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EFFECT OF COMBINED APPLICATION ULTRAVIOLET ABSORBER AND ANTIOXIDANT ON LIGHT FASTNESS OF REACTIVE DYED COTTON FABRIC.

Byline: P. Thiagarajana and G Nalankillib

ABSTRACT: Cotton fabrics have been dyed withthe following dyes,Reactive Yellow 84, Reactive Red 22 and Reactive Blue198 dyesand the effect of combined application of commonly used antioxidant such as gallic acid, vitamin C and cafeic acid, and the ultraviolet absorbers such as 2-hydroxybenzophenone and phenyl salicylateis studied in order to improve light fastness property.Application of antioxidant and ultraviolet absorber on dyed fabric is carried by exhaust and pad dry cure methods.Light fastness and rubbing fastness properties of the treated samples were tested as per international standards.The durability of chemical treatments to ten washing cyclewas also investigated and found that the pad dry cure method of application shows good result.

Key words:Antioxidant,Cotton fabric,Light fastness,Reactivedyes,ultraviolet absorbers, Durability.E-mail:gnalankilli@yahoo.com,

I.0 INTRODUCTIONResistance of the material to a change in its colorcharacteristic on exposure of the material to sun light or an artificial light source is known as light fastness. It has been an active area of research for nearly 200 years[1]. The light stability of dyes and impact of testing atmosphere, effect of covalent bond and admixture dyes were studied. The mechanisms by which dyes undergo photo degradationare thought to be complexprocess[2]. However, most of the research papers on this subjectsuggest that UV light induced decomposition and visible light-induced photo-oxidation are the two most important pathways of fading, as shown below: Dye + UV light BleachingDye + O2 + Light BleachingMany authors studied the chemistry andreactive speciesinvolved in photofading. Notably, Egerton and Morgan[3] in a series of papers showed that reactive oxygen species(ROS) were produced by irradiation of dyed fabrics which were capable of destroying dyes. Antioxidants called inhibitors of oxidation,organic compounds that are added to oxidisable organicmaterials to retard autooxidation[4]. The antioxidant absorbs free singlet oxygen and reduces the photo fading. This activity of antioxidant is measured by the unit of oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC)[5]. Works carried by researchers concentrated on dyes chemical structure, dyeing properties and condition of light fastness testing on light fastness properties. Antioxidant has been used only on natural dyed fabric for light fastness improvement[6].UV photofading does not require oxygen [7].Wendelin Marie Rich[8] studied ability of UV absorber to reduce fading of nylon coloured with acid dyes and concluded UV absorbers were more effective at reducing colour change on lighter shades.Yiqi Yang [9] studied improvement of the light fastness of reactive inkjet printed cotton and found The water soluble UV absorber had better lightfastness improvement than the water insoluble UV absorber. In the previous work attempted by us it has been established that [10] UV absorber and antioxidant application shows improvement in light fastness. The light fading happened with ultraviolet light and visible light in the presence of oxygen. The combined application of antioxidant and ultraviolet absorber can control the fading of dyes by maximum extend. So inthe present work combined applications of antioxidant and ultraviolet absorbers were tried on reactive dyed materials by exhaust and pad, dry and cure methods for improving light fastness properties. The durability of the both after treatment was analyzed by subjecting the treated material to ten wash cycles.

2.1 MATERIALS2.1.1 Reactive DyesCommercially used reactive dyes namely C. I. ReactiveYellow 84, C. I Reactive Red 22 and C.I. Reactive Blue 198 (hence forth mentioned Yellow, Red and Blue)were used without any purification in order to match industrial practice.2.1.2 Fabric ParticularsThe plain cambric cotton ready-for-dyeing fabricof thefollowing constructional parameters was used. Warp count: 60NeWeft count : 60NeEnds/inch : 120Picks/inch : 103Areal density : 80 g/m2CIE whiteness index : 68.0Absorbency : less than 3 s2.1.3 Antioxidant and UV AbsorbersThe antioxidants(gallic acid, vitamin C and cafeic acid) and the UV absorbers (2-hydroxybenzophenone and phenylsalicylate) were used fortreating the cotton before exposure to light.They wereobtained from commercial sources(AcrosOrganics,Sigmae, Aldrich, Fluka). Cafeic acid (CASno.331.39.5),gallic acid (CAS No 149-91-7), vitamin C (ascorbic acid CAS No. 50.81.7), phenyl salicylate (CAS No.118.55.8), and benzophenone(CAS No. 117.99.7) were used. Chemical structure and other detailsof these can be obtained from CAS index[5].2.2 METHODS2.2.1 Dyeing Dyeing of the scoured fabrics was performed at 60C using C. I. Reactive Yellow 84, C. I. Reactive Red 22 and C. I. Reactive Blue 198, each 1.0% by exhaustion with sodium sulphate(30 g/L) for 30 min and fixation with soda ash (10 g/L) for 45 min. After dyeing, the samples were rinsed in distilled water, soap solutions, rinsed again in distilled water and then dried.2.2.2 Application of antioxidants and UV absorbersThe antioxidants (gallic acid, vitamin C and cafeic acid) andthe UV absorbers (2-hydroxybenzophenone and phenyl salicylate) were applied by Exhaust and padding method.1.Exhaust method of application treatment given in the combination of 1.0% antioxidants and 1.0 % UVabsorbersby treating the dyed cotton fabric in a solutionat 70 C for 30 min stirring. For gallic acid, vitamin C and cafeic acid, aqueous solutions and for the others water/ethanol mixture (9/1 v/v) were used. The samples were washed and then air dried.2.10 g/l Antioxidant and 10 g/l UV absorber combinations with acrylic based binder 10 g/lwere applied by padding(65% pick up), dried at 100C for 60 s and cureat 150C for 120 s.The samples were washed and then air dried.2.2.3 Repeat laundering Stability TestingThe durability of after treatment for ten wash cycles at 60Cfor 30 min to commonly available washing powder in washing machine was estimated.2.2.4 Light Fastness TestingThe dyed fabric was exposed separately for 36h at 40Cunder artificial light source (day light B01, James H. Heal and company, Hamifax, England), equipped with xenon arc and mercury- tungsten florescent, whose wave length was similar to that of sunlight. The change in color was compared with original specimen and assessed by Data color CIE Lab dE value.

3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS3.1 Effect of Antioxidant on Light FastnessVisible light requires oxygen to degrade the dyes. Usage ofantioxidant like gallic acid, vitamin C and cafeic acid absorb the oxygen radicals available for photo degradation. Oxygen Radical absorbance capacity of ascorbic acid is found to be more than Gallic acid and cafeic acid and this is the reason for good results of vitamin C (ORAC value 12.5) then cafeic acid (ORAC value 9.5) and galic acid(ORAC value 11.7).3.2 Effect of UV Absorbers on Light FastnessThe photochemistry of the 2-hydroxybenzophenones, (Figure 1) has been more extensively studied than that of theother classes of ultraviolet absorbers. It is known that structure I is rapidly converted to a ''photoenol'' structure IIby absorption of light, and that structure II reverts tostructure I with loss of energy as heat, showing almost 100%efficiency. The phenyl salicylate presents a very low absorption in the solar ultraviolet region. However, after a short exposure to sunlight, it shows an increase in absorption in the 290-400 nm regions, and after sufficient exposure, its spectrum resembles those of 2-hydroxybenzophenones.The phenyl salicylate shows its effectiveness to a light- catalyzed rearrangement that converts it to2- hydroxybenzophenone (Figure 2). The use additives can improve this light fastness of reactive dyes. The UV light is an important cause in the fading of dyes, in the weakening of fibres and fabrics, and in the photo degradation of many other substances. UV absorbers and antioxidant molecules have been applied to many substances and are found successful in many cases in neutralizing the destructive attack of sun light.

3.3 Light fastness results of Chemical treated fabricIn dyeing industry the tolerance for passing shade between standard and batch is dE0.50. The grey scale or blue woolreading has wider denomination, so smallest variation infading can be measured by colour differencedEvalue.Table 1 shows the colour differencedEmeasured by keeping chemical treated sample as standard and 36 h faded samples as batch.The ultraviolet absorbers are inefficient on yellow dyed cotton, so this dye is expected to fade by the visible light.Red dyed sample treated with vitamin C shows very less fading as compared to phenyl salicylate, benzophenone, cafeic acid and gallic acid treated samples.On blue dyed sample###both###the###antioxidant###and###ultraviolet###absorber treatment show improvement in light fastness and vitamin C treatment shows good improvement on light fastness (10).It can be derived from Table 1and2, the effect of application method of antioxidant and ultraviolet absorberon light fastness. All treatments show reduction in fading than the untreated sample. Combined application of antioxidant and ultraviolet absorber gives better light fastness than the individual application result. The above improvement is due to the both way of fading by ultraviolet and visible light are reduced by ultraviolet absorber and antioxidant respectively. The application methods both exhaust and pad dry cure does

Table 1 Colour Difference (dE) of UV absorber and antioxidant treated fabric after light exposer

###Colour differnce in dE

###S. No.###Discription of samples

###Yellow 84###Red 22###Blue 198

###1###With out treatment###2.76###6.35###5.32

###2###Phenyl salicylate###2.52###5.45###4.12

###3###Benzophenone###2.33###5.39###4.01

###4###Vitamin C###1.76###4.12###2.54

###5###Cafeic acid###1.9###5.35###3.45

###6###Gallic acid###1.95###5.64###3.96

Table 2 Effect of application method of antioxidant and ultraviolet absorber treated fabric on light fastness

sample No.###chemicals used for coating###Colour difference in dE

###C.I. Reactive Yellow 84###C.I. Reactive Red 22###C.I. Reactive Blue 198

###Pad, dryand

###Exhaust application###Pad, dryand Cure###Exhaust application###Pad, dryand Cure###Exhaust application

###Cure

###1###Phenyl salicylate + Vitamin C###1.23###1.25###4.34###4.41###2.43###2.45

###2###Benzophenone+ Vitamin C###1.41###1.38###3.96###3.73###2.21###2.09

###3###Phenyl salicylate + Gallic acid###1.61###1.72###4.54###4.34###2.97###2.87

###4###Benzophenone+Gallic acid###1.38###1.26###4.12###3.98###3.45###3.23

###5###Phenyl salicylate+ Cafeic acid###1.55###1.61###4.65###4.43###3.12###3.19

###6###Benzophenone + Cafeic acid###1.67###1.73###4.49###4.35

Table 3 Durability of chemical treatment for ten wash cycle

sample No.###chemicals used for coating###Colour difference in dE

###C.I. Reactive Yellow 84###C.I. Reactive Red 22###C.I. Reactive Blue 198

###Pad, dryand###Pad, dryand

###Exhaust Method###Pad, dryand Cure###Exhaust Method###Exhaust Method

###Cure###Cure

###1###Phenyl salicylate + Vitamin C###2.21###1.78###5.28###4.87###4.12###2.98

###2###Benzophenone+ Vitamin C###1.93###1.61###4.99###4.37###3.98###2.72

###3###Phenyl salicylate + Gallic acid###2.32###1.89###5.42###4.86###4.42###3.34

###4###Benzophenone+Gallic acid###2.35###1.92###5.37###4.64###4.34###3.91

###5###Phenyl salicylate+ Cafeic acid###2.35###1.75###5.12###4.78###4.22###3.82

###6###Benzophenone + Cafeic acid###2.15###2.07###4.81###4.98###4.08###3.42

not give significant change in light fastness result. Lower fading of yellow dyed and treated with phenyl salicylate and vitamin C combination. Improvement in lightfastness of Red and Blue are found withBenzophenone and vitamin C than other treatments. As vitamin C has higher ORAC value, it gives good result on light fastness.3.4 Durability of chemical treatment for ten wash cycles The durability of application method ofchemical treatment after ten washing cycle are analyzed. Table 3 showsthe dE of the faded sample before and after ten washing cycle. It is found that the durability is not up to the expected level. In this method there is no bond formed between cotton and applied chemicals. Chemicals are applied only on the surface is the reason for the result.The durability of pad dry cure application method is much better than the exhaust application. In this method,acrylic based binder helps to retain the applied chemicals on the surface of fabric.

4.0 CONCLUSIONVisible light requires oxygen to degrade the dyes. Usage ofantioxidant like gallic acid, vitamin C and cafeic acid absorb the oxygen radicals available for photo degradation. The ultraviolet light is another important cause for fading of dyes and this reaction does not require oxygen.The combined application of antioxidant and ultraviolet absorbers helps to improve the light fastness of reactive dyed fabrics. It is observed that the durability of the chemical treatment is11 ).

better in pad, dry and cure method than the exhaust method of application. The reason is that the acrylic binder helps to bind the ultraviolet absorber and antioxidants on the fabric surface.

5.0 REFERENCES1Physico-chemical Principle of Color Chemistry, edited by Kuramato N, Peter A T and Freeman H S, (BlackieAandP, London) (1996).2 Oakes J,RevProg Color, 31:21(2001).3 Egerton G S and Morgan A G, J Soc Dyers Colour, 89:268(1971).4 Daniela Cristeaand Gerard Vilarem, DyesPigm, 70: 238-245(2006).5Md.Samsul Alam, Arifuzzaman Khan G M, Abdur Razzaque S M, Jamil Hossain M andMinhaz-ul-Haque M, Indian J Fibre Text Res, 33 : 58-65(2008).6 Daniela CristeaandGerard Vilarem, DyesPigm, 70:238-245(2006).7Batchelor S N, Carr D, Coleman C E, Fairclough L and Jarvis A, Dyes Pigm, 59: 269-275(2003).8 Wendelin Marie Rich and Paricia Cox Crews, Text.Res. J. 63(4):231-8 (1993).9 Yiqi Yang and VamshiNaarani, Dyes pigm 74: 154-160(2007).10 Thiagarajan P and Nalankilli G, Indian J Fibre TextRes, 38: 161-4(2013
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Author:Thiagarajana, P.; Nalankillib, G.
Publication:Science International
Article Type:Report
Date:Mar 31, 2014
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