Printer Friendly

EFFECTS OF CORNELIAN CHERRY (CORNUS MAS L.) FRUIT ON PLASMA LIPIDS, CORTISOL, T3 AND T4 LEVELS IN HAMSTERS.

Byline: A. Lotfi, H. Aghdam Shahryar and H. Rasoolian

ABSTRACT

The aim of present study was to investigate the effect of dietary cornelian cherry fruit (CCF) on plasma lipids, cortisol, T3 and T4 levels. Thirty six male hamsters were divided into four groups; Group1 (control) fed basal diet without CCF supplementation, group 2 which fed 5g CCF only at first daily meal, group3 which fed 10g CCF, at first and second daily meals and group 4 which fed 15g CCF, at first, second and third daily meals, for 20 continuous days. Dietary CCF caused significant changes in plasma total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride, high density lipoprotein-C (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein-C (LDL-C) (Pless than 0.01); TC and LDL-C are decreased in groups 2, 3 and 4, when compared with control (group 1), whereas triglyceride was increased in CCF supplemented groups (groups 2, 3, and 4). HDL-C was greater in groups 3 and 4, when it compared with control and group 2. The cortisol level was lower for groups 2, 3 and 4, when compared with control. But there were no any significant changes for thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) between experimental groups. It was concluded that dietary cornelian cherry fruit supplementation has hypolipidemic effect due to declining total cholesterol and LDL-C levels. Also, it can increase HDL-C (good cholesterol) and decrease cortisol level, without any considerable effect on thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) level. Dietary supplementation of cornelian cherry fruit for two meals daily is suggested to more efficient hypolipidemic effect.

Key words: Cornelian cherry fruit, glucose, insulin, Syrian hamster.INTRODUCTION

The cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) is a medicinal plant with hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic effects (Seymour et al., 2009; Mirbadal and Shirdel,2010; Shamsi et al., 2010). It has extensive grown in Eastern Europe and some Asian countries including Iran (Tetera, 2006). Iranian strain of cornelian cherry fruit (CCF) has greater concentrations of ascorbic acid (183.25 to 299.5 mg/100g), phenolic compounds (2695.75 mg gallic acid/ 100g fresh fruit) and antioxidant capacity upto 82.37% (Hassanpour et al., 2011). The glucose and sucrose of CCF are in low concentration, and Fe, Ca, vitamins (a-tocopherol, biotin, riboflavin and ascorbic acid) are in high concentration in fresh CCF (Zargari,1997). The nutrients contents of CCF are presented as table1.

Table1: Concentrations of some nutrients in fresh and dried cornelian cherry fruit (CCF), according to Craita-

###Maria et al., (2011) analysis.

###Moisture###Ascorbic acid###Carotenes###Total sugar###Total protein

###Compound

###(% DM)###(mg/100g DM)###(mg/100g DM)###(mg/100g DM)###(mg/100g DM)

###Fresh fruit###327.53###419.08###6.58###48.41###0.5

###Dried fruit###9.12###228.82###0.77###63.22###0.27

About medicinal aspects of fruit and its application in ethno-pharmacology or novel medicine, the published reports have listed various and multifunctional characteristics for cornelian cherry. Results obtained from related studies shown antioxidative (Ersoy et al.,2011), antimicrobial (Dulger and Gonduz, 2004; Krisch et al., 2008), hypo-lipidemic, hyper-insulinemic and weight losing effects (Jayaprakasam et al., 2006; Seymour et al., 2009; Shamsi et al., 2010; Mirbadal and Shirdel, 2010). In traditional medicine, CCF was used for treatment of diarrhea, fever, and kidney and urinary bladder dysfunctions (Zargari, 1997; Dulger and Gonduz,2004).Phytotherapeutics for thyroid dysfunction and optimization of releasing of T3 and T4 has an important role in helping to supports thyroid therapies (Dehghani et al., 2010; Shekar-Foroosh et al., 2012). In published studies, hypoglycemic and hypolypidemic effects of CCF are investigated in obesity and diabetic individuals, but the relation of this effect with endocrine hormones is somewhat unclear. The thyroid-cholesterol connection and its relation with possible hypothyroidism and hypercholesterolemia are stated by Feld and Dickey, (2001). Also, because of considerable role of cortisol and thyroid hormones in cholesterol metabolism (Fraser et al., 1999; Boone, 2009), it was suggested that the hypolipidemic effect of CCF is due to its effect on present endocrine hormones. In other hand, most of published studies in relation with CCFs hypo-lipidemic effect were investigated in diabetic or obesity conditions (Jayaprakasam et al., 2006; Mirbadal and Shirdel, 2010; Rafieian-Kopaei et al., 2011). The aim of present experiment was to investigate the possible effects of dietary supplemented CCF (one, two or three meals daily) on cortisol, thyroid hormones and plasma lipids of experimental model in healthy condition.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Present study was conducted during Dec. 2011 to Apr. 2012 at animal rooms and laboratories of Islamic Azad University. Thirty six one-month-old male hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) were divided into four experimental groups or treatments (9 animals in each treatment). All of experimental groups had one week pre- experiment adaptation period with same dietary regimen and environmental condition. Then, the dietary treatments were started by supplementation of dried CCF for one, two or three meals daily:- Group1 (control): fed basal diets without CCFsupplementation- Group2: basal diets supplemented daily 5g CCF only for first daily meal. - Group3: basal diets supplemented 10g CCF, for first and second daily meals.- Group4: basal diets supplemented 15g CCF, for first, second and third daily meals.The milled CCF was mixed with diets. At end of experiment (day- 20), three animals from each groupwere selected randomly and blood samples were takenvia injection into heart, with regard to animal ethics recommendation of veterinary department-Islamic Azad University. The blood samples were centrifuged, and then separated serum was analyzed by Auto-analyzer (Alsyon300, Abott-USA) and its commercial kits at Rastgoo bio- pathology laboratory (Tehran) for determining plasma lipids and hormonal parameters. Thyroid hormones were determined by Electrochemiluminescence immunoassay method.

Statistical analysis: The experiment was arranged in completely randomized design and the data obtained were subjected to analysis of variance technique through SAS software (Ver. 9.1) and Duncan multiple range test was applied for detection of possible significant difference between means. Results were recorded as significant, when the P-value was less than 0.05.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The obtained results from laboratory analyze and statistical comparisons were presented in table1 and 2.

Plasma lipids: Supplementation of CCF caused significant changes in plasma total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride, HDL-C and LDL-C (Pless than 0.01); TC and LDL- C were decreased in groups 2, 3 and 4, when compared with control (group1), whereas triglyceride was increased in CCF supplemented groups (groups 2, 3, and 4). HDL- C was greater in groups 3 and 4, when it compared with groups 1 or 2 (Pless than 0.01; Table 2).

Table 2: Plasma lipid profile of animals fed cornelian cherry fruit, supplemented in daily meal.

###Number of daily###Total cholesterol###Triglyceride###HDL-cholesterol###LDL-cholesterol

###Groups

###supplementation###(mg/ml)###(mg/ml)###(mg/ml)###(mg/ml)

###1 (control)###0###136.7a###190.0###51.0b###27.5a

###2###1###109.2b###190.8###52.0b###20.3b

###3###2###103.7c###194.5###53.6a###20.7b

###4###3###108.3b###191.7###54.0a###21.0b

###P value###less than .0001###0.901###less than .0001###less than .0001

###SEM###1.070###1.800###0.707###0.276

Hormonal measures: The supplementation of CCF caused significant effect on cortisol levels (Pless than 0.05). Cortisol level was lower in groups 2, 3 and 4 in comparison with control. But there was no any significant difference for the thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) between experimental groups (table 3).Investigation on diabetic animal models showshypolypidemic effects of CCF more efficient than similar effect of chemical drugs (Mirbadal and Shirdel, 2010). In the literatures, there is reported considerable hypolipidemic or anti-obesity effect for cherry family of fruits. In this regard, Seymour et al. (2009) reported that in obese laboratory rats fed a high-fat diet, physiologically relevant tart cherry consumption reduced various phenotypes of metabolic syndrome and reduced systemic and local inflammation, considerably. Also, in Ataie-Jafari et al., (2008) report, TC and LDL-C were decreased significantly following dietary supplementation of sour cherry juice in diabetic individuals.

Table 3: Plasma cortisol, T3 and T4 levels of animals fed cornelian cherry fruit supplemented in daily meal.

###Number of daily###Cortisol###T3###T4

###Groups

###supplementation###(ng/ml)###(pg/ml)###(ng/ml)

###1 (control)###0###45.8a###0.70###6.8

###2###1###30.3b###0.72###6.8

###3###2###34.0b###0.71###6.9

###4###3###28.8b###0.70###6.8

###P value###0.010###0.981###0.115

###SEM###2.821###0.030###0.129

In present study, decreased TC and LDL-C, and also increased HDL-C following CCF supplementation may indicates inflammatory reactions and its effects on arachidonic acid and decline free radicals production and specially effect on oxidation of LDL-C (Thakur et al.,2001).###Anthocyanin is a bioactive compound of CCF that can affect activity of hepatic enzymes in lipid metabolism (Lila, 2004). Flavonoids have significant hypolipidemic effect and they can decrease plasma TC (Borradaile et al., 2002). More total flavonoid (669 mg catechin equivalent per 100 g fresh weight basis) content in Iranian genotype of CCF (Hassanpour et al., 2011) may be able to declining TC and LDL-C in CCF fed animals. So, findings of present study (table 2) were in accordance with Seymour et al., (2009) and Mirbadal and Shirdel, (2010) findings in obese and diabetic animal models.Relationship between cortisol and TC has been documented in an earlier study (Schwertner et al., 1984). But, between cortisol level and HDL-C was a significant negative or inverse correlation (Fraser et al., 1999). The cortisol affect cholesterol metabolism to HDL-C formation, and Long-term elevation in glucocorticoids releases explain in part the risk associated with hypercholesterolemia (Fraser et al., 1999). The lowest HDL-C levels are noted in subjects with the highest cortisol releasing rate (Fraser et al., 1999). The findings of present study (tables 2 and 3), declined TC and cortisol level following CCF supplementation are in agreement with suggested relation by Schwertner et al., (1984). Since cholesterol is a precursor to cortisol, it is equally possible that declined TC can cause a subsequent decline in cortisol concentration. Also, greater HDL-C level in groups with lower cortisol level (tables 2 and 3) is in agreement with Fraser et al., (1999).However the thyroid hormones have considerable role in cholesterol metabolism, there was no any changes in T3 or T4 in groups with different TC concentrations (Tables 2 and 3). So, differences in TC, HDL-C and LDL-C rates in experimental groups are not associated with thyroid hormones level.In this regard, studies on different animal modes had indicated that there are no correlations between thyroid hormones and plasma lipids (Nazifi et al., 2002,2007; Eshratkhah et al., 2012). It shows that the hyperlipidemia caused by CCF supplementation is not due to changes in thyroid hormone.It was concluded that cornelian cherry fruit supplementation has hypolipidemic effect via decliningtotal cholesterol and LDL-C levels. Also, it could increase HDL-C (good cholesterol) and decrease cortisol level,###without###any###considerable###effect###on###thyroidhormones (T3 and T4) level. The hypolipidemic effect of cornelian cherry fruit can be expressed following supplementation###only###for###one###meal###daily.###Butsupplementation for two meals daily is suggested to more efficient hypolipidemic effect.

REFERENCES

Ataie-Jafari, A., S. Hosseini, F. Karimi and M. Pajouhi (2008). Effects of sour cherry juice on blood glucose and some cardiovascular risk factors improvements in diabetic women: A pilot study. Nutr. Food Sci. 38(4): 355- 360.Boone, L.R. (2009). Thyroid hormone regulation of cholesterol metabolism. Ph.D. thesis in Molecular Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida.Borradaile, N.M., L.E. Dreu, P.H.R. Barrett and M.W.Huff (2002). Inhibition of hepatocyte apoB secretion by naringenin: enhanced rapid intracellular degradation independent of reducedmicrosomal cholesteryl esters. J. Lipid Res. 43:1544-1554.Craita-Maria, R., Z. Olteanu, E. Truta, E. Ciornea, C.Manzu and M.M. Zamfirache (2011). Nutritional value of Rosa spp. L. and Cornus mas L. fruits, as affected by storage conditions. Annals of the Alexandru Ioan Cuza University Sect.II a. 12: 147-155.Dehghani, F., M.R. Panjehshahin and Z. Vojdani (2010).Effect of hydroalcoholic extract of caraway on thyroid gland structure and hormones in female rat. Iranian J. Vet. Res. 11: 337- 341.Dulger, B., and A. Gonduz (2004). Antimicrobial activity of some Turkish medicinal plants. Pakistan J. Biol. Sci. 7: 1559-1562.Ersoy, N., Y. Bagci and V. Gok (2011). Antioxidant properties of 12 cornelian cherry fruit types (Cornus mas L.) selected from Turkey. Sci. Res. Essay, 6: 98102.Eshratkhah, B., M.R. Sabri Nahand, S. Pour Rasoul, S.Taj and S.M.R. Jafari Rad (2012). Relationship between plasma thyroid hormones and some biochemical parameters in Iranian Sarabi calves. Comp. Clin. Pathol. 21: 167-171.Feld, S and R.A. Dickey (2001). An Association between varying degrees of hypothyroidism and hypercholesterolemia in women: the thyroid- cholesterol connection. Prev. Cardiol. 4: 179-182.Fraser, R., M.C. Ingram, N.H. Anderson, C. Morrison, E.Davies and J.M. Connell (1999). Cortisol effects on body mass, blood pressure, and cholesterol in the general population. Hypertension, 3: 1364-1368.Hassanpour, H., H. Yousef, H. Jafar and A. Mohammad (2011). Antioxidant capacity and phytochemical properties of cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) genotypes in Iran. Scient. Horti. 129: 459-463.Jayaprakasam, B., L.K. Olson, R.E. Schutzki, M.H. Taiand M.G. Nair (2006). Amelioration of obesity and glucose intolerance in high-fat-fed c57bl/6 mice by anthocyanins and ursolic acid in Cornelian Cherry (Cornus mas). J. Agric. Food Chem. 54: 243248.Krisch, J., L. Galgoczy and M. Tolgyesi, T. Papp and C.Vagvolgyi (2008). Effect of fruit juices and pomace extracts on the growth of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Acta Biol. Szeged.52: 267-270.Lila, M.A (2004) Anthocyanins and human health: An in vitro investigative approach. J. Biomed. Biotechnol. 5: 306-313. Mirbadal, R and Z. Shirdel (2010). Anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects of cornelian cherry extracts in diabetic mouse. Iranian J. Diabet. Lipid Disor. 9: 335-343.Nazifi, S., H.R. Gheisari and F. Shaker (2002). Serum lipids and lipoproteins and their correlations with thyroid hormones in clinically healthy goats. Vet. Arhiv. 72: 249-257.Nazifi, S., M. Saeb, E. Rowghani, M. Hasankhani, F.Hasanshahi and N. Ghafari (2007). Studies on the physiological relationship between thyroid hormones, serum lipid profile and erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes in clinically healthy Iranian fat-tailed sheep. Bulg. J. Vet. Med. 10: 161-167.Rafieian-Kopaei, M., S. Asgary, A. Adelnia, M. Setorki, M. Khazaei, S. Kazemi and F. Shamsi (2011). The effects of cornelian cherry on atherosclerosis and atherogenic factors inhypercholesterolemic rabbits. J. Med. Plant. Res.5: 2670- 2676.Schwertner, H.A., R.G. Troxler, G.S. Uhl and W.G.Jackson (1984). Relationship between cortisol and cholesterol in men with coronary artery disease and type A behavior. Arter. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 4: 59-64.Seymour, E.M., S.K. Lewis, D.E. Urcuyo-Llanes, I.I.Tanone, A. Kirakosyan, P.B. Kaufman and S.F. Bolling (2009). Regular tart cherry intake alters abdominal adiposity, adipose gene transcription, and inflammation in obesity-prone rats fed ahigh fat diet. J. Med. Food. 12: 935-942.Shamsi, F., S. Asghari and M. Rafieian. Pretreatment effect of cornus mas L. on alloxan-induces diabetes in rats. In proceeding on 1st International and 3rd Iranian congress of endocrine and metabolism updates, 30 Nov-3 Dec,2010, Isfahan, Iran.Shekar-Foroosh, S., S.C. Ashtiyani, B. Akbarpour, M.M.Attari, A. Zarei and M. Ramazani (2012). The effect of physalis alkekengi alcoholic extract on concentration of thyroid hormones in Rats. Zahedan J. Res. Med. Sci. 13: 1-7.Tetera, V (2006). Fruit of the white Carpathians.Moravou V (ed.) 1st Ed., CSOP Press, CzechRepublic, pp: 110- 125.Thakur, N., T. Hayashi and A. Iguchi (2001). HMGCOA reductase inhibitor stabilizes rabbit atheroma by increasing basal NO and decreasing superoxidase. Amer. J. Physiol. 281: 75-83.Zargari, A (1997). Medicinal Plants. Part B, TehranUniversity Press, Tehran, pp: 643-645.
COPYRIGHT 2014 Asianet-Pakistan
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2014 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Publication:Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences
Date:Apr 30, 2014
Words:2603
Previous Article:A NOTE ON RECAPTURE OF NANORANA VICINA (ANURA: AMPHIBIA) FROM MURREE, PAKISTAN.
Next Article:PHYLOGENY OF THE WORLD SPECIES OF MUSTHA AMYOT AND SERVILLE (HEMIPTERA: PENTATOMIDAE: PENTATOMINAE: HALYINI) BASED ON MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS.
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2021 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters |