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EFFECTIVE UTILIZATION OF INFORMATION RESOURCES FOR RESEARCH IN NURSING BY STUDENT NURSES IN BENUE STATE SCHOOLS OF NURSING AND MIDWIFERY, MAKURDI.

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

Libraries are universally recognized as important social institution for diffusion of knowledge and information which can enhance the academic performance of students and the quality of research within academic institutions of learning. No community, institution or organization is considered complete without the support of a library and its services.

A library can be described as a systematic acquisition of information materials in different formats, originating, storing, preserving and made available and accessible for use (Hammad, 2010). According to Ode and Omokaro (2007), library is a designated building where information in prints and in other formats are collected, organized, carefully prepared according to some specific or definite plan, and made accessible for reading and consultation by all ages and interests. The library is one of the major sources of information for student (nurse students), which is why every respectable institution maintains a supportive library (Olajide & Otula, 2015).

Libraries established in schools of nursing and midwifery are academic libraries that serves the information demands of the both the nurse tutors, student nurses undergoing the Basic and Post Basic training programme, researchers, and other professional staff within the schools through provision of information resources that supports learning, teaching and research in-line with the objectives of the Nursing and Midwifery Council of Nigeria (NMCN). For learning to take place, learners must have access to information materials and resources no matter the format (Adeoye and Popoola, 2011).

Popoola and Haliso cited in Okiki (2013) defines information resources as those information-bearing materials that are in both printed and electronic formats, such as textbooks, journals, indexes, abstracts, newspapers and magazines, reports, CD-ROM databases, the internet/Email, video tapes/cassettes, diskettes magnetic disk, computers, microforms and so on. According to Bitagi and Oziokwo (2015), information resources are all the library materials or facilities which the librarian rely upon to provide information services that meet with the information needs of nursing students.

Utilization of information resources refers to the extent to which the available information resources are used by student nurses for the purpose of satisfying their information needs in the quest to undertake research in nursing at both basic nursing and post basic nursing study programmes. It is therefore, necessary for the nursing students to make maximum utilization of the available information resources to improve the quality of research and enhance academic performances. In addition to that, Okpeke and Odunlade (2014) argued that, effective utilization of information resources is hinged on awareness of the existence of a particular resource required to meet one's information needs. The effectiveness of any library is a function of the quality of services rendered, that is, how available and accessible information resources are to users. Therefore, proper organization of availability and utilization by users and thereby ensuring user's satisfaction (Onwukanjo and Men, 2017).

Nursing is the use of clinical judgment in the provision of care to enable people to improve, maintain or recover health, to cope with health problems, and to achieve the best possible quality of life, whatever their disease or disability, until death (Kozier, Erb, Berman, Snyder, Harvey and Morgan-Samuel, 2010). Nursing is a satisfying profession in which the knowledge of the nurse is applied for the needs of patients. According to the Royal College of Nursing (RCN) (2003), a nurse is defined as an 'enabler', bringing in the notion that patients have a role in caring for themselves. However, a student nurse is a person (either male or female) that is undertaken either basic nursing program, post basic nursing program, undergraduate or post graduate program in any nursing institution of higher learning. For example, student nurses in Benue State Schools of Nursing and Midwifery, Makurdi. Nursing profession is essential in any society. Nurses play a major role in health sector or any nation. To qualify as a professional nurse, Aladeniyi and Arikawe (2017) opined that, one must undergo professional training or study in a University, School of Nursing and other Health related training institution like the School of Midwifery. According to them, student nurses need library information resources for them to perform excellently in their course of study and to improve the quality of research in accordance with the Nursing and Midwifery Council of Nigeria (NMCN) standard for final year research in nursing.

The concept of research has been defined in a variety of ways. In relation to this study however, Chinweuba, Iheanacho and Agbapuonwu (2014) defined research as a careful, systematic patient investigation undertaken to discover facts and relationships. They further viewed research as a concept as a purposeful search for solution to an identified problem or a new knowledge. There is a nexus between nursing education, nursing practice and nursing research globally and Nigeria is not an exception. It is assumed that baring all other factors, a good nursing training in school enhances standard practice which in turn is sustained by research. If any of these is missing then a gap emerges (Ezeonwu, 2013).

Nursing research (or research in nursing) is a "process in which the researcher scientifically collects data to be used in the clinical, administrative or instructional area in order to find solutions to nursing problems, evaluate nursing practices, procedures, policies or curriculum, assess the needs of patients, staff or students, and/or make decisions to change or continuous various nursing process which in turn advances the scientific knowledge in nursing field" (Polit and Hungler cited in Chinweuba et al, 2014). According to Basavanthappa (2011) nursing research is a way to identify new knowledge, improve professional education and practice and use of resources effectively.

In nursing, research began with Miss Florence Nightingale's approach to nursing during and after the Crimean war with full documentation of observations made in relation to nursing care rendered to wounded soldiers which was used to effect changes where necessary. From this, it could be deduced that early nursing research was more about observation of care given. However, nothing significant was added to this by successors of Nightingale until University nursing education became popular when these baccalaureate nurses used numerous materials available to them to conduct researches on nursing as a profession and nursing education (Chinweuba et al, 2014).

In June 2010 the Nursing and Midwifery Council of Nigeria (NMCN) organized a national sensitization seminar on research for nurses/midwife educators and clinicians in Nigeria, the workshop was preparatory to the intended pilot testing of the central marking of research in Abuja in May, 2012. The central marking of research was furthermore prompted by examiners comments who assess and score research projects during the final qualifying examination in the various schools or Nursing and Midwifery (Afoi; Ante; Inusa; Emmanuel, Sendere; & Gimba, 2018). Some of the comments highlighted by Ugochukwu (2010) included but not limited to both staff and students demonstrated poor knowledge on research project especially reviewing of literature, project topics not properly formed and many are not researchable and poor referencing style.

For academic libraries in nursing institutions to provide adequate and qualitative services to enhance the quality of student's research in Nursing, there is need for the library to have relevant and quality information resources in both print and electronic format. No wonder, Popoola and Haliso cited in Buhari (2016) believed that if an academic library is to provide effective information services to support teaching, learning and research, it must have adequate information resources and sufficiently high skilled information professionals.

It has been noted with great concern the poor quality of research among nursing students. The attendant implication of this scenario had impacted negatively on the student's academic performance and poor quality of final year research projects by both the Basic and Post Basic Nursing Student's in Benue State Schools of Nursing and Midwifery, Makurdi thereby threatening the vision and mission of nursing education in Nigeria in terms of quality research.

Preliminary observations revealed that, Nursing students in the schools under study are busy to the extent that they do not visit the school libraries regularly utilize library information resources that could possibly improve their quality and standard of research which serve as one among the criteria for final qualifying as a professional nurse and issuance of practicing license by the Nursing and Midwifery Council of Nigeria (NMCN). An investigation into the available information resources in the nursing and midwifery libraries that could be effectively utilized by the nursing students that could contribute positively towards high quality of nursing research to improve operational efficiency and effectiveness becomes imperative. Therefore, this research is set up to investigate the effective utilization of information resources for research in nursing by student nurses in Benue State Schools of Nursing and Midwifery, Makurdi.

BRIEF HISTORY OF THE BENUE STATE SCHOOLS OF NURSING AND MIDWIFERY, MAKURDI:

Benue State School of Nursing, Makurdi:

The Benue State Schools of Nursing, Makurdi was established in 1977 when Benue Plateau State was split into Benue and Plateau States. The school was established as a result of deployment of staff that were on due to the creation of new states and also to provide manpower for growing health services. The school was established by the then Military Governor Abdullahi Shelleng under the leadership of Mr. J.I. Adamu who through their combined efforts established the school. Benue state government thus became the proprietor of the school run by the Ministry of Health and Human Services Makurdi and supervised by the same Ministry. Since its inception in 1977, the school has passed under the leadership of Mr. A. Adamu who was the first Principal with batons exchanging to its present Principal, Mrs. Pauline Atser is 14th on the succession and has graduated over 41 sets of basic nursing students and 38 Post Basic Student nurse over the years. The school also has a standard and functional library with various library materials in support of learning, teaching and research. The school of Nursing has 4 professional staff (academic Librarians) and 2 para-professional staff. The school is located in the heart of Makurdi, Headquarter of Benue state, and bounded by Environmental Health task forces and Bureau of local government and chieftaincy affairs, very close to central police Headquarters, Nigerian Railway Cooperation, and behind Ministry of Justice Headquarters, Makurdi. The motto of the school is "Health through Education" while the mission of the school of nursing is to "Promote Health through Education" (Student Information Handbook, 2016).

Benue State School of Midwifery, Makurdi:

Following the creation of Benue State out of the then, Benue-Plateau and Kwara States in 1976, Makurdi town was made the state capital. Consequently, the need arose for the establishment of a School of Midwifery in the headquarters (Makurdi). As the school of Midwifery was fully established in 1978, gradually, the community Midwifery which was in existence before the creation of Benue state was phased out. Initially, the school was situated in the then, General Hospital, Makurdi until its permanent site was completed in 1979. It was a sub-division of the Nursing division of the State Ministry of Health. The school started with one hundred and seventy one (171) student; rose up to over seven hundred. As one of the program was phased out, the population has dropped again to about one hundred and eighty (180). Recruitment requirement of the school of Midwifery are as designated by the Nursing and Midwifery Council of Nigeria (NMCN). The School of Midwifery, Makurdi has been on final approval since 1996 by the Nursing and Midwifery Council of Nigeria. The school is currently headed by Mrs. Gusah who is the Principal of the school. The school also has a standard library with 3 professional Librarians and 1 para-professional. The motto of the school of Midwifery is "Safe Motherhood for a Safe Society" and the mission of the school is "to empower individual; families and the society with quality manpower resources to tackle competently reproductive health problems thereby achieving a high level of reproductive health". It is pertinent to state here that, Benue State Government is the Proprietor of Schools of Nursing and Midwifery, Makurdi through the Ministry of Health and Human Services (Student Information Handbook, 2017).

1.2 Statement of the Problem:

The Nursing and Midwifery Council of Nigeria upholds research as very important for professional growth and development since the body of knowledge that guides any profession could be developed through research. More so, research has a lot to contribute towards improvement in the quality of care and services offered by nurses and midwives.

Information resources can be described as including any information in electronic, audiovisual or physical form, or any hardware or software that makes possible the storage and use of information. For a library to be functional, it has to meet its user needs and ensuring that users make maximum use of the information resources available at their disposal. The effectiveness of the library as a whole can be inferred from it service provide and the information resources available to its users. A well-stocked and efficient library act as eyes or pathfinders for researchers and provide them the inspiration to venture into new areas of research.

Preliminary observations by the researcher revealed that, student nurses in schools of nursing and midwifery, Makurdi do not make adequate use of the available information resources in the library. It was also observed that most of the final year project submitted to the library are of low quality in terms of adequate and current literatures to support the section dealing with literature review. Furthermore, it is also noted with great concern that majority of the nursing students lack the necessary skills to effectively utilize the library and this situation has impacted negatively on the quality of research conducted by the students. Another negative impact observed by the researcher is in the area of poor academic performances of students resulting to weeding of student nurses, resist of some of the carryover courses and poor results during the final qualifying examination by Nursing and Midwifery Council of Nigeria for general nurses. Could this be that the student nurses do not utilize the information resources available for their research project? Could it be that the school lecture times has hindered their patronage of the school libraries for effective utilization of the resources for research? Could it be that information resources were not available for their research activities in Nursing? Could it be that nursing students do not derived any satisfaction from the usage of the available information resources to improve the quality of research? Or could it be that the students faced challenges in utilizing the available information resources for nursing research which has impact negatively on the quality of final year research? These are the gaps which the study intends to fill. Therefore, the study seeks to investigate effective utilization of information resources in nursing by student nurses in Benue State Schools of Nursing and Midwifery, Makurdi.

1.3 Objectives of the Study:

The main objectives of this study is to find out the effective utilization of information resources for nursing research by student nurses in Benue State Schools of Nursing and Midwifery Makurdi. The specific objectives are:

i. To identify the types of information resources mostly utilized by student nurses for research in nursing in Benue State Schools of Nursing and Midwifery Makurdi.

ii. To determine the extent to which information resources are utilized by student nurses for research in nursing in Benue State Schools of Nursing and Midwifery, Makurdi.

iii. To ascertain the level of satisfaction derived by the student nurses in using the information resources for research in nursing in Benue State Schools of Nursing and Midwifery Makurdi.

iv. To find out the factors militating against effective utilization of information resources for research in nursing by student nurses in Benue State Schools of Nursing and Midwifery, Makurdi.

1.4 Research Questions:

1. What type of information resources are mostly utilized by student nurses for research in nursing in Benue State Schools of Nursing and Midwifery Makurdi?

2. To what extent do student nurses utilize information resources for research in nursing in Benue State Schools of Nursing and Midwifery, Makurdi?

3. What is the level of satisfaction do student nurses derived from using the information resources for research in nursing in Benue State Schools of Nursing and Midwifery, Makurdi?

4. What are the factors militating against effective utilization of information resources by student nurses for research in nursing in Benue State Schools of Nursing and Midwifery, Makurdi?

2.1 LITERATURE REVIEW:

Successful educational system depends exhaustively on the accessibility and utilization information resources. In this regard, academic libraries like schools of nursing and midwifery libraries are providing knowledge and information resources for teaching, learning and research. Bitagi and Udoudou (2013), argued that the availability of all forms and types of information resources in academic libraries is highly imperative in these libraries are to meet with the information needs of researchers in their present institutions. Bigati and Garba (2014) in their research on evaluative study of information resources and services utilization for research in academic libraries in Niger State, Nigeria revealed that, provisions of information resources in print format are prioritized in academic institutions in Niger State at the expense of those in nonprint format. Furthermore, Nwachukwu, Abdulsalami and Salami (2014) also discovered in their study that, books are the major information resources in the library and books are the most available and utilized information resources for research. Also, Ishola and Obadare (2014) in their study on availability, access to and level of use of academic libraries in South-Western Nigeria revealed that majority of the students utilize, research reports, newspapers, magazines, pamphlets/posters, textbooks, journals, seminars/symposia, bulletins/newsletters, government publication, dictionaries, handbooks, bibliographies, encyclopedia, projects, thesis, and dissertation, library staff, conference proceedings, technical reports for research and academic purposes on a daily basis. Olajide and Otunla (2015) in their study on use of information resources by student nurses also revealed that, prints materials are the major information resources used by nursing students who are active users of the library. The study further revealed that, books, journals, encyclopedias, dictionaries and directories are the most frequently used information resources by nurses to a very great extent.

Student's satisfaction level in the utilization of information resources in the library is an important issue in terms of academic library. This is because the user community is the most important component of a library. The library as a service oriented institution or organization is to meet the information need of the student. The extent to which the library satisfies students' need is fundamentally more important because the goes is to bring about satisfaction. Thus it becomes pertinent to determine the extent to which student's utilize the information resources of the library. Every information service exists for the sole aim of satisfying the student informational needs (Usoro, Umoren & Akwange, 2018).

In view of this, Hussain and Kumar (2013) in their study on utilization of information resources and services of master school of management library: a study, revealed that most users are satisfied with the computerization of library services. They also observe that most users have showed their satisfaction about the library staff which are important information resources of the library. Aladeniyi and Arikawe (2017) in their research titled, A Survey in the use of Library Information Resources by students of Ondo State school of Nursing Akure revealed that, student nurses are satisfied with the library information resources in their institution library. Olajide and Otunla (2015) discovered nursing students' challenges when accessing information resources to include lack of time, location of library and poor attitude of library staff. Similarly, Alademiyi and Arikawe (2017) in their student revealed lack of adequate time, skills on how effective use the information resources and lack of internet access as challenges hindering student nurses in their use of information resources in Ondo State School of Nursing Akure. On the level of satisfaction on the use of information resources, Oluwatobi, Ehioghae, Aloko-Arowolo & Ayoola Olusegun Onasole (2014) revealed the level of satisfaction with the library resources. They reported in their study that students are very much highly satisfied with the use of library information resources. Anyaoku (2015) carried out a study on evaluating undergraduate student's awareness and use of medical library resources at Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nigeria. They reported that lack of computers and internet facilities, lack of current materials and poor environment conditions are the reasons deduced from the study for the under use of library resources. Anyaoku therefore noted that these barriers are weight enough to discourage students' from the medical library.

3.1 METHODOLOGY:

A descriptive survey design was adopted in this study. The study was conducted in Makurdi, Benue State-Nigeria. The study population comprised of 254 basic and post basic student nurses in school of nursing and 122 student midwives at school of midwifery making a total population of 376 registered student nurses/midwives. To select the sample size for the study, Taro Yamene's formula for sample size was used to select a sample size of 194 student nurses/ Midwives. Simple random sampling technique was used to select the required sample size from the population. A questionnaire (comprised of 55-items) was designed and validated by two professional librarians and a nurse tutor in the Nursing Education field. To ascertain reliability of the instrument for the study, Cronbach Alpha method was used to determine internal consistency of items and the reliability coefficient obtained from 20 respondents which were not part of study was 0.897 and its positive sign revealed that the instrument is reliable for the study. To ensure high percentage return the questionnaire was personally administered by the researcher. The data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics of frequency count and mean scores. The choice of mean to answer research questions was because data collected was on interval scale. The average of the responses on a 4 point type scale was 2.50. Any mean that rank from 2.50 and above was accepted whereas 2.49 and above was rejected.

Data Presentation, Analysis, Interpretation and Discussion:

4.1 Response Rate
No. of Questionnaire   No. of Questionnaire   Percentage
Administered           returned

194                    194                    100%


The table above indicates that the total number of questionnaire administered is 194, total number of questionnaire returned is 194 and at 100%.

4.2 Data Presentation and Interpretation:

Section A: Types of information resources mostly utilized by student nurses.

Research Question 1: What type of information resources are mostly utilized by student nurses for research in nursing in Benue State Schools of Nursing and Midwifery, Makurdi? Please [[check]] as applicable.

Scale: SA - Strongly Agree A - Agree D - Disagree SD - Strongly Disagree.

Results in table 1 above revealed that, textbooks with a mean of 3.32, journals with a mean if 3.06, dictionaries with a mean of 2.64, encyclopedia with a mean of 3.25, project with a mean of 2.93, directories with a mean of 3.19, newspapers with a means of 2.68, government documents with a mean if 3.03, handbooks with a mean of 3.13, almanac with a mean of 2.81, year books with a mean of 3.03, and gazettes with a mean score of 2.64 were the types of information resources mostly utilized by students nurses for research in nursing in Benue State Schools of Nursing and Midwifery, Makurdi. While, internet facilities with a mean value of 2.41, CD-ROM facilities with a mean score of 2.48 as well as computers with a mean of 2.06 were not mostly utilize by student nurses for research.

Section B: Extent to which information resources are utilized by student nurses.

Research Question 2: To what extent do student nurses utilize information resources for research in nursing in Benue State Schools of Nursing and Midwifery Makurdi? Please [[check]] as applicable.

Scale: VGE - Very Great Extent GE - Great Extent LE - Low Extent VLE - Very Low Extent

Result in table 2 above revealed the extent to which information resources are utilize by student nurses for research in nursing in Benue State Schools of Nursing and Midwifery, Makurdi. From the table above, items 1,2,3,5,6,7,9,11,12,13,14 and 15 had their mean value ranging from 2.53 to 3.13 and were above the benchmark of 2.50. This showed that student nurses utilize the information resources from the items to a great extent for research in nursing. While the extent of utilization of items 4.8, and 10 were indicated as low extent with measures ranging from 2.12 to 2.48 below the benchmark of 250.

Section C: Level of satisfaction derived by student nurses.

Research Question 3: What is the level of satisfaction do student nurses derived from using the information resources for research in nursing in Benue State Schools of Nursing and Midwifery Makurdi? Please [[check]] as applicable.

Scale: VS - Very Satisfied S - Satisfied MS - Moderately Satisfied D - Dissatisfied

Result in table 3 above revealed the level of satisfaction derived by student nurses from using the information resources for research in nursing in Benue State School of Nursing Makurdi. From the table above, items 1,2,3,5,6,7,9,11,12,13,14, and 15 had their mean value ranging from 2.51 to 3.29 and were above the benchmark of 2.50. This showed that the student nurses were satisfied with the information resources for research in nursing, while items 4, 8 and 10 were indicated as dissatisfied (or not satisfied) with mean values ranging from 2.28 to 2.42 which is below the benchmark of 2.50.

Section D: Factors militating against effective utilization of information resources.

Research Question 4: What are the factors militating against effective utilization of information resources by students nurses for research in nursing in Benue State Schools of Nursing and Midwifery Makurdi? Please [[check]] as applicable.

Scale: SA - Strongly Agree A - Agree D - Disagree SD - Strongly Disagree

Result in table 4 above revealed the factors militating against effective utilization of information resources by student nurses for research in nursing in Benue State Schools of Nursing and Midwifery, Makurdi. From the above, items 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8, and 10 had their mean values ranging from 2.88 to 3.44 which is above the benchmark were the factors militating against effective utilization of information resources for research in nursing. While item 9 with a mean value of 2.48 which is below the cut off mark of 2.50 was indicated as disagree.

4.3 Discussion of Findings:

The findings on research question 1 in table 1 revealed that, textbooks, journals, dictionaries, encyclopedias, projects, directories, newspapers/magazines, government documents, handbooks, almanacs, yearbooks and gazettes were the types of information resources mostly utilize by student nurses for research in nursing in Benue State Schools of Nursing and Midwifery, Makurdi. The findings of this study is in agreement with Ishola and Obadare (2014) who revealed that students utilize research reports, newspapers, magazines, handbooks, encyclopedia, projects, theses and dissertation as well as technical report for research and academic purposes. Findings from table 1 also indicated that the mostly utilized information resources by student nurses for research in nursing in Benue State Schools of Nursing and Midwifery, Makurdi are in printed formats. The findings is in conformity with Olajide and Otunla (2015) who revealed that print materials are major information resources used by nursing students who are active users of the library. The findings is also similar to that of Bigati and Garba (2014) who revealed that provision of information resources in print format has been prioritized in academic libraries in Niger State at the expense of those in non-print formats. This is also in agreement with Abdulsalami and Salami (2014) who reported that books are the major information resources in the library and books are available and utilize information resources for research.

The findings on research question 2 on table 2 revealed that, information resources like textbooks, journals, dictionaries, encyclopedias, projects, directories, newspapers/magazines, government documents, handbooks, almanacs, yearbooks as well as gazette are utilize by student nurses for research in nursing for a great extent in Benue State Schools of Nursing and Midwifery, Makurdi. Findings agree with Olajide and Otunla (2015) who revealed in their study that, books, journals, encyclopedia, dictionaries and directories are frequently used information resources by nursing students to a very great extent for research activities.

The findings on research question 3 in table 3 revealed that, student nurses are satisfied with information resources such as textbooks, journals, dictionaries, encyclopedias, projects, directories, newspapers/magazines, government documents, handbooks, almanacs, yearbooks as well as gazette. In essence, findings revealed that student nurses derived satisfaction in utilizing information resources for research in nursing in Benue State Schools of Nursing and Midwifery, Makurdi. The finding is in agreement with Aladeniyi and Arikawe (2017) who revealed in their study that student nurses are satisfied with the library information resources in Ondo State School of Nursing Library Akure. This is also relates to Oluwatobi et al (2014) who also reported that students are very much highly satisfied with the use of library information resources.

The findings on research question 4 on table 4 revealed that, lack of time, lack of awareness on existence of specific information resources, lack of current nursing textbooks and journals, difficulty in finding relevant information resources, lack of internet access not allowed to borrow books in the library, the environment is not conducive for learning, lack of computers as well as lack of adequate skills on how to use the library are the factors militating against effective utilization of information resources by student nurses for research in Nursing in Benue State Schools of Nursing and Midwifery, Makurdi. Findings is in agreement with Anyaoku (2015) who reported that, lack of computers and internet facilities, lack of current materials and poor environmental conditions are the reasons deduced from the study for the under use of library resources at Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nigeria. This is in line with Aladeniyi and Arikawe (2017) who revealed in their study that, lack of adequate time, skills on how to effectively use the information resources as well as lack of internet access as challenges hindering student nurses in their use of information resources in Ondo State School of Nursing Akure.

5.1 Conclusion

The conclusion of this research based on the data collected and analyzed is that, information resources are very crucial for student nurses to effectively conduct research in nursing. Student nurses in Benue State Schools of Nursing and Midwifery Makurdi mostly utilized textbooks, journals, dictionaries, encyclopedias, projects, directories, newspapers/magazines, government documents, handbooks, almanacs, yearbooks, as well as gazette for research in nursing. Information resources are utilized by student nurses for nursing research to a great extent and also student nurses are satisfied with the information resources utilized for nursing research. Finally, there are factors militating against effective utilization of information resources by student nurses for research in nursing in Benue State Schools of Nursing and Midwifery, Makurdi. Factors such as lack of time, lack of awareness on existence of specific information resources, lack of current nursing textbooks and journals, difficulty in finding relevant information resources, lack of internet access, not allowed to borrow books in the library, the environment is not conducive for learning and research, lack of computers as well as lack of adequate skills on how to use the library.

5.2 Recommendations

The following recommendations are made in view of the findings of the study:

1. There is need for the Management of Schools of Nursing and Midwifery Makurdi to work on the school academic time table in order to make provision for free periods that will be used by student nurses to make effective use of the information resources of the library for research. Also, nursing and midwifery school libraries should provide different online or virtual platforms of access for the student nurses in order to overcome the barrier of lack of time to come to the library.

2. Awareness programme on available information resources in nursing and midwifery libraries should be given by librarians regularly to increase student nurses awareness of information provision in the library as this will enhance research activities of the student nurses/midwives.

3. The Benue State government through the Ministry of Health and Human Services should provide adequate funds for the procurement of relevant, current and adequate textbooks and journals in the field of nursing which could enhance effective and efficient utilization by the nursing and midwifery students for nursing research.

4. There is need for the introduction of use of library, study skills and information and communications technology as a course in Benue State School of Nursing and Midwifery Makurdi. This will enable the students to be well oriented about the activities of the library and how to be able to access, retrieve and use the available information resources on their own effectively.

5. Libraries in nursing and midwifery should endeavor to provide adequate computers and online facilities for the use of the student nurses/midwives so as to enable them have access to online information resources. There is need for the libraries in school of Nursing and Midwifery to connect to the internet to enhancing and facilitate research in Nursing by the students.

6. Alternative source of power should be provided for the school libraries in schools of Nursing and Midwifery in case of power failure.

7. Student nurses/ midwives should be allowed to borrow books in the library to enable them carryout research effectively.

8. Librarians working in schools of Nursing and Midwifery in collaboration with the school management should from time to time organize information access training to students. This will enable the student's nurses/ midwives to gain adequate skills on how to effectively use the library and the information resources available in the library for research.

9. There is need for the school management to provide enabling environment that is conducive for learning by students while in the library. In view of this suggestion, there is need for the school management together with the library team to stop student whose hostels are close to the library to stop pounding of food on the upstairs floor to reduce the noise. Also, the Chief librarian should work with the school maintenance committee to ensure that the gutters and the entire library environment is clean at all times.

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TOFI, SIMON TERNENGE

Librarian II, Benue State School of Nursing, Makurdi

Email: ternengetofi@gmail.com

Phone: 07036431885
Table 1: Showing respondent's response on types of information
resources mostly utilized.

                                                           REMARK
S/N   Types of Information    SA    A    D     SD   Mean
      Resources

1     Textbooks               93    78   20    4    3.32   Utilize
2     Journals                84    49   50    11   3.06   Utilize
3     Dictionaries            54    43   70    27   2.64   Utilize
4     Internet facilities     24    36   130   4    2.41   Not utilize
5     Encyclopedias           98    56   30    10   3.25   Utilize
6     Projects                60    76   42    16   2.93   Utilize
7     Directories             78    84   22    10   3.19   Utility
8     CD-ROM facilities       44    38   80    32   2.48   Not utilize
9     Newspapers/Magazines    72    45   20    57   2.68   Utilize
10    Computers               14    30   104   46   2.06   Not utilize
11    Government documents    56    90   46    2    3.03   Utilize
12    Handbooks               101   40   30    23   3.13   Utilize
13    Almanacs                60    99   33    22   2.81   Utilize
14    Year books              66    81   34    13   3.03   Utilize
15    Gazettes                34    83   51    26   2.64   Utilize

Source: Field Survey, 2019

Table 2: Showing respondents response on extent of information
resources utilization

S/N    Extent of Information
       Resources Utilization    VGE   GE   LE   VLE   Mean

1      Textbooks                94    46   39   15    3.13
2      Journals                 94    35   14   53    2.86
3      Dictionaries             105   10   53   26    3.00
4      Internet facilities      29    26   78   61    2.12
5      Encyclopedias            53    26   86   29    2.53
6      Projects                 68    64   24   38    2.83
7      Directories              60    77   16   41    2.80
8      CD-ROM facilities        32    68   32   62    2.36
9      Newspapers/Magazines     66    47   46   35    2.74
10     Computers                54    48   30   62    2.48
11     Government documents     78    20   54   42    2.69
12     Handbooks                54    68   44   28    2.98
13     Almanacs                 71    32   32   59    2.59
14     Year books               70    48   43   33    2.79
15     Gazettes                 81    14   44   55    2.62

S/N    REMARK

1      Great Extent
2      Great Extent
3      Great Extent
4      Low Extent
5      Great Extent
6      Great Extent
7      Great Extent
8      Low Extent
9      Great Extent
10     Low Extent
11     Great Extent
12     Great Extent
13     Great Extent
14     Great Extent
15     Great Extent

Source: Field Survey, 2019

Table 3: Showing respondents responses on level of satisfaction
derived by student nurses.

S/N   Level of Satisfaction
      derived by students      VS    S    MS    D    MEAN

1     Textbooks                114   40   23    17   3.29
2     Journals                 100   44   30    20   3.15
3     Dictionaries             54    43   70    27   2.64
4     Internet facilities      44    52   40    58   2.42
5     Encyclopedias            63    38   36    57   2.55
6     Projects                 96    33   41    24   3.04
7     Directories              72    34   57    31   2.78
8     CD-ROM facilities        31    21   114   28   2.28
9     Newspapers/Magazines     78    60   47    9    3.06
10    Computers                32    60   52    50   2.38
11    Government documents     66    47   46    35   2.74
12    Handbooks                54    59   14    67   2.51
13    Almanacs                 38    74   40    42   2.56
14    Year books               66    81   34    13   3.03
15    Gazettes                 34    83   51    26   2.64

S/N   REMARK

1     Satisfied
2     Satisfied
3     Satisfied
4     Dissatisfied
5     Satisfied
6     Satisfied
7     Dissatisfied
8     Dissatisfied
9     Satisfied
10    Dissatisfied
11    Satisfied
12    Satisfied
13    Satisfied
14    Satisfied
15    Satisfied

Source: Field Survey, 2019

Table 4: Showing respondents responses on factors militating against
effective utilization of information resources by student nurses.

S/N   Factors Militating Against
      effective Utilization                 SA    A    D    SD   MEAN

1     Lack of time                          134   20   32   8    3.44
2     Lack of awareness on existence        77    56   21   40   2.88
      of specific information resources
3     Lack of current nursing textbooks     94    47   32   21   3.10
      and journals
4     Difficulty in finding relevant        100   33   40   21   3.09
      information resources
5     Lack of internet access               64    99   11   20   3.07
6     Not allowed to borrow books in        168   10   12   4    3.76
      the library
7     The environment is not conducive      80    60   23   31   2.97
      for learning and research
8     Lack of computers                     104   36   32   22   3.14
9     Poor attitude of library staff        40    68   32   54   2.48
10    Lack of adequate skills on how        64    49   49   32   3.00
      to use the library

S/N   REMARK

1     Agree
2     Agree

3     Agree
4     Agree
5     Agree
6     Agree
7     Agree
8     Agree
9     Disagree
10    Agree

Source: Field Survey, 2019
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Title Annotation:Nigeria
Author:Tofi, Simon Ternenge
Publication:Library Philosophy and Practice
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:6NIGR
Date:Mar 1, 2019
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