Eco-morphologic aspects of differentiation and identification of species Armillaria mellea Sensu Lato in Coppice Oakeries of Belgorod Region for the purposes of exploitation of natural resources.
Honey fungus Armillaria mellea (Vahl.) Karst., which was earlier considered as a one polymorphic species, has been divided into 5 groups, which cannot be hybridized among themselves and have the status of a biological species [1-3], with the help of a genetic test. Nowadays instead of talking about Armillaria mellea (Vahl.) Karst. we mention Armillaria mellea sensu lato, that is the Armillaria complex, comprising the following closely related species: A. borealis Marxm. & Korhonen A. cepistipes Velen., A. ostoyae (Romagn.) Herink, A. gallica Marxm. & Romagn., A. mellea (Vahl: Fr.) Kumm. (A. mellea sensu stricto) [3-7]. In Russia, as earlier in Western Europe, all 5 species of A. mellea s. l. mentioned above were discovered and accurately identified (with the help of the genetic test) .
Besides genetic incompatibility, distinguished species of A. mellea s. l. have macromorphological (at the level of macrostructures: rhizomorph and fruit body) and ecological differences. On the basis of these differences comparative descriptions of the species A. mellea s. l. were elaborated [4-5, 7-9].
Importance of preliminary (before using the genetic test) differentiation and identification of the species Armillaria in the field can be connected with necessity for receiving source information on occurrence and confinedness of separate species in certain regions, depending on type and tempo of natural resources exploitation. The aim of our work was to detect (differentiate and identify) the species A. mellea s. l. according to eco-macromorphological characters in coppice oakeries of Belgorod region in Russian Federation.
Object of the research is the complex A. mellea s. l. in coppice oakeries of Shebekinsky and Belgorod districts of Belgorod region in Russian Federation. Field studies were carried out in 2010-2013 in oak timber stands with prevailing English oak (ripening and ripe) as part of mountain, ravine and watershed oakeries. In the process of the work implementation we used methods of phytopathology and mycology , system analysis .
General description of representants of A. mellea s. l. in coppice oakeries in Belgorod region. Modern systematics of fungic organisms (www.indexfungorum.org and http://www.mycobank.org) qualifies honey fungi species A. mellea s. l. as kingdom Fungi (or Mycota), phylum Basidiomycota, class Agaricomycetes, order Agaricales, family Physalacriaceae. They are saprotrophs and semi-saprotrophs (facultative parasites), and are characterized by polytrophy, but at the same time they are distinguished by substrate specificity. They induce white sapwood rot.
Main distinctive macromorphostructures of A. mellea s. l. in the wild are rhizomorphs in surface soil, on trees roots and under cortex, white coat of mycelium under cortex of stressed trees and fruit bodies.
Ecomorphotypes A. mellea s. l. in Belgorod region's oakeries. On the basis of obtained empirical (verbaldescriptive and photo-documentary) material we discriminated 2 ecomorphotypes in the complex A. mellea in loco (fig. 1-2) and composed their detailed description without using biometric parameters (table 1).
Comparative analysis of similarity of local ecomorphotypes descriptions and A. mellea s. l. known species descriptions. Analysis was performed according to known characters-criteria [4-9] taking into account quality of their display distinctiveness.
The most reliable macromorphological criterion for division of species in the complex A. mellea s. l. is peculiarities of construction of a ring on a stipe. The following three species have a stiff and solid ring which does not disappear over time: A. borealis, A. ostoyae and A. mellea s. str. [4-9]. A mealy, web-like ring, which disappears fast, is a distinctive feature for species A. cepistipes and A. gallica [4-9]. Also the last two species belong to the ecological group of saprotrophs [4, 6, 9]. Only in some cases they can be facultative parasites and poor pathogens. In phytopathological processes they usually play a secondary role . If we refer to description of ring's construction peculiarities and ecological peculiarities of local ecomorphotypes (see table 1, fig. 1-2), we should see that both of them belong to the grouping of species A. cepistipes--A. gallica. This conviction is reinforced also by the result of rhizomorphs macrostructure comparison: rhizomorphs of local ecomorphotypes (see table 1) and representants of A. cepistipes--A. gallica [4, 7, 9] are characterized by monopodial ramification. As for geographical information about expansion of A. cepistipes and A. gallica, it is known that these species are found everywhere, both in Western and Eastern Europe, including Belarus, Ukraine and Russia , and also in Siberia . Besides, A. gallica was exactly identified in oakeries of Voronezh region , which share borders with Belgorod region. Thus, there is no doubt that ecomorphotypes we investigate (see table 1) belong to A. cepistipes--A. gallica.
The next identification stage is detection of belonging of each of two local ecomorphotypes to a certain species: A. cepistipes or A. Gallica according to colour and form of cap, stipe, size and concentration of squames on fruit bodies' caps .
Form of a cap of ripe fruit bodies of A. cepistipes is often characterized [4, 9] as a flat-convex, its colour is grey, yellow or flesh. Form of a cap of ripe fruit bodies of A. gallica is often characterized [4, 9] as convex with a mount in the centre, its colour is red, yellow, brown or olive. Cap's edge is striped with remains of partial veil.
Cap's squames of A. gallica are bigger and more dense than of A. cepistipes--especially it is noticeable with young fruit bodies . Squames of ripe fruit bodies partially disappear . Opinions on squames' concentration are discrepant [4-9], so we do not consider this character.
Stipes of both A. cepistipes and A. gallica is cylindrical, often has a claviform thickening at the bottom . Stipe of A. cepistipes below a ring is usually lighter, without remains of partial veil, sometimes is of a lightyellow hue at the bottom. Ring of A. cepistipes is neat, whitish-grey [4, 9]. A. gallica's stipe below a ring is usually darker, with remains of partial veil, yellowing at the bottom. Ring of A. gallica is whitish with an express yellow hue and uneven edges [4, 9], when ring disappears--a yellow print may appear on a stipe.
Gills of A. cepistipes are decurrent, at first white, then reddish with spots . Gills of A. gallica are adnate or slightly decurring on to a stipe, at first white, then up to pink-brown .
Fruit bodies of A. cepistipes grow in groups, joints or separately on stumps and trunks of foliage trees [4, 9]. Fruit bodies of A. gallica grow separately and in solitary groups on cavings of burnt wood, on windfall and stumps of foliage species [4, 9], often at the bottom of living trees [4, 9].
Considering above given descriptions of peculiarities of A. cepistipes and A. gallica, known from special sources, we successively compared characters of one of the known species (A. cepistipes) with corresponding characters of, in turn, ecomorphotype #1 and ecomorphotype #2 (see table 1, fig. 1-2). Then of another one--A. gallica--with corresponding characters of, in turn, ecomorphotype #1 and ecomorphotype #2 (see table 1, fig. 1-2). Results were recorded as a conditional similarity quotient, expressed in fractional form, where denominator is general number of categories of characters under comparison, and numerator is number of descriptions coinciding in essence. Ecomorphotype #1--A. cepistipes (1/8), A. gallica (8/8). Ecomorphotype #2--A. --cepistipes (8/8), A. gallica (1/8). From this it follows that ecomorphotype #1 is most probably a species A. gallica, and ecomorphotype #2--A. cepistipes.
Thus, we can draw conclusion that in coppice oakeries of Belgorod region of Russian Federation the complex Armillaria mellea sensu lato is represented by two species A. cepistipes Velen. and A. gallica Marxm. & Romagn. For each of two species an eco-macromorphological description was composed; these descriptions allow to differentiate and identify them in the field with high confidence.
Received 25 March 2014
Received in revised form 20 April 2014
Accepted 15 May 2014
Available online 5 June 2014
The research was supported by the Russian Science Foundation (project N[degrees] 14-17-00171) regarding subject: "Regional responses of environmental components caused by climate change with different periodicity : South Central Russian upland forest".
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Dunayev Alexander Vladimirovich, Kalugina Svetlana Viktorovna, Tokhtar Valeriy Konstantinovich, Dunayeva Elena Nikolaevna, Kukharuk Natalya Stepanovna, Mitryaykina Antonina Mikhailovna, Polshina Marina Aleksandrovna
Belgorod State University, Pobedy St., 85, Belgorod, 308015, Russia
Corresponding Author: Dunayev Alexander Vladimirovich, Belgorod State University, Pobedy St., 85, Belgorod, 308015, Russia
able 1: Description of ecomorphotype in the complex A. mellea s. l. in Belgorod oakeries. Ecomorphotype #1 Ecomorphotype #2 1 2 Ecological group, pathologic role Saprotroph, in some cases Saprophyte, in some cases facultative parasite on weakened facultative parasite on trees. Often met on oaks, weakened weakened and dying trees, by butt rot invaders (beefsteak secondary parasite. fungus Fistulina hepatica (Schaeff.) With. and sulphur polypore Laetiporus sulphureus (Bull.) Murrill). Confinedness to forest sites and host plants Confined to maple-linden and ash Confined to oak timber stands oak timber stands in conditions. with some aspens or cultivated [D.sub.2]Met mainly on oaks. oaks in aspen cutover areas in conditions [D.sub.2-3], [D.sub.3]. Met on oaks and aspens. Rhizomorphs Dark brown coming near to black, Black, penetrating soil with glossy, densely penetrating top underground tree remains, soil, monopodially ramifying on monopodially ramifying. roots and under cortex of stressed trees and stumps. Fruit bodies Formed epiphytically on rhizomorphs Formed epiphytically on or laid under cortex of stressed rhizomorphs or endophytically trees and stumps. on subcortial mycelium. Continuation of table 1 1 2 Fruit bodies' macrocharacters Cap has little difference colour Cap of young fruit bodies is intensity of young and ripe fruit darker, grey-brown, then it bodies, it is usually of reddish lightens to buff-grey with a hues (meat-red, yellowish red, darker centre; at first it is reddish brown); cap is convex convex, then almost extended, spherical or campanulate in case of sometimes with depression and young bodies and pitching convex mount in the centre. Cap's umbrella-shaped in case of ripe edge is often flexuose and bodies. Cap's edge preserves white declinate. Squames are small, flake-like remains of partial veil. scarce, cover the whole cap. Squames of young specimens' caps are dense and big, over time they disappear on the periphery of a cap. Stipe is cylindrical, young fruit Stipe is cylindrical, thin, bodies are quite thick, and ripe sometimes with a thickening at ones are more or less thin, with a the bottom; above a ring it claviform thickening at the bottom; has a cap's colour, below it-- above a ring it is whitish, below a it is darker. Stipe's flesh ring it has a cap's colour or is of may be mealy, whitish. darker, browner hues; its bottom has yellow shade. Stipe preserves flake-like remains of partial veil, yellowish on the place of disappearing ring. Stipe's flesh is stiff, white or pinkish. Ring is mealy, web-filmy, with Ring is less mealy, filmy, uneven yellowish edge; disappears with more or less even edge, fast. greyish-white, may disappear over time. Gills of young specimens are Gills of young specimens are yellowish-pink, over time they whitish, over time they darken darken to rusty brown, with darker to flesh-brown, sometimes with spots; adnate or decurrent on to darker spots; slightly stipe. Spore print is whitish. decurring on to stipe. Spore print is white. Period and peculiarities of fructification End of September--beginning of Second half of September-- November; bears fruit solitarily, beginning of November; bears in small groups, rarely-- fruit in small groups and acervately. acervately, rarely-- solitarily.
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|Author:||Vladimirovich, Dunayev Alexander; Viktorovna, Kalugina Svetlana; Konstantinovich, Tokhtar Valeriy; N|
|Publication:||Advances in Environmental Biology|
|Date:||May 1, 2014|
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