Printer Friendly

EU pump regulations.

Beginning as early as Jan. 1, 2013, circulator pumps and water pumps in the European Union will only be sold if they comply with a directive (2009/125/EC (1)) designed to reduce the environmental impact of energy-using products. The European Association of Pump Manufacturers (Europump), a stakeholder in the directive's eco-impact evaluation process for circulators, established a joint working group to coordinate input from circulator pump manufacturers. The preparatory study estimated the total environmental impact of circulators and defined potential implementation measures.

The eco-impact evaluation (done by AEA Technology (2)) revealed that the environmental impact of a circulator is dominated by use-phase electricity consumption. As a result, the ecodesign requirements (set out in commission regulation 641/2009/EC) focus on energy efficiency requirements. (3)

Circulators in Scope

Both standalone circulators and circulators integrated in products are "in scope" of the directive. The following definitions of "circulator" and "product" apply:

* A "circulator" means an impeller pump with a rated hydraulic output power from 1 W to 2,500 W (2.9 Btu/h to 8,500 Btu/h), designed for use in heating systems or in secondary circuits of cooling distribution systems.

* A "product" is an appliance that generates and/or transfers heat.

Therefore, circulators integrated in boilers, solar systems, heat pumps, etc., are included.

Energy-Efficiency Index

The ecodesign requirements are based on a classification developed by Europump. (4,5) The key element of the classification is the Energy Efficiency Index (EEI), which is calculated as:

EEI = [[P.sub.L,avg]/[P.sub.ref]] x [C.sub.20%]

where [C.sub.20%] = 0.49, so that 20% the circulators on the market will be below EEI = 0.20

A compensation in the EEI calculation is given to circulators in thermal solar systems and heat pump systems due to their special design.

[P.sub.L,avg] is the weighted average compensated power input based on an annual load profile and compensated for control error.

[P.sub.ref] is the reference power input and is the expected maximum power input of a high efficiency circulator. [P.sub.ref] was determined by Technical University of Darmstadt (Germany) based on a data collection from circulator manufacturers. (6)

The efficiency of a circulator is dependent on size. To achieve an EEI that is independent of size, Pf is not a constant, but a function depending on the maximum hydraulic power of the circulators.

The function is:

[P.sub.ref] = 1.7 x [P.sub.hyd] + 17([1-e.sup.-0.3], 1W [less than or equal to] [P.sub.hyd] [less than or equal to] 2,500 W

Requirements for Circulators

The ecodesign requirements for circulators set out in commission regulation 641/2009/EC are:

* From Jan. 1, 2013, glandless standalone circulators, with the exception of those specifically designed for primary circuits of thermal solar systems and of heat pumps, shall have an energy efficiency index (EEI) of not more than 0.27.

* From Aug. 1, 2015, glandless standalone circulators and glandless circulators integrated in products shall have an EEI of not more than 0.23.

The EEI of circulators is to be indicated on the name plate and packaging of the product and in the technical documentation as: "EEI [less than or equal to] 0.[xx]."

A benchmark for the most efficient circulators is defined as EEI [less than or equal to] 0.20. The benchmark information is to be visibly displayed on freely accessible websites of circulator manufacturers.

The compliance and verification of compliance with the requirements of the commission regulation will be based on standardized measurement procedures developed by the European Committee on Standardization (CEN). (7,8,9)

Estimated Energy Savings

Figure 1 shows the estimated energy consumption, saving potentials and the related C[O.sub.2] emissions is 2012 and 2020 due to ecodesign requirements for circulators.

Requirements for Water Pumps

The eco-impact evaluation of water pumps was also done by AEA Technology (10) with Europump as a stakeholder in the process.

For water pumps, the eco-impact evaluation revealed that the environmental impact of water pumps is dominated by the use-phase electricity consumption, which implied that the eco-design requirements for water pumps is focused on energy-efficiency requirements.

The commission regulation for water pumps is in the final stage of the legal process (11) and is expected to be adopted by the Council and European Parliament in May 2012. The ecodesign requirements for water pumps concern the hydraulic efficiency only. Ecodesign requirements on the electric motor that drive the pump are set out in Commission Regulation 640/2009. (12)

Water Pumps In Scope

Water pumps that are in scope are rotodynamic pumps for pumping clean water, including those integrated in other products. A water pump is defined as the hydraulic part of a device that moves clean water by physical or mechanical action, and is of one of the following designs:

* End suction own bearing;

* End suction close coupled;

* End suction close coupled inline;

* Vertical multistage; and

* Submersible multistage.

The following are not in the scope of the commission regulation:

* Water pumps designed specifically for pumping clean water at temperatures less than -10[degrees]C (14[degrees]F) or above 120[degrees]C (248[degrees]F), except with regard to some product information requirements:

* Water pumps designed only for firefighting applications;

* Displacement water pumps; and

* Self-priming water pumps.

Minimum Efficiency Index

The ecodesign requirements are based on a Minimum Efficiency Index (MEI) developed by Europump and the Technical University of Darmstadt. (13,14)

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

The MEI is based on the hydraulic pump efficiency measured at best efficiency point (BEP), part load (PL) and over load (OL) for full impeller diameter with clean cold water.

The formula for calculating the required minimum efficiency at best efficiency point (BEP) is:

[([[eta].sub.BEP]).sub.min requ] = 88.59x + 13.46y -11.48[x.sup.2] - 0.85[y.sup.2] -0.38xy - [C.sub.pump Type,rpm]

where x = ln (ns); y = ln (Q) and ln = natural logarithm and Q = flow in [[m.sup.3]/h]; ns = specific speed in [min-1]; C = value found in Table 1

The C value depends on the pump type and nominal speed, and also the MEI value.

The requirements for PL and OL conditions are set at slightly lower values than those for 100% flow ([[eta].sub.BEP]).

Water Pump Ecodesign Requirements

The ecodesign requirements for water pumps are:

As of Jan. 1, 2013, water pumps shall have a minimum efficiency:

* At the BFiP of at least [([[eta].sub.BEP]).sub.min requ], calculated with the C-value for MEI = 0.1;

* A minimum efficiency at part load of at least [([[eta].sub.PL]).sub.min requ] calculated with the C-value for MEI = 0.1; and

* A minimum efficiency at over load of at least [([[eta].sub.OL]).sub.min requ] calculated with the C-value for MEI = 0.1.

As of Jan. 1, 2015, water pumps shall have:

* At the BEP of at least [([[eta].sub.BEP]).sub.min requ] calculated with the C-value for MEI = 0.4;

* A minimum efficiency at part load of at least [([[eta].sub.PL]).sub.min requ] calculated with the C-value for MEI = 0.4; and

* A minimum efficiency at over load of at least [([[eta].sub.OL]).sub.min requ] calculated with the C-value for MEI = 0.4.

The compliance and verification of compliance with the requirements of the commission regulation are based on standardized measurement procedures developed by CEN. (15)

Estimated Energy Savings

Figure 2 shows the estimated energy consumption, saving potentials and the related C[O.sub.2] emissions for the present and in 2020 due to ecodesign requirements for water pumps.

Conclusions

Circulators are mass-produced products. The preparatory study showed an annual market of 14 million circulators in the EU. This can be divided as:

* 5.5 million small standalone circulators;

* 1 million large standalone circulators; and

* 7.5 million product-integrated circulators.

The ecodesign requirements will imply that only high efficiency speed controlled circulators will be allowed to be placed on the market. Circulator manufacturers are preparing for that possibility. The industry will be ready, but it will require massive investments in development and production facilities.

These requirements will lead to savings of 23 TWh (7.8 million MMBtu) in the EU in 2020 with a reduction of 11 million tonnes of C[O.sub.2] per year. This is a significant environmental impact and also a benefit for end users, who could save up to 10% on their electricity bill.

The ecodesign requirements for water pumps will imply that 40% of the worst water pumps in terms of efficiency will be prohibited from the EU market. The savings of 3.3 TWh (1 million MMBtu) per year will not prevent an increase in energy consumption in 2020.

A new methodology for water pumps is under development by Europump. The Methodology, the Extended Product Approach, will be based on an EEI similar to that for circulators. It will use the MEI from the ecodesign requirements and will include motors and variable speed drives. The estimated saving potential for water pumps based on the Extended Product Approach is 35 TWh (119 million MMBtu).

[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]

References

(1.) European Parliament and the Council of the European Union. 2005. Directive 2005/32/ EC. http://tinyurl.com/2005-32.

(2.) AEA Energy and Environment. 2008. Appendix 7, Lot 11: "Circulators in Buildings." European Commission. http://tinyurl. com/AEA2008.

(3.) European Commission. 2009. Commission Regulation (EC) No 641/2009, Implementing Directive 2005/32/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council With Regard to Ecodesign Requirements for Glandless Standalone Circulators and Glandless Circulators Integrated in Products. http:// tinyurl.com/641-2009.

(4.) Bidstrup, N., et al. 2003. Classification of Circulators. Europump. http://tinyurl.com/ Bidstrup-Circulators.

(5.) Bidstrup, N., et al. 2003. "Classification of Circulators." Proceedings of the EEDAL'03.

(6.) Ludwig, G., M. Roth. 2008. "Results of Circulator Labeling Revision." Technical University of Darmstadt.

(7.) CEN (European Committee for Standardization) prEN 16297-1, Pumps. Rotodynamic Pumps, Glandless Circulators, Part 1: General Requirements and Procedures for Testing and Calculation of Energy Efficiency Index (EEI).

(8.) CEN (European Committee for Standardization) prEN 16297-2, Pumps, Rotodynamic Pumps, Glandless Circulators, Part 2: Calculation of Energy Efficiency Index (EEI) for Standalone Circulators.

(9.) CEN (European Committee for Standardization) prEN 16297-3, Pumps, Rotodynamic Pumps, Glandless Circulators, Part 3: Energy efficiency Index (EEI) for Circulators Integrated in Products.

(10.) AEA Energy and Environment. 2008. Appendix 6, Lot 11: "Water Pumps (In Commercial Buildings, Drinking Water Pumping, Food Industry, Agriculture)." European Commission. http://tinyurl.com/A6-Lot11.

(11.) European Commission. 2010. COMAC_DRC(2011)D018886-02_EN: Commission Regulation (EU) No .../.. Implementing Directive 2009/125/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council With Regard to Ecodesign Requirements for Water Pumps. http://tinyurl.com/D018886-02.

(12.) European Commission. 2009. Commission Regulation (EC) No 640/2009 Implementing Directive 2005/32/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council With Regard to Ecodesign Requirements for Electric Motors. http://tinyurl.com/ EC640-2009.

(13.) Bartoschek, M., N. Bidstrup, M. Teepe. 2007. "Energy Efficiency Evaluation of Pumps in Europe--Europump's Proactive Approach to the Energy Using Products Directive." Proceedings of the EEMODS'07.

(14.) Roth, M., et al. 2007. "A Method to Define a Minimum Level for Pump Efficiencies Based on Statistical Evaluations." Technical University of Darmstadt.

(15.) CEN (European Committee for Standardization) N 464, Minimum Required Efficiency of Rotodynamic Water Pumps and Methods for Qualification and Verification.

By Niels Bidstrup, Associate Member ASHRAE

Niels Bidstrup, Ph.D., is chief engineer at Grundfos Management A/S, in Bjerringbro, Denmark.
Table 1: Minimum efficiency index (MEI) and its corresponding
C-value, depending on pump type and speed.

Pump Type, rpm                                   C-Value for MEI

                                              MEI = 0.10   MEI = 0.40

End Suction Own Bearing, 1,450 rpm              132.58       128.07
End Suction Own Bearing, 2,900 rpm              135.60       130.27
End Suction Close Coupled, 1,450 rpm            132.74       128.46
End Suction Close Coupled, 2,900 rpm            135.93       130.77
End Suction Close Coupled Inline, 1,450 rpm     136.67       132.30
End Suction Close Coupled Inline, 2,900 rpm     139.45       133.69
Vertical Multistage, 2,900 rpm                  138.19       133.95
Submersible Multistage, 2,900 rpm               134.31       128.79
COPYRIGHT 2012 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc.
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2012 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

 
Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Title Annotation:INTERNATIONAL COLUMN
Author:Bidstrup, Niels
Publication:ASHRAE Journal
Geographic Code:4E
Date:May 1, 2012
Words:2033
Previous Article:Activities bearing fruit: ASHRAE grassroots.
Next Article:Apple to power data center with all renewable energy.
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2018 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters