EPA adds nine hazardous waste sites to Superfund's national priorities list.
CERCLA, the law establishing the Superfund program, requires EPA to update the NPL at least annually and clean up hazardous waste sites to protect human health with the goal of returning them to communities for productive use.
Updates to the NPL do, however, provide policymakers with a list of high priority sites, serving to identify the size and nature of the nation's cleanup challenges.
A study conducted by researchers at Duke and Pittsburgh Universities concluded that, while a site's proposal to the NPL reduces property values slightly, making a site final on the NPL begins to increase property values surrounding Superfund sites. Furthermore, the study found that, once a site has all cleanup remedies in place, surrounding properties have a significant increase in property values.
Since 1983, EPA has listed 1,694 sites on the NPL. At 1,147 or 68 percent of NPL sites, all cleanup remedies are in place. Approximately 645 or 38 percent of NPL sites have all necessary long-term protections in place, which means EPA considers the sites protective for redevelopment or reuse.
The following nine sites have been added to the NPL:
* Beck's Lake (former automotive and hazardous waste dump) in South Bend, Ind.;
* Garden City Ground Water Plume (ground water plume) in Garden City, Ind.;
* Keystone Corridor Ground Water Contamination (ground water plume) in Indianapolis, Ind;
* Cristex Drum (former fabric mill) in Oxford, N.C.;
* Hemphill Road TCE (former chemical drum recycling) in Gastonia, N.C.;
* Collins & Aikman Plant (Former) (former automotive rubber manufacturer) in Farmington, N.H.;
* Jackpile-Paguate Uranium Mine (former uranium mine) in Laguna Pueblo, N.M.;
* Wilcox Oil Company (former oil refinery) in Bristow, Okla.; and
* Makah Reservation Warmhouse Beach Dump (municipal and hazardous waste dump) in Neah Bay, Wash.
The following eight sites have been proposed for addition to the NPL:
* Macmillan Ring Free Oil (former oil refinery) in Norphlet, Ark.;
* Keddy Mill (former sawmill, grist and wool carding mill) in Windham, Maine;
* PCE Southeast Contamination (ground water plume) in York, Neb.;
* PCE/TCE Northeast Contamination (ground water plume) in York, Neb.;
* Troy Chem Corp Inc (chemical manufacturer) in Newark, N.J.;
* Unimatic Manufacturing Corporation (former chemical manufacturer) in Fairfield, N.J.;
* Wolff-Alport Chemical Company (former metal extraction facility) in Ridgewood, N.Y.; and
* Walker Machine Products, Inc. (former machine screw products manufacturer) in Collierville, Tenn.
In the proposed rule, EPA is also soliciting additional comments on the Smurfit-Stone Mill site based on additional references to the Hazard Ranking System documentation record being made available to the public for review.
EPA is also changing the name of the B.F. Goodrich site in Rialto, Calif., which EPA added to the NPL on September 23, 2009). The site's new name, Rockets, Fireworks, and Flares (RFF), informs the public of activities that are believed to have contributed to contamination at the site. Wilcox Oil Company in Oklahoma
The EPA added the Wilcox Oil Company site in Creek County, Oklahoma, to the list of Superfund sites.
The site, about 35 miles southwest of Tulsa, consists of the former Lorraine and Wilcox Refinery. The two companies operated refineries and associated facilities on the property from 1915 to 1965. The 125-acre site includes remnants of the former oil refining operations and tank farms.
Contaminants at the site include metals--mainly lead--and polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons, a group of chemicals found in crude oil that might cause cancer or reproductive and skin effects.
Charlotte's Hemphill Road in Gastonia
The Hemphill Road TCE site is located near the intersection of Forbes Road. The EPA says several thousand chemical drums were recycled there in the 1960s. The drum residues were dumped into the ground.
The site has since operated as Gastonia Industrial Truck, the EPA says.
In 1988, ground water contaminated with trichloroethene, or TCE, was found in a private well. A year later, investigators found trichloroethene contamination at a nearby home and in a facility production well at Gastonia Industrial Truck. In 1999, trichloroethene was found in the community well at Kensington Estates.
The EPA says private wells as far as a quarter of a mile from the Hemphill Road TCE site have been found to be contaminated with trichloroethene.
The EPA says the Kensington Estates well that served 100 people was taken offline after the contamination was discovered. Jackpile-Paguate Uranium Mine in New Mexico
The EPA added the Jackpile-Paguate Uranium Mine in Laguna Pueblo in Cibola County, NM, to the list of Superfund sites.
About 40 miles west of Albuquerque, the mine lies in an area of canyons and arroyos near the village of Paguate. Anaconda Minerals Company operated the 7,868-acre site from 1953 to 1982, leaving open pits, waste dumps, and ore stockpiles. Contaminants found at the site include uranium, arsenic, barium, chromium, and lead. While previous attempts to clean up the site have been made, an assessment in 2007 determined these were not enough.
The nearby Rio Paguate and Paguate Reservoir have shown elevated levels of isotopic uranium. Although the site had undergone reclamation previously, a 2007 report concluded that effort left several issues unaddressed as releases from the mine are still occurring.
Collins & Aikman Plant in New Hampshire
The former Collins & Aikman Plant is a 123-acre partially-developed parcel in Farmington, N.H. which was the location of the Davidson Rubber Co., Inc. since the mid-1960s. Ownership of the property changed several times until 2001 when it was purchased by Collins & Aikman Interiors, Inc., which filed for bankruptcy in 2005 and ceased operations in 2006.
The property was then transferred to the New Hampshire Custodial Trust. Site investigations have revealed ground water contamination from tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and other contributing contaminants.
The contaminated ground water plume may pose a threat to nearby private or public drinking water wells and wetlands, and one municipal water supply well has been taken out of service. The State of New Hampshire referred the site to EPA for NPL listing because, following the bankruptcy closure of the facility in 2006, insufficient resources were available to support a full investigation and cleanup of the site.
Keddy Mill site in Maine
Many industrial activities have been conducted on the Keddy Mill property between the 1750's and 1997, including a sawmill, grist and wool carding mill, wood pulp and boxboard manufacturing, steel manufacturing and fabrication of heavy equipment buckets, manufacturing of fire suppression piping and materials, a small machine shop and equipment storage.
Several buildings on the property have been demolished, and the property currently consists of a single derelict multistoried concrete building. The property has been vacant since 1997 and is known to be contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).
Unimatic Manufacturing Corp. in Fairfield
This site was most recently used by Frameware Inc., which removed its operations in July of 2013 after the EPA judged the site to be contaminated.
Unimatic formerly used the site to run a metals molding facility and operated machines using lubricating oil that contained polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The company's operations caused the soil, ground water and a building on the property to be contaminated with PCBs. Based on the PCB levels inside the building, state and federal health officials recommended that employees of a company operating on the site be relocated to protect their health.
Since 2002, the facility has been used by Frameware, Inc., a metal frame parts manufacturer and distributor.
In May 2012, at the request of the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP), the EPA took samples both inside and outside the building on the site. Based on the results of EPA's sampling, the New Jersey Department of Health, in consultation with the federal Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, recommended that employees of the facility be relocated. Frameware, Inc. moved its operations in July 2013 and removed approximately 20 workers from the contaminated work environment.
Unimatic operated a metals works and metals molding facility at the site from 1955 until 2001. The company allegedly washed out PCB-laden lubricant through floor trenches to the facility wastewater pipes, which subsequently discharged into a tributary of Deepavaal Brook. The pipes allowed the wastewater to leak into the ground at the site, contaminating soil and ground water throughout the property. Operations inside the building lead to contamination of the interior building structure.
The nearest public drinking water wells are located less than one-half mile from the site. The water supply is monitored regularly to ensure the water quality meets drinking water standards and is safe to consume. The water meets federal and state drinking water standards.
The New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection has issued numerous violation notices to Unimatic, which have resulted in the company removing some contaminated soil. High PCB concentrations, however, remain in soil and ground water as well as inside the building. The property was sold in 2002 after Unimatic ceased operations at the site. Arkansas MacMillan Ring-Free Oil
The MacMillan Ring-Free Oil site in Union County, Arkansas, may be added to the National Priorities List (NPL) of Superfund sites
The site, near a residential neighborhood and a school in Norphlet, operated as a crude-oil refinery and maker of lubrication oil and asphalt products from 1929 to 1987. Nor-Ark Industrial Corp bought the property in 1989 to store asphalt products until 1991.
Norphlet Chemical refurbished the site in 2004, intending to manufacture an automotive refrigerant called tetrafluoroethane (Freon 134A); however, the plant never operated as intended and the site has been abandoned since 2007.
The EPA and Arkansas Department of Environmental Quality (ADEQ) have found contamination from the site has seeped into groundwater and in drainage pathways that lead to wetlands north of the site. Soil on and under the property has also been affected.
Contaminants include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and metals. While past efforts removed or treated some contamination at the site, much work remains to be done to assess the threat to the surrounding area.
PCE/TCE Northeast Contamination Site in Nebraska
The EPA announced its proposal to add the PCE/TCE Northeast Contamination Site and PCE Southeast Contamination Site, both in York, Neb., to the NPL.
The PCE/TCE Northeast Site is located in a primarily residential area of York where some industrial businesses are also situated. The PCE Southeast Site consists primarily of residential properties southeast of the city. Groundwater contamination in the York area has been an ongoing issue since 1990, when the Nebraska Department of Environmental Quality discovered trichloroethylene (TCE) and other hazardous substances in some of York's municipal wells.
EPA has been sampling private wells in northeast and southeast York and has been providing safe drinking water alternatives for those wells that have been impacted above EPA's standards for drinking water.
Troy Chemical Corp in New Jersey
The EPA proposed to add the Troy Chemical Corp. site in Newark, New Jersey to its Superfund list. Past industrial activity at and in the vicinity of the site, including the manufacture of chemicals, has contaminated Pierson's Creek, which flows into Newark Bay.
Sediment in the creek contains elevated levels of mercury and other pollutants. Previous testing by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection showed that some sediment in Pierson's Creek contained as much as 60% mercury by weight.
The Troy Chemical Corporation has manufactured chemicals at the site since 1956. Between 1956 and 1965, the facility allegedly discharged approximately 7,000 gallons of untreated mercury-containing wastewater into Pierson's Creek each week.
After 1965, the wastewater was treated at the site to address the mercury prior to its discharge into the creek. In 1976, a wastewater treatment plant was built on the site. In 2001, the EPA reached a settlement with Troy Chemical that required the facility to come into compliance with chemical reporting regulations and make improvements to reduce air and water pollution and decrease the amount of chemicals the company uses in its processes.
Troy Chemical Corporation currently manufactures antimicrobial and antifungal paint additives on the site. The New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection has also worked to resolve air and water violations resulting from operations at the site. New Jersey has supported the inclusion of this site to the Superfund list.
The addition of this site, along with the Unimatic site in Fairfield, NJ, brings the total of proposed and final sites on the federal Superfund list in New Jersey to 116.
Wolff-Alport Chemical Company in Queens
The Wolff-Alport Chemical Company site in the Ridgewood section of Queens, New York has been added to the Superfund list. The soil and some nearby sewers are contaminated by residual radioactive contamination from past industrial activities at the site.
Testing indicates that there is no immediate threat to nearby residents or employees and customers of businesses in the affected area along Irving and Cooper Avenues. Exposure to the radioactive contamination, however, may pose a threat to health in the long-term.
The now defunct Wolff-Alport Chemical Company operated from 1920 until 1954, processing imported monazite sand and extracting rare earth metals. Monazite contains approximately 6% to 8% thorium, which is radioactive.
The Wolff-Alport Chemical Company site covers 1125 to 1139 Irving Avenue and 1514 Cooper Avenue in Ridgewood, on the border of Brooklyn and Queens. During its years of operation, the facility occupied three structures and two yard areas at 1127 Irving Avenue. The company did not operate out of 1125 Irving Avenue or 1514 Cooper Avenue, but those properties were affected by the contamination.
Today the site consists of six parcels of land with five buildings that house several small businesses, office space and warehouses. Until 1947, the company disposed of thorium waste in the sewer and on its property. The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission ordered the company to stop the practice in 1947.
EPA provided technical assistance to New York State and New York City in conducting radiological surveys at the site and have identified waste material and radioactivity throughout the property, beneath adjacent public sidewalks and streets and in nearby sewers above levels expected to be found in a comparable urban area.
Between August 2012 and December 2013, the EPA conducted work to better understand site conditions and to reduce the potential exposure of workers and area residents to the contamination. Indoor air samples were collected at the Primo Auto Body Shop, the Terra Nova Construction Company, the Arctic Glacier ice-making facility, the Jarabacoa Deli and the apartments above, as well as at the nearby Audrey Johnson Daycare and Intermediate School 384.
Outdoor samples were taken from the Evergreen Railroad spur and along the sidewalk on Irving Avenue. Almost all sample results were below action levels established by a group of technical experts from EPA, New York State and New York City.
Where necessary, EPA took action to protect people from exposure in the short-term. At Intermediate School 384, radioactive gas was coming from a hole in an unoccupied storage area. The hole was sealed with concrete and followup sampling results were well below the action level established by the technical experts. At the Terra Nova Construction Company, increased levels were found in a small office. The EPA installed a mitigation system that reduced levels to below the action level.
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|Publication:||Hazardous Waste Superfund Alert|
|Date:||Dec 23, 2013|
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