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Dynamic Metasomatism: Stable Isotopes, Fluid Evolution, and Deformation of Albitite and Scapolite Metagabbro (Bamble Lithotectonic Domain, South Norway).

1. Introduction

Metasomatism is the pervasive alteration of rocks with respect to both mineralogical and chemical composition. It results from interaction with fluids, sometimes causing albitisation by replacement of rock units by Na-rich feldspar, and scapolitisation forming scapolite-bearing rocks. These fluids can infiltrate under highly variable geological settings and PT conditions and originate from a meteoric, magmatic, or metamorphic environment. Albitisation is reported in deep weathering profiles [1, 2], in epiclastic sediments during diagenesis and low-grade metamorphism [3], in granitoids during late magmatic alteration [4], and in association with fluid migration in mobile belts [5]. Regional-scale metasomatism is a widely recognized phenomenon in a number of rock types and tectonic settings [6, 7]. Metasomatism is an important guide to hydrothermal ore deposits and represents a characteristic feature of many orogenic gold deposits, iron oxide-apatite (IOA), iron oxide-Cu-Au (IOCG), and U deposits [6, 8-11].

The Bamble and Kongsberg-Modum lithotectonic domains of south Norway represent classic high-grade metamorphic terrains [12-18], which contain a series of different metasomatic rocks. An early scapolitisation event, where Cl-rich scapolite coexisted with enstatite, phlogopite, amphibole, and rutile is constrained at 600 to 700[degrees]C at mid-crustal levels [19-21]. Mg-Al-rich lithologies such as orthoamphibole-cordierite schists occur together with scapolitised rocks [22]. Subsequently, albitisation transformed scapolite metagabbro and regionally distributed mafic and granitoid rocks to albitites, dominated by albite, with varying amounts of rutile, carbonate, chlorite, and locally prehnite, pumpellyite, and analcime. Albitisation is widespread in the Mesoproterozoic rocks of the Sveconorwegian orogen in southern Scandinavia (Figure 1) [18, 21, 23]. In addition, the Bamble and Kongsberg-Modum lithotectonic domains are characterised by a high density of mineral deposits including the common occurrence of apatite and rutile deposits [23, 24] and a high density of hydrothermal Fe-deposits including veins and breccias of nickeliferous pyrrhotite-apatite, magnetite-apatite, magnetite and hematite, and Fe-oxide skarn deposits [25, 26].

The metasomatic processes affecting the Bamble lithotectonic domain have locally transformed the rocks so strongly that we cannot trace the precursor, and therefore a full understanding of the processes is still lacking. However, a number of papers have solved various aspects of the metasomatic processes including widespread formation of scapolite metagabbro [19-21, 27] through Mg-Cl metasomatism, replacement textures in apatite [28-30], rutile formation [31], carbonate deposition [32], tourmaline formation [33], and sapphirine-corundum crystallization [34]. While the scapolitisation process with respect to mineral reactions is relatively well understood in the Kragero region, albitisation is a more complex process and less constrained. Extensive albitisation is seen along veins, as brecciation, as formation of foliated albititic felsites and chlorite schists, as carbonate-rich albitite, and as large-scale albitite bodies [23, 35].

In this paper, we present stable O-, H-, and C-isotope data on mineral separates from albitites and scapolite metagabbro with the purpose of constraining the fluid type and source. Different models for fluid evolution are then discussed. Whole rock geochemical data is presented in order to illustrate the chemical changes and discussed relative to mineralogical replacement and mineral deposition. Brittle and ductile structural elements associated with the metasomatism are used to discuss the dynamics of fluid processes.

2. Geological Setting

The Sveconorwegian orogenic belt in SW Scandinavia consists of late Palaeoproterozoic to Mesoproterozoic continental crust reworked during the Sveconorwegian orogeny [18, 41, 42]. The orogen is divided into several lithotectonic gneiss domains separated by crustal scale shear zones (Figure 1(a)). The Bamble lithotectonic domain in south Norway shows a SW-NE structural trend and consists of high-grade ortho- and paragneisses and amphibolites [43]. The oldest known rocks are orthogneisses ranging in age from ca. 1570 to 1460 Ma [44-46]. They are intruded by younger plutonic rocks, including a 1294 [+ or -] 38 Ma tonalite pluton [20], 1200 to 1150 Ma mafic and felsic plutonic rocks [20, 45, 46], ca. 1060 Ma pegmatite bodies [47], and ca. 990 to 925 Ma Sveconorwegian postcollisional granite plutons [45]. The studied area is located close to the Oslo Rift with abundant magmatic activity in Permian time (Figure 1(a)).

Metamorphism in Bamble was associated with regional-scale deformation and the formation of a strong lithological and regional NE-SW tectonic banding. Zircon, monazite, titanite, and rutile U-Pb ages from the area place the high-grade metamorphism as part of an early phase of the Sveconorwegian orogeny in the time interval 1140-1080 Ma [20, 41, 48-50]. The gneisses are dominantly amphibolite-facies, with metamorphic grade increasing to granulite-facies in the Arendal area (P = 0.6-0.8 GPa; T = 750-850[degrees]C) [13, 16, 51, 52]. In addition, there are several occurrences of rocks with granulite-facies assemblages, including charnockitic gneiss bodies, as well as conformable lenses and layers of sapphirine-bearing rocks [14, 53], which are exposed north of Arendal and Kragero [17, 54, 55].

The Kragero area (Figure 1(b)) consists of a layered complex of mafic rocks and variable gneisses and quartzites. The mafic rocks are amphibolites and metagabbros including bodies of gabbro [56]. Orthogneisses are of granitic, granodioritic, quartzdioritic, and tonalitic composition. Quartzites containing sillimanite are interlayered with garnet amphibolite, felsic gneiss, and garnet- and cordierite-bearing mica gneiss.

Na-metasomatism in the form of albitisation is regionally extensive in the Precambrian crust of southern Scandinavia and is particularly widespread in the Bamble and Kongsberg-Modum lithotectonic domains and the Norwegian part of the Mylonite Zone (Figure 1(a)) [23]. In the Bamble lithotectonic domain, albitisation is present from the northeastern boundary to the Oslo Rift and southwestwards through the domain. Large bodies of albitite are found in the vicinity of Kragero and towards Arendal [23, 57-59]. Mg-Cl-metasomatised rocks in the form of scapolite metagabbros occur widespread as part of the mapped amphibolites and metagabbro, commonly in conjunction with the albitites [19, 20, 50].

3. Analytical Methods

Different types of albitites and scapolite metagabbro were mapped and sampled in the Kragero area of Bamble lithotectonic domain (Table 1; Figure 1). Polished thin sections were studied via optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), using a LEO 1450 VP instrument at the Geological Survey of Norway (NGU).

Whole rock major and trace element analyses (Table 2) were carried out at the NGU. Major elements were measured on fused glass beads prepared by 1: 7 dilution with lithium tetraborate. Trace elements were measured from pressed tablets. The samples were analysed on a PANalytical Axios XRF spectrometre equipped with a 4kW Rh X-ray end-window tube, using synthetic and international standards for calibration as described by Govindaraju [60]. Rock samples used for whole rock geochemistry were selected as being representative and homogenous, with good control on mineralogy and petrography.

Stable isotopic data are presented in Table 3. The oxygen isotope composition ([sup.16]O, [sup.17]O, and [sup.18]O) of handpicked mineral separates of albite, scapolite, amphibole, and quartz was measured at the University of Tubingen using a method similar to that described by Sharp [61] and Rumble III and Hoering [62], which is described in more detail in Kasemann et al. [63]. Between 2 to 4 mg of sample was loaded onto a small Pt sample holder, which was pumped to a vacuum of about [10.sup.-6] mbar. After prefluorination of the sample chamber overnight, the samples were heated with a C[O.sub.2]-laser in 50 mbars of pure [F.sub.2]. Excess [F.sub.2] was separated from the [O.sub.2] using KCl at 150[degrees]C by producing KF and releasing [Cl.sub.2]. The extracted [O.sub.2] was collected quantitatively by adsorption on a molecular sieve (13X) at liquid nitrogen temperature in a sample vial. Subsequently the vial was removed from the line and heated to room temperature; thus, [O.sub.2] is released as a gas and eventually analysed isotopically using a Finnigan MAT 252 isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Oxygen isotope compositions are given in the standard [delta]-notation and expressed relative to SMOW (Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water) in permil ([per thousand]). Replicate oxygen isotope analyses of the standards, using NBS-28 quartz and UWG-2 garnet [64], generally have an average precision of [+ or -]0.1% for [delta][sup.18]O. The accuracy of [delta][sup.18]O values is commonly better than 0.2 [per thousand] compared to the accepted [[delta].sup.18]O values for NBS-28 of 9.64 [per thousand] and UWG-2 of 5.8 [per thousand].

For the D/H analysis of the minerals, an extraction line as described in [65] was used. Depending on the water content, a sufficient amount of hydrous minerals was loaded into 12 cm long quartz tubes in order to obtain >1 mg [H.sub.2]O. Water was released by heating the minerals in the tubes using a torch. [H.sub.2]O was then converted to [H.sub.2] using Zn (see also Vennemann and O'Neil [65] for further details). [H.sub.2] was then subsequently measured by a Finnigan MAT 252 Mass Spectrometer, using the dual inlet device. External precision is typically [+ or -]2 [per thousand], and all values are reported relative to SMOW.

Stable isotope analysis (C, O) of carbonate samples was performed using a Finnigan MAT 252 gas source mass spectrometer combined with a Thermo Finnigan GasBench II/CTC Combi-Pal autosampler. Both devices are connected using the continuous flow technique with a He stream as carrier gas. About 0.1 mg dried sample powder is loaded into a 10 ml glass exetainer, sealed with rubber septum. The exetainers are placed in an aluminium tray and set to 72[degrees]C. After purging with pure He gas, 4-6 drops of 100% phosphoric acid are added. After a reaction time of about 90 minutes, the released C[O.sub.2] is transferred (using a GC gas column to separate other components) to the mass spectrometer using a He carrier gas. The sample C[O.sub.2] is measured relative to an internal laboratory tank gas standard, which is calibrated against internal and international carbonate standards (e.g., Laser marble, NBS-19). All values are given in [per thousand] relative to PDB (Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite) for C and SMOW/PDB for O. The external precision calculated over 10-15 standards is typically in the range of 0.05-0.06 [per thousand] for [delta][sup.13]C and 0.06-0.08 [per thousand] for [delta][sup.18]O. For further details see Spotl and Vennemann [66].

4. Na- and Mg-Cl-Metasomatic Rocks

4.1. Field and Structural Relations. In the Kragero area, Mg-Cl-metasomatised scapolite-bearing rocks occur widespread as a part of the mapped amphibolite, metagabbro, and gabbro lithologies [19, 20, 23] and have been studied in detail at Odegarden Verk, Ringsjo, Atangen, Valberg, and Langoy localities (Figure 1(b)). At Langoy and Odegarden Verk, transformation of pristine gabbro to scapolite metagabbro is observed along fluid fronts (Figure 2(a)). Medium-grained dark gabbro including olivine and pyroxenes is transformed into a medium- to coarse-grained scapolite metagabbro. The scapolite metagabbro occurs as an equigranular massive rock originally named odegardite [57]. Frequently, the scapolite metagabbro displays veining in the form of 0.5-2 cm wide veins, which are composed of the major rock-forming minerals scapolite, amphibole (edenite, pargasite, and actinolite), or phlogopite (Figures 2(b)-2(d)). Locally, this veining occurs with a high density initiating a layered structure in the rock (Figure 2(c)). The veining and banded structure develops during progressive deformation and formation of the rockfoliation (Figure 2(d)). At the Atangen locality, dynamic scapolitisation through synchronous brecciation is observed, where amphibolite and banded host schist are found as inclusions in a matrix of scapolite (Figures 2(e)-2(g)). White scapolite forms veins, or a scapolite-amphibole assemblage forms the groundmass in evolved breccias with rounded clasts. The veined and brecciated structure undergoes flattening (Figure 2(g)), evolving to a foliated scapolite-bearing amphibolitic rock (Figure 2(h)).

Albitisation affects both mafic and granitoid lithologies in the Kragero area, usually associated with the scapolite-bearing rocks, and normally postdating the scapolitisation. Albitisation takes place along veins and in breccias. Albite is the dominant mineral in foliated felsites, in chlorite schist, in carbonate-rich albitite, and in large-scale albitite bodies [23,50]. Albitisation has been studied in detail in the Ringsjo-Odegarden Verk area [20, 35]. Both mafic (gabbro, scapolite metagabbro, and amphibolite) and granitoid protolith are transformed to albitite along veining, where the central vein consists of nearly pure albite (Figures 3(a)-3(b)). The replacement zone to the mafic host rock shows a widespread replacement of the mafic phases to chlorite (Figure 3(c)). Intensive albitisation affects part of the area resulting in a 0.5 x 2 km albitite body (Figure 1(b)).

At the Langoy locality, albitite extends over a 3 x 2 km area and follows a mapped vein-pattern through gabbro, metagabbro, and scapolite metagabbro rocks (Figure 1(b)). It includes massive carbonate-rich albitite, brecciated and altered host rock with albite-carbonate groundmass, and foliated albitic felsites. The massive carbonate-rich albitite usually occurs as several-meter thick deposits (Figure 3(d)) with the largest albitite body being more than 150 m wide and 1500 m long (Figure 1(b)). They are brecciated along their margins (Figure 3(e)) to the scapolite metagabbro with a gradational contact. The initial transformation and disintegration of the metagabbro protolith are observed along and adjacent to the individual albititic veins (Figure 3(f)). Progressive deformation and infiltration caused brecciation, with an albititic groundmass infiltrating angular clasts of greenish-grey, retrograded mafic rock, and progressively developing a foliation fabric. These foliated albite-rich felsites are rocks with layers of light carbonate-albite dominated bands layered with green-grey chlorite schist, after veined, brecciated, and flattened metagabbro (Figure 3(g)).

In the Storkollen-Atangen area, west of the town of Kragero, large-scale albititic bodies covering >1 [km.sup.2] are enveloped by amphibolites, metagabbro, and scapolite metagabbro. The albitite is clinopyroxene- and titanite-bearing. It characteristically takes the form of a medium-grained, granoblastic, light grey, or pink leucocratic rock (Figure 3(h)). It is either massive or has a gneissic banding formed by alternating leucocratic and amphibole-bearing melanocratic layers.

The clinopyroxene-bearing albitite and its melanocratic layers show replacement to rutile-bearing, light pink, fine-grained albitite. The contact to the enveloping amphibolite unit is associated with a greenish-grey transformation of mafic phases. Analysed amphiboles show edenitic, pargasitic, and actinolitic compositions. In addition, Dahlgren et al. [32] report dolomite-dominated deposits in this area with veining and brecciation of the metagabbro and amphibolites.

4.2. Petrography and Mineral Chemistry. Petrography and mineral chemistry of the metasomatic rocks have been described in detail by Engvik et al.: albitisation of granitoid [35], scapolite metagabbro and vein-related albitisation of mafic rock [20, 29], albite-carbonate-rich deposits and albitic felsites [23], and scapolite metagabbro, clinopyroxene-bearing albitite, and rutile-albitite [50].

4.2.1. Scapolite Metagabbro. The scapolite metagabbro is dominated by a Cl-rich marialitic scapolite ([Me.sub.19-42]) and edenitic, pargasitic, and actinolitic amphibole (Mg# = 0.79-0.87; Cl < 0.24 a.p.f.u.), and it locally contains a high phlogopite content (Mg# < 0.95) (Figures 4(a)-4(b)). The Ti-bearing phase is normally rutile. At Odegarden Verk, the scapolite metagabbro shows in addition a high chlorapatite and enstatite ([En.sub.95-96] [Fs.sub.3-4], Mg# = 0.94-0.95) content. Sapphirine is formed during replacement of the former plagioclase by scapolite [34].

Scapolite from the Kragern area is Cl-rich, that is, 0.80-0.97 a.p.f.u. (marialite), although Cl values down to 0.69 a.p.f.u. have been measured. It is low in S (S < 0.07 a.p.f.u.), combined with the measured Cl-level, indicating a C-content varying up to 0.4 a.p.f.u. [20, 50]. Scapolite in metagabbros is replaced by albite and analcime during albitisation, releasing C[O.sub.2] and precipitating calcite (see Engvik et al. [50], Figures 4(a)-4(d)).

4.2.2. Rutile-Bearing Albitite. Rutile-bearing albitite forms as vein replacement in mafic (including scapolite-bearing rocks) and granitoid protoliths, and pervasive albitisation results in large-scale albitite bodies (Figure 1(b)). Albitite is composed of nearly pure albite ([Ab.sub.98-99]) with accessory rutile, formed from a mafic protolith, and occurs in extreme transformed localities (Figure 4(c)). In the protolith-albitite transition zones, remnants after mafic phases are present in variable amounts. Partly transformed amphibole remnants (edenite-pargasite-actinolite; Mg# = 0.81-0.88), chlorite (Mg# = 0.82-0.87), calcite, and minor prehnite and pumpellyite are observed locally. Albitite, formed from a granitoid protolith, is dominated by albite ([Ab.sub.99]), quartz, with rutile as the accessory Ti-phase, and minor chlorite (Mg# = 0.82), epidote, and calcite locally.

4.2.3. Carbonate-Rich Albitite and Albitite Felsite. The carbonate-rich albitite consists of fine to medium grains of near end-member albite ([Ab.sub.97-100]), calcite, and dolomite (Figure 4(d)). Minor quartz and chlorite are present with rutile and Fe-oxides as accessories. The albitite host clasts consist of mafic, greenish-grey, fine-grained, and retrograded metagabbro, partly replaced by albitite and characterised by a higher content of chlorite and Fe-oxide. In the related, banded, albite-rich felsitic schist, the light bands are composed of fine-grained albite, calcite, chlorite (Mg# = 0.85-0.89), and amphibole. The darker bands also contain clinopyroxene and some phlogopite (Mg# = 0.82), with rutile, apatite, zircon, and magnetite as accessory phases. In addition to the banding, reflected by modal variation, a parallel fabric is defined by planar-oriented phlogopite and chlorite (Figure 4(e)).

4.2.4. Clinopyroxene-Bearing Albitite. The clinopyroxene-bearing albitite is a leucocratic granoblastic, fine- to medium-grained rock, dominated by albite ([Ab.sub.94-96]) and quartz, with minor amounts of clinopyroxene ([En.sub.30-36] [Fs.sub.12-23]; Na = 0.12-0.15 a.p.f.u.; Mg# = 0.57-0.75); (Figure 4(f)). Amphibole (actinolite or magnesiohornblende; Mg# = 0.67-0.79) occurs locally related to, and partly replacing, clinopyroxene in melanocratic layers. The albitite is relatively rich in titanite and has in addition apatite and zircon as accessory minerals. Its replacement to rutile-bearing albitite is petrographically evident by formation of a porous albite chessboard ([Ab.sub.98-100] [An.sub.0-2]), by replacement of clinopyroxene by chlorite (Mg# < 0.80) and calcite, and by replacement of titanite by aggregates of rutile + calcite + quartz.

4.3. Whole Rock Geochemistry. Whole rock geochemical data from the gabbro/metagabbro and tonalite protolith, together with the metasomatic scapolite-bearing metagabbro and albitites, are presented in Table 2 and Figure 5. While scapolite metagabbro has a gabbro protolith, the albitites are derived from a variety of rocks including a gabbro or scapolite metagabbro protolith for the samples with Si[O.sub.2] < 70, whereas for albitites with Si[O.sub.2] > 70 a granitoid or unknown protolith is inferred (Table 2). For the major elements, systematic geochemical changes are seen for the elements Na, Ca, Fe, and Mg in the metasomatic rocks compared to the protoliths. For scapolite metagabbro and albitite derived from gabbro, [Na.sub.2]O increases and CaO decreases with increasing Si[O.sub.2] (Figures 5(a) and 5(b)). For a specific content of Si[O.sub.2], the [Na.sub.2]O is higher for the scapolite metagabbro than for the albite, which reflects that the Na: Si ratio in marialite is 2: 1, while the same ratio for albite is 1:1. We regard the two trends, defined by increasing [Na.sub.2]O with increasing Si[O.sub.2] for scapolite metagabbro and albitites with Si[O.sub.2] < 70, to represent increasing degree of scapolitisation and albitisation. [Fe.sub.2][O.sub.3] (Figure 5(c)) is generally lower in the scapolite metagabbro compared to the gabbro/metagabbro and shows especially low values in the albitites. MgO (Figure 5(d)) decreases with increasing Si[O.sub.2] for both albitite and scapolite metagabbros. An increase of [P.sub.2][O.sub.5] with increasing degree of scapolitisation (increasing Si[O.sub.2]) is apparent for the scapolite metagabbros, while for albitites the [P.sub.2][O.sub.5] decreases with albitisation (Figure 5(e)). The concentration of the trace elements Zn and Cu (Figures 5(f) and 5(g)) decreases with increasing degree of scapolitisation and both elements are below 15 ppm for all albitites, while one of the gabbro samples contains around 90 ppm for both Zn and Cu (Table 2). Bromine which is absent in the protolith rocks increases with increasing degree of scapolitisation up to a level of 80 ppm, while this element is below the detection limit in the albitites (Figure 5(h)). No analyses of Cl are available, but we assume, based on the mineralogical evolution and mineral chemistry, that Cl must parallel the evolution of Br at a much higher level. Like [P.sub.2][O.sub.5], Ti[O.sub.2] increases with increasing degree of scapolitisation (Figure 5(i)). Albitites with low Si[O.sub.2] values contain the highest Ti[O.sub.2] content (ca 4 wt%), while increasing the degree of albitisation apparently results in decreasing the Ti[O.sub.2] content. Vanadium, an element that typically follows Ti, displays a clear increase with degree of scapolitisation and a reduction during progressive albitisation (Figure 5(j)). For most of the metasomatised samples analysed, there is a negative correlation between Ti[O.sub.2] and [Fe.sub.2][O.sub.3], while for the gabbro an overall positive correlation between these two oxides exists (Figure 5(k)). Ti[O.sub.2] values up to 4.31 wt% are found in some of the scapolite metagabbros and albitites.

5. Stable Isotopic Compositions

Mineral separates from the scapolite metagabbro and albitites have been analysed for the stable isotopes of O ([delta][sup.18]O), H ([delta]D), and C ([delta][sup.13]C; Table 3). Albite separates from different types of albitites, quartz separates from clinopyroxene-bearing albitites, calcite separates from carbonate-rich albitite, and scapolite separates from scapolite metagabbros have been analysed with respect to [delta][sup.18]O. The albite, calcite, and scapolite are presumed to have formed during metasomatism, while the quartz equilibrated with these minerals during the same event. The stable isotopic composition of these minerals should give constraints on the infiltrating fluid chemistry, but O in the silicate crystal structure should also retain information regarding the origin of the rock.

In addition, the [delta]D composition of amphibole separates from the scapolite metagabbro is presented. The amphibole crystallized during the metasomatic alteration of the dry gabbro by the infiltration of an external fluid [20]. Consequently, the [delta]D-values give direct information on the chemistry of the metasomatising fluid. Carbon, in the form of C[O.sub.2], was also supplied externally during the metasomatic event resulting in the formation of calcite, which was analysed for [delta][sup.13]C.

Albite mineral separates from the Ringsjo-Odegarden Verk area give [delta][sup.18][O.sub.SMOW] values of 5.1 to 8.4 [per thousand] for samples of albitite originating from a mafic/gabbro protolith and 8.5 to 10.8 [per thousand] for samples originating from a granitoid/tonalite. Albite, from carbonate-bearing albitite samples from Langoy, gives a [delta][sup.18][O.sub.SMOW] of 5.5 to 7.0 [per thousand]. Albite from a clinopyroxene-bearing albitite in the Atangen-Storkollen area yields a [delta][sup.18][O.sub.SMOW] of 10.8 to 11.1 [per thousand], while quartz from the same samples gives a [delta][sup.18][O.sub.SMOW] of 11.5 to 11.6 [per thousand]. Scapolite separates from a scapolite metagabbro sampled at the Odegarden Verk and Ringsjo localities give [delta][sup.18][O.sub.SMOW] values in the range of 7.4 to 10.6 [per thousand]. Calcite from different albitites shows a wide range in [delta][sup.18][O.sub.SMOW] between 3.4 and 12.4 [per thousand], but with a quite consistent [delta][sup.13]C of-4.6 to -6.0 [per thousand] (Figure 6). Amphibole separates from the same scapolite metagabbro samples yield [delta][sup.18][O.sub.SMOW] from 4.3 to 6.7 [per thousand] and [delta][D.sub.SMOW] of -84 to -50 [per thousand].

6. Discussion

6.1. Metasomatism and Mineralisation. Metasomatism is extensive in south Norway [18, 23]. Earlier work in the Bamble lithotectonic domain has shown that scapolitisation transforms mafic rocks into scapolite metagabbros by infiltration of Cl-Mg-rich solutions and that albitites form from both mafic and granitoid protoliths by Na-rich solutions [20, 35]. As expected, [Na.sub.2]O increases and CaO decreases during albitisation. Addition of albite to a gabbroic protolith will dilute the nonadded elements in equal proportion. Although the overall trend displayed by Figure 5 can be explained by addition of albite and scapolite to a gabbroic protolith, the Ti[O.sub.2]-[Fe.sub.2][O.sub.3] relationship shown in Figure 5(k) strongly indicates that addition of albite and scapolite alone cannot explain the chemical evolution displayed and that other elements must have been mobile. The strong reduction in [Fe.sub.2][O.sub.3] suggests that this oxide is removed during albititisation and to some extent during scapolitisation. The measured variation in Br and Cl which is assumed to parallel Br suggests that these elements are added during the scapolitisation but were removed from the rock during albitisation. The mineralogical evolution, where Cl-scapolite formed during scapolitisation and later broke down during albitisation, suggests that halogens will be present in the fluid also during albitisation and are available for complexing with metals (e.g., Fe, Cu, and Zn). We suggest that such a complexing can explain the many ore deposits in the area and in particular the Langoy Fe-mines.

The Bamble lithotectonic domain is characterised not only by widespread metasomatic alteration, but also by a high density of mineral deposits (Geological Survey of Norway Ore Database [24-26]). The high density of apatite and rutile deposits follows the regional distribution of metasomatic alteration in the Bamble lithotectonic domain [23]. While ilmenite is the main Ti-bearing mineral in the gabbro protolith, Ti occurs as rutile (Figures 6(a)-6(b)) and in amphibole (<0.34 a.p.f.u.) and biotite (<0.69 a.p.f.u.) within the scapolite metagabbro [20]. Replacement of ilmenite by rutile is illustrated in Figures 6(a)-6(b). During albititisation, biotite and amphibole break down and Ti is released as titanite [20, 31]. The whole rock geochemical data (Figures 5(i) and 5(j)) illustrates that Ti[O.sub.2] and V increased during scapolitisation and decreased during albitisation. The high values of Ti[O.sub.2] in some of the albitites are probably inherited from the scapolite enrichment. [Fe.sub.2][O.sub.3] decreases during scapolitisation and albitisation and the Ti[O.sub.2]-[Fe.sub.2][O.sub.3] relationships (Figure 5(k)) cannot be the result of pure dilution by adding albite and scapolite but suggest that Fe is removed.

The whole rock geochemistry in Figure 5(e) illustrates the P, which is increased during scapolitisation and that the P resources at Odegarden Verk owe their existence to this event rather than the albitisation event which leads to a reduction of P. This is in accordance with earlier works which show that scapolite metagabbros commonly have both a high apatite content in the Bamble lithotectonic domain and host vein-related apatite deposits (Figure 6(c)) [19, 28, 29]. Scapolitisation and albitisation are documented as having formed chlorapatite and hydroxyfluorapatite at Odegarden Verkin Bamble (Figure 6(c)) [19, 28, 29].

As discussed above, metasomatism of the gabbro causes extensive Fe-depletion (Figure 5(c)) [20]. In addition, the whole rock geochemistry shows that the concentration of Cu and Zn is lowered during the scapolitisation of the gabbro/metagabbro (Figures 5(f)-5(g)) and is nearly completely depleted during albitisation of the same protolith. The fluid mobilization of these elements could have caused the widespread occurrences of metal deposits in the Bamble lithotectonic domain [23]. Fe-oxide ores are present as hematite-carbonate veins in the rutile-rich albitites in the Kragero area and are widespread in the Bamble lithotectonic domain [23, 58], as hematite-rich albitites, orthoamphibole-hematite veins, and albite-magnetite veins. Cu-Zn-bearing base metal deposits are frequent in the Kragero-Bamble area (Geological Survey of Norway Ore Database). The association of Fe-ores with albitites and altered granites has been reported worldwide, for example, as in magnetite-apatite deposits from the Lyon Mountain area, Adirondacks, New York, USA [67].

6.2. Stable Isotopic Results: Fluid and Rock Origin. The stable isotopic composition of silicate mineral separates can reflect the origin of both the rocks and the infiltrating fluid [68, 69]. It will retain information from the protolith phases, but, depending on the degree of alteration and replacement, the isotopic composition will undergo a shift during fluid infiltration. Oxygen is already present in significant concentrations in the silicate minerals. To shift the [delta][sup.18]O composition in a silicate mineral will require large amounts of infiltrating fluids. This must be the case for the albitite rocks in the Bamble lithotectonic domain, which have undergone complete alteration to a new mineralogy, involving large chemical changes [20, 23, 50].

A [delta][sup.18][O.sub.SMOW] composition of 5.1 to 8.4 [per thousand] is seen for the albite separates from albitite formed from a gabbroic protolith (Table 3). Results for albite from a carbonate-rich albitite deposited in metagabbro at Langoy fall in the same range. A [delta][sup.18][O.sub.SMOW] composition of 8.5 to 10.8 [per thousand] is obtained for albite, which originated from a granitoid protolith in the Ringsjo-Odegarden Verk area. From a clinopyroxene-bearing albitite in the Atangen-Storkollen area, the albite gives a [delta][sup.18][O.sub.SMOW] composition of 10.8 to 11.1 [per thousand] and the quartz 11.5 to 11.6 [per thousand]. The results from measured albitites from both mafic and tonalitic magmatic precursors are in accordance with the original values from such protoliths [70] coupled with the influence of a fluid with both a magmatic and seawater origin [69]. Depending on the temperature, the reported O-isotopic signature could originate from a magmatic fluid, although a magmatic fluid would normally give a higher value. Seawater could explain the reported values since it could lower the isotopic ratio relative to the magmatic protolith values. As metasomatic fluid infiltration is often spatially inhomogeneous, this could possibly also explain variations in the resulting values. A meteoric water source can clearly be ruled out, as meteoric water would have led to a significantly lower [delta][sup.18][O.sub.SMOW] composition of about +2 to -10 [per thousand]. Mark and Foster [71] document a similar [delta][sup.18][O.sub.SMOW] composition associated with albitisation in the Cloncurry district, Australia, and concluded that it is due to magmatic processes.

Amphiboles in scapolite metagabbros were produced during fluid infiltration into the dry protolith gabbro [20, 29]. This implies that the H-isotopic content of the amphiboles, in contrast to the O-isotopes, will give more accurate information regarding the metasomatic fluid. The [delta]D-composition of the amphibole from the scapolite metagabbro generally varies between -50 and -59 [per thousand] and is in accordance with an igneous precursor [70] infiltrated by magmatic or metamorphic [H.sub.2]O [69, 72]. A hydrothermal saline solution would not affect the [delta]D-composition, as it will give similar [delta]D-values compared to magmatic and metamorphic fluids. Again, a meteoric water origin can be excluded as it would give significantly lower values for the [delta]D composition down to -90 to -140 [per thousand]. The stable isotopic composition of scapolite-bearing rocks is known from Mary Kathleen, Queensland, Australia [73], where the scapolitisation is interpreted to have been caused by magmatic fluids, and the Greenville Province, Ontario, Canada [74], where scapolitisation was caused by metamorphic fluids originating from a carbonate source.

For the carbonate-rich albitite, the [delta][sup.18][O.sub.SMOW] values show values similar to silicate rocks, indicating a magmatic source for C (Figure 7). This is supported by the [delta][sup.13][C.sub.PDB] values, which fall between -6.0 and -4.6 [per thousand] and give signatures similar to those for carbonatitic magma. Our petrographic investigations show in addition that breakdown of scapolite during albitisation produces carbonate [50]. Dahlgren et al. [32] described vein deposited dolomite marbles giving [delta][sup.18]O = 9.6 to 10.7%, [delta][sup.13]C = -8.5 to -6.2 [per thousand], and high [sup.87]Sr/[sup.86]Sr ratios of 0.706 to 0.709, which overlaps the values reported from these studies (Figure 6) and values from the Bamble hyperites [37] and vein carbonates [40]. Dahlgren et al. [32] suggested that the dolomite marbles were formed from hydrothermal solutions that were channeled into a large degassing zone, which now takes the form of a deformed, regional zone with hydrothermal dolomite deposits, albitites, apatite-veins, and widespread scapolitisation. These authors speculated that the fluids were derived from charnockite intrusions in the region.

As mentioned above, while metasomatism is able to significantly alter the chemical composition of the precursor rock, this alteration may vary spatially. This also applies to the isotope composition of the rocks. Probably this is due to varying temperatures as well as the different water/rock (w/r) ratios that caused the alteration. The variable oxygen isotope composition in all altered rock types from this study, in combination with relatively homogeneous H- and C-isotope ratios, corroborates this assumption. Varying degrees of alteration, variable T, and variable w/r ratios can produce isotopic signatures that reflect the values that we have measured and are shown in Table 3. In addition, fluid compositions can also have been varied, even on a local scale, and scales of equilibrium might also have been local, regardless of the widespread regional occurrence of the metasomatic rocks.

For the sampled localities, Engvik et al. [20] reported a Cl- and B-rich environment, Sr-signatures in the scapolite with an initial [sup.87]Sr/[sup.86]Sr ranging from 0.704 to 0.709, and a regional distribution of lithologies, indicating that the fluid originated from evaporites that were mobilized during regional metamorphism. Our new data on the stable isotopic composition of the albitites and scapolite metagabbro support the interpretation that the original magmatic mafic and granitoid rocks were metasomatised by fluids reflecting a seawater origin or with a possible magmatic component. Depending on T, w/r, and the degree of alteration, both fluid types (seawater and magmatic) may lead to the same approximate pattern. What can be ruled out from the H and O stable isotope data is meteoric water as it would have led to significantly lower [delta][sup.18][O.sub.SMOW] and [delta][D.sub.SMOW] values and also to different [delta][sup.13][C.sub.PDB] values.

Other stable isotopic constraints in the Kragern area of the Bamble lithotectonic domain support a mixture of magmatic and metamorphic fluid signatures coupled with seawater as being responsible for the metasomatism. Bast et al. [33] analysed B isotope compositions in tourmaline in order to constrain the possible sources of and the evolution of hydrothermal fluids. [delta][sup.11]B values were found to range from -5 to +27 [per thousand] (relative to SRM-951), which suggests marine evaporites interlayered with continental detritus and pelagic clay as a possible B source reservoir. Negative [delta][sup.11]B values were explained by the influence of pneumatolytic fluids associated with granitic pegmatites. Variations in [delta][sup.11]B on a regional km-scale, with small local variations, were explained by fluid infiltration during several generations of pulses.

Measurements of [delta][sup.37]Cl, together with F, Cl, Br, and I concentrations, were used to trace the metasomatic evolution of gabbroic bodies and to understand the interplay between localized and pervasive fluid flow [27, 30]. The reported Br/Cl and I/Cl ratios (3 x [10.sup.-3] and 25 x [10.sup.-6]) overlap with the range of ratios measured for marine pore fluids. The unaltered gabbro has [delta][sup.37] Cl values near 0% and a similar value is inferred for the infiltrating fluid. Minimally altered samples have negative [delta][sup.37] Cl values (average = -0.6 [+ or -] 0.1 [per thousand]). [delta][sup.37]Cl values increase (up to +1 [per thousand]) with increasing evidence of fluid-rock interaction. Measured Cl-stable isotope values of individual apatite grains are heterogeneous and range from -1.2 to +3.7 [per thousand]. High [delta][sup.37] Cl values are generally correlated with OH-rich zones formed during fluid-aided metasomatic alteration of the chlorapatite, whereas low [delta][sup.37] Cl values, measured in the host chlorapatite, are interpreted to have been of magmatic origin.

6.3. Fluid Evolution. Changes in fluid conditions will affect the geochemical and mineralogical evolution during metasomatism. Fluids with a high Mg- and Cl-content cause scapolitisation and phlogopite formation [20, 29], while Na-rich solutions cause albitisation [12, 20, 21, 23]. The replacement of scapolite by albite during the albitisation also releases Cl into the albitisation fluid. Metasomatism is enhanced by Cl, which has been shown to be an effective ligand for transporting Fe [75,76]. A high C[O.sub.2] concentration in the fluid enhances carbonitisation [32]. The complexity and evolution of metasomatic fluids penetrating the Kragero area can be explained by a series of different possible models, which include (1) phase separation of volatiles; (2) internal recycling; and (3) external infiltration, which are further expanded as follows.

(1) Phase Separation of Volatiles. Fluid composition evolves as a function of changes in physical conditions. A decrease in temperature will affect separation of volatiles into different phases [77, 78]. Separation of hydrous and C[O.sub.2]-dominated fluid phases and brines could possibly explain the complex pattern in the spatial distribution of metasomatic rocks containing scapolite metagabbros, different varieties of albitites, and carbonate deposits in the Bamble lithotectonic domain.

(2) Internal Recycling. Albitisation can be controlled by internal recycling of fluids. The observed fluid composition and mineralogical reactions can be an effect of local replacement reactions. Mineral reactions can both release and consume fluid components and solutes, and dissolved elements in one reaction can be used in another reaction. The scapolite gabbro in the Kragern area is composed mostly of major Cl-C[O.sub.2]-dominated scapolite and Ti-, Fe-, and Cl-bearing amphibole. During albitisation, both minerals break down and disappear as the rock is transformed into albitite. During these reactions, all C[O.sub.2], [H.sub.2]O, and Cl are released as fluids [50].

Breakdown of scapolite during albitisation results in albite, C[O.sub.2], and Cl via the following reactions:

Scapolite = 2Albite + 2CaO + 2[Al.sub.2][O.sub.3] + C[O.sub.2] + Cl (1)

Here CaO and C[O.sub.2] react to form calcite (Engvik et al. [50], Figures 4(a)-4(d)) and Cl can be reused as a ligand for metal complexing and transport. Also, replacement of rutile and scapolite by titanite releases C[O.sub.2] and Cl, whereas replacement of ilmenite and scapolite will also release Fe:

2Rutile + Scapolite = 2Titanite + [Na.sub.2] O + 3[Al.sub.2][O.sub.3] + 4Si[O.sub.2] + Cl + C[O.sub.2] (2)


2Ilmenite + Scapolite = 2Titanite + [Na.sub.2]O + 3[Al.sub.2][O.sub.3] + 4Si[O.sub.2] + 2FeO + Cl + C[O.sub.2] (3)

Breakdown of amphibole during albitisation occurs in two stages:

Amphibole + 3[H.sub.2]O = Chlorite + Rutile + FeO

+ 3Si[O.sub.2] + 1/2 [Al.sub.2][O.sub.3]

+ 1/2 [H.sub.2]O + 1/2 CaO

+ 1/4 [Na.sub.2]O + Cl (4)

+ -[H.sub.2]O + -CaO 2 2 2

Chlorite = 5 (MgO + FeO) + 3Si[O.sub.2]

+ [Al.sub.2][O.sub.3] + 4[H.sub.2]O (5)

Breakdown of the Cl-bearing amphibole and, subsequently, chlorite releases [H.sub.2]O and Cl. Titanium from amphibole crystallizes as rutile [35], while Fe is either deposited as nanoinclusions of magnetite or hematite in the albite [79] or transported and deposited as ores associated with the albitite [23]. Excess Na, Al, and Si are used to produce albite or Al-Si-rich phases [34], and the Ca is incorporated into the calcite.

(3) External Infiltration. Metasomatism can be controlled by an influx of external fluids. As discussed above, this work, combined with earlier isotopic studies in the Kragero area [20, 27, 30, 32, 33], indicates a mixture of magmatic and evaporitic/seawater signatures. This is in agreement with the regional lithological distribution, which consists of a mixed gneiss region with magmatic rocks and metasedimentary sequences [43, 80] metamorphosed during the late Sveconorwegian tectonometamorphic event [20, 50]. Remobilized volatiles in sediments, possibly together with fluids derived during magmatic activity, were behind the regional metasomatism.

Engvik et al. [50] discuss the variety in lithology, mineral assemblages, and replacement related to albitisation, indicating changing physical conditions during albitisation, which possibly occurred in several stages over a longer time interval. Similar metasomatic processes have been also reported in other regions such as Australia [5, 81, 82], which have been affected by various tectonic processes and crustal movements. The scapolitisation of dry gabbro requires the infiltration of an external fluid. The breakdown of a scapolite-amphibole- dominated metagabbro to albitite could possibly contribute a substantial amount of the necessary fluids. The question as to whether metasomatism occurred in an open or closed system therefore depends on the scale, that is, if we regard the metagabbro rim zone capable of producing reactive solutions, which cause local albitisation in a closed system, or if the large-scale Bamble lithotectonic domain can be considered as a closed system, including both magmatic and metasedimentary sequences.

6.4. On the Dynamics of Fluid Infiltration. As described above, scapolitisation and albitisation have occurred not only as static replacement of rocks, but also throughout those parts, which consist of dynamic deformed veining, breccias, and foliated schists. Fluid infiltration and metasomatic replacement both occur as a pervasive replacement of larger rock volumes as observed in the scapolitisation of gabbros. In addition, a high fluid pressure will cause fracturing, which channelizes the fluids, resulting in metasomatism that is widespread in a brittle deformed structure as single veins, networks of veins, and breccias (Figures 2 and 3) resulting in structurally complex albitites and scapolite-bearing rocks. The reported local banded structure in scapolite metagabbros and albitites is interpreted to have been caused by veins (Figures 2(b)-2(d)) produced during metasomatic infiltration. A localized, high fluid pressure, resulting in brecciation of host rock, has been mapped out with both a scapolite-filling (Figures 2(e)-2(g)) at Atangen and an albitite filling (Figures 3(e)-3(f)) at Langoy. The brittle fracturing and brecciation structures show a progressive deformation into the foliated schist. Here, the brecciated rocks are surrounded by scapolite-bearing schists and amphibolites (Figure 2(h)) or albite-dominated chlorite schists (Figure 4(e)) and carbonate-rich albitic felsites/schists (Figures 3(f)-3(g)). In addition, the role of deformation, as well as existing lithological contacts and lineaments, will affect the spatial distribution of the metasomatic rocks. Concurrent metasomatic infiltration and deformation caused a progression of the resulting foliation into the major regional structure, a process which was synchronous with a regional tectonometamorphic event.

Formation of metasomatic scapolite metagabbros in the Kragero area is constrained at 600 to 700[degrees]C at mid-crustal levels [19]. Formation of the clinopyroxene-bearing albitite in the Kragero area is calculated to 410-420[degrees]C by Engvik et al. [50], while Mark and Foster [71] constrain similar albitites to 450-550[degrees]C from the Cloncurry district in Australia [71]. The local presence of prehnite, pumpellyite, and analcime indicates a low-grade albitisation event at temperatures < 350[degrees]C. The tectonometamorphic setting indicates that the albitisation processes occurred over a time span at middle to upper crustal levels. Although the scapolitisation conditions refer to a ductile crustal regime, fracturing and formation of breccias caused by high fluid pressure [83-85] have been described as a precursor stage for ductile deformation in the lower crust [86,87]. A variation in fluid pressure can possibly explain the change between brittle and ductile deformation during metasomatism. The ductile formation of foliation in both the scapolite metagabbro and scapolite-bearing amphibolites at Atangen, following scapolite-cemented brecciation, and similar formation of foliated albitic felsites and chlorite schists at Langoy, illustrate that the deformation changed from brittle to ductile during metasomatism. Both breccias and ductile rock fabrics are well known elsewhere in albitised and scapolitised crust [5, 20].

In the Kragero area, single, metasomatised, large (>1 [km.sup.2]) albitites and scapolite metagabbro bodies have been mapped. These replacement zones, resulting from metasomatic infiltration, are widespread on the regional scale similar to features mapped in the Modum area [21]. Age dating of the metasomatism indicates that these processes were part of the regional Sveconorwegian amphibolite-facies, tectonometamorphic phase. These ages are constrained by U-Pb ages from metasomatically generated rutile, titanite, and monazite between 1100 and 1070 Ma in the Bamble area [50] and by a U-Pb titanite age of 1080 Ma in the Modum area [21]. A later event connected to Permian Oslo Rift activity is evidenced by Ar-Ar age dating of metasomatically produced K-feldspar [88] and can possibly reflect the low-grade albitisation stage. Fluid infiltration during the Permian is indicated by alteration in the Bohus granite east of the Oslo Rift [89].

The progressive development of albitised schists and scapolite-bearing amphibolites described above illustrates the importance of metasomatic processes during crustal evolution. These mineral phases and lithologies have a widespread occurrence, extending outside the mapped albitites in Figure 1(b). Although not yet quantified, our results indicate the importance and extent of metasomatic influences on rock formation and structure on a regional scale.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.


This work is part of a regional geological mapping program in south Norway run by the Geological Survey of Norway (NGU) and supported by Fylkeskommunene Telemark-Buskerud-Vestfold.


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Ane K. Engvik (iD), (1) Heinrich Taubald, (2) Arne Solli, (1) Tor Grenne, (1) and Hakon Austrheim (3)

(1) Geological Survey of Norway, P.O. Box 6315 Torgard, 7491 Trondheim, Norway

(2) Department of Geosciences, University of Tubingen, Wilhelmstr. 56, 72074 Tubingen, Germany

(3) Department of Geosciences, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1047 Blindern, 0316 Oslo, Norway

Correspondence should be addressed to Ane K. Engvik;

Received 22 June 2017; Revised 21 October 2017; Accepted 4 December 2017; Published 17 January 2018

Academic Editor: Daniel E. Harlov

Caption: Figure 1: (a) Regional geological map of south Norway and Sweden indicating areas of widespread Na-metasomatism [23]. Arrow indicating the study area (Figure 1(b)). B = Bamble lithotectonic domain; K = Kongsberg-Modum lithotectonic domain; RAC = Rogaland Anorthosite Complex; KPFZ = Kristiansand-Porsgrunn Fault Zone; KSFZ = Kongsberg- Sokna Fault Zone; MZ = Mylonite Zone; DBT = Dalsland Boundary Thrust; GZ = GotaelvZone; SFCZ = Sveconorwegian Frontal Deformation Zone; and LLDZ = Linkoping-Lofthammer Deformation Zone. (b) Geological map of the investigated Kragero area in the Bamble lithotectonic domain with sample localities.

Caption: Figure 2: Field photos of scapolite metagabbro and dynamic scapolitisation. (a) Gabbro with scapolitisation front. Locality Langoy. (b) Scapolite metagabbro with veining filled by scapolite and amphibole. Field of view is approximately one metre wide. Locality Langoy. (c) Scapolite metagabbro with a high density of scapolite veining resulting in a layered structure in the rock [20]. Field of view is approximately one metre wide. Locality Langoy. (d) Scapolite metagabbro with amphibole veining and flattened foliation [20]. Locality Langoy. (e) Brecciated amphibolite with a thin scapolite vein filling and rounded clasts. Locality Atangen. (f) Intensive scapolitisation of an evolved breccia with amphibole veins, amphibole + scapolite matrix, and rounded clasts. Locality Atangen. (g) Brecciated amphibolite with scapolite veins undergoing flattening. Locality Atangen. (h) Foliated scapolite-bearing amphibolites. Locality Atangen.

Caption: Figure 3: Field photos of albitites and dynamic albitisation. (a) Albitisation vein in metagabbro transforming the dark mafic rock to nearly pure albite. Locality Ringsjo. (b) Albitisation (red color) of tonalite (light color) along veining. Locality Fesettjern, Ringsjo area. (c) Vein albitisation (redcolor) causingchloritisation (greenish color) of scapolitemetagabbro (darkgrey). Locality Ringsjo. (d) Carbonate-rich albitite forming an approximate 5-metre wide vein deposit in the metagabbro. Locality Langoy. (e) Breccia containing clasts of albitised metagabbro in the matrix of a carbonate-rich albitite deposit. Field of view is approximately four metres wide. Locality Langoy. (f) Albitisation of metagabbro along veining with transformation to foliated albitic felsites. Locality Langoy. (g) Foliated albititic felsites with alternating light carbonate-albite and green-grey chlorite-schist bands. Locality Langoy. (h) Banded clinopyroxene- bearing albitite. Locality Atangen.

Caption: Figure 4: Photomicrographs of representative petrography from metasomatised rocks (mineral abbreviations after Whitney and Evans [36]). (a) Scapolite metagabbro dominated by scapolite and amphibole with accessory rutile. Locality Odegarden Verk, sample 2091.45. (b) Phlogopite-bearing scapolite metagabbro. Locality Langoy, sample AE46. (c) Rutile-bearing albitite from veining in an amphibolite. Locality Ringsjo, sample AE10A. (d) Calcite-rich albitite (albitite vein deposit) with rutile. Locality Langoy, sample AE93. (e) Banded albitite felsites with the foliation outlined by chlorite. Locality Langoy, sample AE87. (f) Clinopyroxene-bearing albitite with quartz and titanite. Locality Storkollen, sample AE96.

Caption: Figure 5: Plots of whole rock geochemical data: (a) [Na.sub.2]O- Si[O.sub.2]; (b) CaO-Si[O.sub.2]; (c) [Fe.sub.2][O.sub.3]-Si[O.sub.2]; (d) MgO- Si[O.sub.2]; (e) [P.sub.2][O.sub.5]-Si[O.sub.2]; (f) Zn-Si[O.sub.2]; (g) Cu-Si[O.sub.2]; (h) Br-Si[O.sub.2]; (i) Ti[O.sub.2]-Si[O.sub.2]; (j) V- Si[O.sub.2]; (k) Ti[O.sub.2]-[Fe.sub.2][O.sub.3]; and (l) V-Ti[O.sub.2].

Caption: Figure 6: (a) Back-scattered electron (BSE) image of replacement of ilmenite by rutile in a scapolite metagabbro. Square indicates image in Figure 6(b). Sample 2088.80, locality Odegarden Verk (photo: A. Korneliussen). (b) Detail of incomplete alteration of ilmenite (white) to rutile (light grey) and titanite (grey) (photo: A. Korneliussen). (c) BSE image of Cl and hydroxyapatite in scapolite metagabbro. Sample 2078.20, locality Odegarden Verk.

Caption: Figure 7: [delta][sup.18][O.sub.SMOW] versus [delta][sup.13][C.sub.PDB] plot: circles indicate data from this study (Table 3) and diamonds indicate data from dolomite marble deposits/veins and a calcite + albite + quartz dike in the Kragero area by Dahlgren et al. [32]. BG = Bamble hyperites [37]; CBT = world carbonatites [38]; PC = nonmetamorphic proterozoic carbonates [39]; VC = vein carbonate [40].
Table 1: Key samples with mineral assemblage.

Sample                                Rock/alteration
number      E-UTM      N-UTM                type

AE2        530144     6534901             Albitite
AE21       530891     6535542     Albitite alteration zone
AE10A      530173     6534951     Albitite alteration zone
AE11A      530173     6534951     Albitite alteration zone
1032.80    532200     6536000     Albitite alteration zone

AE40       527800     6527900     Albitite, carbonate-rich
AE93       527967     6528018     Albitite, carbonate-rich
AE99       527967     6528018      Albitite (Ab felsite,

AE63       520300     6525650       Cpx-bearing albitite
AE96       520815     6525558       Cpx-bearing albitite

1031.55    532200     6536000          Sep metagabbro
1047.40    532200     6536000          Sep metagabbro
2076.40    532200     6536000          Sep metagabbro
AE46       529100     6528700          Sep metagabbro
AE110      528149     6528140          Sep metagabbro

number                Protolith                    Locality

AE2                    Tonalite                    Ringsjo
AE21                   Tonalite                    Ringsjo
AE10A                   Gabbro                     Ringsjo
AE11A                   Gabbro                     Ringsjo
1032.80                 Gabbro                  Odegarden verk

AE40         Infiltration zone in gabbro            Langoy
AE93         Infiltration zone in gabbro            Langoy
AE99                    Gabbro                      Langoy

AE63                                               Atangen
AE96                                              Storkollen

1031.55                 Gabbro                  Odegarden verk
1047.40                 Gabbro                  Odegarden verk
2076.40                 Gabbro                  Odegarden verk
AE46                    Gabbro                      Langoy
AE110                   Gabbro                      Langoy

Sample                                              Accessory
number      Major minerals     Minor minerals        minerals

AE2             Ab Qz              Cc Chi               Rt
AE21         Ab Qz Chi Cc                              Opq
AE10A           Ab Qz                               Rt Ap Opq
AE11A             Ab
1032.80      Ab Amph Chi             Cc               Rt Ap

AE40          Ab Cc Dol                                 Rt
AE93            Ab Cc                                 Rt Opq
AE99          Ab Cc Amph            Phi                Opq

AE63            Ab Qz             Kfsp Cpx        Ttn Ap Zrc Opq
AE96            Ab Qz             Kfsp Cpx          Ttn Ap Zrc

1031.55        Sep Amph                               Rt Ap
1047.40        Sep Amph                               Rt Ap
2076.40        Sep Amph            Phi En             Rt Ap
AE46         Sep Amph Phi                               Rt
AE110        Sep Amph Phi            Cc                 Rt

Sample        Secondary
number         minerals

AE21        Sercitisation

AE99             Chi

AE63            Chi Cc
AE96            Chi Cc


Table 2: Whole rock geochemical data, major and trace elements.


number              Locality                  Rock type

AE7                  Ringsjo              Gabbro/metagabbro
AE45A                Langoy               Gabbro/metagabbro
AE45B                Langoy               Gabbro/metagabbro
AE102                Langoy               Gabbro/metagabbro
AE66                 Atangen              Gabbro/metagabbro
AE58                 Atangen              Gabbro/metagabbro
1042.40          Odegarden Verk           Gabbro/metagabbro
2018.20          Odegarden Verk           Gabbro/metagabbro
2030.30          Odegarden Verk           Gabbro/metagabbro
AE22         Fesettjern Ringsjo area          Tonalite
AE71         Fesettjern Ringsjo area          Tonalite
1019.10          Odegarden Verk         Scapolite metagabbro
1018.80          Odegarden Verk         Scapolite metagabbro
1031.55          Odegarden Verk         Scapolite metagabbro
1047.40          Odegarden Verk         Scapolite metagabbro
2074.20          Odegarden Verk         Scapolite metagabbro
2076.60          Odegarden Verk         Scapolite metagabbro
AE43                 Langoy             Scapolite metagabbro
AE46                 Langoy             Scapolite metagabbro
AE49                 Langoy             Scapolite metagabbro
AE103                Langoy             Scapolite metagabbro
AE110                Langoy             Scapolite metagabbro
AE146                Atangen                  Albitite
AE143                Atangen                  Albitite
AE 144               Atangen                  Albitite
AE98C              Storkollen                 Albitite
AE2                  Ringsjo                  Albitite
AE16                 Ringsjo                  Albitite
AE21         Fesettjern Ringsjo area          Albitite
AE 73                Ringsjo                  Albitite
AE10A                Ringsjo                  Albitite
AE11A                Ringsjo                  Albitite
AE10B                Ringsjo                  Albitite
AE11C                Ringsjo                  Albitite
1017.10          Odegarden Verk               Albitite
1032.80          Odegarden Verk               Albitite
1017.30          Odegarden Verk               Albitite
AE93                 Langoy               Albitite Cc-rich
AE40                 Langoy               Albitite Cc-rich
AE99                 Langoy               Albitite Cc-rich
AE100                Langoy               Albitite Cc-rich
AE63                 Atangen            Albitite Cpx-bearing
AE96               Storkollen           Albitite Cpx-bearing


                                          Major elements (%)
number          Protolith        Si[O.sub.2]   [Al.sub.2][O.sub.3]

AE7               Gabbro            45.1               16.6
AE45A             Gabbro            47.1               20.5
AE45B             Gabbro            47.4               21.0
AE102             Gabbro            46.6               17.0
AE66              Gabbro            47.6               17.4
AE58              Gabbro            54.3               13.0
1042.40           Gabbro            45.2               15.8
2018.20           Gabbro            50.3               13.6
2030.30           Gabbro            57.6               15.9
AE22             Tonalite           68.6               14.1
AE71             Tonalite           71.6               14.9
1019.10           Gabbro            49.9               16.6
1018.80           Gabbro            49.7               17.5
1031.55           Gabbro            50.4               17.1
1047.40           Gabbro            50.8               18.0
2074.20           Gabbro            49.6               16.7
2076.60           Gabbro            49.6               18.2
AE43              Gabbro            42.7               19.9
AE46              Gabbro            44.9               17.9
AE49              Gabbro            46.2               20.3
AE103             Gabbro            44.7               16.0
AE110             Gabbro            45.7               17.3
AE146            Unknown            65.4               18.8
AE143            Unknown            78.1               12.3
AE 144           Unknown            76.5               13.0
AE98C            Unknown            75.8               13.3
AE2              Tonalite           72.4               14.9
AE16             Tonalite           72.9               14.6
AE21             Tonalite           69.9               13.1
AE 73       Gabbro/metagabbro       60.5               18.3
AE10A       Gabbro/metagabbro       63.2               20.3
AE11A       Gabbro/metagabbro       67.7               19.8
AE10B       Gabbro/metagabbro       52.4               18.2
AE11C       Gabbro/metagabbro       55.2               17.5
1017.10     Gabbro/metagabbro       58.0               19.9
1032.80     Gabbro/metagabbro       50.6               15.1
1017.30     Gabbro/metagabbro       53.5               16.0
AE93        Infiltration zone       55.9               9.52
AE40        Infiltration zone       49.0               6.68
AE99        Gabbro/metagabbro       58.2               11.9
AE100       Gabbro/metagabbro       52.7               13.9
AE63             Unknown            76.4               13.2
AE96             Unknown            75.5               14.0


                              Major elements (%)
number      [Fe.sub.2][O.sub.3]    Ti[O.sub.2]     MgO     CaO

AE7                 11.6               1.31       9.59    9.07
AE45A               8.80              0.770       9.47    10.2
AE45B               8.73              0.892       8.29    9.92
AE102               12.1               1.52       7.75    7.67
AE66                12.1               1.52       6.12    9.83
AE58                4.29              0.872       12.1    8.38
1042.40             16.6               3.06       4.44    7.24
2018.20             18.2               2.07       2.19    6.50
2030.30             5.40               2.30       3.81    6.20
AE22                4.99              0.330       0.420   3.95
AE71               0.945              0.355       0.770   4.34
1019.10             4.17               3.03       7.51    8.91
1018.80             4.27               2.82       6.26    8.43
1031.55             3.93               2.88       6.72    8.79
1047.40             2.66               3.17       6.02    8.13
2074.20             4.08               3.38       7.04    8.78
2076.60             2.33               2.74       9.52    5.36
AE43                7.99              0.192       12.4    11.4
AE46                8.82              0.695       11.3    9.52
AE49                6.47              0.760       8.86    9.64
AE103               12.4               1.41       7.59    8.76
AE110               5.78               1.31       9.17    10.1
AE146              0.809              0.283       0.800   1.51
AE143              0.471              0.150       0.260   0.315
AE 144             0.517              0.197       0.274   1.19
AE98C              0.536              0.137       0.334   0.722
AE2                0.407              0.389       0.359   1.71
AE16                1.07              0.366       0.368   1.17
AE21                5.12              0.337       0.099   2.23
AE 73               2.28               2.18       2.55    1.46
AE10A              0.286               3.59       0.326   0.525
AE11A              0.062              0.381       0.011   0.178
AE10B               2.14               3.12       3.50    5.62
AE11C               3.04               3.69       5.66    4.31
1017.10             1.62              0.488       3.94    3.96
1032.80             3.29               4.04       7.68    9.65
1017.30             2.76               4.31       6.51    7.97
AE93                2.70              0.744       3.76    9.37
AE40                4.30              0.504       6.25    11.8
AE99                3.56               1.35       6.52    8.05
AE100               4.98              0.910       10.6    5.96
AE63                1.23              0.173       0.255   1.16
AE96               0.559              0.175       0.379   1.43


                              Major elements (%)
number      [Na.sub.2]O    [K.sub.2]O    MnO    [P.sub.2][O.sub.5]

AE7             3.62          1.22      0.034          0.112
AE45A           2.65         0.152      0.112          0.078
AE45B           2.87         0.261      0.119          0.154
AE102           2.95          1.75      0.136          0.141
AE66            3.64         0.574      0.155          0.236
AE58            4.84          1.28      0.017          0.179
1042.40         3.96          1.63      0.175          0.450
2018.20         4.06          1.30      0.255          0.736
2030.30         6.88         0.252      0.019          0.547
AE22            4.94         0.641      0.018          0.051
AE71            5.45         0.272      0.011          0.077
1019.10         6.36         0.315      0.017          0.361
1018.80         6.73         0.391      0.015          0.383
1031.55         6.85         0.377      0.014          0.352
1047.40         7.18         0.478      0.013          0.456
2074.20         6.63         0.471      0.013          0.491
2076.60         6.31          2.27      <0.01          0.514
AE43            3.12         0.676      0.108          0.028
AE46            4.12          1.07      0.076          0.069
AE49            4.65          1.20      0.051          0.109
AE103           4.35          1.69      0.036          0.134
AE110           5.21         0.816      0.053          0.189
AE146           10.5         0.097      0.030          0.060
AE143           7.15         0.073      <0.01          0.027
AE 144          6.97         0.248      <0.01          0.039
AE98C           7.47         0.101      0.014          0.012
AE2             7.94         0.165      <0.01          0.086
AE16            8.09         0.139      0.014          0.056
AE21            6.74         0.334      <0.01          0.048
AE 73           9.19         0.369      0.015          0.023
AE10A           9.90         0.963      <0.01          0.127
AE11A           11.5         0.080      <0.01          <0.01
AE10B           7.35         0.901      0.013          0.586
AE11C           7.13         0.954      0.012          0.299
1017.10         7.91         0.726      0.013          0.476
1032.80         5.28         0.456      0.015          0.784
1017.30         5.93         0.336      0.015          0.526
AE93            5.39         0.132      0.039          0.171
AE40            3.69         0.150      0.055          0.101
AE99            6.80         0.263      0.017          0.196
AE100           4.65          2.86      0.014          0.166
AE63            6.92         0.407      0.014          0.027
AE96            7.35         0.384      0.012          0.026


             elements (%)
number       LOI     Sum

AE7         1.58    99.80
AE45A       0.000   99.84
AE45B       0.231   99.86
AE102       2.32    99.9
AE66        0.596   99.78
AE58        0.679   99.91
1042.40     0.931   99.5
2018.20     0.085   99.3
2030.30     0.910   99.8
AE22        1.62    99.71
AE71        1.08    99.82
1019.10     1.60    98.8
1018.80     1.55    98.0
1031.55     0.824   98.2
1047.40     1.22    98.1
2074.20     0.803   98.0
2076.60     1.52    98.3
AE43        1.37    99.88
AE46        1.32    99.79
AE49        1.62    99.85
AE103       1.31    98.3
AE110       2.68    98.3
AE146       1.02    99.3
AE143       0.420   99.3
AE 144      1.12     100
AE98C       0.765   99.2
AE2         1.39    99.77
AE16        1.14    99.83
AE21        1.88    99.77
AE 73       2.80    99.7
AE10A       0.795   99.92
AE11A       0.253   100.0
AE10B       5.45    99.33
AE11C       1.99    99.84
1017.10     2.67    99.8
1032.80     2.61    99.4
1017.30     1.90    99.8
AE93        12.1    99.9
AE40        17.3    99.86
AE99        3.21     100
AE100       3.08    99.8
AE63        0.182   99.92
AE96        0.386    100


number              Locality                  Rock type

AE7                  Ringsjo              Gabbro/metagabbro
AE45A                Langoy               Gabbro/metagabbro
AE45B                Langoy               Gabbro/metagabbro
AE102                Langoy               Gabbro/metagabbro
AE66                 Atangen              Gabbro/metagabbro
AE58                 Atangen             Gabbro/m etagabbro
1042.40          Odegarden Verk           Gabbro/metagabbro
2018.20          Odegarden Verk          Gabbro/ metagabbro
203030           Odegarden Verk           Gabbro/metagabbro
AE22         Fesettjern Ringsjo area          Tonalite
AE71         Fesettjern Ringsjo area          Tonalite
1019.10          Odegarden Verk         Scapolite metagabbro
1018.80          Odegarden Verk         Scapolite metagabbro
1031.55          Odegarden Verk         Scapolite metagabbro
1047.40          Odegarden Verk         Scapolite metagabbro
2074.20          Odegarden Verk         Scapolite metagabbro
2076.60          Odegarden Verk         Scapolite metagabbro
AE43                 Langoy             Scapolite metagabbro
AE46                 Langoy             Scapolite metagabbro
AE49                 Langoy             Scapolite metagabbro
AE103                Langoy             Scapolite metagabbro
AE110                Langoy             Scapolite metagabbro
AE146                Atangen                  Albitite
AE143                Atangen                  Albitite
AE 144               Atangen                  Albitite
AE98C              Storkollen                 Albitite
AE2                  Ringsjo                  Albitite
AE16                 Ringsjo                  Albitite
AE21         Fesettjern Ringsjo area          Albitite
AE 73                Ringsjo                  Albitite
AE10A                Ringsjo                  Albitite
AE11A                Ringsjo                  Albitite
AE10B                Ringsjo                  Albitite
AE11C                Ringsjo                  Albitite
1017.10          Odegarden Verk               Albitite
1032.80          Odegarden Verk               Albitite
1017.30          Odegarden Verk               Albitite
AE93                 Langoy               Albitite Cc-rich
AE40                 Langoy               Albitite Cc-rich
AE99                 Langoy               Albitite Cc-rich
AE100                Langoy               Albitite Cc-rich
AE63                 Atangen            Albitite Cpx-bearing
AE96               Storkollen           Albitite Cpx-bearing


                                      Trace elements (mg/kg)
number           Protolith         Ba      Br      Ce      Co

AE7               Gabbro           56      <2      31     51.2
AE45A             Gabbro           35      <2      <20    50.7
AE45B             Gabbro           64      4.7     22     48.6
AE102             Gabbro           194     <2      <20    49.6
AE66              Gabbro           111     2.7     31     45.6
AE58              Gabbro           22      <2      47     11.9
1042.40           Gabbro           510     <2      54     46.1
2018.20           Gabbro           753     4.0     133    17.1
203030            Gabbro           71      2.1     103    15.7
AE22             Tonalite          135     3.5     193     <4
AE71             Tonalite          34      <2      118     <4
1019.10           Gabbro           66     51.5     42     10.7
1018.80           Gabbro           86     68.7     42     11.5
1031.55           Gabbro           48     51.3     45     13.4
1047.40           Gabbro           49     73.6     55      8.7
2074.20           Gabbro           31     61.5     55     12.9
2076.60           Gabbro           81     71.5     30      9.0
AE43              Gabbro           42      9.1     <20    59.5
AE46              Gabbro           44     28.0     22     55.5
AE49              Gabbro           56     34.8     35     36.7
AE103             Gabbro           100    32.8     45     48.0
AE110             Gabbro           29     29.5     33     43.8
AE146             Unknown          12              56      <4
AE143             Unknown          <10             78      <4
AE 144            Unknown          10              30      <4
AE98C             Unknown          <10     <2      <20     <4
AE2              Tonalite          46      2.8     123     <4
AE16             Tonalite          11      2.5     74      <4
AE21             Tonalite          30      2.5     134     <4
AE 73       Gabbro/ metagabbro     29              19      8.8
AE10A        Gabbro/metagabbro     19      <2      <20     <4
AE11A        Gabbro/metagabbro     <10     2.4     <20     <4
AE10B        Gabbro/metagabbro     30      3.0     39      7.3
AE11C        Gabbro/metagabbro     35      2.6     28      9.7
1017.10      Gabbro/metagabbro     129     <2      33      <4
1032.80     Gabbro/m etagabbro     103     4.0     49     10.2
1017.30      Gabbro/metagabbro     51      <2      34      8.1
AE93         Infiltration zone     <10     <2      26      <4
AE40         Infiltration zone     <10     <2      <20     <4
AE99         Gabbro/metagabbro     19      <2      83      <4
AE100       Gabbro/ metagabbro     119     <2      29      9.0
AE63              Unknown          17      <2      65      <4
AE96              Unknown          27      <2      <20     <4


                          Trace elements (mg/kg)
number       Cr      Cu      Ga      La      Nb      Nd      Ni

AE7          179     2.7    21.8     <10     1.9     22      141
AE45A       66.8    17.1    15.8     <10     <1      13      181
AE45B       24.0    19.7    17.6     11      1.1     <10     158
AE102       90.7    32.5    18.5     <10     1.3     <10     107
AE66         145    88.0    20.4     13      8.5     18     71.4
AE58        43.2     <2     14.6     18      8.6     27     44.3
1042.40     60.1    38.3    24.2     23      5.5     33     52.4
2018.20      <4     11.8    25.3     51     16.1     71      <2
203030       <4      <2     30.0     40     16.6     69     18.7
AE22         <4      2.2    30.2     89     20.8     81      5.1
AE71         <4      <2     31.1     55     19.3     57      5.6
1019.10      102     <2     33.6     18      6.0     43      204
1018.80     52.1     <2     30.5     <10     4.8     41      162
1031.55     24.6     <2     29.9     17      4.7     45      125
1047.40     87.7     <2     28.6     20      5.1     48     96.5
2074.20      118     <2     30.5     12      6.1     50      149
2076.60      123     <2     32.8     11      5.0     22      218
AE43        48.0     <2     11.4     <10     <1      <10     351
AE46         135    19.7    12.8     <10     <1      <10     201
AE49        55.3     6.9    13.6     <10     <1      10      162
AE103       90.6     8.2    16.9     20      1.5     20     95.0
AE110       37.8     4.0    15.7     16      2.1     19      157
AE146        <5      <5     19.1     22     17.2     34      <5
AE143        6.8     <5     22.1     28     11.5     48      <5
AE 144       <5      <5     25.4     <15    18.3     21      <5
AE98C        <4      <2     25.6     <10     6.8     <10     <2
AE2          <4      <2     28.0     46     20.9     89      5.1
AE16         <4      <2     29.4     19     23.7     63     11.5
AE21         5.1     <2     26.5     56     20.2     63      3.4
AE 73       98.3     <5     19.5     <15     8.2     <10    29.1
AE10A       29.0     <2     16.7     <10    22.0     <10     2.1
AE11A        4.5     <2     16.4     <10     3.9     <10     <2
AE10B       61.1     <2     20.3     11      4.8     27     47.6
AE11C       54.8     <2     20.5     16      6.8     27     55.7
1017.10     25.1     <2     27.6     17      <1      25     33.3
1032.80     33.4     <2     32.0     25      8.6     52      163
1017.30     23.8     <2     33.0     12      6.7     45      141
AE93        24.5     <2      8.4     <10     6.2     18      5.9
AE40        24.3     <2      6.2     <10     4.3     <10    10.9
AE99        39.3     <2     10.3     16     17.8     86     22.4
AE100       40.9     <2     15.1     15      8.2     23     47.9
AE63         <4      <2     22.4     28     12.4     31      3.3
AE96         <4      <2     24.3     <10    12.5     13      3.2


                           Trace elements (mg/kg)
number       Pb      Rb      Sc      Sn      Sr      Th      V

AE7          3.2    24.9    23.3     5.2     114     <4      160
AE45A        <3      3.4     7.6     <5      261     <4      83
AE45B        <3      7.3     8.1     7.2     280     <4      96
AE102       13.5    29.1    24.2     9.7     144     <4      193
AE66         <3     13.5    21.2     7.1     268     <4      169
AE58         3.1    53.8    13.2     6.8    63.3      8      85
1042.40     12.7    42.3    22.9    14.4     312     <4      228
2018.20      9.9    18.6    37.2    13.5     267     6.1    18.3
203030       9.6     1.8    39.8    13.5     145     4.5    74.3
AE22         <3     19.5     6.7     6.9     425     14      <5
AE71         <3      4.1     6.0     5.7     283     16       6
1019.10      9.9     3.1    22.6    12.1     105     <4      402
1018.80     11.1     5.1    20.0    14.7     126     <4      322
1031.55      9.6     2.8    22.6    12.6     113     <4      352
1047.40      9.0    10.4    24.4    10.1    84.4     <4      644
2074.20     10.5     3.0    20.0    11.6    82.9     <4      391
2076.60     10.4    93.1    16.6    10.7    75.7     <4      525
AE43         3.7    13.5     <5      5.2     101     <4      23
AE46         3.2    32.7    11.1     5.1     133     <4      86
AE49         3.6    40.1     9.1     <5      182     <4      88
AE103       15.9    16.3    24.9    15.1    87.7     <4      187
AE110       14.4    18.3    10.5    13.7     137     <4      111
AE146        <5      <5      <5      <5     43.7    19.4    42.4
AE143        <5      <5      <5      <5     10.7     8.4    13.5
AE 144       <5      <5      <5      <5     22.1    11.1    14.2
AE98C       12.0     1.3     <5      9.8     9.6    10.2     <5
AE2          3.9     2.1     7.5    10.5    57.9     11      18
AE16         <3      1.3     6.7     5.5    22.8     10      40
AE21         4.0    10.4     6.5     5.2     119     13       9
AE 73        <5      8.3    22.9     <5      104     <3      111
AE10A        <3     31.7     5.2     7.2    44.6     <4      89
AE11A        3.0     <1      <5      5.9    20.6     <4      13
AE10B        3.2    32.1    42.9     5.7    98.9     <4      233
AE11C        <3     28.8    30.3     6.0     144     <4      307
1017.10      8.6    12.8     7.2    10.2     207     <4      117
1032.80      9.4     8.7    38.9    12.2     126     <4      446
1017.30      9.8     5.4    38.5    10.3     150     <4      416
AE93         9.6     1.3     <5     12.7    14.6     5.1    51.9
AE40         3.5     <1      <5      <5     15.2     <4      45
AE99        15.5     4.4     9.5    15.0     9.6    10.8    82.1
AE100       11.2    50.2    11.2    11.9    55.2     <4     88.4
AE63         4.0     2.8     <5      6.8    36.1     14       5
AE96        12.5     3.8     <5     12.9    31.8    12.1     6.9


             Trace elements (mg/kg)
number       Y       Zn      Zr

AE7          28       5      79
AE45A        11      51      45
AE45B        18      60      77
AE102       27.6    43.0    86.8
AE66         29      57      124
AE58         33       2      163
1042.40     40.9    85.6     171
2018.20     78.2    93.4     644
203030       114     4.4     586
AE22         95       2      654
AE71         89       2      655
1019.10     99.0     9.4     151
1018.80     84.3    10.1     155
1031.55     92.0     5.2     170
1047.40      132     8.5     179
2074.20     96.8     4.0     201
2076.60     32.3     5.9     130
AE43          3      53      12
AE46         11      23      35
AE49         11      22      53
AE103       28.0    15.0    84.3
AE110       23.3    21.1    95.7
AE146       66.6     <5      215
AE143       94.3     <5      190
AE 144      98.3     <5      281
AE98C        7.7     7.8     130
AE2          84       3      696
AE16         117      4      640
AE21         73       2      585
AE 73       22.5    16.9     135
AE10A         6       2      120
AE11A         2      <1      113
AE10B        64       5      118
AE11C        66       4      144
1017.10     32.0    14.9     247
1032.80     99.2    10.1     286
1017.30     85.1     5.9     236
AE93        20.8     <1      131
AE40         16       1      152
AE99         133     4.9     304
AE100       22.5     2.8     188
AE63         81       4      202
AE96        61.7     1.1     200

Table 3: Stable isotopic data.

number       Mineral          Rock type          Protolith

AE 2          Albite          Albitite            Tonalite
AE 21         Albite          Albitite            Tonalite
                           alteration zone
AE 10A        Albite          Albitite             Gabbro
                           alteration zone
AE 11A        Albite          Albitite             Gabbro
                           alteration zone
1032.80       Albite          Albitite             Gabbro
                           alteration zone

AE 40         Albite         Albitite,         Infiltration
                           carbonate-rich        in gabbro
AE 93         Albite         Albitite,         Infiltration
                           carbonate-rich        in gabbro
AE 99         Albite        Albitite (Ab           Gabbro
                          felsite, Cc-rich)

AE 63         Albite        Cpx-bearing          (Unknown)
AE 96         Albite        Cpx-bearing          (Unknown)

AE 63         Quartz        Cpx-bearing          (Unknown)
AE 96         Quartz        Cpx-bearing          (Unknown)

AE 2         Calcite          Albitite            Tonalite
AE 21        Calcite          Albitite            Tonalite
                           alteration zone
AE 40        Calcite         Albitite,         Infiltration
                           carbonate-rich        in gabbro
AE 93        Calcite         Albitite,         Infiltration
                           carbonate-rich        in gabbro
AE 99        Calcite        Albitite (Ab           Gabbro
                          felsite, Cc-rich)

1031.55     Scapolite      Scp metagabbro          Gabbro
1047.40     Scapolite      Scp metagabbro          Gabbro
2076.40     Scapolite      Scp metagabbro          Gabbro
AE 46       Scapolite      Scp metagabbro          Gabbro
AE 110      Scapolite      Scp metagabbro          Gabbro

1031.55     Amphibole      Scp metagabbro          Gabbro
1047.40     Amphibole      Scp metagabbro          Gabbro
2076.40     Amphibole      Scp metagabbro          Gabbro
AE 46       Amphibole      Scp metagabbro          Gabbro
AE 110      Amphibole      Scp metagabbro          Gabbro

                               [delta][sup.18]         [delta]
Sample                           [O.sub.SMOW]         [D.sub.SMOW]
number         Locality        ([per thousand])     ([per thousand])

AE 2            Ringsjo              8.5
AE 21           Ringsjo              10.8
AE 10A          Ringsjo              5.1
AE 11A          Ringsjo              7.7
1032.80     Odegarden Verk           8.4

AE 40           Langoy               7.0
AE 93           Langoy               6.3
AE 99           Langoy               5.5

AE 63           Atangen              10.8
AE 96         Storkollen             11.1

AE 63           Atangen              11.6
AE 96         Storkollen             11.5

AE 2            Ringsjo              4.5
AE 21           Ringsjo              10.5
AE 40           Langoy               5.8
AE 93           Langoy               12.4
AE 99           Langoy               3.4

1031.55     Odegarden Verk           9.1
1047.40     Odegarden Verk           8.4
2076.40     Odegarden Verk           10.6
AE 46           Langoy               8.2
AE 110          Langoy               7.4

1031.55     Odegarden Verk           4.3                  -51
1047.40     Odegarden Verk           6.2                  -51
2076.40     Odegarden Verk           6.7                  -59
AE 46           Langoy               4.3                  -57
AE 110          Langoy               5.6                  -84

             [delta][sup.15]     C[O.sub.3]
Sample         [C.sub.PDB]          (% Ca
number       ([per thousand])    C[O.sub.3])

AE 2
AE 21
AE 10A
AE 11A

AE 40
AE 93
AE 99

AE 63
AE 96

AE 63
AE 96

AE 2               -5.7              1.6
AE 21              -6.0              6.1
AE 40              -5.0              1.0
AE 93              -5.6              2.0

AE 99              -4.6              28.1
AE 46
AE 110

AE 46
AE 110

Overall analytical precision for O: [+ or -]0.2; overall
analytical precision for H: [+ or -]2.0; overall
analytical precision for C: [+ or -]0.1.
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Title Annotation:Research Article
Author:Engvik, Ane K.; Taubald, Heinrich; Solli, Arne; Grenne, Tor; Austrheim, Hakon
Geographic Code:1CANA
Date:Jan 1, 2018
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