EFFECT OF VISIBLE RANGE RADIATIONS (COLOURS) ON SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE AND IMMUNE SYSTEM.
ABSTRACT: As the role of antioxidant in immune system is known, the aim of this review is to build a unique relationship of 644nm (red colour) treated SOD with immunity system of living organism. By this short review, it is evident that by only taking red colour therapy (either direct or through water as a medium) not only the immunity of human body can be enhanced but also the diseases related to free radicals can be eliminated quite surely. As the ability of anti-oxidants is to destroy free radicals protects structural integrity of cells and tissues. It can also be concluded that irradiated water with 644 nm (red colour) can be used not only for curative treatment but also can be used as preventive tool against all those diseases related to free radicals and to have better immune system .
Keywords: Immune system, Superoxide dismutase, 644nm (red colour)
Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is one of the most important antioxidant enzymes present in all oxygen-metabolizing cells. A previous chromotherapy study  has shown encouraging results, therefore re-search into SOD activity was considered important for the understanding of antioxidant mechanisms. SOD is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of superoxide free radicals to oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. In biological systems, the sources of electrons are generally enzymes and reducing substances. While reducing substances act as antioxidants by reducing more reactive species, electron donors act as pro-oxidants by reducing less reactive species via reactions which are typically mediated by the cyclical reduction/oxidation of transition-metal ions. SOD and catalase catalyze the dismutation of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, respectively.
Peroxide and superoxide can also react in the presence of a metal ion to produce hydroxyl radical and molecular oxygen . Such agents like heavy metals or quinones produce free radicals and related activated electronic species in biological systems in antimicrobial defense, through the action of the mixed function mono oxygenases, by various oxidative enzymes such as xanthine oxidase, and by auto oxidations. By altering the concentration of oxygen, SOD helps prevent both direct toxicity from O2 and secondary toxicity from OH and H2. Cu-Zn SOD is inactivated by cyanide and H2O2 .In in vivo systems the adverse effect of H2O2 may be prevented by catalase, which is usually associated with SOD. In this study, we aimed to identify the activity of SOD under different wavelengths of light in the visible range .
Current status of knowledge Living systems are affected by magnetic (MF) and electromagnetic fields (EMF), which are generate from both external and internal sources (natural metabolism of organisms). Several studies concluded that magnetic and electromagnetic fields have different responses in bio systems such as neural and neuromuscular activity, tissue growth and repair, glandular secretion and cell membrane function . In our previous study , we aimed to understand whether superoxide has any reaction under different color wavelengths and, if so, which wavelength affects the activity of this enzyme. Some previous studies showed that the electromagnetic field on living systems has some affect on enzymes related to growth regulation, calcium balance in the cell and gene expression . SOD is one of the enzymes that are involved in the reaction with superoxide radicals.
In our study, the absorbance measurements were different in untreated and chromotized sampl .Reduction of molecular oxygen to superoxide, and of peroxide to hydroxyl radicals is "spin forbid-den" and thus is slow unless catalyzed by a heavy ion . At this point, two aspects for the effect of color vibrations on SOD may need to be considered. First, color vibrations on the enzyme may cause the unpaired electrons on metal ions to orient at the same direction with the vibrations (wavelengths) and so gain additional energy. Indeed, this energy may be transferred onto the other molecules that cause more radicals that may form more superoxide radicals in radical chain reactions. The increase in vibrational energy has been attributed to increased hydrogen bond strength . This reinforces the view that electromagnetic effect is important for disrupting hydrogen bonding. Electromagnetic fields can also increase proton spin relaxation, which may speed up some reactions dependent on proton transfer .
As this enzyme eliminates free radicals so it was valuable to find the effect of visible range radiations (colours) on SOD .
One of the most widely accepted theories proposed to explain ageing is the free radical theory, according to which oxygen-derived free radicals cause age-related impairment through oxidative damage to biomolecules, with mitochondria being the main target of free radical attack. Since oxygen radicals are needed for many metabolic and physiological processes, equilibrium between radical production and their antioxidant-linked inactivation is required to preserve health. This process is especially evident in the immune cells, which use free radicals in their functions. Antioxidants preserve an adequate function of immune cells against homeostatic disturbances caused by oxidative stress, such as that involved with age. Therefore, since the immune system is an indicator of health and a longevity predictor, the protection of this system afforded by dietary antioxidant supplementation may play an important role in order to achieve a healthy ageing. .
Application of colors (wavelengths in the visible region) resulted in increase of the activity of SOD when the enzyme was treated with substrate. This study showed that the response of SOD with different wavelengths is significant. In other words, we are dealing with photo activation of the SOD enzyme. It is evident from the comparison  that different wavelengths in the visible region showed different results. Red showed the maximum increase in absorbance level compared with all other colors (wavelengths) used, while yellow showed least absorption. SOD responded to red color wavelength (644 nm), implying that free radical elimination may become very easy and rapid with an application of red color in the body. The result also shows that activation energy of SOD lowers, on exposing it to red colour (644 nm).
Previously there were also remarkable results in absorbance of different wavelengths in the visible range (colours) in water samples. A new conjecture of charged quantization was also developed pertaining to hydrochromotherapy and it was conjectured that quantum mechanical dipole moment of water molecules leads to the phenomena of charged quantization . The methodology of preparation of chromotized water samples was taken from .
The aim of this review is to build a unique relationship of 644nm (red colour) treated SOD with immunity system of living organism. By this short review, it is evident that by only taking red colour therapy (either direct or through water as a medium) not only the immunity of human body can be enhanced but also the diseases related to free radicals can be eliminated quite surely. As the ability of anti-oxidants is to destroy free radicals protects structural integrity of cells and tissues . It can also be concluded that red charged water can be used not only for curative treatment but also can act as preventive tool against all those diseases related to free radicals and get better the immune systems of human body.
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