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EFFECT OF SELECTION ON PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF DESI CHICKEN FOR FOUR GENERATIONS.

Byline: M. A. Anjum, A. W. Sahota, M. Akram, K. Javed and S. Mehmood

ABSTRACT

The present study was conducted at Poultry Research Institute (PRI), Rawalpindi, to evaluate productive perfo rmance of the four successive generations (P1, P2, P3 and P4) evolved after selective breeding for first laying cycle (52 weeks egg production) in comparison to their parents (P0). For this purpose, 264 adult Desi birds (240 pullets and 24 males, about 24 weeks old) were selected out of the flock shifted from Mianwali, during first year of the experiment. They were randomly divided into 3 separate experimental units (replicates), each having 88 birds (80 pullets and 8 males) and were maintained in individual trap nests in an open sided house under optimal management conditions. The experimental birds were fed a balanced breeder ration and fresh and clean drinking water ad libitum. A lighting schedule of 16 hours was followed.

The parent hens in each replicate were artificially inseminated weekly once with semen collected from their respective male Desi parents separately maintained in male trap nest cages. The eggs from the individually selected parent hens on the basis of better egg production performance were incubated under standard incubation conditions to obtain the first progeny. Out of these, 264 adult birds (240 pullets and 24 males) were maintained for a period of 52 weeks under the same management and housing conditions used for Desi parents. During the subsequent period of the experiment, 264 adult birds (240 pullets and 24 males) each of the generations ( P2, P3 and P4) from their respective parents evolved through selective breeding as in P0 were maintained in 3 equal experimental units during 3rd, 4th and 5th year of the experiment, respectively. Weekly data for the parents and each subsequent generation were obtained.

The results showed significant (p less than 0.01) improvement in egg production, feed conversion efficiency (feed/dozen eggs and feed/kg eggs) and egg mass of Desi progenies in comparison to their parents which could be attributed to effect of selective breeding. The significantly (p less than 0.01) better productive performance in respect of above parameters was recorded in P4 in comparison to the parents and other progenies. However, egg size and mortality rate was found to vary non-significantly between Po and all other generations (P1 to P4). Based on the findings of this study it may be concluded that there is a scope for genetic improvement in production performance of Desi chicken

Key words: Desi chicken, Productive performance, trap nest, Pullets, Feed conversion efficiency.

INTRODUCTION

In Pakistan, commercial as well as rural poultry has been playing a vital role in bridging the gap between supply and requirement of animal protein for its' ever increasing human population. Rural poultry has made a significant contribution in poverty alleviation and household food security in many developing countries (Alders and Pym, 2009). However, poor productive potentials of rural Desi native chickens (Bhatti et al., 1990) and lack of genetically improved indigenous breeds (Sonaiya, 2009) has been one of the most important factors affecting further pace of development in this sector. Yaqoob et al. (1965), Ahmed et al. (1969) and Bhatti et al. (1990) have indicated poor growth rate and feed conversion efficiency, broodiness, low egg size and low egg production in Desi native chickens in Pakistan. Gueye (1998) and Tadelle et al. (2000) also indicated poor productive potentials of native African chickens.

However, Desi native chickens have been reported to possess better resistance to diseases and centuries old adaptation to local rigorous environmental conditions (Ahmed et al., 1969 and Bhatti et al., 1990). Egg production is a genetically controlled character (Fairfull and Gowe, 1990). The possibility of improvement in productive performance of native chickens through selective breeding has been indicated (Ahmed and Hashnath, 1983, Leong and Jalaludin, 1984, Mukherjee, 1990, Gueye, 1998 and Sahota et al., 2003).

Keeping above in view, a project "Selection and breeding of indigenous poultry breed in Punjab" was under taken at Poultry Research Institute, Rawalpindi, with the objective of studying possibility of improving productive potentials of Desi chickens through selective breeding.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The present study was conducted at Poultry Research Institute (PRI), Rawalpindi, to evaluate first laying cycle (52 weeks) egg production performance of the four generations (P1, P2, P3 and P4) evolved after selective breeding in comparison to their parents (P0). For this purpose, Desi birds (16 weeks old) were procured from rural field conditions of Mianwali and Bhakkar districts of Punjab, (Pakistan), on the basis of specified phenotypic body characters. Desi parents (P0) thus obtained were initially maintained at Govt. Poultry Farm, Mianwali, for a period of 8 weeks for the purpose of acclimatization to intensive housing conditions and for prophylactic vaccination and de-worming. They were then shifted to Breeding and Incubation Division of this Institute for further experimentation. During first year of the experiment, 264 adult (240 pullets and 24 males, 24 weeks old) were selected out of the flock shifted from Mianwali.

They were randomly divided into 3 separate experimental units (replicates), each having 80 pullets and 8 male birds and were maintained in individual trap nest cages in an open sided house under optimal management conditions for a period of 52 weeks (one year). The experimental birds were fed a balanced breeder ration ad libitum according to NRC (1994) standards. The composition of the ration is shown in Table-1. The birds were provided free access to fresh and clean drinking water. A lighting schedule of 16 hours was followed (day light supplemented with artificial light during the night).The parent hens in each replicate were artificially inseminated once weekly by collecting semen from their respective Desi males maintained separately in male trap nest cages. The eggs from the parent hens individually selected on the basis of their better egg production performance were obtained and incubated under standard incubation conditions to obtain the progeny.

From the first progeny thus obtained, 264 adult birds (240 pullets and 24 males) were maintained for a period of 52 weeks under the same management and housing conditions used for Desi parents during first year of the experiment. During the subsequent period of the experiment, 264 adult birds (240 pullets and 24 males) each of the generations (P2, P3 and P4) from their respective parents evolved through selective breeding as in P1, were obtained during 3rd, 4th, and 5th year of the experiment, respectively. These were divided into 3 equal experimental units and were maintained to record egg production performance of their first laying year cycle.

Weekly data on egg production, feed intake, egg size, egg mass and mortality rate were recorded. Feed conversion efficiency (feed/dozen eggs and feed/kg egg) was worked out. The data thus collected were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance technique (Steel et al., 1997). The comparison of means was made using Duncan's multiple range test (Duncan, 1955).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The results on comparative productive performance of Desi parents and their subsequent four generations obtained after selective breeding have been presented in Table-2. Analysis of variance of the data is shown in Table-3. The results indicated that Desi parents (Po) and their successive generations (P1, P2, P3 and P4) evolved through selective breeding laid 2.50, 5.05, 5.25, 6.05 and 10.90 dozen eggs, per bird per year, respectively, by consuming 36.60, 43.45, 42.00, 42.66 and 43.63 kg feed per bird, respectively, with feed conversion efficiency (Feed/dozen eggs) of 14.73, 8.62, 7.99, 7.05 and 4.00, respectively. The results further indicated improvement in egg production by 102.00, 3.96, 15.24 and 80.16 percent in p1, p2, p3 and p4 in comparison to their respective parents. The feed intake in P1, P2 and p4 was increased by 18.72, 1.57 and 0.06 percent in comparison to P0, P1 and P2, respectively, whereas, feed intake in P2 decreased by 3.34 percent in comparison to their parent P1.

The average feed conversion efficiency in P1, P2, P3 and P4 showed an improving trend by 41.48, 7.31, 11.76, and 43.26 percent in comparison to their respective parents P0, P1, P2 and P3, respectively. The difference in egg production, feed intake and feed conversion efficiency between Desi parents and their subsequent four progenies was found to be significant (p less than 0.01). The results further showed that 4th progeny (P4) produced significantly (p less than 0.01) higher egg production than P1, P2, P3 and the parents (P0). A non-significant difference was observed between egg production of P1 and P2.

The significant improvement in egg production of Desi progenies in comparison to Desi parents could be attributed to genetic improvement through selective breeding. Lyre (1950) conducted selection in a non descriptive flock of Desi flock and was able to increase annual egg production by 24 eggs per hen through sixth generations of selection. Barker (1982) reported improvement in egg production of indigenous chickens through suitable selection procedure. Improvement in production potentials of Desi native chickens have also been observed by Ahmed and Hashnath (1983) and Leong and Jalaludin (1984).Gueye (1998) observed improvement in indigenous chickens through selective breeding. The findings of the earlier studies conducted by Sahota et al. (2003) indicated significant (p less than 0.01) improvement in egg yield of Desi generation-1 chickens in comparison to their parents. Positive genetic improvement in egg production of Desi native stock have been observed (Kolstad,1980 and Venkatramaish et al., 1986).

The development of village chickens through pure breeding and selection could be undertaken for poultry improvement. Cheng (2010) observed that through natural selection, the population preserves and accumulates traits that are beneficial and rejects those that are detrimental in their prevailing environments. The surviving populations are able to contribute more genes associated with beneficial traits for increased fitness to subsequent generations The findings of the present study indicate a slight but non- significant improvement in egg size of Desi progenies in comparison to their parents (Desi parent (44.03 gm), P1 (44.44 gm), P2 (44.48 gm), P3 (44.50 gm) and P4 (44.51 gm). The improvement in egg weight of P1, P2, P3 and P4 was observed to be 0.93, 0.09, 0.044 and 0.022 percent in comparison to their respective parents P0, P1, P2 and P3, respectively.

The results showing low egg weight in Desi chickens are in close conformity of earlier findings of Simeonovova et al. (1989), Bhatti and Sahota (1996) and Sahota and Bhatti (2001) who reported average egg weight in Desi chickens as 44.72, 44.63 and 44.10 gm/egg, respectively. The low egg weight in local African chickens ranging from 38 to 40 gm per egg has been reported (Brannang and Pearson, 1990 and Tadelle and Ogle, 1996). The egg weight and egg production is reported to be highly heritable trait possessing heritability of 35 and 15 percent, respectively (North and Bell, 1990). Washburn (1990) reported that egg size and its components are influenced by number of genetic and non-genetic factors. The results of the present study indicating non-significant improvement in egg size of the progenies in comparison to their parents are not in agreement with the findings of Lyre (1950) who recorded improvement in egg size from 43.4 gm to 49.3 gm in 6th generation of Desi chickens through selection breeding.

This difference in results of the present study and findings of Lyre (1950) could be due to selection criterion in the present study for bringing improvement only in egg production, since different genes control egg yield and egg size, therefore, no significant improvement in egg size could be observed during the present study.

The findings of the present study indicate significant (p less than 0.01) improvement in egg mass of Desi progenies evolved through selection breeding in comparison to their dams. The improvement in egg mass of the progenies P1, P2, p3 and P4 in comparison to their respective parents was noted to be 104.02, 4.01, 15.32 and 80.22 percent, respectively. The similar improvement

Table-1: Composition of breeder ration

Ingredients###(%)

-Maize.###27.00

-Rice broken.###27.00

-Wheat.###05.00

- Rice polishing.###08.00

- Cotton seed meal.###03.50

- Corn gluten meal.###02.50

- Rape seed meal.###05.00

- Guar meal.###01.00

- Soybean meal.###05.00

- Fish meal.###05.00

- Wheat bran.###07.50

- Molasses.###02.00

- Vitamin mineral premix. 0.50

- Dicalcium phosphate.###01.00

Proximate Composition.

-Crude protein.###16

-Crude Fiber.###04

-Ether extract.###03

-Metabolize able energy###2750

(Kcal/kg).

Table-2: Comparative productive performance of desi parents and their different progenies (52 weeks)

###Desi###Desi Progenies.

Parameters.###Parent###P1###P2###P3###P4

###(Po)

Average egg production per bird###

(dozens).###2.50a###5.05 b###5.25 b###6.0###10.90

###(+102.00)###(+3.96)###(+15.24)###(+80.16)

Average feed intake per bird (Kg).###36.60 a###43.45 bc###42.00 bc###42.66 bc###43.63 bc

###(+18.72)###(-3.34)###(+1.57)###(+0.06))

Average egg weight (gm).###44.03 a###44.44 a###44.48 a###44.50 a###44.51 a

###(+0.93)###(+0.09)###(+0.044)###(+0.022)

Average egg mass (kg).###1.32 a###2.693 b###2.801 b###3.230 c###5.821 d

###(+104.02)###(+4.01)###(+15.32)###(+80.22)

Average feed conversion efficiency###14.73 a###8.62 b###7.99 b###7.05 b###4.00 c

(feed/dozen eggs).###(-41.48)###(-7.31)###(-11.76)###(-43.26)

Average feed conversion efficiency###27.91 a###16.18 b###14.99 b###13.21 b###7.49 c

(feed/kg eggs).###(-42.03)###(-7.35)###(-11.87)###(-43.00)

Average mortality rate (%).###3.33 a###2.50 a###3.33 a###4.16 a###3.33 a

###(-29.92)###(+33.20)###(+29.92)###(-19.95)

-Means with different superscript in a row indicate significant difference.( ) = Values in parenthesis indicate percent increase (+) or percent decrease (-) in the progeny in respect to their respective parents

Table-3: Analysis of variance of data on comparative performance of desi parents and their different progenies:

###Mean Squares.###FCR/

Source of###Degree of###Egg###Feed###Egg Wt.###Egg###dozen###FCR/ kg###Mortality

variation.###freedom###Prod.###intake.###Mass.###eggs.###egg.###Rate.

Treatment.###4###28.28###25.37###0.12N.S###8.11###46.19###167.33###1.04N.S

Error.###10###0.02###0.984###0.074###0.003###0.75###2.75###1.667

N.S=Non-significant. =Significant(p less than 0.01).

in egg mass of the progeny 1 in comparison to their parents have earlier been reported (Sahota et al ., 2003). The low egg mass (1.3 kg) in local African chickens have been indicated (Brannang and Pearson, 1990). The significant (p less than 0.01) improvement in egg mass of the progenies in comparison to their parents was mainly due to increase in their egg numbers as there was slight but non-significant improvement in their egg size. Improvement in feed conversion efficiency (feed/Kg egg mass) of the progenies P1, P2, P3, and P4 by 42.03, 7.35, 11.87 and 43.00 percent in comparison to their respective parents was recorded. Similarly, significant (p less than 0.01) improvement in feed conversion efficiency (feed/kg eggs) in Desi progenies in comparison to their parents could be due to significant (p less than 0.01) improvement in egg production of Desi progenies in comparison to their parents.

The mortality rate in parents and the progenies was found to vary non-significantly and showing an inconsistent trend. The performance of P4 in respect of egg production, feed conversion efficiency and egg mass was found to be significantly (p less than 0.01) better than the parents and other progenies (P1, P2 and P3).

The findings of the present study provide evidence to suggest that genetic improvement in productive potentials of Desi native chickens could be attained through selective breeding which is a continuous process requiring persistent selection to be employed in successive generations.

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Poultry Research Institute, Punjab, Shamsabad Murree Road, Rawalpindi, University of veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore., Deptt. of Poultry Science, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Corresponding author: waheedsahota@uvas.edu.pk
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Author:Anjum, M.A.; Sahota, A.W.; Akram, M.; Javed, K.; Mehmood, S.
Publication:Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9PAKI
Date:Mar 31, 2012
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