is the proportion of individuals of the ith species in the community. Simpson's index gives relatively little weight to the rare species and more weight to the common species. It weighs towards the abundance of the most common species. It ranges in value from 0 (low diversity) to a maximum of (1-1/s), where s is the number of species. In nature the value of d ranges between 0 and 1. With this, index 0 represents infinite diversity and 1, no diversity. The bigger the (D) value, the smaller the diversity. Shannon-Wiener Index (H)- This is a widely used method of calculating biotic diversity in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems and is expressed as SWI 24:

Where, H= index of species diversity s= number of species ni= proportion of total sample belonging to the ith species.

Evenness Index (E) - This is relative distribution of individuals among taxonomic groups within a community and is expressed (25) as:

E= H'/logS

Where, H' = Shannon -Wiener diversity index, and log S= Natural log of the total number of species (S defined as Species Richness) recorded.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Working seed samples were collected from zone-II (New Delhi, Karnal, Pantnagar and Ludhiana). In this study, four maize seed samples were taken from maize growing Zone II category.

A total of 9 genera were recorded within three seed categories through Agar plate me00thod.

Association of Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Bipolaris maydis, Curvularia lunata, Fusarium verticilioides, Penicillium notatum, P. expensum, Rhizopus stolonifer, and Rhizoctonia solani were observed (Table-1). Maize mycoflora was presented with 10 fungal genera, i.e. Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Bipolaris maydis, Curvularia lunata, Fusarium verticilioides, Macrophomina phaseolina, Penicillium notatum, Rhizopus stolonifer, and Rhizoctonia solani by Blotter plate method (Table 2).

In Agar plate method, Highest density and relative density of A. niger OS (5.250, 26.960), and DS (5.267, 25.303) were recorded.

Density, frequency, abundance of A. flavus OS (4.875, 100.00, 0.356), PDS (4.800, 75.00, 0.258) and DS (4.925, 100.00, 0.348) were observed. Relative density, highest frequency, abundance by A. flavus OS (25.034, 25.974, 35.649), PDS (19.948, 18.072, 25.806) and DS (23.661, 25.000, 34.806) were recorded. Highest Important value index (IVI), Simpson index of dominance (D), Shannon-Weaver index of diversity (H) and evenness (E) of A. flavus OS (86.657%, 0.0834, 0.359, 0.184), PDS (63.827%, 0.0453, 0.329, 0.150) and DS (83.467%, 0.0774, 0.356, 0.183) were contributed.

Diversity of myco-flora in the study calculated using the Shannon-Weiner diversity index (H') showed values range OS (0.359-0.086), PDS (0.329-0.051) and DS (0.356-0.126). The values for Simpson index of dominance ranges were OS (0.0834-0.0005), PDS (0.0453-0.0001) and DS (0.0774-0.0015). Pielou's evenness index of myco-flora in OS, PDS and DS samples showed value ranges of0.184-0.044, 0.150-0.023 and 0.183-0.065, respectively (Table -1).

In Blotter plate mathod, Highest density were recorded A. niger OS (5.850), A. flavus PDS (4.500), DS (5.225). Maximum frequency and abundance values A. flavus OS (100.000%, 0.350), PDS (100.000%, 0.342) and DS (100.000%, 0.407) were showed. Relative density maximum recorded inA. niger OS (26.401%), A. flavus PDS (19.268%) and DS (26.381%). Relative frequency and relative abundance highest in A. flavus OS (24.691%, 35.009), PDS (23.256%, 34.221) and DS (23.810, 40.661%) were intended. Maximum IVI, Simpson index of dominance, Shannon-Weaver index of diversity and evenness contributed A. flavus OS (80.912%, 0.0727, 0.353, 0.170), PDS (76.744%, 0.0654, 0.349, 0.159) and DS (90.852%, 0.0917, 0.362, 0.174), respectively (Table-2).

Diversity of myco-flora in the study considered using the Shannon-Weiner diversity index (H) showed values range OS (0.353-0.054), PDS (0.349-0.112) and DS (0.362-0.122). The values for Simpson index of dominance ranges were OS (0.0727-0.0002), PDS (0.0654-0.0011) and DS (0.0917-0.0014). Pielou's evenness index of myco-flora in OS, PDS and DS samples showed value ranges of0.170-0.026, 0.159-0.051 and 0.174-0.059, respectively.

This finding was in line with the works of Mudili et al. [26] showed the diversity of fungal species, including frequency, density, and diversity indices such as Important value index, Shannon-Wiener index (species richness) and Simpson index (diversity of species) in 150 freshly harvested maize samples from southern India. Fusarium was the prevailing genus in Karnataka (42%) and Andhra Pradesh (46%), followed by Aspergillus (32 and 33% respectively). In Tamilnadu, was observed highest Fusarium incidence (75%), followed by Penicillium (13%) and Aspergillus (12%). In Karnataka, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger were observed with 100% frequency while in Andhra Pradesh, in addition to these two Aspergillus species, Penicillium chrysogenum and Fusarium graminearum also showed 100% frequency. In Tamilnadu, Fusarium verticillioides and F. proliferatum were less frequent and highly dense with IVI values of 52.7 and 59.8 respectively. The species richness diversity index (Shannon index) showed that Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka were highly diversified, with several toxigenic moulds, whereas in Tamilnadu the diversity of fungal species was less.

Fungal infection is affected quality of grain through reduction in germination, increase in fatty acids, discolourization, mustiness and spoilage of the grain. Fungal development in grains is influenced by temperature, humidity and storage period. Several literature displays that a number of fungal genera viz., Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium, Bipolaris maydis, Alternaria, Cephalosporium, Macrophomina, Diplodia, Nigrospora, Botryosphaeria, Cladosporium, Trichoderma, Rhizoctonia and Mucor have been reported from maize seed (2, 27, 28).

Tsedaley and Adugna (29) a total of 110 fungi isolates were recovered from three maize variety samples in six treatment combinations which is collected in three maize storage conditions, were harvested during 2013 cropping season. Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium are the most prime fungal genera's attacking maize seed and decreasing seed germination. The highest frequency of Aspregillus spp. (40.4%) at farmer preserved seed with surface disinfected kernels on agar plate were recorded. The highest relative density of Fusarium spp. (51%) was only recorded on agar plate test from the farmer preserved seed without surface disinfected kernels. Without sterilized seeds preserved by farmers were recorded lowest germination percentage (62%). The Aspergillus spp. are the most dominant fungi followed by Fusarium spp. isolated. These fungi are important in producing secondary metabolites, which are carcinogenic to both humans and animals.

Elham et al., 2S recorded percentage frequency and relative density the members of genus Fusarium spp. were predominantly isolated from maize grains as internal mycoflora at all locations (Fr. range 8.0-10% and R.D. 2.5-3.5 as external mycoflora and internal mycoflora Fr.22.1 -45% and R.D. 10.8 - 25%). The second most prevalent genus as internal mycoflora was Alternaria spp. (Fr.20 -27.5% and RD. 10.25 -17.5%) as external mycoflora for internal mycoflora (Fr. 35-45% and R.D. 20%). The most predominant external mycoflora of the mold was Aspergillus spp. (Fr.27.5-37.5 and R.D.15.13-23.8%) and for internal mycoflora relative density and frequency were slightly low (Fr. 16-18.4% and R.D. 12-15.3%). Penicillium sp. recorded the lowest value of external and internal mycoflora.

El-Shanshoury et al., 3 deal with forty food grains including maize, wheat, rice and peanut seeds were analyzed for fungal contamination. Eight fungal genera belonged to Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, Mucor, Cladosporium, Trichoderma, Rhizopus and Alternaria were isolated and identified. Total fungal loads as CFU and percentages of fungi in the analyzed samples ranged between 21.7-33.2x103 CFU/g and 1.6-36.7%, respectively. Contamination of grains with aflatoxins was in the following order; rice > peanut > wheat > maize. In the cultures of Aspergillus flavus Link isolates, AFB1, AFB2 and AFG1 were detected in 78%, 71%, and 36% of the isolates.

Sreenivasa et al.,3 a total of 86 maize samples were analyzed for frequency and relative density of internal mycoflora by direct plating method on PDA and MGA 2.5 agar medium. The most prevalent fungal genera occurring on maize grains were species of Fusarium and Aspergillus. The other genera included Penicillium, Drechslera, Nigrospora, Curvularia, Alternaria, Chaetomium and Phoma. The data revealed the high frequency of Fusarium species (96.5%) and the high relative density of Aspergillus species (41.7%) among the 17 fungal genera recoded. The predominant fungi recorded Fusarium verticillioides, F. anthophilum, F. proliferatum, Aspergillus flavus, A. niger and A. ochraceous, respectively.

Mostafa and Kazem, (31) reported that means of incidences Fusarium spp. were the highest (35.2%) followed by species Aspergillus, Penicillium, Rhizopus, Mucor and Alternaria i.e., in per cent 2.9, 1.1, 2.3, 1.4 and 0.2 in that order. Among Fusarium species, F. proliferatum (90.1, 42.6%) had the highest percentages of frequency and the highest incidence in Gorgan. Aspergillus flavus had revealed frequency (2%) and incidence (40.2 %) and the highest level of infection was belonged to Bandare gaz seeds studied. Penicillium spp. were isolated from most samples examined which the highest incidence (2%) was in seeds studied in Kalale.

Niaz and Dawar (4) was used blotter, agar plate and deep freezing methods as recommended by ISTA. In all sample, 70% of the samples were infested with Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, A. wentii and Penicillium spp. Among the three methods used, agar plate method yielded the highest number of fungi as compared to blotter and deep freezing methods. Deep freezing method was the best for the detection of Drechslera spp., Fusarium spp., and Penicillium spp., whereas agar plate method was suitable for the detection of Aspergillus spp., Cladosporium spp., Curvularia spp., and Rhizopus spp.

Ghiasian et al. (32) showed a predominance of Fusarium species (38.5%), followed by Aspergillus species (8.7%), Rhizopus species (4.8%), Penicillium species (4.5%),Mucor species (1.1%), and four other fungal genera. Fusarium verticillioides was the most prevalent species. Aspergillus flavus was the most widely recovered Aspergillus species and 38% of samples were contaminated with this potentially aflatoxigenic fungus.

On the basis of present study Aspergilus flavus and Aspergillus niger were recorded dominant mycoflora. So, the next step is monitoring the mycotoxin production of isolated species.

REFERENCES

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Table 1. Biodiversity analysis of Seed mycoflora in maize by Agar
plate method

                                                   Zone II

Ct    Species                    Dn        F       Ab       RD
                                        (In %)            (In %)

OS    Aspergillus flavus        4.875   100.000   0.356   25.034
      Aspergillus niger         5.250   70.000    0.269   26.960
      Rhizopus stolonifer       4.367   75.000    0.239   22.424
      Penicillium expensum      1.300   25.000    0.024   6.676
      Fusarium verticilioides   0.864   55.000    0.035   4.435
      Penicillium notatum       1.818   55.000    0.073   9.337
      Bipolaris maydis          1.000    5.000    0.004   5.135
PDS   Aspergillus flavus        4.800   75.000    0.258   19.948
      Aspergillus niger         4.067   75.000    0.219   16.901
      Rhizopus stolonifer       2.300   25.000    0.041   9.559
      Penicillium expensum      0.917   60.000    0.039   3.810
      Fusarium verticilioides   1.654   65.000    0.077   6.873
      Penicillium notatum       0.500    5.000    0.002   2.078
      Rhizoctonia solani        2.000    5.000    0.007   8.312
      Bipolaris maydis          3.000    5.000    0.011   12.468
DS    Aspergillus flavus        4.925   100.000   0.348   23.661
      Aspergillus niger         5.267   75.000    0.279   25.303
      Rhizopus stolonifer       4.300   75.000    0.228   20.658
      Penicillium expensum      1.900   25.000    0.034   9.128
      Fusarium verticilioides   1.000   55.000    0.039   4.804
      Penicillium notatum       1.423   65.000    0.065   6.837
      Curvularia lunata         2.000    5.000    0.007   9.609

                                                   Zone II

Ct    Species                     RF       RA      IVI     D=Pi*Pi
                                (In %)   (In %)   (In %)

OS    Aspergillus flavus        25.974   35.649   86.657   0.0834
      Aspergillus niger         18.182   26.874   72.015   0.0576
      Rhizopus stolonifer       19.481   23.949   65.853   0.0482
      Penicillium expensum      6.494    2.377    15.546   0.0027
      Fusarium verticilioides   14.286   3.473    22.194   0.0055
      Penicillium notatum       14.286   7.313    30.935   0.0106
      Bipolaris maydis          1.299    0.366    6.800    0.0005
PDS   Aspergillus flavus        18.072   25.806   63.827   0.0453
      Aspergillus niger         18.072   21.864   56.837   0.0359
      Rhizopus stolonifer       6.024    4.122    19.705   0.0043
      Penicillium expensum      14.458   3.943    22.210   0.0055
      Fusarium verticilioides   15.663   7.706    30.242   0.0102
      Penicillium notatum       1.205    0.179    3.462    0.0001
      Rhizoctonia solani        1.205    0.717    10.233   0.0012
      Bipolaris maydis          1.205    1.075    14.748   0.0024
DS    Aspergillus flavus        25.000   34.806   83.467   0.0774
      Aspergillus niger         18.750   27.915   71.968   0.0575
      Rhizopus stolonifer       18.750   22.792   62.200   0.0430
      Penicillium expensum      6.250    3.357    18.735   0.0039
      Fusarium verticilioides   13.750   3.887    22.441   0.0056
      Penicillium notatum       16.250   6.537    29.624   0.0098
      Curvularia lunata         1.250    0.707    11.565   0.0015

                                        Zone II

Ct    Species                   H=-{(pi)    E={H/ln(S)}
                                x ln(pi)}

OS    Aspergillus flavus          0.359        0.184
      Aspergillus niger           0.343        0.176
      Rhizopus stolonifer         0.333        0.171
      Penicillium expensum        0.153        0.079
      Fusarium verticilioides     0.193        0.099
      Penicillium notatum         0.234        0.120
      Bipolaris maydis            0.086        0.044
PDS   Aspergillus flavus          0.329        0.150
      Aspergillus niger           0.315        0.143
      Rhizopus stolonifer         0.179        0.081
      Penicillium expensum        0.193        0.088
      Fusarium verticilioides     0.231        0.105
      Penicillium notatum         0.051        0.023
      Rhizoctonia solani          0.115        0.052
      Bipolaris maydis            0.148        0.067
DS    Aspergillus flavus          0.356        0.183
      Aspergillus niger           0.342        0.176
      Rhizopus stolonifer         0.326        0.168
      Penicillium expensum        0.173        0.089
      Fusarium verticilioides     0.194        0.100
      Penicillium notatum         0.229        0.117
      Curvularia lunata           0.126        0.065

Note: Ct=Categories, OS= Original Seed, PDS= Partial Discolour Seed,
DS= Discolour Seed, Dn=Density, F= frequency, A= Abundance,
RD=Relative Density, RF= Relative frequency, RA= Relative abundance,
IVI= Importance value index, D= Simpson index of Dominance, H=
Shannon-Weaver Index of Diversity, E= Evenness

Table 2. Biodiversity analysis of Seed mycoflora in maize by Blotter
plate method

                                                   Zone II

Ct   Species                    Dn        F       Ab       RD
                                       (In %)            (In %)

OS   Aspergillus flaws         4.700   100.000   0.350   21.211
     Aspergillus niger         5.850   50.000    0.218   26.401
     Rhizopus stolonifer       2.833   90.000    0.190   12.787
     Fusarium verticilioides   1.800   75.000    0.101   8.123
     Alternaria alternata      2.600   25.000    0.048   11.734
     Penicillium notatum       2.250   40.000    0.067   10.154
     Macrophomina phaseolina   1.625   20.000    0.024   7.334
     Rhizoctonia soloni        0.500    5.000    0.002   2.256
PDS  Aspergillus flavus        4.500   100.000   0.342   19.268
     Aspergillus niger         4.100   50.000    0.156   17.555
     Rhizopus stolonifer       2.605   95.000    0.188   11.155
     Fusarium verticilioides   3.267   75.000    0.186   13.987
     Alternaria alternata      1.500   10.000    0.011   6.423
     Penicillium notatum       1.083   60.000    0.049   4.638
     Macrophomina phaseolina   2.300   25.000    0.044   9.848
     Curvularia lunata         2.000   10.000    0.015   8.563
     Bipolaris maydis          2.000    5.000    0.008   8.563
DS   Aspergillus flavus        5.225   100.000   0.407   26.381
     Aspergillus niger         3.700   50.000    0.144   18.681
     Rhizopus stolonifer       2.850   100.000   0.222   14.390
     Fusarium verticilioides   1.714   70.000    0.093   8.655
     Alternaria alternata      1.250   20.000    0.019   6.311
     Penicillium notatum       2.167   45.000    0.076   10.939
     Macrophomina phaseolina   1.400   25.000    0.027   7.069
     Curvularia lunata         1.500   10.000    0.012   7.573

                                                   Zone II

Ct   Species                     RF       RA      IVI     D=Pi*Pi
                               (In %)   (In %)   (In %)

OS   Aspergillus flaws         24.691   35.009   80.912   0.0727
     Aspergillus niger         12.346   21.788   60.534   0.0407
     Rhizopus stolonifer       22.222   18.994   54.003   0.0324
     Fusarium verticilioides   18.519   10.056   36.698   0.0150
     Alternaria alternata      6.173    4.842    22.748   0.0057
     Penicillium notatum       9.877    6.704    26.735   0.0079
     Macrophomina phaseolina   4.938    2.421    14.693   0.0024
     Rhizoctonia soloni        1.235    0.186    3.677    0.0002
PDS  Aspergillus flavus        23.256   34.221   76.744   0.0654
     Aspergillus niger         11.628   15.589   44.772   0.0223
     Rhizopus stolonifer       22.093   18.821   52.069   0.0301
     Fusarium verticilioides   17.442   18.631   50.060   0.0278
     Alternaria alternata      2.326    1.141    9.889    0.0011
     Penicillium notatum       13.953   4.943    23.535   0.0062
     Macrophomina phaseolina   5.814    4.373    20.034   0.0045
     Curvularia lunata         2.326    1.521    12.410   0.0017
     Bipolaris maydis          1.163    0.760    10.487   0.0012
DS   Aspergillus flavus        23.810   40.661   90.852   0.0917
     Aspergillus niger         11.905   14.397   44.983   0.0225
     Rhizopus stolonifer       23.810   22.179   60.378   0.0405
     Fusarium verticilioides   16.667   9.339    34.661   0.0133
     Alternaria alternata      4.762    1.946    13.019   0.0019
     Penicillium notatum       10.714   7.588    29.241   0.0095
     Macrophomina phaseolina   5.952    2.724    15.745   0.0028
     Curvularia lunata         2.381    1.167    11.122   0.0014

                                       Zone II

Ct   Species                   H=-{(pi)    E={H/ln(S)}
                               x ln(pi)}

OS   Aspergillus flaws           0.353        0.170
     Aspergillus niger           0.323        0.155
     Rhizopus stolonifer         0.309        0.148
     Fusarium verticilioides     0.257        0.124
     Alternaria alternata        0.196        0.094
     Penicillium notatum         0.215        0.104
     Macrophomina phaseolina     0.148        0.071
     Rhizoctonia soloni          0.054        0.026
PDS  Aspergillus flavus          0.349        0.159
     Aspergillus niger           0.284        0.129
     Rhizopus stolonifer         0.304        0.138
     Fusarium verticilioides     0.299        0.136
     Alternaria alternata        0.112        0.051
     Penicillium notatum         0.200        0.091
     Macrophomina phaseolina     0.181        0.082
     Curvularia lunata           0.132        0.060
     Bipolaris maydis            0.117        0.053
DS   Aspergillus flavus          0.362        0.174
     Aspergillus niger           0.285        0.137
     Rhizopus stolonifer         0.323        0.155
     Fusarium verticilioides     0.249        0.120
     Alternaria alternata        0.136        0.065
     Penicillium notatum         0.227        0.109
     Macrophomina phaseolina     0.155        0.074
     Curvularia lunata           0.122        0.059

Note: Ct=Categories, OS= Original Seed, PDS= Partial Discolour Seed,
DS= Discolour Seed, Dn=Density, F= frequency, A= Abundance,
RD=Relative Density, RF= Relative frequency, RA= Relative abundance,
IVI= Importance value index, D= Simpson index of Dominance, H=
Shannon-Weaver Index of Diversity, E= Evenness
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Author:Kumar, Shrvan; Sinha, Asha; Singh, Shakshi
Publication:Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology
Article Type:Report
Date:Mar 1, 2017
Words:4580
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