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Dual Enrollment of High School Students at Postsecondary Institutions: 2002-03.

This article provides data from a nationally representative survey of Title IV degree-granting postsecondary institutions on the topic of dual enrollment of high school students. Dual enrollment, also known as "dual credit," "concurrent enrollment," and "joint enrollment," refers to the participation in college-level courses and the earning of college credits by high school students. Dual enrollment is viewed as providing high school students benefits such as greater access to a wider range of rigorous academic and technical courses, savings in time and money on a college degree, promoting efficiency of learning, and enhancing admission to and retention in college. By providing a pathway for students to move seamlessly between K-12 and postsecondary systems, dual enrollment is thought to promote greater support for students' college aspirations and greater collaboration between high schools and colleges (Bailey and Karp 2003; Clark 2001). In an effort to prepare high school students for college, 38 states have enacted dual enrollment policies that support the development of programs that promote a smoother transition between high school and postsecondary education (Karp et al. 2004). However, at present, there is no existing national source of information on dual enrollment of high school students at postsecondary institutions. The "Dual Enrollment Programs and Courses for High School Students" survey, undertaken by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education, was designed to provide policymakers, researchers, educators, and administrators with baseline information on the prevalence and characteristics of dual enrollment programs. While the majority of the survey's questions focused on dual enrollment programs, several key questions also revealed the prevalence of college coursetaking outside of dual enrollment programs by high school students. The survey was requested by the Office of Vocational and Adult Education, U.S. Department of Education.

The front page of the survey included a definition and description of dual enrollment. For this study, dual enrollment was defined as high school students who earn college credits for courses taken through a postsecondary institution. The definition specified that courses could be part of a dual enrollment program, or courses could be taken outside of a dual enrollment program. A dual enrollment program was defined as an organized system with special guidelines that allows high school students to take college-level courses. The guidelines might delineate entrance or eligibility requirements, funding, limits on coursetaking, and so on. High school students who simply enrolled in college courses and were treated as regular college students were not considered to be participating in a dual enrollment program. Credit for courses could be earned at both the high school and college levels simultaneously or only at the college level, and credit could be earned immediately or upon enrollment at the postsecondary institution after high school graduation. Courses could be taught on a college campus, on a high school campus, or at some other location. The time frame for the survey was the 2002-03 12-month academic year, including courses taken during summer sessions. (1) The survey definition also specified that information about summer bridge programs for students who had already graduated from high school should not be included.

This survey was conducted by NCES using the Postsecondary Education Quick Information System (PEQIS). (2) PEQIS is a survey system designed to collect small amounts of issue-oriented data from a previously recruited, nationally representative sample of institutions, with minimal burden on respondents and within a relatively short period of time. Questionnaires for the survey "Dual Enrollment Programs and Courses for High School Students" were mailed in February 2004 to the PEQIS survey coordinators at the approximately 1,600 Title IV degree-granting postsecondary institutions in the 50 states and the District of Columbia that compose the PEQIS panel. Coordinators were informed that the survey was designed to be completed by the person(s) at the institution most knowledgeable about the institution's dual enrollment programs and courses. Respondents were given the option of completing the survey online. Data were adjusted for questionnaire nonresponse and weighted to yield national estimates that represent all Title IV eligible, degree-granting institutions in the United States. (3) The unweighted response rate was 92 percent, and the weighted response rate (4) was 93 percent.

Survey respondents at selected postsecondary institutions were asked to report on the prevalence of college coursetaking by high school students at their institutions during the 2002-03 12-month academic year, both within and outside of dual enrollment programs. Among institutions with dual enrollment programs, additional information was obtained on the characteristics of programs, including course location and type of instructors, program and course curriculum, academic eligibility requirements, and funding. Institutions with dual enrollment programs were also asked whether they had programs specifically geared toward high school students at risk of education failure; if they answered yes, they were asked a series of questions about the features of such special programs.

The primary focus of this article is to present national estimates on dual enrollment. In addition, selected survey findings are presented by the following institution characteristics:

* Institution type: public 2-year, private 2-year, public 4-year, and private 4-year. Institution type was created from a combination of level (2-year and 4-year) and control (public and private). Two-year institutions are defined as institutions at which the highest level of offering is at least 2 but less than 4 years (below the baccalaureate degree); 4-year institutions are those at which the highest level of offering is 4 or more years (baccalaureate or higher degree). Private institutions comprise private nonprofit and private for-profit institutions; these institutions are reported together because there are too few private for-profit institutions in the survey sample to report them as a separate category.

* Size of institution: less than 3,000 students, 3,000 to 9,999 students, and 10,000 or more students. These are referred to in the text as small, medium, and large institutions, respectively.

In general, comparisons by these institution characteristics are presented only where significant differences were detected and follow meaningful patterns. It is important to note that the characteristics of type and size are related to each other. For example, private institutions tend to be smaller than public ones. However, this E.D. TAB focuses on bivariate relationships between the analysis variables (institution type and size) and questionnaire variables rather than on more complex analyses.

All specific statements of comparison made in this report have been tested for statistical significance through t tests and are significant at the 95 percent confidence level. However, only selected findings are presented for each topic in the report. Throughout this report, differences that may appear large may not be statistically significant due to the relatively large standard errors surrounding the estimates (because of the small sample size).

Interested readers may refer to a companion E.D. TAB, published by NCES, entitled Dual Credit and Exam-Based Courses in U.S. Public High Schools: 2002-03 (Waits, Setzer, and Lewis 2005). The companion report describes nationally representative findings from a complementary high school-level survey requested by the Office of Vocational and Adult Education and conducted by NCES through the Fast Response Survey System (FRSS). Unlike the survey for the current report, which focused more broadly on dual enrollment, the FRSS survey focused on dual credit, where dual credit was defined as a course or program where high school students can earn both high school and postsecondary credits for the same course.

The findings in this article are organized as follows:

* prevalence of and enrollment in dual enrollment programs and college-level courses outside of dual enrollment programs;

* characteristics of dual enrollment programs and courses, such as location, instructors, curriculum, eligibility requirements, and funding; and

* dual enrollment programs specifically geared toward students at risk of education failure.

Prevalence of and Enrollment in Dual Enrollment Programs and College-Level Courses

The survey asked whether institutions had any high school students who took courses for college credit during the 2002-03 12-month academic year. Institutions that did were then asked whether high school students took college-level courses outside of any dual enrollment program, followed by a question on whether any high school students took courses for college credit that were part of a dual enrollment program. If any high school students took courses outside of or within dual enrollment programs, institutions were asked to provide the number of students who did so.

Prevalence of dual enrollment programs and college coursetaking

* During the 2002-03 12-month academic year, 57 percent of all Title IV degree-granting institutions had high school students taking courses for college credit within or outside of dual enrollment programs. Forty-eight percent of institutions had dual enrollment programs for high school students taking college courses, and 31 percent of institutions had high school students taking college courses outside of such programs.

* Of the 57 percent of institutions that had high school students who took courses for college credit during the 2002-03 12-month academic year, 85 percent had high school students taking courses for college credit in dual enrollment programs, and 55 percent had students who took college courses outside of dual enrollment programs.

* Of those institutions with any high school students taking courses for college credit, 45 percent had high school students taking college-level courses within dual enrollment programs only, 15 percent had high school students taking college-level courses outside of dual enrollment programs only, and 40 percent had high school students taking college-level courses both within and outside of those programs (figure 1).

* Ninety-eight percent of public 2-year institutions had high school students taking courses for college credit during the 2002-03 12-month academic year, compared to 77 percent of public 4-year institutions, 40 percent of private 4-year institutions, and 17 percent of private 2-year institutions.

* Among all institutions, a greater percentage of public 2-year institutions than public 4-year and private 4-year institutions had high school students taking college-level courses within dual enrollment programs (93 percent versus 64 and 29 percent, respectively). Similarly, a greater percentage of public 2-year institutions than public 4-year and private 4-year institutions had high school students taking college-level courses outside of dual enrollment programs (63 percent versus 40 and 18 percent, respectively).

* Among institutions with high school students taking college-level courses, a higher percentage of public 2-year institutions than public 4-year and private 4-year institutions had high school students taking courses within dual enrollment programs (95 percent versus 83 and 73 percent, respectively). Similarly, among those institutions with high school students taking college-level courses, a higher percentage of public 2-year institutions than public 4-year and private 4-year institutions had high school students taking courses outside of dual enrollment programs (64 percent versus 52 and 45 percent, respectively).

* Forty-four percent of small institutions had high school students taking courses for college credit, compared to 83 percent of medium institutions and 94 percent of large institutions.

* Based on all institutions, a lower percentage of small institutions than medium and large institutions had high school students taking courses for college credit within dual enrollment programs (36 percent versus 74 and 79 percent, respectively). In addition, based on all institutions, a lower percentage of small institutions than medium and large institutions had high school students taking courses outside of dual enrollment programs (22 percent versus 51 and 50 percent, respectively).

Enrollment of high school students in dual enrollment programs and college-level courses

* Overall, approximately 813,000 high school students took college-level courses through postsecondary institutions, either within or outside of dual enrollment programs, during the 2002-03 12-month academic year. This number represents about 5 percent of all high school students. In fall 2001 (the last year for which data are available), there were over 15 million students enrolled in public and private high schools in the United States (U.S. Department of Education 2003).

* Approximately 680,000 high school students took courses for college credit within dual enrollment programs. Fewer high school students (approximately 133,000) took college-level courses outside of dual enrollment programs. Thus, 84 percent of high school students who took courses for college credit through postsecondary institutions did so as part of a dual enrollment program (figure 2).

* Public 2-year institutions had more high school students who took college-level courses than public 4-year and private 4-year institutions during the 2002-03 12-month academic year (619,000 versus 122,000 and 67,000, respectively). Thus, 77 percent of high school students who took college-level courses were in public 2-year institutions, versus 15 percent in public 4-year and 8 percent in private 4-year institutions (figure 3).

* Public 2-year institutions also had more high school students than public 4-year and private 4-year institutions within dual enrollment programs (517,000 versus 100,000 and 60,000, respectively) and outside of dual enrollment programs (102,000 versus 22,000 and 7,000, respectively).

* Small institutions had fewer high school students taking college-level courses than medium and large institutions during the 2002-03 12-month academic year (171,000 versus 308,000 and 333,000, respectively). Similarly, small institutions had fewer high school students taking college-level courses than medium and large institutions, both within dual enrollment programs (149,000 versus 249,000 and 282,000, respectively) and outside of dual enrollment programs (23,000 versus 59,000 and 51,000, respectively).

Characteristics of Dual Enrollment Programs

Those institutions that reported having high school students who took courses for college credit within dual enrollment programs were asked about the characteristics of their programs. The topics explored in the survey included course location, course instructors, program curriculum, academic eligibility requirements, and funding.

Course location and type of instructors

Institutions with dual enrollment programs were asked whether high school students in the dual enrollment programs took courses on the campus of the institution, on a high school campus, or at some other location. Institutions with courses taught on a high school campus were also asked whether the courses in the dual enrollment programs were taught by college instructors only, high school instructors only, or by both high school and college instructors. If institutions indicated that at least some courses were taught by high school instructors, they were asked how the minimum qualifications for high school instructors who taught the courses compared to the qualifications required for college instructors.

* Among institutions with dual enrollment programs, 80 percent offered courses taken by high school students on their college campus, 55 percent offered courses on a high school campus, and 12 percent offered courses at some other location. (5)

* A greater percentage of public 2-year than public 4-year and private 4-year institutions offered the courses taken by high school students on a high school campus (73 percent versus 47 and 28 percent, respectively).

* Of those institutions with dual enrollment programs with courses taught on a high school campus, 26 percent reported that the courses were taught by college instructors only, 32 percent reported high school instructors only, and 42 percent reported both college and high school instructors.

* A smaller percentage of private 4-year institutions had the courses taught on a high school campus taught by college instructors only, compared to public 2-year and public 4-year institutions (10 percent versus 28 and 31 percent, respectively).

* Of those institutions with dual enrollment programs with at least some courses taught by high school instructors, 86 percent said that the minimum qualifications for high school instructors were the same as those required for college instructors, compared to 6 percent that said that the minimum qualifications were different. Four percent of institutions said that they had no set policy with respect to minimum qualifications, and 5 percent said that it varied.

* A higher percentage of public 2-year institutions than public 4-year institutions reported the same minimum qualifications for high school instructors as for college instructors with respect to teaching college-level courses (90 percent versus 73 percent).

Curriculum and coursetaking patterns

Institutions were asked several questions regarding dual enrollment program curriculum and coursetaking patterns, including the typical coursetaking pattern for high school students and the maximum number of courses allowed per academic term. Institutions were also asked whether the curriculum for courses taken in the programs was specially designed for high school students.

* Among institutions with dual enrollment programs, 48 percent of institutions responded that one course per academic term most closely resembled the typical high school enrollment pattern during the 2002-03 12-month academic year, compared to 19 percent that responded two courses per academic term, and 4 percent that responded three or more courses per academic term. Twenty-eight percent of institutions said that it varied. (6)

* A higher percentage of public 4-year and private 4-year institutions than public 2-year institutions reported one course per academic term as the typical pattern of high school enrollments (56 and 64 percent, respectively, versus 36 percent). A higher percentage of public 2-year institutions than public 4-year and private 4-year institutions reported that the typical pattern varied (37 percent versus 28 and 12 percent, respectively).

* Fourteen percent of institutions with dual enrollment programs said that one course was the maximum number allowed per academic term, 30 percent reported allowing a maximum of two courses per academic term, and 25 percent reported allowing three or more courses per academic term. Another 31 percent of institutions said that there was no maximum number of courses per academic term.

* A greater percentage of private 4-year institutions than public 2-year and public 4-year institutions allowed a maximum of one course per academic term (33 percent versus 5 and 11 percent, respectively). Thirty-eight percent of public 2-year institutions had no maximum number of courses per academic term, compared to 31 percent of public 4-year and 19 percent of private 4-year institutions.

* A smaller percentage of large institutions allowed a maximum of one course per academic term, compared to small and medium institutions (8 percent versus 18 and 11 percent, respectively).

* Eighty-nine percent of institutions said that the curriculum of the college-level courses taken by high school students as part of their dual enrollment programs was the same as for regular college students, compared to 3 percent of institutions that said that the curriculum was specially designed for high school students, and 8 percent that said it varied. (7)

Credit awarded

Institutions were asked about when high school students were generally awarded college credit for courses taken, and whether they earned credit at the high school level for courses taken.

* Ninety-four percent of institutions with dual enrollment programs awarded college credit for courses immediately after course completion, compared to 3 percent that awarded credit upon enrollment of students at their institutions and another 3 percent that awarded credit in some other way. (8)

* Fifty-nine percent of institutions with dual enrollment programs indicated that credit for college courses was earned at both the high school and college level, compared to 6 percent where credit was earned at the college level only, and 21 percent where it varied. (9) Fourteen percent of institutions did not know whether credit was earned at the high school level.

* A greater percentage of respondents at private 4-year institutions than at public 2-year and public 4-year institutions did not know whether credit for courses was earned at the high school level (25 percent versus 9 and 14 percent, respectively).

Academic eligibility requirements

Institutions with dual enrollment programs were asked a series of questions pertaining to academic eligibility requirements for high school students to participate in the dual enrollment programs. Institutions were asked whether they had academic eligibility requirements, what were the requirements, and whether their academic eligibility requirements were the same or different than their institutions' admissions standards for regular college students. In addition, institutions were asked to identify the grade levels at which high school students were eligible to take courses in dual enrollment programs.

Prevalence and type of requirements

* Among institutions with dual enrollment programs, 85 percent had academic eligibility requirements for high school students to participate. A higher percentage of public 4-year institutions than public 2-year and private 4-year institutions had academic eligibility requirements (93 percent versus 83 and 81 percent, respectively).

* A higher percentage of institutions with dual enrollment programs that had academic eligibility requirements had a minimum high school grade point average (GPA) requirement, compared to other kinds of requirements (66 percent versus 16 to 45 percent). Forty-five percent of the institutions used a minimum score on a standardized test, 44 percent used a college placement test, and 16 percent used minimum high school class rank as academic eligibility requirements for high school students to participate in dual enrollment programs. Thirty-one percent had some other academic eligibility requirements, including recommendations or permission (from a high school principal, guidance counselor, or parent/guardian), course prerequisites, strong high school attendance, junior or senior grade level, or an essay or written letter.

* Public 4-year and private 4-year institutions used minimum high school GPA as an academic eligibility requirement more frequently than 2-year institutions (79 and 86 percent, respectively, versus 46 percent). A higher percentage of public 2-year institutions than public 4-year and private 4-year institutions required passing a college placement test (73 percent versus 22 and 13 percent, respectively).

* A greater percentage of public 4-year institutions than public 2-year and private 4-year institutions required a minimum score on a standardized test (60 percent versus 43 and 37 percent, respectively) and a minimum high school class rank (28 percent versus 8 and 19 percent, respectively).

* Minimum high school GPA

Of those institutions with dual enrollment programs that had a minimum high school GPA requirement, the highest percentage (44 percent) required a minimum GPA between 2.75 and 3.24, compared to 7 percent that required between 1.75 and 2.24, 10 percent that required between 2.25 and 2.74, 22 percent that required between 3.25 and 3.74, and 3 percent that required a minimum GPA of 3.75 or above. Fourteen percent of institutions said that it varied. (10)

A lower percentage of public 2-year institutions than public 4-year and private 4-year institutions required a minimum GPA between 3.25 and 3.74 (15 percent versus 27 and 29 percent, respectively).

Comparability of admissions standards

* Of the 85 percent of institutions with dual enrollment programs that had academic eligibility requirements for high school students to participate, 38 percent indicated that their requirements were the same as admissions standards for regular college students, while 62 percent indicated that their requirements were different from admissions standards for regular college students.

* Fifty-five percent of public 2-year institutions reported that their academic eligibility requirements were the same as admissions standards for regular college students, compared to 21 percent of public 4-year and 27 percent of private 4-year institutions.

Eligible grade levels

* Among institutions with dual enrollment programs, 96 percent allowed grade 12 high school students to take courses in the programs, (11) 86 percent allowed grade (11) students, 28 percent allowed grade 10 students, 16 percent allowed grade 9 students, and 2 percent allowed students in grades lower than grade 9.

* A greater percentage of public 2-year institutions than public 4-year and private 4-year institutions allowed grade 9 (21 percent versus 15 and 12 percent, respectively) and grade 10 high school students (35 percent versus 26 and 18 percent, respectively) to take courses in dual enrollment programs. A smaller percentage of private 4-year institutions allowed grade 11 high school students to take courses in dual enrollment programs, compared to public 2-year and public 4-year institutions (76 percent versus 93 and 89 percent, respectively).

* A greater percentage of large than of small or medium institutions allowed grade 9 (26 percent versus 14 and 16 percent, respectively), grade 10 (40 percent versus 23 and 30 percent, respectively), and grade 11 (93 percent versus 83 and 88 percent, respectively) high school students to take courses in dual enrollment programs.

Funding

Institutions with dual enrollment programs were asked two questions relating to sources of funding for courses taken by high school students in their programs. The first addressed the various sources for tuition payment, and the second addressed how much high school students (and their parents) generally paid out of pocket for the college-level courses taken as part of dual enrollment programs.

* Sixty-four percent of institutions with dual enrollment programs reported that parents and students were a source for tuition for courses taken as part of the programs. Thirty-eight percent of institutions indicated that their own postsecondary institution was a source for tuition (including both actual contributions and tuition waivers), 37 percent said that high schools and public school districts were a source, and 26 percent said that their state was a source for tuition. (12) Nine percent indicated that there was some other source(s) for tuition. The most commonly cited other sources included various federal and county grants, as well as scholarships from local businesses and nonprofit organizations.

* A lower percentage of private 4-year institutions than public 2-year and public 4-year institutions indicated that high schools/public school districts (21 percent versus 45 and 41 percent, respectively) and the state (15 percent versus 31 and 25 percent, respectively) were sources for tuition for courses taken in their dual enrollment programs. However, a higher percentage of private 4-year institutions than public 2-year and public 4-year institutions said that their own institution was a source for tuition (50 percent versus 33 percent each).

* A smaller percentage of public 2-year institutions reported that parents and students were a source for tuition for courses taken in dual enrollment programs, compared to public 4-year and private 4-year institutions (56 percent versus 72 and 71 percent, respectively). Twenty percent of institutions with dual enrollment programs indicated that students and parents generally paid full tuition for college-level courses taken in their dual enrollment programs. Another 20 percent said that students and parents generally paid partial tuition. Twenty-three percent said that students and parents generally paid for books and/or fees only, and 19 percent said that students and parents generally paid nothing for courses in the dual enrollment programs. Nineteen percent of institutions reported that the amount paid out of pocket by students and parents varied. (13)

* A greater percentage of public 4-year institutions than public 2-year and private 4-year institutions indicated that students and parents generally paid full tuition for courses taken in dual enrollment programs (28 percent versus 20 and 13 percent, respectively). Thirty-eight percent of private 4-year institutions said that students and parents generally paid partial tuition out of pocket, compared to 10 percent of public 2-year and 17 percent of public 4-year institutions.

Dual Enrollment Programs Specifically for Students at Risk of Education Failure

Some postsecondary institutions have developed programs for at-risk students as a way of promoting high school retention as well as enthusiasm for education among a population of students at risk of complete withdrawal from the education system. Institutions with dual enrollment programs were asked whether they had a formal dual enrollment program geared specifically toward high school students who were at risk of education failure. If there was a dual enrollment program for at-risk high school students, institutions were then asked about features of that program, such as the number of students in the program, the primary focus of the program, the typical pattern of enrollments, and any extra support services provided to the at-risk students.

* Among the estimated 2,050 institutions with dual enrollment programs, approximately 110 (5 percent) had dual enrollment programs specifically geared toward high school students at risk of education failure. Two percent of all institutions had such programs.

* During the 2002-03 12-month academic year, there were approximately 6,400 students enrolled in dual enrollment programs geared specifically toward high school students at risk of education failure. (14)

* Thirty-nine percent of institutions with dual enrollment programs geared toward students at risk of education failure reported that the primary focus of the program was career/technical (figure 4). Thirty-four percent said that the primary focus was academic, and 21 percent said that the primary focus was equally academic and career/technical. Six percent reported some other primary focus.

* Forty percent of institutions with dual enrollment programs for at-risk students indicated that the most common pattern of enrollments in such programs was one course per academic term, 14 percent reported two courses per academic term, 8 percent reported three or more courses per academic term, and 38 percent reported that the number of courses students took varied considerably (figure 5). Sixty percent of institutions with programs for at-risk students provided extra support services specifically for the students in the program, such as tutoring, academic advising, study skills workshops, and precollege counseling. (15)

* Of those institutions with programs for at-risk students that provided extra support services, 84 percent provided academic advising, 82 percent provided tutoring, 76 percent provided study skills workshops, 75 percent offered college application/selection counseling, 62 percent offered financial aid counseling, and 38 percent offered other support services (figure 6). Mentoring and career counseling were commonly cited as other support services.

References

Bailey, T.R., and Karp, M. (2003). Promoting College Access and Success: A Review of Credit-Based Transition Programs. U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC: Office of Adult and Vocational Education.

Clark, R.W. (2001). Dual Credit: A Report of Programs and Policies That Offer High School Students College Credits. Seattle, WA: Institute for Educational Inquiry.

Karp, M., Bailey, T.R., Hughes, K.L., and Fermin, B.J. (2004). State Dual Enrollment Policies: Addressing Access and Quality. U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC: Office of Adult and Vocational Education.

Knapp, L.G., Kelly, J.E., Whitmore, R.W., Wu, S., Gallego, L.M., and Grau, E. (2001). Postsecondary Institutions in the United States: Fall 2000 and Degrees and Other Awards Conferred: 1999-2000 (NCES 2002-156). U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.

U.S. Department of Education. National Center for Education Statistics. (2003). Digest of Education Statistics, 2003. Retrieved February 24, 2005, from http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d03.

Waits, T., Setzer, J.C., and Lewis, L. (2004). Dual Credit and Exam-Based Courses in U.S. Public High Schools: 2002-03 (NCES 2005-009). U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.

Footnotes

(1) The summer session included in the 2002-03 12-month academic year (i.e., the summer session of 2002 or the summer session of 2003) was whichever one each institution considered to be part of that 12-month academic year.

(2) More information about PEQIS may be found at http://nces.ed.gov/surveys/peqis.

(3) Institutions participating in Title IV federal student financial aid programs (such as Pell grants or Stafford loans) are accredited by an agency or organization recognized by the U.S. Department of Education, have a program of over 300 clock hours or 8 credit hours, have been in business for at least 2 years, and have a signed Program Participation Agreement with the Office of Postsecondary Education (OPE), U.S. Department of Education. Degree-granting institutions are those that offer an associate's, bachelor's, master's, doctoral, or first-professional degree (Knapp et al. 2001).

(4) All weighted response rates were calculated using the base weight (i.e., the inverse of the probability of selection).

(5) The percentage of institutions with courses for high school students offered on their college campus, on a high school campus, or at some other location sum to more than 100 percent because institutions may have offered courses at more than one location. Other locations included community centers, vocational/technical schools, and hospitals. Respondents also included online courses as "other locations."

(6) The "it varied" response could indicate that there was no typical pattern of high school enrollments within a single program, or else that multiple programs within an institution had different typical patterns.

(7) "It varied" could mean that the curriculum varied within a single program (e.g., was the same as for regular college students for some courses, but different for others), or else that the curriculum varied across multiple programs within an institution (i.e., was the same as for regular college students in one program, but specially designed for high school students in another program).

(8) Of the roughly 20 "other ways" cited by respondents, about half noted that credits were awarded after high school graduation. The remaining responses varied.

(9) The "it varied" response could indicate that credit was earned in various ways within a single program, or else that credit was earned in different ways across multiple programs within an institution.

(10) "It varied" could indicate that the minimum GPA varied within a single program, or else that the minimum required GPA was different across multiple programs within an institution.

(11) Four percent of institutions did not allow grade 12 students to participate in dual enrollment programs, while they did allow students in other grades (predominantly grade 11) to participate in dual enrollment programs.

(12) Multiple sources could have been selected.

(13) "It varied" could indicate that the amount paid out of pocket by students and parents varied within a single program, or else that the amount paid varied across multiple programs within an institution.

(14) Standard error = 1,110.

(15) Standard error = 8.4. Respondents were asked to include only those support services beyond those usually provided to students taking courses through their institution.

Data source: The NCES Postsecondary Education Quick Information System (PEQIS), "Dual Enrollment Programs and Courses for High School Students," PEQIS 14, 2004.

For technical information, see the complete report:

Kleiner, B., and Lewis, L. (2005). Dual Enrollment of High School Students at Postsecondary Institutions: 2002-03 (NCES 2005-008).

Author affiliations: B. Kleiner and L. Lewis, Westat.

For questions about content, contact Bernie Greene (bernard.greene@ed.gov).

To obtain the complete report (NCES 2005-008), call the toll-free ED Pubs number (877-433-7827) or visit the NCES Electronic Catalog (http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch).
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Title Annotation:Elementary and Secondary Education
Author:Kleiner, Brian; Lewis, Laurie
Publication:Education Statistics Quarterly
Article Type:Survey
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Feb 1, 2006
Words:5595
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