Printer Friendly

EPIDEMIOLOGY AND THERAPEUTIC STUDIES ON NEMATODES INFECTION IN CATTLE AT DISTRICT QILLA ABDULLAH, BALOCHISTAN.

Byline: M. Ramzan, N. Ahmad, K. Ashraf, K. Saeed, A. Z. Durrani, S. Jan, Rafiuddin and M. A. Khan

ABSTRACT

A study was conducted to assess the epidemiological and therapeutic control aspects of gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle at district Qilla Abdullah, Balochistan, from March 2012 to February 2013.A total of 600 fecal samples (50 samples per month) were examined during the study period. Fecal analysis showed overall higher nematodes prevalence as 27.99%. Among nematodes higher prevalence was recorded with infection of Ostertagia in cattle. Among age groups, cattle of 2 years age groups. Female cattle were infected higher than male animals with nematode parasites. The nematodes were prevalent throughout the year, however a peak infection was recorded during August and September. The therapeutic studies showed higher (89-100%) reduction of EPG in cattle calves treated with Ivermectin followed by Levamisole (88-100%) and Oxfendazole (86-100%).

The present study was accomplished for a better understanding of gastrointestinal nematode infections under local climate and management system of the study area of Balochistan.

Key words: Gastrointestinal Nematodes, Cattle, Hemonchus, Ostertagia, Trichostrongylus, Nematodirus, Trichuris, Qilla Abdullah.

INTRODUCTION

Parasitism is of supreme importance in many agro-ecological zones and poses a serious threat to the livestock economy worldwide (Vercruysse and Claerebout 2001). Parasitic diseases are a major health concern in livestock production in many parts of Pakistan (Khan et al., 2010).Depressed feed intake, impaired tissue deposition, skeletal growth and economic losses are commonly seen in animals infected with parasites (Soulsby, 1982; Urquhart et al.1996; Radiostits et al. 2007). The economic losses associated with gastrointestinal tract parasites in cattle are universally accepted (Charlier et al. 2009). Different prevalence of helminthes has been reported in many countries and it range from 0.62 to 100% in domestic ruminants under various managemental conditions (Liu et al.2009;Pilarczyk et al. 2009; Siddiki et al. 2010; Hiko et al, 2011; Marufu et al. 2011; Yagoob et al. 2011).

Similarly, studies in Pakistan have revealed widespread occurance of helminthes in our domestic animals and infection rates as high as over 90% are reported (Rhman et al.2009).Interaction of various risk factors influences the prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes in food animals and include age, sex, season, use of anthelmintics and husbandry or management practices at the farm (Raza et al. 2007; Khan et al. 2009). A better understanding of the epidemiology and biology of parasites is essential for a successful parasite control program. A Sustainable control strategies complemented with effective anthelmintics and selective breeding for enhanced resistance are desirable for parasite control (Coppieters, 2009).

The climate of the certain areas of Balochistan is quite different from many tropical, subtropical and temperate regions of the world and arid areas of Pakistan. Information on the epidemiology of gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle from this region was not available. Keeping in view the scarcity of information and the importance of gastrointestinal nematodes in domestic cattle, the present study was accomplished for a better understanding of gastrointestinal nematode infections under local climate and management system of the study area of Balochistan.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Experiment 1: Epidemiology of G.I.T Nematodiasisin cattle: Study animals included were cattle of various age groups of either sex, maintained under different management practices. The present study was designed from March 2012 to February 2013, during which a total of 600 samples from gastrointestinal tract (50/month) were collected directly from the rectum of each animal in a polythene bags and were labeled with a permanent marker. These samples were shifted to the Disease Investigation Laboratory of Livestock Department, Quetta for isolation and identification of gastrointestinal nematodes. The coprological examination was accomplished by direct Smear method, salt floatation method, McMaster egg counting technique and Baerman's technique. Animal population for this study was from private dairy units and household cattle maintained in different villages of district Qilla Abdullah.

Experiment 2: To Asses the efficacy of three commercially available anthelmintics: The efficacy of three group of anthelmintics i.e. Benzimidazole (Oxfendazole), Imidazothiazole (Levamisole) and Macrocyclic lactones (Ivermectin) available in the market were determined by Fecal Egg Count Reduction Test (FECRT). This method was used to see the effect of different anthelmintics and efficacy was calculated according to the method described in the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) recommendations (Coles et al. 2006). A total of fifty (50) cow calves under one year of age naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes were included in the study. The study was conducted at a private cattle farms.

The infected cow calves were divided into five groups, each comprised of 10 animals. The groups were maintained as a test group of cow calves C1, C2, C3, C4 and C5.Group C1 was given Oxfendazole, Group C2 was administered with Levamisole and C3 was injected with Ivermectin, animals in C4 group were kept as untreated positive control groups and animals in C5 group were kept untreated negative control groups (cow calves) respectively. A single dose of Oxfendazole (Oxafax) was administered @4.5 mg/kg body weight, Levamisole (Nilzan) was given @7.5 mg/kg body weight orally and Ivermectin (Ivomec) was injected @0.2 mg/kg body weight by Subcutaneous route. Egg per gram of feces (EPG) was determined by quantitative examination of feces by nematode egg counting technique on days 7Th, 14th and 28th post medication. Fecal samples from each animal was examined to determine the efficacy by the following equation (Coles et al. 2006).

Efficacy %age = EPG of feces before the treatment-EPG of feces after treatment / EPG before treatment x 100

Statistical Analysis: Data generated from this yearlong study were stored in Microsoft Excel 2013 and analyzed by GraphPad software Prism version 6 (GraphPad Software. Inc. San Diego, California, USA 9 www.graphpad.com). The prevalence of different nematodes was analyzed through the Chi-square test, one way and sometime two way analysis of variance. The efficacy of various treatments against nematodes was also analyzed by one way analysis of variance of each treatment group Individually.

Experiment 1: Epidemiology of G.I.T Nematodiasis in cattle:

a. Prevalence of nematodes in cattle: Fecal analysis showed overall higher prevalence (27.99%) for mixed gastrointestinal nematodes infection. Among these, Ostertagia ostertagi showed higher (9%) prevalence followed by Haemonchus contotus (8.33%), Trichostrongylus colubriformis (3%), Nematodirus spathiger (5.83%) and Trichuris spp. (2.11%) during the study period. Statistical significances (P<0.05) were observed between different nematodes prevalence and its EPG levels.

b. Age-wise prevalence of nematodes in cattle: The prevalence of five nematode infection of all age groups ( 2 years) of cattle was recorded during 12 months.Cattle calves< 1 year showed higher prevalence (34%) followed by 1-2 years (29%) and above 2 years(21%). The cattle 2 year (70) of age groups. The difference in nematode prevalence in different age groups was not significant, however EPG level of nematodes in different age group showed significant differences (P<0.05).

c. Sex-wise prevalence of nematodes in cattle: The difference of nematodes prevalence in either sex was not statistically significant.

d. Month-wise prevalence of nematodes in cattle: Results revealed that there were two peaks of nematodes prevalence i.e. March/April and August/September 2012. The statistical analysis showed significant (P<0.05) difference in nematodes prevalence during different months of the year (March 2012 to February 2013). Similarly the peak of all five nematodes was recorded during August. However higher EPG were varied among the different nematodes. Haemonchus contortus showed higher EPG during August, Ostertagia during February and Trichstrongylus colubroformis during August, Nematodirus spathiger during March and Trichuris during September. There was statistically significant difference (P<0.05) between EPG Level and between different months of the year.

Experiment 2: Field Therapeutic Trials

Group C1: Nematodes infected cattle treated with Oxfendazole: Ten cattle calves, infected with nematodes having almost similar EPG level confirmed after fecal analysis, were selected as first treatment group (C1). Oxfendazole was given to all these infected cattle calves followed by analysis of fecal sample for reduction of EPG on day 0, 7th, 14th and 28th post treatment. The mean EPG was less than 5 on day 28th post treatment. The EPG was reduced 86-100%which revealed effectiveness of Oxfendazole against selected nematodes. The result showed that there was significant difference between pre and post treatment EPG level.

Group C2: Nematodes infected cattle treated with Levamisole: The result showed that there was significant difference in reducing EPG post treatment.

Group C3: Nematodes infected cattle treated with Ivermectin: There was significant difference in reducing the EPG between pre and post treatment.

Group C4: Nematodes free/untreated positive control group cattle: All ten cattle were kept asnematodes free untreated positive control group, confirmed by fecal examination, at private dairy farm of district Qilla Abdullah. These cattle were household in-controlled condition by providing clean drinking water and feed. Afterwards four times (day 0, 7th, 14th and 28th) fecal sampling and its analysis also confirmed them free of nematodes infection.

Group C5: Nematodes infected/untreated negative control group cattle: Ten cattle having GIT nematodes with EPG were selected as infected untreated negative control group. The mean EPG (228-468) of these cattle was continuously recorded four times.

Table 1. Nos. of fecal samples collection from cattle at district Qilla Abdullah

Season###Age###Private Farm###House-hold

###Male###Female###Male###Female

Spring###2 Y###5###20###5###20

Summer###2 Y###5###20###5###20

Autumn###2 Y###5###20###5###20

Winter###2 Y###5###20###5###20

Total###60###240###60###240

Table 2. Prevalence of cattle nematodes at District Qilla Abdullah.

###Total Infected

Parasites###Prevalence (%)###Mean EPG

###(n=600)

Haemonchus contortus###50###8.33###326**

Nematodirus spathiger###35###5.83###172.83*

Ostertagia ostertagi###54###9###343.66***

Trichostrongylus colubriformis###18###3###151.5

Trichuris###11###1.83###119.33

Total###168###27.99

Table 3. Age-wise prevalence with mean EPG of cattle nematodes at districtQilla Abdullah.

Age###No. of Samples collected###Positive###Prevalence %###Mean EPG

2 Y###200###42###21###90.00

Total###600###168###28

Table 4. Sex-wise prevalence with mean EPG of cattle nematodes at District Qilla Abdullah.

Sex###No. of Samples collected###Positive###Prevalence %###Mean EPG

Male###120###32###26.66###196

Female###480###136###28.33###210

Total###600###174###29

Table 5. Month-wise prevalence (%) and mean EPG of cattle nematodes in District Qilla Abdullah.

Months###H. contortus###N. spathiger###O. ostertagi###T. colubriformis###Trichuris###Cumulative %

Mar-2012###3(292)###6(196)###25(612)###3(162)###1(98)###7.6(272)

Apr-2012###10(432)###14(194)###20(598)###1(132)###1(172)###9.2(306)

May-2012###5(476)###16(168)###7(192)###4(92)###2(88)###6.8(204)

Jun-2012###2(488)###7(176)###1(172)###2(172)###1(128)###2.6(227)

July-2012###5(492)###9(136)###1(132)###2(276)###1(32)###3.6(213)

Aug-2012###7(510)###20(222)###12(198)###22(298)###3(198)###12.8(285)

Sept-2012###15(362)###15(276)###12(372)###15(288)###12(232)###13.8(338)

Oct-2012###12(312)###6(184)###6(388)###7(178)###7(200)###7.6(284)

Nov-2012###10(286)###8(96)###1(490)###1(132)###4(190)###4.8(238)

Dec-2012###0(0)###1(228)###7(532)###1(88)###2(62)###2.2(234)

Jan-2013###0(0)###0(0)###9(200)###0(0)###1(32)###2(86)

Feb-2013###0(0)###0(0)###10(238)###0(0)###00)###2 (48)

Table 6. Mean EPG reduction and mean EPG reduction (%) of cattle treated with Oxfendazole.

Parasites###Pre-Treatment###Post treatment

###Day 0###Day 7###Day 14###Day 28

Haemonchus contortus###212###8(96.22%)###4(98.11%)###0(100%)

Nematodirus spathiger###192###52(73%)###36(81.25%)###4(98%)

Ostertagia ostertagi###240###8(97%)###12(95%)###0(100%)

Trichostrongylus colubriformis###168###32(81%)###20(88%)###0(100%)

Trichuris###132###0(100%)###0(100%)###0(100%)

Table 7. Mean EPG reduction and mean EPG reduction (%) of cattle treated with Levamisole.

Parasites###Pre-Treatment###Post Treatment

###Day 0###Day 7###Day 14###Day 28

Haemonchus contortus###232###48(80%)###12 (95%)###0(100%)

Nematodirus spathiger###200###18(91%)###11(95%)###4(98%)

Ostertagia ostertagi###264###24(91%)###8(97%)###0(100%)

Trichostrongylus colubriformis###188###5(97%)###0(100%)###0(100%)

Trichuris###92###12(87%)###6(94%)###3(97%)

Table 8. Mean EPG reduction and mean EPG reduction (%) of cattle treated with Ivermectin.

###Pre Treatment###Post Treatment

Parasites###Day 0###Day 7###Day 14###Day 28

Haemonchus contortus###88###11(87.5%)###5(94%)###0(100%)

Nematodirus spathiger###84###16(81%)###10 (88%)###0 (100%)

Ostertagia ostertagi###176###40(97%)###3(98%)###0(100%)

Trichostrongylus colubriformis###68###20(71%)###4(95%)###0(100%)

Trichuris###44###11(75%)###8(82%)###0(100%)

DISCUSSION

The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle was 27.66% at district Qilla Abdullah during the study period (March 2012 to February 2013). There are various reports on the prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes in various region of Pakistan. Khan et al. (2010) recorded almost similar overall prevalence (33.68%) in cattle in Toba Tek Singh, while Bilal et al.(2009) and Rafiullah et al. (2011) recorded higher prevalence (56.26%, 64.61%)in cattle at Toba Tek Singh and Peshawar, Pakistan, respectively. Moyo (2006) even recorded higher prevalence (100%) of gastrointestinal nematodes than the present study infecting large ruminants in Zimbabwe. The low prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes in present study might be due to dry and cold environmental condition in the study area. Radostits et al. (2007) mentioned that the outbreaks are more likely to occur under wet hot conditions.

In addition proper management and husbandry practices leads to low gastrointestinal nematodes infection, while the gastrointestinal nematodes infection are considered to be serious concern in grazing animals (Sanchez et al. 2004). Five genera of gastrointestinal nematode parasites were recovered from gastrointestinal tract during study period. Among these, Ostertagia ostertagi was highly prevalent (9%) in cattle followed by Haemonchu scontortus (8.33%), Nematodirus spathiger (5.83%) Trichostrongylus colubriformis (3%),and Trichuris (1.83%). Chanei et al (2012) reported the gastrointestinal nematodes species prevalence of Ascaris (57%), Strongyles (56.07%) and Trichuris (16.82%). Gastrointestinal nematodes species prevalence in cattle recorded by (Asif Raza et al. 2013) were Toxocara vitulorum, Oesophagostomum radiatum, Haemonchus placeiand Bunostomum phlebotomum. The overall prevalence was 21% for these nematodes.

Similarly (Mir et al. 2013) recorded the gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle were Haemonchus spp.(11.93 %), Trichuris spp. (5.16%), Chabertia spp. (4.83%). Laha et al. (2013) also recorded the prevalence of gastrointestinal nematode species as Strongyle spp.(65.96%) followed by Strongyloides spp. (25.13%), Trichuris spp. (13.08%) and Nematodirus spp.(2.61%).Difference in the incidence of different internal parasitic species in the present and other studies conducted in different locations may be due to different ecologies, temperature, management practices, forage and fodder availability. In the present study age-wise prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle under 12 months showed higher prevalence (34%) followed by 1-2 years (29%) and> 2 years (21%). Cattle 2 years (70) of age groups.

Bilal et al.(2009) stated that cow calves between 1 to 6 months of age exhibited highest prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites as compared to the age group of 7 to 12 months.

Swai et al. (2006) reported higher infection rates with nematodes in immature cattle as compared with adult cattle, while Biu et al.(2009) stated that ova/oocysts of gastrointestinal parasites of ruminants indicates the younger ruminants were more infected as compared to the older ruminants. Similarly Chanei et al. (2012) reported the higher prevalence of infection with GInematodes in calf (41.30%) than in young cattle (34.14%) and adult cattle (23.07%). Another study revealed (Asif Raza et al. 2013) that age-wise prevalence of different GI nematodes in calf like Toxocaravitulorum was 25.64% while in adult animal it was 8.19%, Oesophagostomum radiatum was 2.56% in calf as compared in adult animal (3.27%), Haemonchus placeiwas2.56% in calf as compared to adult (0%) and Bunostomum phlebotomumwas2.56% in calf as compared to adult (1.63%). In the present study sex-wise prevalence revealed that female cattle were highly infected with nematodes than male cattle.

A study revealed by Chanei et al. (2012) reported that the higher prevalence of infection with gastrointestinal nematodes was (29.89%) in female than in male calf (25.25%). While Asif Raza et al. (2013) revealed that prevalence of Haemonchus placei was 0% in male cattle and 1.44% in female cattle. Ghanem et al. (2009) reported the prevalence of 34.3% and 27.1% in female and male cattle calves, respectively. Similarly Raza et al.(2010) recorded prevalence in large ruminants as 72.72% in female and 39.46% in male. In present study of month-wise prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle, five nematodes were prevalent almost throughout the year and Ostertagia was predominant in cattle. There were two peaks of nematodes infection recorded during late winter and spring (February/April) and late summer (August/September) seasons that correlated with favorable climate (rainfall, humidity and temperature).

This variation depends upon different epidemiological factors (Urquhart et al.1996). Al-Shaibani et al. (2008) reported the highest fecal egg counts in September, whereas the lowest fecal egg counts in February. While Ghanem et al. (2009) stated that the EPG% vary between dry season (May to October) and wet season (November to April) as it is much higher in wet season than in dry season. Rehman et al. (2009) recorded maximum prevalence from January to September, while minimum parasitism was observed from October to December. Tariq et al. (2010) reported higher prevalence in summer and lower in winter. It was noted that high temperature and high humidity during summer season played an important role in the spread of disease. Maximum numbers of larvae were found to be infective during summer months and are responsible for the occurrence of diseases also recorded in present study.

The present therapeutic study showed that Ivermectin was more effective than Levamisole and Oxfendazole against cattle nematodes. The higher reduction of EPG (86-100%) was recorded in cattle administered Ivermectin followed by Levamisole (68-98%) and Oxfendazole (66-96%). Kakar et al (2014) recorded the faecal egg count reduction test of sheep in Balochistan with oxfandazole, levamisole and ivermectin were 97%, 98% and 99% respectively, which indicated the susceptibility of these anthelmintics against gastrointestinal ssnematodes. Patten et al. (2011) stated that anthelmintics have a pivotal role in controlling the effects of parasites. Demeler et al (2009); Saurez et al (2010) and Yagoob et al. (2011) reported that number of antelmintics belonging to various groups are being used to treat the nematodiosis in large ruminants.

Ijaz et al. (2007) and Gasbarre et al. (2009) recorded variable efficacies in a number of studies conducted abroad and local condition. Kaplan et al (2004) reports of anthelmintic resistance in nematodes of cattle have been less common, and the general belief is that resistance is not yet an important issue in this host and stated that this is a very insensitive means to monitor the development of resistance because cases only become apparent once resistance reaches very high levels in a population. Liu et al. (2009) reported that uncontrolled and excessive use of anthelmintics may lead to the development of resistance in parasite population. Demeler et al. (2009) and Gasbarre et al. (2009) studies have recommended that testing of anthelmintic efficacy should be performed more intensively due to existence of drug resistance.

Coles et al. (2006) and Gasbarre et al. (2009) have also ported the resistance against benzimidazole. Gasbarre et al. (2009) and Kaplan et al. (2012) stated that resistance to more recently introduced anthelmintics for ruminants nematode is an emerging problem throughout the world. Demeler et al. (2009); Gasbarre et al.(2009) and Kaplan et al.(2012) reported the resistance against macrocyclic lactones group contain ivermectin, eprinomectin and moxidectin.

Conclusion: The gastrointestinal nematodes are prevalent in all age groups and either sex of cattle with peak during summer. The FECRT based diagnosis is more accurate. The Ivermectin products are more effective against cattle nematodes followed by Levamisole and Oxfendazole. The present study indicated that no anthelmintics resistance were found against gastrointestinal nematodes infection of cattle in Qilla Abdullah. However it is recommended that the proper anthelmintic dose with 5-6 months interval and rotation of anthelmintics for minimize the nematodes infection and enhance cattle productivity.

Acknowledgements: The authors are greatly thankful to IRSIP, HEC Islamabad for providing scholarship for six months research at University of Georgia, USA. Author also wish to express thanks to Livestock and Dairy Development Department, Balochistan for provision of all available resources of the Department.

REFERENCES

Al-Shaibani, I.R.M., M.S. Phulan, A. Arijo, and T.A. Qureshi (2008). Epidemiology of ovine gastrointestinal nematodes in Hyderabad district, Pakistan. Pak Vet J. 28 (3): 125-130.

Anonymous. (2006). ACO (Agricultural Census Organization) Government of Pakistan. Livestock Census. Statistics Division, Gulberg-III, Lahore, Pakistan.

Athar, L. A., M. N. Khan, M. S. Sajid, T.U. Rehman and I. A. Khan (2011). Cost benefits analysis of anthelmintic treatment of cattle and buffaloes. Pakistan Vet. J. 31(2): 149-152.

Bennema, S.C., J. Vercruysse, E. Morgan, K. Staffor, J. Hoglund, J. Demeler, G.S. Himmelstjern, and J. Charlier (2010). Epidemiology and risk factors for exposure to gastrointestinal nematodes in dairy herds in northwestern Europe. Vet. Parasitol. 173: 247-254.

Bilal, M. Q., A. Hameed, and T. Ahmad (2009). Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in buffalo and cow calves in rural areas of Toba Tek Singh, Pakistan. The J. Anim. Plant Sci., 19 (2): 67-70.

Bisset, S.A (2010). Helminth parasites of economic importance in cattle in New Zealand. New Zeal. J. Zool..21: 9-22.

Biu, A.A., A. Maimunatu, A.F. Salamatu, and E.T. Agbadu (2009). A faecal survey of gastrointestinal parasites of ruminants on the University of Maiduguri Research Farm. Int. J. Biomed Health Sci. 5: (4).

Chanie, M., T. Awraris, and B. Bogale (2012). Occurrence of Gastro Intestinal Nematodes of Cattle in and Around Gondar Town, Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia Acta Parasitologica Globalis. 3(2): 28-33.

Charlier, J., J. Hoglund. G.S. Himmelstjerna, P. Dorny, and J. Vercruysse (2009). Gastrointestinal nematode infections in adult dairy cattle impact on production, diagnosis and control. Vet. Parasitol. 164:70-79.

Coles, G.C., F. Jackson, W.E. Pomroy, R.K. Prichard, H.G. Samson, M.A. Taylor, and J. Vercruysse (2006). The detection of anthelmintic resistence in nematodes of veterinary importance. Vet. Parasitol. 136: 167-185.

Demeler, J., J. Zeveren, N. Kleinschmidt, J. Vercruysse, J. Hoglund, R. Koopmann, J. Cabaret, E. Claerebout, M. Areskog, and G.H. Samson (2009). Monitoring the efficacy of ivermectin and albendazole against gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle in northern Europe. Vet. Parasitol. 160: 109-115.

Gasbarre, L.C., L.L. Smith, J.R. Lichtenfels, and P.A. Pilitt (2009). The identification of cattle nematode parasites resistant to multiple classes of anthelmintics in a commercial cattle population in the US. Vet. Parasitol. 166: 281-285.

Ghanem, Y.M., M. H. Naser, A. H. Abdelkader, and A. Heybe (2009). An epidemio-coprological study of protozoan and nematode parasites of ruminants in tropical semi-arid district of somaliland (northern of Somalia). Kafrel Vet. Med. J. 3rd Sci. Congress.10-12 May, pp 760-787.

Gwazea, F.R., M. Chimonyoa, and K. Dzamab (2009). Relationship between nutritionally related blood metabolites and gastrointestinal parasites in Nguni Goats of South Africa. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 32 (9): 1190-1199.

Hiko, A., and A. Wondimu (2011). Occurrence of nematodiasis in holstein friesian dairy breed. J. Vet. Med. Ani. Health. 3(1): 6-10.

Ijaz,M., M.S. Khan, M. Avais, K. Ashraf, M.M. Ali, and M.Z.U. Khan (2009). Infection rate and chemotherapy of various helminthes in diarrheic sheep in and around Lahore. J. Ani. and Pl. Sci. 19(1): 13-16.

Jittapalapong, S., A. Sangwaranond, B. Nimsuphan, T. Inpankaew, C. Phasuk, N. Pinyopanuwat, W. Chimnoi, C.Kengradomkij, P. Arunwipat, and T. Anakewith(2011). Prevalence of Gastro-Intestinal Parasites of Dairy Cows in Thailand. Kasetsart J. Nat. Sci. 45:40 - 45.

Kaewthamasorn, M., and S. Wongsamee (2006). A preliminary survey of gastrointestinal and haemoparasites of beef cattle in the tropical livestock farming system in Nan province northern Thailand. Parasitol. Res. 99: 306-308.

Kakar, H.U., M. Lateef, A. Maqbool and M.A. Jabbar (2014). Detection of Anthelmintic Resistance in Gastrointestinal Nematodes of Sheep in Balochistan Through Faecal Egg Count Reduction Test and Egg Hatch Assay, Sarhad. J. Agric. 30: 2.

Kakar, M.N., and J.K.Kakarsulemankhel (2008). Prevalence of endo (trematodes) and ecto-parasites in cows and buffaloes of Quetta, Pakistan. Pakistan Vet. J. 28(1): 34-36.

Kaplan, R.M.(2004) Drug resistance in nematodes of veterinary importance: a status report.TRENDS in Parasitology 20: 10.

Kaplan, R.M., N.Anand, and Vidyashanka (2012). An inconvenient truth: Global worming and anthelmintic resistance. Vet.Parasitol. 186: 70-78.

Keyyu, J.D., N.C. Kyvsgaard, J. Monrad, and A.A. Kassuku (2005). Epidemiology of gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle on traditional, small-scale dairy and large-scale dairy farms in Iringa district, Tanzania. Vet.Parasitol. 127(3-4): 285-94.

Khan, M. N., M. S. Sohail, M.K. Khan, Z. Iqbal, and A. Hussain (2010). Gastrointestinal helminthiasis: prevalence and associated determinants in domestic ruminants of district Toba Tek Singh, Punjab, Pakistan. Parasitol. Res. 107:787-794.

Kingsely, E., O.Ovutor, and G.L. Barine (2013). Prevalence of species of helminthes parasites in cattle slaughtered in selected abattoirs in Port Harcourt, South-south, Nigeria. Int. Res. Med. Sci. 1(2): 010-017.

Laha, R., M. Das, and A. Goswami (2013). Gastrointestinal parasitic infections in organized cattle farms of Meghalaya. Vet. World. 6(2):109-112.

Liu, F., W. Li, R.S. Liu, Y.M. Dai, D.S. Tan, R.Q. He, X. Lin, and Q. Zhu (2009). Prevalence of helminths in water buffaloes in Hunan Province, China. Trop. Anim. Health Prod. 41:543-546.

MAFF, (Ministry of Agriculture, Fishries and Food), 1986. Manual of Parasitological Laboratory Techniques. Her Majestey's Stationary Office (HMSO), London. Pp. 1-152.

Maichomo, M.W., J.M. Kagira, and T. Walker (2004). The point prevalence of gastro-intestinal parasites in calves, sheep and goats in Magadi division, south-western Kenya. Ond. J. Vet. Res. 71:257-261.

Marufu, M.C., C. Mapiye, and M. Chimonyo (2011). Nematode worm burdens in Nguni cattle on communal rangelands in a semiarid area of South Africa. Res.Opi. Ani.and Vet. Sci. 1(6): 360-367.

Mir, M.R., M.Z. Chisti, M. Rashid, S.A. Dar, R. Katoch, J.A. Kuchay, and J.A. Dar (2013). Point Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Helminthiaisis in large Ruminants of Jammu, India. Int. J. Sci. Res. Publications. 3 (3): 1-3.

Morakot, K., and S. Wongsamee (2006). A preliminary survey of gastrointestinal and Haemoparasites of beef cattle in the tropical livestock farming system in Nan Province, northern Thailand. Parasitol. Res. 99: 306-308.

Moyo, D.Z. (2006). An Abattoir Study of Prevalence and Seasonal Fluctuations of Gastrointestinal Nematodes of Cattle in the Midlands Province, Zimbabwe. Res. J. Ani. Vet. Sci. 1(1): 37-40.

O'Shaughnessy, J., B. Earley, J.F. Meec, M.L. Doherty, P. Crosson, D. Barrett, M. Macrelli and T. Waal (2014). Nematode control in spring-born suckler beef calves using targeted selective anthelmintic treatments. Vet. Parasitol. Pakistan Economic Survey, 2013-14. Govt of Pakistan, Ministry of Finance.

Patten, T., B. Good, J.P. Hanrahan, G. Mulcahy, and T. Waal (2011). Gastrointestinal nematode control practices on lowland sheep farms in Ireland with reference to selection for anthelmintic resistance. Irish Vet. J. 64:4.

Pfukenyi, D.M., and S. Mukaratirwa (2013). A review of the epidemiology and control of gastrointestinal nematode infections in cattle in Zimbabwe. Onderstepoort J. Vet. Res. 80 (1) 612, 1-12.

Radostits, O.M., C.C. Gay, K.W. Hinchcliff, and P.D. Constable (2007). Nematodes in animals. In: Text book of the disease of cattle, horse, sheep, pigs and goats 10th Ed. W.B. Saunders. USA / UK.

Rafiullah, A.A., A.Sajid, S.R. Shah, S. Ahmad, and M. Shahid (2011). Prevalence of Gastrointestinal tract parasites in cattle of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. J. Agri. Biol. Sci 6(9):

Raza, M.A., S. Murtaza, H.A. Bachaya, A. Qayyum, and M.A. Zaman (2010). Point prevalence of Toxocaravitulorum in large ruminants slaughtered at Multan abattoir. Pakistan Vet. J. 30(4): 242-244.

Raza M. A., A. Mazhar, M. Saeed, A. Saleem, N. Muhammad, A Muhammad, and A.B. Hafiz (2013). Prevalence of GIT helminths in cattle at the vicinities of tehsil Jatoi, Punjab, Pakistan Sci. Int. (Lahore). 25(2): 305-309.

Regassa, F., T. Sori, R. Dhuguma, Y.Kiros (2006). Epidemiology of gastrointestinal parasites of ruminants in W Oromia, Ethiopia. Int. J. Appl. Res. Vet. Med. 4(1):

Rehman, K., K. Javed, M.T. Tunio, and Z.H. Kuthu (2009). Passive surveillance of gastrointestinal parasites in buffaloes of Mandi Bahauddin and Gujrat district of the Punjab. The J. Anim. Plant Sci. 19(1): 17-19.

Saeed, K., K. Ashraf, and N. Ahmad (2009). A cross sectional study on the occurrence of parasitic infections in buffaloes in Lahore. Pakistan J. Zool. Suppl. 9 pp.655-659.

Sanchez, J., I.Dohoo, J. Carrier, and L. DesCoteaux (2004). A meta-analysis of the milk-production response after anthelmintic treatment in naturally infected adult dairy cows. Prev. Vet. Med. 63: 237-256.

Shah, H.,(1998-99). Annual Progress Report. Directorate of Animal Health, Livestock and Dairy Development Department, Govt. of Baluchistan, Quetta.

Shoaib, K., A.H. Mirani, M.G. Shah, K.B. Mirbahar, G.M. Lochi,, I.U. Khan, F.Alam, S.M. Hasan, and M. Tariq (2012). Prevalence of coccidiosis and other gastrointestinal nematode species in buffalo calves at Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan. African J. Microbiol. Res. 6(33): 6291-6294.

Soulsby, E.J.L (1982). Helminthes, arthropods and protozoa of domesticated animals, 7th Ed. Tindall, London.

Suarez, V.H., A.O. Miranda, S.M. Arenas, E.E. Schmidt, J. Lambert, A. Schieda, G. Felice, D. Imas, E. Sola, H. Pepa, V. Bugnone, H. Calandri, and L.V. Lordi (2010). Incidence and control of bovine gastrointestinal nematodes in the East of the Province of La Pampa, Argentina. RIA / 37 / N.A 1.

Sultan, K., A.Y. Desoukey, M.A. Elsiefy, and N.M. Elbahy (2010). An abattoir study on the prevalence of some gastrointestinal helminths of sheep in gharbia governorate, Egypt. Global Veterinaria. 5 (2): 84-87.

Swai, E.S., P.F. Mtui, A.N. Mbise, E. Kaaya, P. Sanka, and P.M. Loomu (2006). Prevalence of gastro intestinal parasite infections in Maasai cattle in Ngorongoro District, Tanzania. Livestock Research for Rural Dev. 18 (8):

Thomas, N., S. Teshale, and B. Kumsa (2007). Abomasal nematodes of sheep and goats slaughtered in Awassa (Ethiopia): species composition, prevalence and vulvar morphology. Helminthol. 44 (2): 70-75.

Thrusfield, M. (2007). Veterinary epidemiology. Blackwell, USA. Tshering,G., and N. Dorji(2013). Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in free range cattle; a case study in haa district, Bhutan. J Anim. Health Prod. 1 (4): 36-37.

Urquhart, G.M., J. Armour, J.L. Duncan, A.M. Dunn, F.W. Jennings (1996). The laboratory diagnosis of parasitism. Vet. Parasitol. Black Well Sci Oxford, pp. 276-284. Vercruysse, J., and E. Claerebout (2001). Treatment vs. non-treatment of helminth infections in cattle: defining the thresholds. Vet.Parasitol. 98:195-214.

Yagoob, G., K. Mirhadi, and S. Saeid (2011). The effect of ivermectin pour-on administration against natural Trichostrongylus colubriformis infestations and prevalence rate of that in cattle. Advances in Environ Bio. 5(7): 1496-1500.

Yazwinski, T.A., C.A. Tucker, E. Wray, L. Jones, J. Reynolds, P. Hornsby, and J. Powell (2013). Control trial and fecal egg count reduction test determinations of nematocidal efficacies of moxidectin and generic ivermectin in recently weaned, naturally infected calves. Vet. Parasitol. 195, 95-101.

Zajac, A., and G.A. Conboy (2006). Veterinary clinical parasitology.7th Ed. Wiley-Blackwell Publishing. pp. 3-142.
COPYRIGHT 2017 Asianet-Pakistan
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2017 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Publication:Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences
Geographic Code:9PAKI
Date:Jun 30, 2017
Words:5610
Previous Article:ANNUAL CHANGES OF THYROID STIMULATING HORMONE, THYROXINE, TRIIODOTHYRONINE AND CORTISOL HORMONES IN ANGORA GOATS.
Next Article:TOXICOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF AFLATOXIN B1 ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE, HUMORAL IMMUNE RESPONSE AND BLOOD PROFILE OF JAPANESE QUAIL.
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2019 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters