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Early Lutheran hymnals and other musical sources in the Kessler Reformation collection at Emory University.

Emory University was founded in 1836 by the Georgia Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church. (1) It is therefore perhaps not the most likely location for a world-class collection of primary sources from the sixteenth-century German Reformation. During the past few decades, however, several factors have contributed to the development of the Richard C. Kessler Reformation Collection. In 1975, Pitts Theology Library purchased the holdings of the Hartford Theological Seminary--approximately 220,000 volumes, including the Beck Lutherana Collection--and instantly became the second-largest theology library in North America. (2) A dozen years later, in 1987, the Kessler Collection was established when Richard and Martha Kessler donated their private collection of Reformation imprints and manuscripts to Emory. Since then, the collection has continued to grow. Thirty years after the Hartford acquisition, it now contains more than 3,200 items. (3)

The centerpiece of the Kessler Collection is its extensive list of early printed works by Martin Luther, unmatched by any other library in North America. Among the over 900 publications by Luther is a large number of sermons, as well as a copy of the September Testament (Wittenberg, 1522), Luther's translation of the Greek New Testament into German. The remainder of the collection includes books, pamphlets, and manuscripts by Luther's colleagues and opponents; Roman Catholic responses to Luther; and documents such as the first Latin and German editions of the Augsburg Confession. There are substantial numbers of works by Philipp Melanchthon, Desiderius Erasmus, Johann Eck, and Andreas Rudolff-Bodenstein von Karlstadt. In all cases, the focus is on the pivotal years of the German Reformation, 1500-1570.

Among the holdings of the Kessler Collection are several early Lutheran hymnals and a number of other items containing or pertaining to music. Some of these publications appear not to be held by any other library in North America, and several may not even be held in major European collections. This article provides an overview of the musical materials in the Kessler Collection, with the hope of stimulating more intensive investigations in the future.

PAMPHLETS CONTAINING ONE OR MORE SONGS

Lutheran hymns were printed individually before they were gathered together in hymnals. As Joseph Herl points out, "The first Lutheran hymn publications were broadsheets (also called broadsides), single sheets of paper printed on one side, and pamphlets, single gatherings of leaves usually containing only one, two, or three hymns." (4) The Kessler Collection currently includes no broadsheets. It does, however, hold four pamphlets, each containing seven or eight printed pages. (5)
 (1) Drey geystliche lieder vom wort | gottes, durch Georg kern |
 Landtgraff Philips | zu Hessen Ge= | sangmay= | ster. | Der Juppiter
 verendert geystlich, | durch Hans Sachssen Schuster. | Anno.M.D.XXv--
 n.p., 1525--4 unnumbered leaves--shelf mark 1525 Kern (6)


The earliest of the pamphlets (1525) includes four hymns. (7) The first, "O Gott Vater, du hast Gewalt," is by a well-known Reformation figure, Hans Sachs (1494-1576), the famous cobbler and Meistersinger of Nuremberg. (8) The wording on the title page ("Der Juppiter verendert geystlich") indicates that this twelve-stanza dialogue between the sinner and Christ is a contrafactum of an earlier secular song. (9) It dates from early in Sachs's career, just two years after his famous didactic poem, "The Wittenberg Nightingale." This probably is the hymn's first appearance in print. (10) It later was incorporated into many hymnals, however, including four in the Kessler Collection: numbers (6)-(8), (10) herein.

The other three songs, in contrast, appear nowhere else and were penned by an individual about whom very little is known. (11) The title page indicates that Georg Kern served as "singing master" (Gesang-mayster) at the court of Philipp, landgrave of Hesse (1504-1567). A remark printed beneath each song mentions that Kern was from Geisenhausen, a town in Bavaria just a few miles southeast of Landshut. Since the first church order for Hesse was drafted just one year after this pamphlet was published, Eduard Emil Koch speculates that Kern's hymns may have helped to accelerate the introduction of the Reformation into this region. (12) Beyond this, however, even the venerable Allgemeine deutsche Biographie avers that "nothing else seems to be known about Kern's life." (13)
 (2) Zwey Schon new Geist= | lich lied, aus Gottlicher schrifft, von
 dem | wusten wesen der itzigen bosen Welt, zum | schrecken den
 Gottlosen, vnd zu trost den | Christen, Jm thon, Frisch auff ihr
 Lands | knecht alle & c. durch M. R. Muntzer. | Das ander, Gott zu
 bitte[n] | vm[b] vergebung der sund, vnd vmb stercku[n]g | des
 glaubens, auch vmb ein seliges end, | Jm thon, wie der 13. Psalm, Herr
 Gott | wie lang vergissest mein & c. M. R.--Nuremberg: Christoph
 Gutknecht, n.d.--4 unnumbered leaves--shelf mark 1550 Munt


Even less is known about the author of the second pamphlet. His last name was Muntzer, but he has not yet been identified more specifically. The colophon indicates that it was printed in Nuremberg by Christoph Gutknecht. No date is given, but Philipp Wackernagel places it around 1550. (14) The booklet contains two songs. The first, "Ach Gott, thu dich erbarmen," has twelve stanzas, and the second, "Wer meinen glaub, Gott schopffer mein," only four. Each also includes a concluding couplet. (15) Like the earlier Sachs and Kern documents, this pamphlet has no printed music. Rather, the tunes are indicated by title: "Frisch auff ihr Lands knecht alle" for the first hymn, and "Herr Gott wie lang vergissest mein"--a setting of Psalm 13--for the second. (16)
 (3) Ein vermanlied: | im Lager | zu Werd gemacht, zu singen | inn
 Pentzenawer odder | Toller weise--n.p., 1546-4 unnumbered leaves--
 shelf mark 1546 Verm


The other two pamphlets each contain just a single song. The first, "Wolauff jhr Deudsche Christen," is a "soldier's song" (Vermanlied) that runs to nineteen stanzas and was published in 1546 (see fig. 1). (17) It is not a hymn but rather a pro-Lutheran call to arms: an exhortation to fight for God's honor and against the pope, king, emperor, and others who were considered to be worldly representatives of the devil. (18) The pamphlet's title indicates that it could be sung to either of two popular melodies: "zu singen inn Pentzenawer odder Toller weise." (19) In addition, music for a third melody is printed at the beginning (see fig. 2). (20)

The title of the "soldier's song" states that it was "written in the encampment at Werd" (im Lager zu Werd gemacht). The historical and cultural context of this place opens a fascinating and rich field of inquiry outside the mainstream of sixteenth-century German popular song. Werd is a small village whose population has ranged between 500 and 700 inhabitants over the past few centuries. It is located not in Germany but in the area of present-day Romania known as Transylvania, a mile or two southwest of Agnita, on the Altbach, a tributary of the Harbach River. Werd was a settlement of the Transylvanian Saxons, Germanic people who migrated east beginning in the twelfth century. The village is first documented in the early 1300s, and its church was built in the fifteenth century. (21)

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]

Luther's writings began circulating in the 1520s among the German-speaking population of Transylvania. In 1543 Transylvania's leading reformer, Johannes Honter (1498-1549), published Formula reformationis ecclesiae Coronensis ac Barcensis provinciae. This important document "abolished the Mass and other liturgical practices and replaced them with an evangelical service that included Communion in both kinds, Matins, and Vespers." (22) Over the next few years, Honter and Valentin Wagner (ca. 1510-1557) helped to prepare a new church order for the Transylvanian Saxons, Reformatio Ecclesiarum Saxonicarum in Transylvania (translated into German as Kirchenordnung aller Deutschen in Sybemburgen), which marked the official introduction of the Reformation among these people. (23) It was approved in 1547, just one year after the "soldier's song" was published. Because the "soldier's song" appeared around the time of the Schmalkald War (1546-47) and includes a woodcut of a war scene, it has been viewed as a religious and artistic response to that particular conflict. Future interpretations will have to take into account, however, its origins among the newly-reformed Transylvanian Saxons.
 (4) Klag lied: | Deren von Magdeburgk, zu Gott vnd | allen frommen
 Christen. Jm thon | des Zwelfften Psalms: Ach Gott | vom Hymel sihe
 darein, Vnd I las dich das erbarmen--n.p., 1551--4 unnumbered
 leaves--shelf mark 1551 Klag


The last pamphlet contains a "song of lamentation" (Klaglied) and a plea for God's help, "Gantz elendt schreien Herr zu dir." (24) As the title of the publication indicates, it is addressed sometimes "to God" (stanzas 1-3, 16-18) and sometimes to "all devout Christians" (stanzas 4-15, 19-24). The text is an acrostic: the first letters of the stanzas spell out the slogan "Gottes Wort bleibt ewiglich" (God's Word endures forever). The body of the song is followed by Christ's reply--an additional stanza whose prosody is different from the others--then a very specific date: "Am 8 Augusti, Anno 1551 & c." The place of publication is not given, but one assumes that it was Magdeburg. Not only does the name of this city appear in the title, but at the bottom of the title page there is a ten-line poem whose first letters spell out the word "Magdeburgk." Moreover, Magdeburg had become a focal point of Lutheran resistance in the religious wars at midcentury; it was, in fact, under siege in 1550-51. (25)

Stanza 19 laments that over 20,000 men had shed their blood ("mehr dan[n] Zweyntzigk tausent Man, | Vergossen han jhr Bludte"). Similarly, stanza 21 claims that more than 80,000 had suffered in one way or another ("Viel mehr dan[n] Achtzigk tausent Seel, | Die leiden Hertzlich angst vnd queel"). Though the publication has no music, its title indicates that the song should be sung to the melody of Luther's paraphrase of Psalm 12, "Ach Gott, vom Himmel sieh darein." (26)

HYMNALS
 (5) Etlich Cristlich lider | Lobgesang, vn[d] Psalm, dem rai= | nen
 wort Gottes gemess, auss der | heylige[n] schrifft, durch mancher= |
 ley hochgelerter gemacht, in der | Kirchen zu singen, wie es dann |
 zum tayl berayt zu Wittenberg | in ubung ist. | wittenberg. |
 M.D.Xiiij--[Nuremberg: Jobst Gutknecht, 1524]--12 unnumbered
 leaves--shelf mark 1524 Etli


The first of the five hymnals in the Kessler Collection is a copy of the socalled Achtliederbuch, generally regarded as the earliest hymnbook of the Reformation. Of the eight hymns, four are by Luther, three by his associate Paul Speratus (1484-1551), and one is anonymous. Music is provided for five of the songs, but two of the melodies are identical, and a heading indicates that this same tune was to be used for two other hymns as well ("Die drey nachfolgenden Psalm. | singt man in disem thon"). The three songs by Speratus include lists of the biblical passages upon which they are based.

The literature on the Achtliederbuch describes three versions of this publication, which differ from one another in minute details. (27) It has long been known that they were printed in Nuremberg by Jobst Gutknecht, despite the fact that "Wittenberg" is given as the place of publication. The date also is incorrect in many of the exemplars (including the one in the Kessler Collection): the Roman numeral should have another "X" (1524 instead of 1514).

Emory's Achtliederbuch is a unique copy of a fourth version, a variant corrected printing of the first edition. The woodcut border at the top of the title page matches Ala (1) in the Weimar edition of Luther's works (Benzing, no. 3571) rather than Ala (2) (Benzing, no. 3572). On the other hand, a typographical error in a date ("1523") at the top of page A2b in Ala (1) is corrected in the Kessler copy. It appears then that the Achtliederbuch in the Kessler Collection fits between Ala (1) and Ala (2). Moreover, it matches the description of Benzing's missing "Variante 2" of no. 3571. (28)
 (6) Enchiridi= | on Geistliker | leder vnde Psalmen, | vppet nye
 gecorri= | geret. | Sampt der Vesper | Complet, Metten | vnde
 Missen--Magdeburg: Michael Lotther, 1536--109 numbered leaves, 3
 unnumbered leaves--shelf mark 1536 Ench


By present-day standards, it may seem odd to refer to a publication with a relatively small number of songs, such as the Achtliederbuch, as a "hymnal." The term most certainly is appropriate, however, for the Magdeburg Enchiridion, which contains seventy-five hymns, plus orders of worship for Vespers, Compline, Matins, and the Mass. One-third of the songs are by Luther, and another dozen by members of his circle. The rest are an eclectic collection, "written by pious men in places other than Wittenberg"--that is, in cities such as Nuremberg, Strasbourg, Breslau, Basel, and even distant Riga. Thirty-one of the hymns in the main part of the book, plus the Te Deum in the Matins service, have printed music.

The Enchiridion is one of the earliest hymnals printed in Magdeburg, the first major free city in North Germany to adopt the ideas of the Reformers and among the first to accept the Augsburg Confession. This little book also is one of the few remaining Low German hymnals dating from Luther's lifetime. It was published ten years before his death, and no other copies are known to have survived. Low German was the spoken and written language of North Germany until the first half of the seventeenth century. Writings and songs of the Reformation were translated into Low German and began appearing as early as 1525. In addition to the printed material, the Enchiridion contains four handwritten hymns in its endpapers--in a dialect of Low German that can be traced to the northwest corner of Germany, near the Dutch border. These songs apparently were entered by an early owner of the book, probably within a decade after it was published, to supplement the printed repertory. They include Luther's "Christ, unser Herr, zum Jordan kam" of 1541; "Nun lob, mein Seele, den Herren," a metrical version of Psalm 103 by Johannes Gramann of Konigsberg; "Ich danck dir, liebe Herre," a morning song by Johannes Kohlross, pastor in Basel; and "Herr Gott, der du erforschest mich," a metrical version of Psalm 139 by Heinrich Vogther. (29)
 (7) Geistliche Lie | der Zu Wit= | temberg, | Anno 1543--Wittenberg:
 Joseph Klug, 1544--198 leaves, most numbered--shelf mark 1544 Luth I


The next two items--numbers (7) and (8/9)--both are editions of important hymnals that preserve the Wittenberg repertory of congregational song. Robin A. Leaver provides the following concise summary:
 The first collection that Luther prepared specifically for
 congregational use in Wittenberg was the Geistliche Lieder, printed by
 Joseph Klug in 1529.... [T]he 1529 Wittenberg hymnal was carefully
 planned and followed closely the structure of the church year. The
 Wittenberg hymnal was reissued in enlarged and revised forms during
 the remainder of Luther's life: later known editions appeared in 1533,
 1535, 1543, 1544 (three times), and 1545. The beautiful edition
 published by Valentin Bapst, Geystlicher Lieder (Leipzig, 1545), was
 effectively a later edition of the "Wittenberg" hymnal, the last to be
 overseen by Luther. (30)


The title page of Emory's copy of the Klug hymnal has the year 1543, but the colophon indicates that it was printed the following year ("Gedruckt zu Wittemberg, Durch Joseph Klug, Anno M. D. XLiiij"). No copy of the original 1529 edition has been preserved, and we have only one surviving exemplar for each of the 1533 and 1535 editions. The volume in the Kessler Collection is, therefore, one of just a few remaining copies that were published during Luther's lifetime. (31)

Though the scope of this article does not permit detailed comparison of the 1543/44 and 1533 editions, it is worth noting that the differences are considerable. On the one hand, many items appear in the later edition that were not present a decade earlier. On the other hand, quite a few items in the former edition subsequently were either altered or omitted altogether. Thoughtful analysis of the similarities and differences between the editions of Klug's hymnal would surely yield important clues about the development of hymnody, liturgy, and doctrine in the early decades of the German Reformation.
 (8) Geystliche | Lieder. | Mit einer newen Vorrede, | D. M.
 Luth. | ... Leipzig--Leipzig: Valentin Babst, 1567--200 unnumbered
 leaves--shelf mark 1567 Geys:1

 (9) Psalmen vnd | Geistliche lieder, welche | von frommen Christen |
 gemacht vnd zusamen | gelesen sind. | Auffs newe vbersehen, |
 gebessert vnd ge= | mehret. | Leipzig. | M. D. LXVII--Leipzig:
 Valentin Babst, 1567--144 unnumbered leaves--shelf mark 1567 Geys:2


The hymnal published in Leipzig by Valentin Babst was, for all intents and purposes, a later version of Klug's hymnal. The content of part one of the original 1545 printing of Babst is similar to the 1543 edition of Klug. (32) The first part of Emory's 1567 copy of Babst (no. 8), in turn, is virtually identical to the first edition. It runs to 199 unnumbered leaves containing eighty-nine songs, ordered with Roman numerals, and it includes elaborate metal-engraved borders on each page as well as numerous large engravings illustrating Biblical themes (see fig. 3). Part two--number (9)--is bound together with part one but has its own title page, and the numbering of the songs starts over with Roman numeral I. Unlike part one, it is quite different from the first edition. The quantity of hymns is greatly expanded--from forty to seventy--and the original songs are reordered. As with Klug's hymnal, careful examination of these differences would doubtless be fruitful. (33) The vast majority of songs in both parts have music.

Emory's copy of Babst's hymnal contains signatures and dates in the hand of several former owners: "Hinrich Burmester" (1731), "Johann Christoph Schmugel" (1758), and "Hermann Laut Heinrich Nobbe" (1853). Schmugel (1727-1798) was a student of Georg Philipp Telemann in Hamburg, who subsequently served as organist at St. John's in Luneburg (1758-1766) and as organist (1766-1784) and Kantor (1784-1798) at St. Nicholas's in Molln. (34) The book also has a stamp indicating that it once belonged to the manor library in the Thuringian village of Niedertopfstedt, about twenty-five miles northeast of Erfurt.

[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]
 (10) Kirche[n] | Gesang, Aus dem | Wittenbergischen, vnd allen an= |
 dern den besten Gesangbuchern, so biss an | hero hin vnd wider
 aussgangen, colligirt vnd ge= | samlet, Jn cine feine, richtige vnd
 gute Ordnung gebracht, vnd | aulfs fleiBigest, vnd nach den besten
 exemplaren, | corrigiret vnd gebessert | Furnemlich de[n] Pfarherrn,
 Schulmeisterm | vnd Cantoribus, so sich mil jren Kirchen zu der
 Christ= | lichen Augspurgischen Confession bekennen, vnd bey |
 denselben den Chor mit singen, regieren vnd | versorgen mussen, zu
 dienst vnd | zum besten. | M.D. I.XIX--Frankfurt am Main: Johann
 Wolff, 1569--4 unnumbered leaves, 353 unnumbered leaves, 7 unnumbered
 leaves, plus 24 additional leaves with manuscript material--shell mark
 1569 Kirc


The most recent songbook in the Kessler Collection is a huge volume titled Kirchen Gesang, which was published in Frankfurt in 1569 (see fig. 4). Containing about 400 hymns (roughly half with music)--including songs of the Bohemian Brethren, and psalm settings by Johann Magdeburg (ca. 1520-1565), Nicolaus Herman (1500-1561), and Burkhard Waldis (ca. 1490-ca. 1557), as well as the standard repertory by Luther and his circle--this collection is effectively a summation of the first great epoch of Protestant church music. It was the subject of a detailed study by Oswald Bill, which appeared in 1969. (35)

Emory's copy includes two handwritten inscriptions, in Latin and German, that provide valuable clues about its provenance. Both are found inside the front cover, and they affirm the same things, though the German provides more details. It states that on 24 May 1587--eighteen years after the book was published--"Herr Karl vonn Lichtenstein" gave it to the choir of the church at "Felsburg."

The princely house of Liechtenstein is one of the oldest noble families still in existence, dating back to the twelfth century, and now in its twenty-fifth recorded generation. (36) Karl (1569-1627) was the most important member of the house of Liechtenstein. Among his many honors, he held the highest office at the imperial court of Rudolph II, and in 1608 he was elevated to the rank of hereditary prince. Feldsberg was the family estate where Karl was born. It is located on the southern border of the Czech Republic, near the corner where Austria, Slovakia, and the Czech Republic meet, and it is known today as Valtice. Karl von Liechtenstein is a fascinating figure--not least because he was raised as a Protestant, and even attended a Bohemian Brethren school, but converted to Roman Catholicism in 1599 at age thirty. (37)

[FIGURE 4 OMITTED]

Knowledge of Karl von Liechtenstein's religious proclivities may help to explain why this large book--which transmits the cream of the Lutheran and Bohemian Brethren traditions--also includes forty-five pages of added manuscript material at the end, mostly in Latin. We may never know, however, how a music book that Karl gave to the church of his family estate when he was eighteen years old made its way into the hands of William Salloch, a rare-book dealer in Ossining, New York, from whom it was purchased for the Kessler Collection.

LITURGIES
 (11) Ein weyse Christ= | lich Mess zu hal= | ten vnd zum tisch |
 Gottes zu gehen. | Martinus Luther. | Wyttemberg. | M. D.
 xxiiij--Wittenberg: n.p., 1524--18 unnumbered leaves--shelf mark 1524
 Luth BBB

 (12) Ein weyse Christ | lich Mess zuhal= | ten vn[d] zum tisch |
 Gottis zu gehen. | Martinus Luther. | Wyttemberg. | M. D.
 xxiiii--Wittenberg: n.p., 1524--19 unnumbered leaves--shelf mark 1524
 Luth U


The next group of documents is orders of worship for church services. Numbers (11) and (12) are copies of Paul Speratus's German translation of Luther's Formula, Missae et Communionis pro Ecclesia Vuillembergensi (Form of Mass and Communion for the Church at Wittenberg). This important treatise was "Luther's first attempt to describe an evangelical mass in its entirety." (38) It was drafted at the behest of Luther's friend Nicolaus Hausmann, pastor at St. Mary's in Zwickau, and published first in Latin in December 1523, then in German the next month. (39) At the end of the first printing of the first German edition (no. 11, see fig. 5) are the words of the hymn "Frohlich wollen wir Halleluja singen" by Johann Agricola (1494?-1566). (40) Similarly, an appendix to a subsequent printing--number (12)--includes both Agricola's hymn and one by Luther: the first appearance of "Es wollt uns Gott genadig sein." (41)

[FIGURE 5 OMITTED]
 (13) Deutsche | Messe vnd Ordnu[n]g | Gotes diensts, zu Wit= |
 temberg, furge= | nom[m]en. | M.D. XXVI--n.p., 1526--26 unnumbered
 leaves--shelf mark 1526 Luth R


The Kessler Collection includes a copy of Luther's German Mass and Order of Service, a very important publication in which the reformer sets forth his ideas about public worship, especially the main service on Sundays. Most of the printed music in the volume is chant: formulas for intoning the opening psalm, the Epistle, and the Gospel; the Kyrie; and the Words of Institution. Also included is Luther's metrical version of the German Sanctus, "Jesaja, dem Propheten, das geschah." (42) After the Deutsche Messe appeared in Wittenberg early in 1526, it quickly was reprinted in several other cities. Emory's copy was published in Augsburg, just four years before the diet that led to the formulation of the Augsburg Confession (see fig. 6). (43)
 (14) Teutsche | Letaney, vmb | alles anligen der | Cristenlichen |
 gemayn--n.p.: Jobst Gutknecht, n.d.--8 unnumbered leaves--shelf mark
 1529 Luth


The Kessler Collection also holds a rare copy of the German Litany of 1529, Luther's adaptation of the Roman Litany of All Saints. (44) Appended at the end of this lengthy liturgical chant is Luther's hymn "Verleih uns Frieden gnadiglich," his German translation of the antiphon "Da pacem Domine." (45)
 (15) Ordnu[n]g des | Herren Nachtmal: so | man die messz nennet, sampt
 der | Tauff vn[d] Jnseg[n]u[n]g der Ee, Wie | yetzt die diener des
 wort gots zu | Strassburg, Erneuwert, vnd | nach gotlicher gschrifft
 gebes= | sert habe[n] vss vrsach jn nach= | gender Epistel |
 gemeldet. | M D. xxv--n.p., 1525--24 unnumbered leaves--shelf mark
 1525 Ordn


[FIGURE 6 OMITTED]

This booklet contains orders of service for the Mass, and for the ceremonies of marriage and baptism, as they were practiced in the city of Strasbourg (see fig. 7). (46) Its rich cache of liturgical data offers the opportunity for comparison of Strasbourg's distinctive traditions with the central practices of Wittenberg. The Strasbourg liturgy includes four hymns with music. In addition to Luther's versions of Psalm 130 ("Aus tiefer Not schrei ich zu dir") and Psalm 67 ("Es wollt uns Gott genadig sein"), there are settings of Psalm 13 ("Ach Gott, wie lang vergissest mein") by Matthaus Greiter, cantor of Strasbourg Cathedral, and of Psalm 3 ("Ach Herr, wie sind meinr sund [sic] so vil") by Ludwig Oeler, another local figure. (47)

CHURCH ORDERS

The church orders in the Kessler Collection vary greatly in size and scope, from about 40 pages to over 600. The earliest was printed in 1531, while others appeared as late as the 1560s. These publications document the introduction of the Reformation into many different regions of Germany, and into cities as well as larger territories. The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation explains that
 as the Reformation was officially adopted by princes for their
 territories and by city councils, it had to be regulated by church
 orders (Kirchenordnungen). These documents addressed matters of church
 polity, administration, congregational life, charitable institutions,
 schools, the calendar, and worship, and therefore effected a
 "revolution" in social life. (48)


Although the church orders contain an enormous amount of information concerning matters of liturgical practice, the quantity of printed music in them is relatively small. Typically, it is limited to formulas for chanting portions of the Mass such as the Lord's Prayer, the Words of Institution, the Agnus Dei, and the Nicene Creed. (49)

In most cases, the Kessler Collection holds two or three different versions of a particular church order. It therefore can serve as a valuable resource for studying the development of liturgy, as well as other aspects of church life, in the early years of the German Reformation.

[FIGURE 7 OMITTED]
 (16) Der Erbarn | Stadt Braunschwyg | Christenliche Ordenung, zu |
 dienst dem heiligen Euange= | lio, Christlicher lieb, zucht, fri | de
 vnd eynigkeit, Auch darun | ter vil Christlicher lere | fur die
 Burger, | Durch Joan[n]. Bugenhagen | Pomer beschriben. 1531--
 Nuremberg: Friedrich Peypus, 1531--130 unnumbered leaves--shelf mark
 1531 Buge

 (17) Der Erbarn Stadt | Braunschweig Christliche Orde= | nung, zu
 dienst dem heiligen Euangelio, Christ= | licher lieb, zucht, friede
 vnd einigkeit, | Auch darunter viel Christli= | cher lehre fur die |
 Burger. | Durch Johan. Bugenhagen | Pomer beschrieben. | M. D. XXXI--
 n.p., 1563--184 unnumbered leaves--shelf mark 1563 Buge


Number (16) is the first High-German printing of the church order for the city of Braunschweig (see fig. 8). It originally was drafted in Low German in 1528 by Johannes Bugenhagen (1485-1558), who also produced similar documents for Hamburg (1529) and Lubeck (1531). (50) Number (17) is a revised reprint. (51)
 (18) Kirchen Ordnung, Jn | meiner gnedigen herrn der Marggra= | uen
 zu Brandenburg, vnd eins Er= | bern Rats der Stat Nurmberg | Oberkeyt
 vnd gepieten, Wie | man sich bayde mit der | Leer vnd Ceremo= | nien
 halten solle. | M. D. XXXIII--Nuremberg: Christoph Gutknecht, 1533--2
 unnumbered leaves, 57 numbered leaves, 1 unnumbered leaf--shelf mark
 1533 Kirc:1

 (19) Kirchen Ordnung In | meiner gnedigen Herrn der Marg= | grauen zu
 Brandenburg, Vnd eins Erbarn Raths | der Stadt Nurmberg Oberkeyt vnd
 Gebie= | ten, wie man sich bayde mit der Lehr | vnd Ceremonien hal= |
 ten solle. | Auffs new yetzo, dem alten Exemplar nach, mit | sonderm
 fleiss widerumb gedruckt. | Zu Nurnberg, bey Chri= | stoff
 Heussler. | 1564--Nuremberg: Christoph Heussler, 1564--2 unnumbered
 leaves, 57 numbered leaves, 1 unnumbered leaf--shelf mark 1564 Evan: 1


This document was drafted in 1529 by a group of theologians under the supervision of Andreas Osiander (1496?-1552) for use in the territories of Brandenburg-Nuremberg. It was put into effect in the city of Nuremberg on 1 January 1533 and in rural areas on 9 February. It subsequently became a model for other church orders, including number (22). (52) Number (19) is a later edition. (53)
 (20) Kirchen= | ordnunge zum an= | fang, fur die Pfarher in | Hertzog
 Hein | richs zu Sach | sen v. g. h. Fursten= | thumb. | M. D. XXXIX--
 Wittenberg: Hans Lufft, 1539--22 unnumbered leaves--shelf mark 1539
 Kirc

 (21) AGENDA, | Das ist, | Kyrchenordnung, wie | sich die Pfarrherrn
 vnd Seelsorger in | jren Ampten vn[d] diensten halten sollen, | Fur
 die Diener der Kyrchen in | Hertzog Heinrichen | zu Sachssen V. G.
 H. | Furstenthumb | gestel=| let. | Gedruckt zu Leipzig, | durch |
 Nicolaum Wolrab. | M. D. XL--Leipzig: Nikolaus Wolrab, 1540--6
 unnumbered leaves, 64 numbered leaves, 2 unnumbered leaves--shelf mark
 1540 Agen:1


[FIGURE 8 OMITTED]

Numbers (20) and (21) are the first and third editions, respectively, of the church order for Albertine Saxony (see fig. 9). (54) It was drafted by Justus Jonas (1493-1555) and other reformers, in connection with the introduction of the Reformation into this region (which included northern Thuringia, Leipzig, Meissen, and Dresden) by Duke Henry (1473-1541).
 (22) Kirchenord= | nung, wie es inn des durch= | leuchtigen
 hochgebornen Fursten vnnd Herrn, | Herrn Albrechts des Jungern
 Marggrauen zu | Brandenburgs, zu Preussen, zu Stettin, Pomern, der
 Cassuben | vnd Wenden, auch in Schlesien zu Oppeln vnd Ratibarn etc. |
 Hertzogs, Burggrauens zu Nurmberg, vnnd Fur= | stens zu Rugen,
 Furstenthumb, Landt, Obrig | keit vnd gebiet, mit der lehr vnd
 Ceremoni= | en bis auff vernere Christliche ver= | gleichung gehalten
 werden sol. | Gedruckt zu Leipzig | durch Wolff Gunter. | M. D. LII--
 Leipzig: Wolff Gunter, 1552--2 unnumbered leaves, 57 numbered leaves,
 1 unnumbered leaf--shelf mark 1552 Evan


This is the third church order for Prussia (after those of 1525 and 1544). It was introduced under Albert, margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach and duke of Prussia (1490-1568), and is a reprint of the 1533 Brandenburg-Nuremberg church order--number (18)--which has been characterized as "perhaps the single most influential and widely copied work of its kind during the Reformation." (55)
 (23) Kirchenordnung: | Wie es mit Christlich= | er Lere, reichung der
 Sacra= | ment, Ordination der Diener des Euan= | gelij, ordenlichen
 Ceremonien, in den | Kirchen, Visitation, Consistorio | vnd Schulen, |
 Jm Hertzogthumb | zu Meckelnburg etc. ge= | halten wird. |
 Witteberg. | Gedruckt durch Hans Lufft, | 1552--Wittenberg: Hans
 Lufft, 1552--136 numbered leaves--shelf mark 1552 Kirc

 (24) Kirchenordnung: | Wie es mit Christlich= | er Lere, reichung der
 Sacra= | ment, Ordination der Diener des Euan= | gelij, ordenlichen
 Ceremonien, in den | Kirchen, Visitation, Consisto= | rio vnd
 Schulen, | Jm | Hertzogthumb zu | Meckelnburg etc. gehal= | ten
 wird. | Witteberg. | Gedruckt durch Hans Lufft. | 1554--Wittenberg:
 Hans Lufft. 1554--144 numbered leaves--shelf mark 1554 Evan


These are two early editions of a church order for the duchy of Mecklenburg, which was commissioned by Johann Albrecht, duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (1525-1576). (56) Johannes Aurifaber (1519?-1575), who had served as Luther's personal attendant during his last year (1545-46), helped to draft it, and editorial assistance was provided by Philipp Melanchthon.

[FIGURE 9 OMITTED]
 (25) Kirchen Ordnung | Wie es mit der Reynen Lehr des Euan= | gelij,
 Administration der heyligen Sacrament, Anneh= | mung, verhorung, vnd
 bestetigung der Priester, Ordent= | lichen Ceremonien in den Kirchen,
 Visitation vnd | Synodis, in der Herrschafft Waldeck gehal= | ten
 werden soll. Anno Domini 1556. | Mense Martio auffgericht--Marburg:
 Andres Colben, 1557--68 unnumbered leaves--shelf mark 1557 Evan


This church order was written by a team of theologians in 1556 and issued the next year by the counts of Waldeck, a principality about twenty miles southwest of Kassel, for use in their territories. (57)
 (26) Kirchenordnung: | Wie es mit Christlicher Lere, reichung | der
 Sacrament, Ordination der Diener des | Euangelij, Ordentlichen Ceremo=
 | nien, Visitation, Consisto= | rio vnd Schulen, | Jm Hertzogthumb
 Lunenburg gehal= | ten wird. | Wittemberg. 1564--Wittenberg: Georgen
 Rhawen Erben, 1564--95 unnumbered leaves--shelf mark 1564 Brau


This is the first church order for the principality of Braunschweig-Luneburg. It was commissioned by Dukes Henry and William. (58)
 (27) Kirchenordnung | Vnnser, von | Gottes Genaden, | Julij, Hertzogen
 zu | Braunschweig vnd Luneburg, & c. Wie | es mit Lehr vnd Ceremonien
 vnsers Fursten= | thumbs Braunschweig, Wolffenbutlischen Theils, |
 Auch derselben Kirchen anhangenden sachen vnd ver= | richtungen,
 hinfurt (vermittelst Gottlicher | Gnaden) gehalten werden sol. |
 Gedruckt zu Wolffenbuttel, | durch Cunrad Horn. | M. D. LXIX--
 Wolfenbuttel: Cunrad Horn, 1569--64 unnumbered leaves, 448 pages
 (numbered 1-442, with many errors), 4 unnumbered leaves--shelf mark
 1569 Brau

 (28) Kirchenordnung | Vnnser, von | Gottes Genaden, | Julij Hertzogen
 zu | Braunschweig vnd Luneburg, etc. | Wie es mit Lehr vnd Ceremonien
 vnsers Fur= | stenthumbs Braunschweig, Wulffenbutlischen | Theils,
 Auch derselben Kirchen anhangenden | sachen vnd verrichtungen,
 hinfurt | (vermittelst Gottlicher Gna= | den) gehalten wer= | den
 sol. | Gedruckt zu Wulffenbuttel, | durch Cunradt Horn. | M. D. LXIX--
 Wolfenbuttel: Cunrad Horn, 1569--68 unnumbered leaves, 456 pages
 (numbered 1-451, with many errors), 4 unnumbered leaves--shelf mark
 1569 Brau A


Numbers (27) and (28) are two printings of the massive church order commissioned by Duke Julius of Braunschweig-Wolfenbuttel to introduce the Reformation in his lands. (59) It was written by Martin Chemnitz (1522-1586), superintendent of the churches in the city of Braunschweig, and Jakob Andreae (1528-1590), professor of theology at the University of Tubingen. (60)
 (29) Agend | Buchlein | fur die Pfar= | Herren auff | dem Land--
 Nuremberg: Johann vom Berg and Ulrich Neuber, 1543--88 printed,
 unnumbered leaves, plus 13 additional leaves with manuscript material
 sewn in--shelf mark 1543 Diet

 (30) Agend | Buchlein fur die | Pfarrherrn auff | dem Land. Durch |
 Vitum Dietrich. | M. D. XLV--Nuremberg: Johann vom Berg and Ulrich
 Neuber, 1545--124 unnumbered leaves--shelf mark 1545 Diet B

 (31) Agend | Buchlein, fur die | Pfarrherren auff dem Land. | Durch: |
 M. Vitum Dietrich. | Gedruckt zu Nurnberg, durch Vlrich | Newber. | M.
 D. LXIX--Nuremberg: Ulrich Neuber, 1569--121 unnumbered leaves--shelf
 mark 1569 Diet


The Kessler Collection holds the first (1543), fourth (1545), and fifth (1569) editions of the handbook for rural clergy by Veit Dietrich (1506-1549), pastor of St. Sebaldus in Nuremberg. (61) The 1545 and 1569 versions (see figs. 10 and 11) include not only the usual liturgical chants but also the song "Als Jesus Christus vnser Herr" (62) by Sebald Heyden (1499-1561), rector of the St. Sebaldus school and author of the important theoretical treatise De arte canendi (1540), (63) as well as the German Litany.

OTHER SOURCES
 (32) Die letzste[n] drey | Psalmen von Orgelen, | Paucke[n], Glocken
 vnd | der gleychen eusserlichen Gotss | dienst, ob vnd wie Got dar |
 ynnen gelobt wyrdt, Ver | deutscht durch Wen= | tzesslaum Linck Ec= |
 clesiasten zu Alden | burgk. | M D.XXIII. | Zwickaw--Zwickau: Jorg
 Gastel, 1523--12 unnumbered leaves--shelf mark 1523 Linc B


This pamphlet contains a German translation and exegesis of Psalms 148-50 by Wenceslaus Linck (1483-1547), a friend of Luther and leader in the Lutheran church during the first half of the sixteenth century (see fig. 12). He served as preacher in the Thuringian city of Altenburg (1522-24) and in Nuremberg (1525-47). The treatise on Die letzsten drey Psalmen dates from Linck's tenure in Altenburg. (64) It was published in Zwickau, about twenty miles south of Altenburg. (65)

[FIGURE 10 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 11 OMITTED]
 (33) Ain kurtzer be | griff vnd innhalt der gantzen | Bibel, in drew
 Lieder zu singen | gestellt, durch Joachim | Aberlin. | M. D.
 XXXIIII--n.p., 1534--48 unnumbered leaves--shelf mark 1534 Aber


This pedagogical work by Joachim Aberlin condenses the entire content of the Bible into three very long songs. The Old Testament is summarized in 132 stanzas, the psalter in 50, and the New Testament in 45. (66) Each song is preceded by several musical options--a melody in musical notation, followed by a list of song titles--with the indication that it may be sung to any of these tunes. (67) The songs also are acrostics. The first letter of each stanza of the Old Testament song spells out a biographical sketch:
 Joachim Aberlin auss dem dorf Garmenschwiler, zwischen dem vrsprung
 der Dunaw vnnd dem Bodense (in ainer gegne die haisst das Madach)
 gelegen, sang es also am Jstro. (Joachim Aberlin, from the village of
 Garmenschwiler, located between the source of the Danube and Lake
 Constance [in a region called the Madach]; it therefore was sung on
 the Istro.)


For the psalter, the hidden message reads: "Wol allen denen die auff Gott den Herren jr vertrauwen haben" [Happy are all those who put their trust in God the Lord]. The acrostic for the New Testament quotes 1 Timothy 2:5, in Latin--"Vnus Deus vnus etiam conciliator Dei et hominum homo Christus Iesus" [There is one God and one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus]--but it is incomplete, ending with the "C" in "Christus." The project is pervaded with the work of an educator, and Aberlin did indeed spend the bulk of his career as schoolmaster and pastor in the towns of Lauingen, Goppingen, Heiningen, and Fortschweier. (68)

[FIGURE 12 OMITTED]

Stephen A. Crist is associate professor of music at Emory University. An earlier version of this article was published in Music and Theology: Essays in Honor of Robin A. Leaver, ed. Daniel Zager, 9-30 (Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 2006).

1. See Gary S. Hauk, A Legacy of Heart and Mind: Emory Since 1836 (Atlanta: Emory University; produced by Bookhouse Group, 1999), 1-9.

2. Ibid., 148.

3. About 1,500 of these pieces are listed in The Richard C. Kessler Reformation Collection: An Annotated Bibliography, comp. Fred A. Grater, ed. Wm. Bradford Smith, 4 vols., Emory Texts and Studies in Ecclesial Life, 3-6 (Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1999), including nos. 1-2, 5-6, 10, 12-14, 22, 24-25, 27-31, and 33 described below.

4. Joseph Herl, Worship Wars in Early Lutheranism: Choir, Congregation, and Three Centuries of Conflict (New York: Oxford University Press, 2004), 88.

5. According to Hans Joachim Kohler and Hans J. Hillerbrand, "More than half the known pamphlets are only eight pages, while the average is roughly twice that length." "Pamphlets," in The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation, 4 vols., ed. Hans J. Hillerbrand (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996), 3:201.

6. Shelf marks refer to Special Collections of Pitts Theology Library, Emory University. I am grateful to M. Patrick Graham and the other librarians for their cordial and efficient assistance. The library's Web site, http://www.pitts.emory.edu (accessed 22 November 2006), includes an extensive Digital Image Archive of woodcuts and metal engravings from items in the Kessler Collection.

7. Philipp Wackernagel, Bibliographie zur Geschichte des deutschen Kirchenliedes im XVI. Jahrhundert (Frankfurt am Main, 1855; reprint, Hildesheim: Georg Olms, 1961, 1987), 67-68 (no. 177).

8. Philipp Wackernagel, Das deutsche Kirchenlied von der altesten Zeit bis zu Anfang des 17. Jahrhunderts, 5 vols. (Leipzig, 1864-77; reprint, Hildesheim: Georg Olms, 1964, 1990), 3:60-61 (no. 87).

9. For details of its origins, see Hans Sachs, Hans Sachs, 26 vols., ed. Adelbert von Keller and Edmund Goetze (Tubingen, 1870-1908; reprint, Hildesheim: Georg Olms, 1964), 22:104-8, 24:88-89 (Enr. 13), 25:12 (no. 97); Bernd Balzer, Burgerliche Reformationspropaganda: Die Flugschriften des Hans Sachs in den Jahren 1523-1525, Germanistische Abhandlungen, 43 (Stuttgart: J. B. Metzler, 1973), 94-95; Rebecca Wagner Oettinger, Music as Propaganda in the German Reformation (Aldershot, England: Ashgate, 2001), 104-12.

10. Karl Wilhelm Ludwig Heyse, Bucherschatz der deutschen Nationalliteratur des XVI. und XVII. Jahrhunderts (Berlin, 1854; reprint, Hildesheim: Georg Olms, 1967), 62 (no. 1017).

11. The songs are "Ellendigklich, ruff ich O gott, mein herr" (Wackernagel, Kirchenlied, 3:423 [no. 486]; Oettinger, 263-64 [no. 64]), "Ach feyndes neydt, wie hast so weyt" (Wackernagel, Kirchenlied, 3:423-24 [no. 487]; Oettinger, 222 [no. 7]), and "Von edler art, auch reyn vnd zart" (Wackernagel, Kirchenlied, 3:424 [no. 488]; Oettinger, 352 [no. 202]). Each contains three stanzas. Though they have no printed music, there are references to the tunes of secular songs. The first hymn is to be sung "Jn dem Thon. Klag fur ich gross, gantz ploss"; the second "Jn dem Thon. Mich wundert zwar, was frawen har"; and the third "Jn dem Thon. Von Edler art. eyn frewlein zart. & c." The latter melody is from a Minnelied whose history is traced in Franz M. Bohme, Altdeutsches Liederbuch: Volkslieder der Deutschen nach Wort und Weise aus dem 12. bis zum 17. Jahrhundert (Leipzig, 1877; reprint, Hildesheim: Georg Olms, 1966), 227-28 (no. 130).

12. Eduard Emil Koch, Geschichte des Kirchenlieds und Kirchengesangs der christlichen, insbesondere der deutschen evangelischen Kirche, 3d ed., 8 vols. (Stuttgart: Belser, 1866-77), 1:289.

13. Allgemeine deutsche Biographie, 56 vols., ed. Rochus von Liliencron (Leipzig: Duncker und Humblot, 1875-1912), 15:632.

14. Wackernagel, Bibliagraphie, 241 (no. 608). He lists two more editions as well, both published in Nuremberg, by Valentin Neuber (pp. 241-42 [no. 609]) and by Friderich Gutknecht (p. 242 [no. 610]).

15. Wackernagel, Kirchenlied, 3:772-74 (nos. 899 and 900).

16. On the origins of "Frisch auf, ihr Landsknecht alle!" see Bohme, 521-24 (no. 417).

17. Wackernagel, Bibliographie, 213 (no. 519). The words are reprinted in Wackernagel, Kirchenlied, 3:982-83 (no. 1167).

18. See Oettinger, 177, 399 (no. 226).

19. The "Benzenauer" melody is discussed in Bohme, 469-72 (no. 381), and the "Dollerlied" on pp. 456-59 (no. 374). The latter also is given in Johannes Zahn, Die Metodien der deutschen evangelischen Kirchenlieder: Aus den Quellen geschopft und mitgeteilt, 6 vols. (Gutersloh, 1889-93; reprint, Hildesheim: Georg Olms, 1997), 4:330 (no. 7213). I am grateful to Robin A. Leaver for his assistance in ascertaining the origins of these tunes.

20. Zahn, 3:385-86 (no. 5356).

21. Eduard Albert Bielz, Handbuch der Landeskunde Siebenburgens: Eine physikalisch-statistisch-topographische Beschreibung dieses Landes (Hermannstadt, 1857; reprint, Cologne: Bohlau, 1996), 419; Topographie der Ortschaften: Karte des Grossfurstentums Siebenburgen, Historisch-Landeskundlicher Atlas von Siebenburgen, ed. Otto Mittelstrass (Gundelsheim: Arbeitskreis fur Siebenburgische Landeskunde Heidelberg, 1993), 44; Die Siebenburger Sachsen Lexikon: Geschichte, Kultur, Zivilisation, Wissenschaften, Wirtschaft, Lebensraum Siebenburgen (Transsilvanien), ed. Walter Myss (Thaur bei Innsbruck: Wort und Welt, 1993), 571, 609; Tibor Szentpetery and Terezia Kerny, Gottes feste Burgen: Sachsische Wehrkirchen des Mittelalters in Siebenburgen (n.p., 1990), 141 (includes photos of the church in Werd). See also the online article about Werd by Johann Arz, http://www.siebenbuerger.de/ortschaften/werd/index.html, and the entry in the "German Genealogy: Transylvania Village List," http://www.genealogienetz.de/reg/ESE/7burg_tz.html (both accessed 22 November 2006).

22. David P. Daniel, "Honter, Johannes," in Oxford Encyclopedia, 2:250.

23. Georg Daniel Teutsch, Geschichte der Siebenburger Sachsen fur das sachsische Volk, vol. 1, Von den alteslen Zeiten bis 1699, 4th ed. (Hermannstadt, 1925; reprint, Cologne: Bohlau, 1984), 243-67; Erich Roth, Die Geschichte des Gottesdienstes der Siebenburger Sachsen (Gottingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1954), 69-108; Karl Reinerth, Die Reformation der siebenburgisch-sachsischen Kirche, Schriften des Vereins fur Refor-mationsgeschichte, 173 (Gutersloh: Carl Bertelsmann, 1956), 23-54; Annemie Schenk, Deutsche in Siebenburgen: Ihre Geschichte und Kultur (Munich: C. H. Beck, 1992), 46-47; Myss, 202-3, 236-37; Peter Schimert, "Transylvania," in Oxford Encyclopedia, 4:170-71. See also Christian Agnethler, "Die Reformation in Siebenburgen," http://www.agnethler.de/sites/kirche5.html; and Konrad Gundisch, "The History of Transylvania and the Transylvanian Saxons," http://www.sibiweb.de/geschi/7b-history.htm (both accessed 22 November 2006).

24. Wackernagel, Bibliographie, 248-49 (no. 632). The song appears in Wackernagel, Kirchenlied, 3:1056-58 (no. 1228).

25. Oliver K. Olson, "Magdeburg," in Oxford Encyclopedia, 2:481-82.

26. The words of Luther's hymn were, in fact, associated with five different melodies. See Martin Luther, Luthers geistliche Lieder und Kirchengesange: Vollstandige Neuedition in Erganzung zu Band 35 der Weimarer Ausgabe, ed. Markus Jenny, Archiv zur Weimarer Ausgabe der Werke Martin Luthers: Texte und Untersuchungen, 4 (Cologne: Bohlau, 1985), 62-65, 175-79 (no. 8).

27. Wackernagel, Bibliographie, 49-50, 462-64 (nos. 129-31); Martin Luther, D. Martin Luthers Werke: Kritische Gesamtausgabe, ed. Wilhelm Lucke, vol. 35, Lieder (Weimar: Hermann Bohlaus Nachfolger, 1923), 336-37; Konrad Amcln, "Das Achtlicderbuch vom Jahre 1523/24," Jahrbuch fur Liturgik und Hymnologie 2 (1956): 89-91; Das Achtliederbuch Nurnberg 1523/24 in originalgetreuem Nachdruck, ed. Konrad Ameln (Kassel: Barenreiter, 1957); Jenny, Luthers geistliche Lieder, 19-20; Josef Benzing and Helmut Claus, Lutherbibliographie: Verzeichnis der gedruckten Schriften Martin Luthers bis zu dessen Tod, 2 vols. (Baden-Baden: Valcntin Koerner, 1989-1994), 1:426 (nos. 3571-73), 2:282.

28. Benzing, 2:282 (no. 3571): "TE [Titeleinfassung] wie 3571, '1523' wie 3572.... Verbleib dieses Exemplars unbekannt."

29. For more detailed information about this hymnal, see Stephen A. Crist, Enchiridion geistliker Leder unde Psalmen, Magdeburg 1536: Introductory Study and Facsimile Edition, Emory Texts and Studies in Ecclesial Life, 2 (Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1994).

30. Robin A. Leaver, "Hymnals," in Oxford Encyclopedia, 2:286-87.

31. See Jenny, Luthers geistliche Lieder, 51; also Wackernagel, Bibliographie, 187-88 (no. 463); and Lucke, Luthers Werke, 35:331-32 ([P.sup.2]). On the other editions of Klug's hymnal, see Konrad Ameln, "Das Klugsche Gesangbuch, Wittenberg 1529: Versuche einer Rekonstruktion," Jahrbuch fur Liturgik und Hymnologie 16 (1971):159-62; Das Klug'sche Gesangbuch 1533 nach dem einzigen erhaltenen Exemplar der Lutherhalle zu Wittenberg, ed. Konrad Ameln, Documenta musicologica. Erste Reihe, Druckschriften-Faksimiles, 35 (Kassel: Barenreiter, 1983); and Robin A. Leaver, Goostly Psalmes and Spirituall Songes: English and Dutch Metrical Psalms from Coverdale to Utenhove 1535-1566, Oxford Studies in British Church Music (Oxford: Clarendon Press; New York: Oxford University Press, 1991), 10-13, 281-85.

32. A detailed comparison can be found in the introduction to Das Babstsche Gesangbuch von 1545: Faksimiledruck mil einem Geleilwort, ed. Konrad Ameln, 3d ed., Documenta musicologica. Erste Reihe, Druckschriften-Faksimiles, 38 (Kassel: Barenreiter, 1988, c1966), 8-9.

33. Wackernagel, Bibliographie, 342 (no. 889), notes that the thirty additional songs in part two of the 1567 edition are the same ones as in the 1553 printing.

34. Georg Karstadt, "Schmugel, Johann Christoph," in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 2d ed. (London: Macmillan, 2001), 22:547-48.

35. Oswald Bill, "Das Frankfurter Gesangbuch von 1569 und seine spateren Ausgaben," Studien zur hessischen Musikgeschichte, 1 (Ph.D. diss., Philipps-Universitat Marburg, 1969). See also Wackernagel, Bibliographie, 356-57 (nos. 903-5; Emory's copy is the second of the three editions); Ernst-Ludwig Berz, Die Notendrucker und ihre Verleger in Frankfurt am Main von den Anfangen bis etwa 1630, Catalogus musicus, 5 (Kassel: Internationale Vereinigung der Musikbibliotheken; Internationale Gesellschaft fur Musikwissenschaft, 1970), 54-57 (regarding Johann Wolff), 157-58 (no. 26); Walther Lipphardt, Gesangbuchdrucke in Frankfurt am Main vor 1569, Studien zur Frankfurter Geschichte, 7 (Frankfurt am Main: Waldemar Kramer, 1974), 186-88.

36. For a brief history of the princely house, a simplified genealogical table, and other information, see http://www.fuerstenhaus.li/ (accessed 22 November 2006).

37. See David Beattie, Liechtenstein: A Modern History (London: I. B. Tauris, 2004), 10-14. The most extensive account of Karl's life and cultural influence is Herbert Haupt, Furst Karl I. von Liechtenstein: Hofstaat und Sammeltatigkeit (Vienna: Bohlau, 1983). According to Haupt, a "Kirchenbuch" is listed in a 1608 inventory of the prince's music (p. 60). One wonders whether this might be the volume now held by the Kessler Collection.

38. Herl, 6.

39. D. Martin Luthers Werke: Kritische Gesamtausgabe, ed. Paul Pietsch (Weimar: Hermann Bohlau, 1883-), 12:197-205.

40. Wackernagel, Kirchenlied, 3:51 (no. 74).

41. Jenny, Luthers geistliche Lieder, 66-68, 184-87 (no. 10). See also Martin Luther, Liturgy and Hymns, ed. Ulrich S. Leupold, Luther's Works 53 (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1965), 232-34; an English translation of the entire treatise is provided on pp. 15-40. (This source is subsequently cited as LW 53.)

42. See Paul Pietsch, Luthers Werke, 19:44-69, for a detailed discussion of the Deutsche Messe. An English translation of the service is available in LW 53, pp. 51-90. Substantial treatment of aspects of this document also is found in Herl, 8-16. On Luther's version of the Sanctus, see Jenny, Luthers geistliche Lieder, 97-99, 243-45 (no. 26).

43. According to Benzing, 1:261 (no. 224), the printer was Heinrich Steiner. Emory's Digital Image Archive (see n. 6) includes a facsimile of the entire edition.

44. Jenny, Luthers geistliche Lieder, 101-5, 250-73 (no. 29). For an English translation, see LW 53, pp. 153-70.

45. Jenny, Luthers geistliche Lieder, 105-7, 274-75 (no. 30); LW 53, pp. 286-87.

46. It includes a preface by "Johannes Schwan Burger zu Strassburg." See Wackernagel, Bibtiographie, 72 (no. 185): Friedrich Hubert, Die Strassburger liturgischen Ordnungen im Zeitalter der Reformation: Nebst einer Bibliographie der Strassburger Gesangbucher (Gottingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1900), XV (no. 12); Lucke, Luthers Werke, 35:370 (k); Miriam Usher Chrisman, Bibliography of Strasbourg Imprints, 1480-1599 (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1982), 354-55 (P7.2.11); Benzing, 1:432 (no. 3634).

47. See Jenny, Luthers geistliche Lieder, 68-70 and 188-93 (no. 11: "Aus tiefer Not schrei ich zu dir"), 66-68 and 181-87 (no. 10: "Es wollt uns Gott genadig sein"); Wackernagel, Kirchenlied, 3:89-90 (no. 119: "Ach Gott, wie lang vergissest mein"), 3:95 (no. 128: "Ach Herr. wie sind meinr feind so vil").

48. Frank C. Senn, "Liturgy: Protestant Liturgy," in Oxford Encyclopedia, 2:440. See also Jeffrey P. Jaynes, "Church Ordinances," in Oxford Encyclopedia, 1:345-51.

49. The following list includes only church orders containing printed music.

50. Wolf-Dieter Hauschild, "Bugenhagen, Johannes," in Oxford Encyclopedia, 1:226-27.

51. See Georg Geisenhof, Bibliotheca Bugenhagiana: Bibliographie der Druckschriflen des Joh. Bugenhagen, Quellen und Darstellungen aus der Geschichte des Reformationsjahrhunderts, 6; Bugenhagiana: Quellen zur Lebensgeschichte des Joh. Bugenhagen, 1 (Leipzig: Heinsius Nachfolger, 1908; reprint, Nieuwkoop: De Graaf, 1963), 274-76 (nos. 239-40). The Low-German edition is reprinted in Die evangelischen Kirchenordnungen des sechszehnten Jahrhunderts, ed. Ludwig Richter, 2 vols. (Weimar: Verlag des Landes-Industriecomptoirs, 1846; reprint, Nieuwkoop: De Graaf, 1967), 1:106-20 (no. 24); and in Emil Sehling, Die evangelischen Kirchenordnungen des XVI. Jahrhunderts, 15 vols. to date (Leipzig: O. R. Reisland, 1902-1913; Tubingen: J. C. B. Mohr (Paul Siebeck), 1957-), 6/1:348-455. Both Richter and Sehling omit all musical notation. It is vital, therefore, to consult original editions of church orders when investigating questions relating to music.

52. Gunter Vogler, "Nuremberg," in Oxford Encyclopedia, 3:160-62.

53. The 1533 version is reprinted in Richter, 1:176-211 (no. 42), and in Schling, 11:140-205.

54. Sehling, 1/1:89. The 1539 edition is reprinted in Richter, 1:307-15 (no. 64), and in Sehling, 1/1:264-81 (no. 24).

55. Grater, 4 (no. 1274). See also Richter, 2:128 (no. 93).

56. On the various editions, see Sehling, 5:132-36. The 1552 version is reprinted in Richter, 2:115-28 (no. 92), and in Sehling, 5:161-219 (no. 28).

57. See Herbert Baum, "Kirchengesang, Gesang- und Choralbucher in Waldeck," in Beitrage zur Geschichte der evangelischen Kirchenmusik und Hymnologie in Kurhessen und Waldeck, ed. Landesverband der evangelischen Kirchenchore, 32-43, esp. 32-33 (Kassel: Barenreiter, 1969). The document is reprinted in Richter, 2:169-77 (no. 104).

58. Sehling, 6/1:486. The entire document is reprinted in Sehling, 6/1:533-75 (no. 4); a summary is provided in Richter, 2:285-87 (no. 121).

59. A full-page portrait of Julius is printed at the front of both editions.

60. Sehling, 6/1:5. A modern reprint is provided in Sehling, 6/1:83-280 (no. 3); a summary is given in Richter, 2:318-24 (no. 131).

61. See Bernhard Klaus, Veit Dietrich: Leben und Werk, Einzelarbeiten aus der Kirchengeschichte Bayerns, 32 (Nuremberg: Selbstverlag des Vereins fur bayerische Kirchengeschichte, 1958), 3-5 (no. 5), 206-9. The 1545 edition is reprinted in Sehling, 11:487-553.

62. Wackernagel, Kirchenlied, 3:557-58 (no. 606).

63. For an English translation of Sebald Heyden's 1540 treatise, see De arte canendi, trans. Clement A. Miller, Musicological Studies and Documents, 26 (n.p.: American Institute of Musicology, 1972).

64. Jurgen Lorz, Bibliographia Linckiana: Bibliographie der gedruckten Schriften Dr. Wenzeslaus Lincks (1483-1547), Bibliotheca humanistica & reformatorica, 18 (Nieuwkoop: De Graaf, 1977), 36 (no. 7).

65. See Helmut Claus, Die Zwickauer Drucke des 16. Jahrhunderts, 2 vols., Veroffentlichungen der Forschungsbibliothek Gotha, 23, 25 (Gotha: Forschungsbibliothek, 1985-86), 1:83 (no. 22).

66. Wackernagel, Bibliographie, 126-27 (no. 324).

67. Zahn points out that the three notated melodies were not incorporated into subsequent publications (6:12 [no. 40]). From their titles, one surmises that most of the other songs are secular in origin. But only three are found in Bohme: "Jch gieng ains mals spacieren" (p. 751 [no. 641]), "Die Sonn ist vns entplichen" (pp. 215-17 [no. 116]), and the "Toller" melody (pp. 456-59 [no. 374]).

68. Hans Ulrich Bachtold, "Aberlin, Joachim," in Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexicon, 24 vols. to date, ed. Friedrich Wilhelm Bautz (Hamm in Westfalen: Traugott Bautz, 1975-), 15:1-3.
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