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Dystocia Due to Perosomus Elumbis (Acaudatus) in a Buffalo.

Byline: Muhammad Usman Mehmood Ahmad Qamar Sanan Raza Hamayun Khan Qaisar Shahzad and Abdul Sattar


Perosomus elumbis (Acaudatus) is an occasionally found congenital anomaly characterized by partial or complete agenesis of lumbar sacral and coccygeal vertebrae and ankylosis of the hind limbs. A seven years old BCS 3.50.5 pluriparous buffalo with dystocia due to malformed fetus was presented at Theriogenology clinic. The calf had a shortened trunk and weighed roughly 32.5 kg. There was an absence of the dorsal part of the vertebrae in the fetus and misshapened sacral vertebrae with the squeezed perineal region. Small and ankylosed limbs of the fetus were loosely attached to the trunk. The monster calf was forcefully extracted with partial fetotomy result in successfully resolved dystocia of a buffalo. The malformations were mostly confined to the abdominal region. This report presents information about the successful treatment of a distance case due to perosomus elumbis (Acaudatus) reflex and the estradiol local feathering for cervical dilation yielding acceptable results.

Key words: Perosomus elumbis monster dystocia fetotomy buffalo.

Dystocia may be of maternal or fetal origin and fetal cause's accounts for 40.84% in Murrah buffalo (Srinivas et al. 2007). Major causes of bovine dystocia are abnormal fetus and monster conditions (Shukla et al. 2007). Abnormal embryonic development may be congenital or genetic resulting in monsters conditions. Monsters may be due to congenital or infectious diseases that may affect the parturition (Arthur et al. 2001). Development of the sexual organs of fetus suffering from monsters condition is distorted (Vegad 2007). In farm animals most important and common cause of dystocia is related to fetal emphysema (Arthur et al. 2001). Incomplete cervical dilation and inadequate expulsive maternal forces come under the term maternal dystocia (Jackson 1995). A rare case is described in this report with Perosomus elumbis (Acaudatus) reflex in the fetus leading to dystocia in the dam.

It is characterized by partial or complete agenesis of lumbar sacral and coccygeal vertebr ae and usually includes arthrogryposis of the hind limbs and malformations of the musculature. Cases of fetal monsters are rare but reported more commonly in cattle and rarely in buffaloes (Sharma et al. 2010; Dennis and Leipold 1986; Leipold and Dennis 1986).

Case history and clinical signs

A seven year old pluriparous Nili Ravi buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) with average body condition score 3.50.5 (1-5) having normal gestation length and prolonged straining was brought to the Theriogenology clinic. Animal was brought with the history of anorexia and straining from last two days without any progression. After proper washing and disinfecting the perennial area with 2% potassium permanganate solution vaginal examination was done by using vaginal speculum. Vaginal examination revealed presence of the abnormal fetus having ankylosed limbs and shortened trunk. Cervix was partially opened with only three fingers passing through it. The fetus was found dead as no reflex was being observed on inserting index finger into the mouth through the rectum. The temperature was subnormal at 36C. Overall health status of buffalo was good.


After taking a complete clinical history and shown signs animal was secured in a crush. The buffalo was administered calcium borogluconate (Mil-Fone C Star Pakistan; each 100 ml contains 26.6 g calcium borogluconate and 5.4 g boric acid @ 150-250mg/kg; 300 ml I/V). Afterwards for cervix dilation commercial preparation of estradiol (Stilbesterol dipropionate Star Pakistan @4- 10mg/kg; 5ml; I/M) was administered along with local feathering of the cervix with the same hormone. Dexafar (Dexamethasone Farvet Netherlands @0.02-2mg/kg; 10ml; I/M) was also administered for initiation of mechanism of gluconeogensis while atropine sulphate (Atrostar Star Pakistan@ 0.06-0.12mg/kg; 15ml; I/M) was given to stabilize the heart beat of the animal. The animal was left undisturbed for 45 to 60 minutes after that cervix was found completely relaxed. Malformed dead fetus in anterior longitudinal presentation with dorso-sacral position was palpated per vagina with large head and small limbs.

For proper application of traction forces chains were applied on neck and fetlock joint of forelimbs when fully secured. Limbs and head came out of the birth canal on forceful traction further traction was impossible.

Further examination revealed very long neck of the fetusand abnormally large trunk still in the abdominal cavity with infirm consistency and coat. To squeeze and make the fetus in a maternal birth canalin accordance evisceration was done. Large quantity of fluid came out of the fetus on partial fetotomyas rib detached by using blunt edge sharp hook and then organs were removed by one using hand. Due to reduction in size downward traction resulted in the successful solution of dystocia case. A lot of fluid coming out of utreus alongwith fetus having an incomplete vertebral column and ankylosed limbs (Fig. 1). After successful traction of dead fetus buffalo was treated and survived with antibiotics and electrolytes for energy source having a fair prognosis of future fertility.


The present monster has a small flattenedand deformed pelvis with strongly ankylosed and flexed hind limbs and atrophy of the muscles of there are quarters. In most cases caesarean section is the ultimate option for resolving Perosomus elumbis as suggested by Testoni et al. (2005). These findings are in accordance with those of Son et al. (2008) in Holstein calf which was successfully treated by surgery. According to the literature C-section has been performed mostly to correct these types of dystocia (Monfared et al. 2013) which is not possible in field conditions. In the present report partial fetotomy was performed which provide the evidence that dystocia due to Perosomus elumbis (Acaudatus) could be resolved successfully through it and estradiol local feathering for cervical dilation yields acceptable results. However this case report will be helpful for the veterinarians to resolve dystociadue to Perosomus elumbis in field conditions.


Authors are thankful for providing help by the supporting staff in resolving dystocia.

Conflict of interest

All authors have no conflict of interest with anyone about this manuscript.


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Article Details
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Author:Usman, Muhammad; Ahmad, Mehmood; Raza, Qamar Sanan; Khan, Hamayun; Shahzad, Qaisar; Sattar, Abdul
Publication:Pakistan Journal of Zoology
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9PAKI
Date:Oct 31, 2014
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