EDM today and tomorrow.
During the past five years, EDM sales, in units and dollars, have followed an upward trend. Unit sales are projected to increase at an annual rate of approximately 20 percent during the next several years, with the product mix swinging sharply to full CNC adaptive control.
Basic systems will continue to be the mainstay of the small- to medium-sized tool and die shop. In other areas, introduction of traveling wire systems with adaptive control, auto wire rethread, and intial start-hole cutting units have pressured manufacturers of vertical EDM systems to provide the same untended operating capabilities for all EDM systems. The next few year should see major emphasis on microprocessor power supplies, five- and six-axis CNC systems, automatic toolchangers, automatic electrode refeed devices, and in-process gaging.
Increased cutting speeds and computerized controls on major EDM systems are reducing cutting costs to the point that many large automotive and aerospace companies are purchasing EDM production systems rather than individual units. This was reiterated last October at the NMTBA Fall Forecasting Conference where participants predicted that, within a year, the auto industry will no longer purchase stand-alone machines. The emphasis will be on EDM systems used with DNC and flexible machining cells. If stand-alone units are purchased, they must be retrofitable to be used with DNC and FMS.
The aerospace industry is heading the same way, but at a slower rate. Major aerospace companies are committed to untended, integrated FMS cells for their production systems. Direct postprocessors can now link EDM systems with CAD/CAM units, host computers, and FMS cells.
Because productivity increases are essential, both automotive and aerospace industries will likely move toward integrated, dual-systems FMS cells incorporating CNC traveling wire and vertical EDM units, with robotized load/unload systems.
In some case, CNC wirecut systems are interfaced directly with engineering for production of die shoes and trim dies. And, large vertical diesinking machines are being linked to CAD/CAM systems.
Vertical EDM production systems are being equipped with orbiting tables to eliminate operator involvement during roughing, semifinishing, and finishing operations. Multichannel power supplies can now store preprogrammed data on cutting conditions. Overcut data (by material) can be selected, entered into memory, and run automatically.
Big market potential
One of the largest vertical applications in the history of EDM may soon develop as automakers swich to fuel injectors as standard equipment on most cars. They have committed to placing such systems on 85 percent of the 1986 production models. While the final method of producing fuel injectors has yet to be defined, with auto productions estimated at 5,073,214 units and only 8 percent now equipped with gas or diesel injectors, the purchase of new EDM micro-hole production systems quickly could reach $175 to $200 million.
Present fuel injectors require 0.008"-to 0.010"-dia micro-holes in a specific pattern for fuel distribution. EDM systems to produce the injectors will require refeed heads for automatic electrode setting, automatic handling systems, in-process gaging, automatic part cleaning, and CNC interface systems.
The aerospace industry has used this system approach for years to produce jet engine components. Micro-holes are EDMed on the leading edges of turbine blades to provide cooling and aerodynamic stability. Testing on new generation jet engines shows that intricate shapes and precision micro-holes will be required. Complex geometries will consist of diameters, taper angles, and rectangles. Formed electrodes, set in groups for simultaneous machining, will be used to cut these shapes.
While present laser systems are not capable of producing these complex geometries, they are able to remove material much faster than today's EDM systems. An integrated manufacturing cell, incorporating a laser for mass material removal and CNC electrical discharage machining for finishing, may well be the best way to produce these parts. Also, direct CAD/CAM links, in-process gaging, and automatic load/unload systems will play a major role in aerospace part production.
Wirecut EDM systems have moved from the lab to the production floor in many aerospace plants. Wirecutting turbine-blade root sections and EDM blade contouring should go into production at a number of aerospace facilities early this year.
T&D still big
Beyond the automotive and aerospace industries, EDM systems are widely used in tool and die production and various other manufacturing environments. A breakdown of the current individual market share for a number of industries is presented in Figure 1.
CNC vertical (ram) EDM machine sales should grow at 40 to 60 percent annually for the next few years and taper off to 35 percent per year thereafter. This growth will be partially at the expense of conventional (non-CNC) EDM.
The number of traveling wire CNC machines sold will grow at the rate of 20 to 30 percent. Most of this will come from precision applications in aerospace, and jobs such as punch and die sets, extrusion dies, and form tools.
For more information on EDM equipment, circle E70.
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|Title Annotation:||electrical discharge machining|
|Author:||Peterson, Charles R.|
|Publication:||Tooling & Production|
|Date:||Jan 1, 1985|
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