EMERGENCE OF EGALITARIANISM BY GENDER ROLE DYNAMICS IN FAMILY SYSTEM (SOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE).
Family is the basic institution of society and culture where women have their own identity and individuality. Women in eastern society have made massive progress in education and labour force involvement since the middle of the twentieth century. Present study was carried out with the aim to identify the consideration of the egalitarian gender role in our society where goal achievement and career stability become a demand for both male and female in the family, to elaborate the patterns of behaviour attitudes and belongings in Egalitarianism, to explore the more valued expectations of society. The study also aims to find out the nuclear family, patriarchal families, higher levels of education and socioeconomic status support the typology of egalitarianism.
Total 117 adult married couples (% males and 54.78% females, including widows and separated/ single parent family) between age 20-65 were taken through non probability convenience sampling. Chi-Square was used to calculate the results the results showed that higher socioeconomic status and levels of education are representative of an egalitarian family system ,however, lower background and low levels of education support traditional system in their families.
Key Terms: Traditional family system ;Egalitarian family system; Nuclear , Joint, Extended families
The stipulation of every society comprises of traits, behaviour and criteria of social institution for its members. These stipulations are implanted in its structure of family, education, politics, economics and religious system (Thorne, 1982; Robin, 1975).
All human societies are in league with the momentousness to sex modesty. Men and Women have been living together from the very incept of anthropoid's history. Every society categorizes its members on the basis of sex treating men and women in different ways and expecting different patterns of conduct. These differentiations do not necessarily entail that one sex should have social position or rank superior than the other but in practice sexual differentiation is always rendered in sexual inequality. The inequality of sexes probably is the oldest form of structure social inequality. Its existence certainly found before the social class and cast first materialized (Robertson, 1992). Woman's role has viewed ceaseless change throughout the history. Women's status inferred "admirable" when women have significant independent strengths and choices.
Women's status largely varied in time, fairly high in ancient Egypt, low in early Greece and in the early Roman republic, superior in the later Roman Empire and inferior again in the early Roman republic, efficient in the later Roman Empire, and deficient again in the Christian era after the collapse of Rome (Leslie, 1976).
Role and status are obligatory to one another; the imperative attribute of the work one does has always been closely connected to one's status and power. in peasant societies women have contributed with men in the primary production such as, harvesting the field, weaving the fabric etc, while industrialization made men the chief bread earner and women were the collaborators but soon after the period of industrialization the family size modified as from extended and joint to nuclear families and more and more wives work outside home.
Such transition is customary recognized as modification of gender role from traditional to egalitarianism structure; in such transition women are more adaptive than men. The study by Thorn and young- De Marco (2001) argued that the divergence in such behaviour patterns are concluded from conflictive sex attitude categorization of male and female; particularly it was assumed that womenfolk would reflect towards the trails of sex attitude, in a direction of compatible ideological gender role, on the other hand menfolk respond in traditional conformity of sexual characteristics. Results gave exceptionally significant sex differences related to three appraisals on masculine and feminine stance of expected behaviour. Men were provision to establish traditional gender role in contrast to women in labour force, to accept that mother's job outside the home consequently have a negative effect on young children and highlighted maternal employment a hindrance in mother child relationship.
In contrast man's views on being traditional or egalitarian was unyielding a predominantly unbiased behaviour. This recommends that standards of gender impartiality, possibly will activate if the new generation fine spaces in organizations. Considerable sociological studies analysed that conversion from traditional ideological attitude to egalitarianism has progressively increased more quickly for women than for men.
However, formation of gender role attitude on the basis of sex and the ideology of gender differences with the foundation of egalitarian and traditional role of the male and female are not analysed yet. however, comprehensive work has been done to evaluate the gender role beliefs of female gender across the age to see the effects of macro social structure and transformation of attitudes from the current generation to the next. But there is less comparable information found in literature with regard to men (Blee and Tickamyer, 1995).
Those with the traditional gender role considered that womanhood and manhood perfectly accomplish admirable and divergent roles. Thus, individuals having traditional minds believe that good provider or earning to complete economic need of the family is more appropriate role for men and the homemaker role or the responsibilities inside the home like childrearing and nurture, cooking and serving family within home boundaries is accurate for womenfolk (Riley, 2003; Bernard, 1981; Fraser and Gordon, 1994; Brines, 1994).
Women traditional gender role was idealized in the 1950s, that of the child centered housewife. This preference was developed all through the industrial development, of 19th century. Gerson (1985) predicts that the expansion of the industrial revolution during the era includes in the communal, corporal and economical disconnection of the civic and private ranges. Men were haggard into the work place, and the inmate wages raised in position and frequency, women were downgraded to the home.
These changes amplified women's household tasks as child rarer and simplified the foundation of a flawless and spiritual concept of accurate motherhood, the true motherhood which afterwards modifies into the larger trend of home life affirmed that women were unsurprisingly and wholly gifted with the nurturing sensitive measurements vital to manage the private sphere and rare children properly, shielding them and teaching them the societies morals, framework the humiliating influence of industrialization. The traditional female role in which the women perform household tasks and engage in childcare is coupled with low level of prestige and negative values in judgement to the role of men (Riley, 2003; Bernard, 1981). Much of this results from homemakers and enslavement upon the main source of income that raised within capitalism (Fraser and Gordon, 1994; Brine, 1994).
Because of women in traditional roles are expelled from the occupation at outdoor, they can put on access to cash intermediate markets only through the money provided to them by men. Emphasizing their traditional role (Folber, 2001).
Egalitarian Gender Role
Embracing democratic gender ethics contains fresh roles for both women and men. These advanced household tasks occupy superior sharing in rewarded services and superior segment in the condition of families' fiscal requirements (Riley, 2003; Potchchck, 1992). An equivalent reduction in their mandatory visit in childcare for women and financial support for men (Bernad, 1981).
However, Potchchck (1992) assert that the advent of dual employee ways in marriage doesn't inevitability resemble with intensification in egalitarian gender role attitudes. Many families' mates also engage in salaried jobs and husbands permits their wives to become employed, but due to the pecuniary requirement rather than the ideological instincts, consequently it is compulsory that sociologists detached the gender behaviour of men and women from their gender role attitudes, as they often are conflictive. The hub of researcher should be shared equally of husband and wives as bread earner, childcare and other activities. Another indicator of egalitarian gender role attitude contains the consent of marriage women job services, the farming of female's salary as imperative to families, approving that working mothers can have worth full relationship with their children and opposing the allegation of that men alone should make vital family decision.
Work responsibilities are divided, assigned everywhere on the basis of gender. Especially in ancient time these responsibilities were more inflexible and structured in traditional societies. Women are considered taking care of children, maintaining house work in typical traditional societies whereas, men are reserved for hunting and fighting. This division indicated the natural aspect of biological basis, in which men are given the duties, required more physical strength while female perform household work which required less physical strength. This typical thought prevails in most of the society.
George (1935) studied 224 non literate societies before industrial age and find out the fact that they have a distinctive gender role in them for male and female, such as fitting hunting, fishing and trade are the dominant male activities where female keep bound herself to home work. But on agriculture fields both have equally laboured division.
Recent cross sectional work that built-in poor and non-Western countries supports the declaration that there is at least some level of global conformity in the structure of gender belief system crossways a broad range of countries. Inglehart and Norris (2002) find huge differences in gender attitudes by confinement cohort among post-industrial and industrial societies, but a much minor cohort difference in agrarians societies. National framework, including social institutions and national policies, influence gender ideologies (Orloff, 1993; Baxter and Kane 1995; Nordenmark, 2004; Scott, 1999; Treas and Widmer, 2000; Tu and Liao, 2005). Momentous cross national variation in indicators such as level of development, cultural traditions, and education levels, plants it an open inquiry as to whether attitudes and beliefs system are similarly organized across countries.
Glauber and associates found that man who convey traditional gender ideologies expend more time in paid work when they become father, whereas men who articulate egalitarian ideologies spend less time on job or offices. This study extends previous research by investigating rational differences among men. They used a sample from National Longitudinal Survey on youth in (1979 N=23261) and count that fatherhood connected with an increase in married white men's time spent in paid work. Boost was more than twice as well built for traditional African American men did not work more when they become father. These findings recommended that African American men may express gender traditionalism but adopt more egalitarian work family arrangements. This study also presents substantiation of an interaction among race, class and gender ideology that shapes father time spent in paid work.
* To determine the emergence of egalitarianism ideology in society by gender role dynamics in family institution with perspective of the levels of education, socio economic status, nuclear family system by size and authority.
* Nuclear family system is more likely to be related to egalitarian family system.
* Higher level of education is likely to be related with egalitarian female role in family system.
* High levels of socio economical statuses are more likely to be related to egalitarianism.
* Patriarchal families are more likely to be related with the traditional family attitude for women.
* The high number of females, is likely to be related with egalitarian attitude.
The research study is an explanatory type. Consist of four section for analysing emergence of egalitarianism by gender role dynamics in family system. The four sections are interview schedule, sampling, method of data collection and statistical analysis of data. The universe of the research is Gulistan-e-Johar situated in Karachi Sindh Province of Pakistan. The researcher used convenience sampling of non-probability type as there is no fair census done after 1998 and we have no credible data regarding population, more over the blocks in Gulistan-e-Johar are established and acquired so we cannot properly use the last census data. In the present research 117 adult married couple, including 52 males and 63 females were attended at home for interviewing. Before data collection, formal permission was taken from the respondents and ensures them about the confidentiality of their information.
After taking their verbal inform consent, the demographic information sheet was given to them, along with Attitude Towards Women Scale (Spence, Helmrich and Stapp, 1978) - Short version. The scale was administered to the respondents. Introduction to participant form includes purpose of the study and request for voluntary participation of the participants. Informed consent form includes verbal agreement of voluntary participation of the respondents, a Self-developed semi structured Interview form which was consisted of information related to personal characteristics, age group, family structure, marital status, and diagnostic categories.
Attitudes Towards Women Scale (atW) - Short Version
ATW is a self-administered scale that has been developed by (Spence, Helmrich and Stapp, 1978). And found to be reliable instrument for evaluation of pro feminist, egalitarian attitude and traditional. The ATW contains 25 items; a high score indicates a pro feminist, egalitarian attitude while a low score indicates a traditional, conservative attitude. In scoring the items, A=0, B=1, C=2, and D=3 except for the items with an asterisk where the scale is reversed.
Validity and Reliability
As for as the Validity and reliability of Attitudes Towards Women Scale is concern; there are many researches in which this scale was used to along with other inventories to confirm their reliability and validity. More than ten researches are found in different journals in which it was preferably used scale.
Statistical analysis was done manually and by Microsoft Excel 2007.Chi-square was used for tool of statistical analysis.
Data was collected only from married people with their consent for voluntarily participation in it. They were free to withdraw from participation at any time. No identity is shown in any case.
Inferential Statistics: inferences was calculated by the statistical tool chi-square are as follow.
Hypothesis no: 1
Ho=There is no relationship between nuclear family system and Egalitarian approach.
H1=nuclear family system is likely to be related with Egalitarianism.
The calculated value of chi square with degree of freedom 2, and level of significance 0.05 is 25.758. Which is >the table value of chi square: 5.991. Therefor the null hypothesis is rejected and the alternative hypothesis is accepted. Magnitude: r = 0.2 proves that the strength of relationship between the variances is moderate which shows direct relation between the structure of family and attitude towards women. It means shrinking of family structure from extended to nuclear are developing egalitarian approach than traditional. this transition of family structure has acceptance of egalitarian approach. in nuclear family system equal role of woman is found with respect to man in both earning and raring children.
Hypothesis no 2
Ho=There is no relationship between higher levels of education and egalitarian family system.
H1=higher levels of education are likely to be related with egalitarian family system
Level of education
Graduation and above###23###09###27.63###3.841
The calculated value of chi square with degree of freedom 2, and level of significance 0.05 is 33.128. Which is >the table value of chi square :5.991. Therefor the null hypothesis is rejected and the alternative hypothesis is accepted. Magnitude: r = 0.6 The strength of the relationship between the variances level of education and attitude towards women are in a strong relationship. It means the egalitarian family approach is widely observed in families with higher levels of education. And these families mostly included educated couples.
Hypothesis no 3
Ho=There is no relationship between socio economic status and egalitarian family system.
H1= socio economic status is likely to be related with egalitarian family system.
The calculated value of chi square with degree of freedom 3 and level of significance 0.05 is 66.626. Which is >the table value of chi square i.e. 7.815. therefor the null hypothesis is rejected and the alternative hypothesis is accepted.
Magnitude: r = 0.42. The strength of the relationship between the variables is moderate which shows a direct relation between the high social economic status and attitude towards women. It is observed that families with higher economic status are likely to have egalitarian family approach in society. It means higher the economic status, leads to equal role of male and female in family institution whether in house hold work or outdoor paid work.
Hypothesis no 4
Ho=There is no relationship between Patriarchal families and traditional family system.
H1=Patriarchal families are likely to be related with traditional family system.
head of the Family
The calculated value of chi square with degree of freedom 1, and level of significance 0.05 is 0.084. Which is lower than the table value of chi square 3.841. therefor the null hypothesis is accepted and the alternative hypothesis is rejected. It means most of the patriarchal families supports the egalitarian gender role. The overall analysis of such transition in today's family trends is positive for developing the positive image of female in outdoor work.
Hypothesis no 5
Ho=There is no relationship between the more female member in family and egalitarianism.
H1=More the numbers of female members are likely to be related with egalitarianism.
no of Family Members
no of Males###23###11
no of Females###32###51###8.27###3.841
The calculated value of chi square with degree of freedom 1, and level of significance 0.05 is 8.2775. Which is >the table value of chi square 3.841. Therefor the null hypothesis is rejected and the alternative hypothesis is accepted. Magnitude: r = 0.25 The strength of relationship between the variances number of female family members and attitude towards women are in positive relation. Proves that the egalitarian family approach is widely observed in families that consists of more female members in family unit.
Results and Discussion
Family is the basic institution of a child. He/she is bounded with many relations and understand the patterns of life, to learn the norms and the values of culture and society, from his/her early surroundings to be with parents and grandparents and siblings. The purpose is to acknowledge the role taking, socialization process are arenas of rights and the decision making power to pass through the life with sustainability, within the frame of social identity given by parents and with some ascribe statues naturally blessed as a female or male by sex.
The interaction process that starts from cooperation passes from different roads to accomplish destinies, the struggle for the betterment of survival by both gender, male and female coasts and so does one's discrimination. To enlighten the female gender role few researches are conducted. By empirical approach we calculated that the nuclear family system focuses egalitarian approach by families more as compared to joint or extended families, where women are equally responsible for home tasks and financial needs of family too. Ninety percent nuclear family system supported the egalitarian attitude rather traditional. Most of our findings confirm that people living in such a family type are satisfied with their life style. Furthermore, results of the current study highlight that joint and extended family structure is also in the support of egalitarian attitude but not as much as nuclear family system (Hypothesis No. 1).
Further findings of the current study indicate that lower educational levels support traditional attitude against egalitarian from the reality whether the respondents are male or female. proved that participants of higher educational level were in favour to egalitarian (Hypothesis No. 2). which is also supported by previous researches in different fields of Social Sciences, particularly Sociology dealing with family type by authority and structure. Thus, the past researches suggested that women and men maintain this similar view points. Given freedom to choose, women and men may, in some context make different choices. The working fields continue to the level of an increasingly egalitarian society and women are inclined to choose their own patterns freely regarding work and family.
Speculated that women will continue to differ from men in the decisions they make; for career or studies but were found as similar and devoting for career and education as men (Lubinski etal., 2006) acquired data are uniquely capable of analysing men and women privatization of work and family in a context approaching that which might be termed a level playing field. The sample of the researcher was young men and women enrolled in premier math, science and engineering graduates across the United States. Thus, they acquired a sample of men and women on similarly high power career tracks. As graduate students, the men and women were highly similar in ability profile, talent, personality characteristics and trades life priorities and devoting for their studies (Lubinski, Venvow, Shea, Eftekhari, Sanjani, and Hlvorson, 2001).
Inspecting the dependent variable that is "Attitude towards women" with socio economic status proved that higher economic system is enhancing the egalitarian attitude in women and men that those belonging to lower economic status prefer to have traditional attitude in their families and are more materialistic Men belong to lower socio economic status prefers to have traditional attitude in their families (Hypothesis No. 3) as other researcher as documented young men and women in the United States are similar today than they were decades ago ( Astin, 1998). Similar findings were found by Gerson and Kathleen (1985) men who express traditional gender ideology spent most of their time at paid work when they become fathers, belonging to lower economic status. In contrast men who belong to higher economic status express egalitarian ideologies and spend less time in paid work.
The variables "attitude towards women" and patriarchal families, where man is considered as head of the family, proved that patriarchal families aspired for egalitarian attitude for their offspring's in future. But patriarchal families supported equal role of female which was previously assumed that patriarchal families prefer to have traditional gender attitude but our findings are quite dissimilar from that assumption. (Hypothesis No. 4) It was hypothesized that women and men were distinct in most of sustenance for dominant male act in house hold labour task. However, women retorted to each dependent variable in consistent to egalitarian approach while men respond less egalitarian perspective, but not wholly supportive to traditional ideology (Ferriman et al., 2009). More the number of female in the family supported the more egalitarian attitude for female role in family system. Divorce, single parent and widow were also the part of the present research (Hypothesis No 5).
Although egalitarianism favour the paid work of both male and female on equal basis, Global economic recession becomes the base of change in the family system from traditional to egalitarian. The results of current research are in the support of egalitarian gender Ideology across the variables that were (i) family type by structure (nuclear, joint and extended) (ii) socio economic status (iii) family type by authority( patriarchy and matriarchy) (iv) education (v) number of female family members :we concluded that nuclear family system , higher socio economic status ,patriarchal family, higher levels of education and more number of female members in family, prefer the egalitarian approach in "Attitude towards Women".
We as an Islamic republic support the egalitarian system, as it is the best path to provide females a better social environment in organizational settings, so that she can earn their part of livelihood to rear their family to the demands of the present society within limitations. Nevertheless, there is a need to review the Islamic rules of a female earning from history where Syedina Khadija Bibi (RA) has done her own business keeping the all ethical boundaries and limitations. This can be a single step to highlight the findings but the limitation is the lack of generalization due to the small sample size.
* Keeping the results of the current study in mind following recommendations are made.
* Females should be given equal amount of salaries as men at their jobs.
* Equal time should be given by both parents as it would affect the nurture of children with strong levels of confidence.
* Egalitarian approach should be adapted in society to enlighten ways of economic development.
* Longitudinal studies should be conduct for thorough understanding of family structure.
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