Drawn to the sea: Charles Bradford Hudson (1865-1939), artist, author, army officer, with special notice of his work for the United States Fish Commission and Bureau of Fisheries.
A life involved with the sea was clearly unplanned in 1882, when Charles Bradford Hudson (Fig. 2), 17, was a student at Columbian College Preparatory School in Washington, D.C. It was during that year Hudson's main instructor, Otis Tufton Mason (1) (Fig. 3), an ethnologist who had a close working relationship with the Smithsonian Institution's U.S. National Museum, became aware of his student's artistic abilities. Mason had Hudson prepare a few illustrations for ethnological studies, for which the Smithsonian paid Hudson. (2) Smithsonian daily account books (3) indicate this arrangement continued after Hudson graduated from the preparatory school, in 1883, until at least 1885, when he was in his second year at Columbian College (now George Washington University). We have no information on Hudson's activities in 1886, other than that he was still attending college.
[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]
In 1887, Hudson graduated from Columbian College, from which he received awards in mathematics, Greek, and Latin, and he was offered a chair "in the classics" (4) by the college. His interest in illustrating, however, was greater than his scholarly interests and, opportunely, Otis Mason was in a position to help.
Mason had left the preparatory school in 1884 and joined the U.S. National Museum as curator of ethnology, one of the few salaried curator positions in the Museum. The Museum had a growing need for artists, although they were not always so designated. A.Z. Shindler (5), on the staff since 1876, had worked on many different types of projects. W.H. Chandlee was hired on 7 June 1886 to prepare illustrations for ethnological projects, and Mason was able to employ Hudson in June 1887 to prepare illustrations for ethnological and geological studies. The biennially published "Official Register of the United States (6)" lists all Federal employees as of 1 July of the fiscal year covered by the register. In the 1887 edition, Shindler is listed as an "artist," with a salary of $110.00 per month. Chandlee and Hudson are listed as "draftsmen," Chandlee, with a salary of $75.00 per month, and Hudson at $40.00 per month.
[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]
As soon as Mason was employed by the National Museum in 1884, he began keeping a diary (7) of the dates worked by the artists he was supervising (Shindler was not among them). On Friday, 10 June 1887, a few days before Hudson's college graduation ceremony, Mason made his first entry relating to Hudson, "Mr. C. B. Hudson came to draw," and Hudson did so regularly for 3 months, through 15 Sept. 1887, but that was the end--something more attractive had presented itself. The diary indicates that Hudson was on leave from 17 to 24 Sept., and from 26 Sept. to 12 Oct. it indicates he was "drawing for Capt. Collins," who worked for the U.S. Fish Commission. Finally, from 14 Oct. 1887 to 10 Apr. 1888, it indicates "CBH-Fish Commission." Mason's diary contains no further entries relating to CBH, and it appears that they never interacted again.
Stepping back a few years, in 1883, George Brown Goode (13 Feb. 1851-6 Sept. 1896), director of U.S. National Museum, appointed Captain Joseph William Collins (8) (Fig. 4) as an unsalaried honorary curator in the Section of Naval Architecture, Department of Arts and Industries, Division of Anthropology. (9) The appointment, in the same general division as Mason's, explains how Collins came to know both Mason and Hudson. Collins held the honorary position jointly with his Fish Commission position, but the demands of the latter prevented him from devoting much, if any, time to the former, particularly in 1888, when he had just been assigned demanding new duties.
In 1888 the Fish Commission was preparing an exhibit for the Cincinnati Centennial Exposition and had an opening for an artist. Collins was in charge of preparations, and after witnessing Hudson's abilities, he decided to hire him. On 15 Sept. 1888, Hudson began working for Collins in the newly created Division of Fisheries of the Fish Commission (Collins, 1891c:337, 343). (10) According to Collins (1892c:CXIII), Hudson's salary was $75 per month, and the position apparently only lasted to the end of the fiscal year, i.e. 30 June 1889. We do not know if Hudson's original position with Otis Mason was intended to be permanent or temporary, or if Hudson disliked his assignments, but we believe it most likely that it was Collins' magnetic 87.5% increase in salary that caused Charles Bradford Hudson to be drawn to the sea, and, if license permits inclusion of some lakes and rivers, the sea, directly and indirectly, would have a major influence on him for the rest of his life.
[FIGURE 4 OMITTED]
In our text, we frequently use the following abbreviations for the names of people, organizations, or manuscripts:
CAS--California Academy of Sciences
CASA--California Academy of Sciences Archives
CAS GSMAEL--GSMyers/AELeviton Biographical, Historical and Portrait File in the Natural Sciences (located at CAS)
CBH--Charles Bradford Hudson
CHB--Claire Hudson Brett, CBH's daughter from his second marriage
CHBMS--CHB's unpublished manuscript chronology outline "Charles Bradford Hudson," a copy of which she sent VGS in 1985
DVA--Department of Veteran's Affairs, Regional Office, Federal Building, 31 Hopkins Plaza, Baltimore, MD 21201. Charles Bradford Hudson files under No. XC or C-2-301-454, which contains a large number of pages referring to his pension, health, military service, and numerous supporting documents. We note that we received these records over a year after requesting them and after our manuscript was in press.
DULS--Duke University Libraries, Special Collections
NAASI--National Anthropology Archives, Smithsonian Institution
NARA--United States National Archives and Records Administration
SIA--Smithsonian Institution Archives
SQBMS--Sarah Quayle Brett's (CHB's granddaughter) unpublished manuscript "Captain Charles Bradford Hudson Index of Correspondence" sent to VGS on 27 Oct. 1998, and again by CHB's son Hudson Brett, on 24 Oct. 2005 (11)
SULS--Stanford University Libraries, Special Collections
USBF--United States Bureau of Fisheries (successor as of 14 Feb. 1903 of the United States Fish Commission)
USFC--United States Fish Commission
USNM--Division of Fishes, U.S. National Museum of Natural History
VGS--Victor G. Springer.
In describing the length of a fish, we use the ichthyological abbreviations:
SL (standard length)--distance from the tip of the snout to the base of the caudal fin
TL (total length)--distance from the tip of the snout to the end of the longest caudal-fin ray
The text is organized as follows: first, we present a more-or-less generalized narrative of Charles Bradford Hudson's life as we have been able to learn or infer it. Following the narrative, we present more detailed sections on his contributions that we covered in the narrative, including more description and documentation than we do in the narrative. The sections are in the form of annotated listings of CBH's own publications, the non-ichthyological publications of others that contain his illustrations, a detailed discussion and atlas of his ichthyological illustrations, and a brief but necessary treatment of his "fine art," mostly in support of our thesis that he was drawn to the sea.
Charles Bradford Hudson was born 27 Jan. 1865 in Oil Springs, Ontario, Canada, where his parents were visiting while his father, a newspaperman, was gathering information on the petroleum industry. CBH was the son of Thomson Jay Hudson (12) (22 Feb. 1834-26 May 1903), born in Windham, Ohio, and Emma Little Hudson (Apr. 1844-about Jan. 1908 (13)), born in Canada. Thomson and Emma were married in Port Huron, Michigan on 28 May 1861, when Thomson was 27 and Emma was 17. In the 1900 Census, Emma is reported to have given birth to two children, but only one [CBH] is indicated as living.
CBH was descended on his father's side from Edward Hudson, who emigrated from England and settled at Jamestown, Va., in 1607 with Captain John Smith, and on his mother's side from Massachusetts governor William Bradford, who arrived at Plymouth on the Mayflower in 1620. Thomson was admitted to the Ohio bar in 1857, but moved his practice to Michigan in 1860, and abandoned it in 1865 for a career in journalism. From 1865 to1875 he was an editor of a Detroit newspaper, during which time he became politically prominent. He ran for the U.S. Senate in 1866 but was defeated.
In 1877, when CBH was 12, the Hudsons moved to Washington, D.C. There, Thomson Hudson became correspondent for the Scripps Syndicate, supplying news to its five daily newspapers (Detroit, Buffalo, Cleveland, Cincinnati, and St. Louis). He left that position in 1880, and for the next 13 years he was a U.S. patent examiner, being promoted to the position of a Chief Examiner in 1886. In 1893 he published his first book, "The Law of Psychic Phenomena," which sold nearly 100,000 copies during the next 10 years. It has been reprinted many times, most recently in 2007, and it is currently in print. (14) Royalties from the book, and others Thomson would publish, must have been large enough to assure Thomson and his wife a very comfortable living. He, therefore, left his position as patent examiner and devoted his life to publishing and lecturing, very successfully, on subjects similar to those he wrote about in his first book. Thomson and Emma remained in Washington at least until 1900, but by 1902 they had moved to Detroit, Mich. Thompson died in Detroit in 1903 with Emma and CBH attending him. Emma died about 5 years later.
CBH was exposed to a highly charged intellectual atmosphere in his youth. He was surrounded with books in his father's extensive library (15) and he would probably have been present when persons of learning and accomplishment visited his parent's home and discussed ideas and issues of the day with his father. Both his father's intellectuality and ability to earn a living from writing (as reporter and editor) must have impressed CBH, whose apparently native writing ability was comparable to his ability as an artist. But CBH only authored his first two articles, one about deep-sea fishes and the other about the USFC's intended exhibit for the Chicago world's fair, when he was 28 (in 1893, the same year his father published his first book). (16)
Work for the Fish Commission
In his initial full-time employment with the USFC, it is unclear exactly what CBH's contribution was to the Fish Commission's exhibit for the 1888 Cincinnati Centennial Exposition. Collins (1892d:872) merely includes CBH's name among those of many others, in a list of "collaborators" who worked on the exhibition. During 1888, however, CBH spent considerable time illustrating fishing boats, which were a special interest of J. W. Collins, his supervisor and person in charge of preparing the USFC exhibit. Collins had designed and overseen construction of the USFC schooner, Grampus in 1886, and Collins (1891b) published a detailed report on the ship's design, construction, and equipment. CBH provided several illustrations for that article, including a line drawing of the ship at sea and illustrations of the Grampus' interior (illustrations variously dated 1888 and 1889).
Furthermore, CBH painted a picture, probably in color, of the Grampus, which was also dated 1888, and which was either the basis for, or based on, his 1888 illustration in Collins (1891b). The painting was framed and under glass and, quite possibly, was exhibited at the Cincinnati exposition. A reproduction of the painting did not appear in print until 1987 (Backus and Bourne, 1987), almost 100 years after CBH painted it, and then the published illustration was based on a print made from an old photographic negative, which is present in the files of the Smithsonian's Photographic Services. If the original painting exists, its current location is unknown.
CBH would illustrate other fishing craft and boats during his salaried year with the USFC, which probably ended with the close of the fiscal year in the fall of 1889. Many of these illustrations would be published by Collins (1891a), and one, of the USFC steamer Albatross, would be published by Richard Rathbun (1892)17, a high ranking official in the Fish Commission. Another such illustration appeared in Watkins (18) (1891) and, although not published for the USFC, Watkins' article was published in the Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian. It was an inkwash painting of the "Savannah," which, purportedly, was the first steamship to cross the Atlantic under its own power. The painting, dated 1889, is indicated to have been done by CBH under the supervision of J. W. Collins, and both men signed the painting.
Finally, Collins (1901) would publish a fine 1888 CBH pen-and-ink drawing of a British sailing trawler that was included in the 1898 International Fishery Exposition * in Bergen Norway, at which CBH was awarded a silver medal for his "drawings of fishing vessels and boats." He also would receive a bronze medal for a painting about mackerel fishing that was included in the Exhibition. The painting was not reproduced in a publication and the current location of the original is unknown.
A Short Interruption
On 1 Oct. 1889 (19), immediately after completing his work with the USFC, CBH, age 24, married Christine Schmidt, age 19, daughter of German immigrants living in Washington, D.C. We know almost nothing about her, or when and how they met, although she would have a disquieting affect on CBH's life. On 3 Aug. (according to Social Security Death Index) or 21 Aug. 1890 (according to CBH, DVA, Declaration for Pension, 18 March 1927), their first child, a daughter, Christine (20), was born. Shortly thereafter, on 4 Nov. 1889, CBH was in New York City beginning 2 months of evening sketch classes at the Art Students League with George deForest Brush (21) (1855-1941), a prominent, successful artist, who painted in a romantically realistic style. We do not know if CBH's wife was with him in New York.
During CBH's year with the USFC he probably met William Temple Hornaday22 (Fig. 5), who was Chief Taxidermist for the Smithsonian from 1882 to 1889. During 1889 and 1890, Hornaday apparently contracted with CBH to provide illustrations for a book on taxidermy (Hornaday, 1891), which became a bestseller. These illustrations appear to be the first CBH made for pay after leaving salaried employment with the USFC. The contact with Hornaday was to prove quite profitable as Hornaday would go on to have CBH provide illustrations for several of his articles and books, published intermittently until 1906. Hornaday (1899b) published a highly complimentary article about CBH.
Reassociation With the Fish Commission and On His Own
From 1890 to 1892, CBH was again illustrating ships for J. W. Collins, but these were probably done on contract. In 1891, under Collins' direction, CBH published a highly detailed illustration of a merchant sailing ship for "The Century Dictionary"; it was to appear in all editions of the dictionary through the last in 1914.
The year 1891 was an important one in CBH's life. He exhibited his fine art (23), for what may have been the first time, in a show at Washington's exclusive Cosmos Club, followed by another inclusion in an exhibit held in December of the same year by the Society of Washington Artists. Hornaday (1899b) remarked that CBH was an illustrator because he enjoyed the work. That may be, but we assume that illustrating at this early period of his life was probably more profitable and secure a profession for a family man than painting pretty pictures. Ultimately, however, CBH would give up illustrating and restrict his artistic efforts to painting seascapes and landscapes, which we believe was his preferred occupation.
[FIGURE 5 OMITTED]
It was also in 1891 that CBH began preparing illustrations of fishing vessels for the USFC exhibit at the World's Columbian Exposition (also known as the Chicago World's Fair) to be held in 1893 (McDonald, 1894:lxxi), and it was the year he illustrated Juan Lewis' (24) (1892) self-published little book of poems, from which we took our frontispiece (Fig. 1).
It appears that 1892 was the first year that CBH both illustrated and authored an article. It was published in 1893 (Hudson, 1893a) and concerned the USFC exhibit for the Columbian Exposition. The article contained a few illustrations of fishes, and, except for our Figure 1, are the first such by CBH that we know of, either for himself or for others. During 1892 and 1893, he illustrated and wrote an article about deep-sea fishes (Hudson, 1893b), and it may have been about this time that CBH came to the attention of Barton Warren Evermann (25) (Fig. 6), who had been employed by the USFC in 1891 as an Assistant in the Division of Scientific Enquiry. Evermann would avail himself of CbH's services frequently over the years, involving him as illustrator and participant on two major expeditions, recommending him as illustrator to David Starr Jordan (26) (Fig. 7), employing him for many years as a background painter of dioramas at the California Academy of Sciences, where Evermann became director (in 1914), and recommending him as a fine-art artist to Gump's Department Store in San Francisco, which was to be the sole sales representative for CBH's landscape and seascape paintings.
Late in 1893, CBH would again leave his wife and young daughter, this time to study art under W. A. Bougereau at the Academie Julian in Paris. They would, however, join him there, but it could not have been for long, as Christine would give birth to a son, Lester Jay, in the City of Washington, on 21 Apr. 1894, and we presume CBH was with her at the time. During 1893, while in Paris, CBH began preparing illustrations of Parisian scenes, which he used to illustrate his lively article about the Latin Quarter (Hudson, 1894). CBH would illustrate three articles for Hornaday in 1894, and in 1895, he would illustrate and author three of his own articles: one about the work of the USFC (Hudson, 1895a), one about a particular kind of fish for a children's magazine (1895b), and one about the life history and behavior of several kinds of fishes (1895c). He also provided illustrations for a novel written by Hornaday (1896).
[FIGURE 6 OMITTED]
In 1896, CBH was again working contractually for the USFC. During 3-14 Sept. he was at Cape Charles, Va., illustrating fishes in color, and from 24 Sept. to 8 Dec. he was at Woods Hole, Mass., doing the same. With a short break after Woods Hole, from 2 Jan. to 27 Mar., or perhaps 2 Apr. 1897, he was illustrating fishes again, this time in Key West, Fla. Not surprisingly, during these absences, it appears that his wife remained at home to take care of their children. On the other hand, it is surprising that none of these illustrations were included in the USFC exhibit at the International Fishery Exposition in Bergen, Norway. During 1897, CBH prepared illustrations for another novel (Inman, 1898).
From 20 Dec. 1888 through 1898, CBH's service with the District of Columbia National Guard (henceforth, DCNG), also referred to in records and reports as the District National Guard and the District Militia, paralleled his other activities. During the Spanish-American War, 1899, the DCNG troops were called to duty and served as the First District Volunteers in the U.S. Army. The records of the DCNG (including those of the District Volunteers) are complex and dispersed among several different archives. There are gaps in the records that probably represent lost or misfiled records, or records in some repository of which we are unaware. DVA contains many of CBH's postmilitary records relating to his pension applications and amounts, and those devolving onto his wife after his death. His pension was merited only because he served during the Spanish-American War. Also included in DVA are some complete physical exams (more below) and other personal information in supporting documents.
[FIGURE 7 OMITTED]
CBH's earliest DCNG military records are deposited at the National Personnel Records Center (henceforth NPRC), in St. Louis, Mo. (27) His initial enlistment "as a soldier," no rank given, but presumably as a private, was on 20 Dec. 1888 for a period of 3 years (expiration 19 Dec. 1891). (28) Indicating his occupation as "artist" and place of business as "U.S. Fish Commission Exhibit (29)," CBH re-enlisted on 2 Jan. 1892 for another 3 years, "unless sooner discharged." The enlistment period must have ended "sooner," as there is a record that he was "honorably discharged per S[pecial]. O[rder]. 1, par 1 Series 1893." CBH next signed an enlistment paper on 20 Dec. 1893 (30) for another 3 years ("unless sooner discharged"), which would have terminated 19 Dec. 1896. On that paper he gave his occupation as "illustrator" (there was no space provided to indicate place of business on that application). Possibly, as a result of a change in his military status, CBH was again discharged, "S. O. No. 7, par 2, series 1895, and on 9 May 1895 he again enlisted for 3 years, this time as a "Sergeant Major," giving his [civilian] occupation as "Illustrator and Journalist." The termination date of this enlistment was given as 9 May 1898 on a separate piece of paper dated 10 May 1895, which indicates he is Sergeant Major, 1st Regiment. This last paper has a handwritten note "Discharge when commissioned to date July 22/95" followed by "honorably discharged per S. O. No. 44, par 1 Series 1895." On another sheet, dated 26 Jul 1895, CBH is also listed as Sergeant Major, 1st Regiment, with a note, "Transferred to Gen[eral] Noncom[issioned]. staff, by S. O. 34 c.s."
The only information we have of CBH's military service between 26 July 1895 and 16 May 1898 is indicated in papers in possession of CBH's family. (31) They list two records, the first is dated 26 Aug. 1895: "War Department, Adjutant General's Office, Washington: Commission of Adjutant of the First Regiment of Infantry of the Militia of the District of Columbia; endorsements ... (2 pages);" and the second, dated 6/03/1897: "Headquarters of D.C. Militia letter regarding commission as Captain & A.DC [aide-de-camp] ... (1 page)." An article in the Washington Post (1 Dec. 1900:9) included an announcement of CBH's resignation from the "District Guard," stating that he was "on the general staff since July 3, 1895."
Records of CBH's service during the Spanish-American War were available to us and date from 16 May 1898 (32), when that organization was mustered into the U.S. Army, as the 1st Regiment, District of Columbia Infantry [U.S. Army Volunteers], commanded by Colonel George Herbert Harries, during the war. On that date, CBH was listed as first lieutenant, Company K; however, a chronological sheet accompanying his records indicates, "May 30 commission as 1st Lt, 1st D.C. Vols." He served in that position during the time (beginning 14 July) his unit participated in the Siege of Santiago, Cuba. A fortnight later, 29 July, he was entered on the list of sick and wounded as having "Intermittent Fever" associated with "Jaundice." We assume that he had been infected with yellow fever, which was epidemic, and often fatal, during the War. CBH would suffer from its effects for several years. On 1 Aug. 1898, 3 days after being diagnosed, and undoubtedly as a result of the fever, he was "Transferred ... from Company K to be Adjutant 2nd Battalion" (the Regiment comprised three battalions), a staff position probably requiring less physical stress than that of an officer with direct command responsibility. He remained in that capacity until he was mustered out of the Army on 20 Nov. 1898. After mustering out, he returned to his status in the District National Guard, reverting to his pre-war rank of captain and as aide-de-camp to Harries, who also returned to his pre-war rank as brigadier general.
The Washington Post (9 Sept. 1898:4) has a full page of drawn portraits, probably based on photographs, of the "Officers who led the District heroes." They are predominantly full faced and hatless, and include one of CBH (Fig. 8, right) with a handlebar mustache. Hornaday (1899b:449) provided a photograph of CBH in uniform, which we reproduce as Figure 8, left.
On 20 Nov. 1900, CBH resigned his commission in the D.C. Guard, and on Nov. 26 his resignation took effect. Between Dec. 1900, and early Feb. 1901, CBH applied for appointment as a second lieutenant in the regular U. S. Army. Several letters of recommendation, including that of General Harries (33), on his behalf, were received by the War Department, Adjutant General's Office. On 9 Oct. 1902, CBH was notified that he was ineligible for appointment because these appointments were limited to men from 21 to 27 years of age; CBH was 37.
[FIGURE 8 OMITTED]
We find CBH's persistence to have a military career of particular interest, and hazard the opinion that he was driven to affirm his masculinity. In conversations with VGS, both his daughters stressed his small size and slight build. His military records during the Spanish-American War describe him as being 5 ft. 5 1/2 inches [1.66 m] tall, of light complexion, with blue eyes and brown hair. A DVA medical exam record dated 5 Jan. 1938 (roughly 40 years later and 18 months before his death) describes him as being 5 ft 4 1/4 inches [1.63 m], weight 117 lbs, stripped [53.2 kg], highest weight in past year, 135 lbs [61.4 kg]; cardiovascular system abnormal: "all arteries are hard, beaded and tortuous," appendectomy scar, all upper jaw teeth absent, lower jaw lacking 12 teeth, but "dentures satisfactory." And concluded, "Claimant is 100% disabled to perform manual labor due to his arteriosclerosis ..." Various other records indicate his height as 5'6" [1.68 m] and 5'8" [1.7 m], but these were not associated with medical exams and are probably inaccurate. An age related decrease in height from 5 ft. 5 1/2 inches to 5 ft 4 1/4 inches over a period of 40 years, seems reasonable, especially if there was associated osteoporosis.
Henceforth, as a result of his military service, CBH was frequently addressed or referred to as Captain Hudson by his friends and colleagues.
Return to Washington, D.C.
On return to the United States, CBH's unit was stationed at Camp Wikoff, N.Y., a demobilization and quarantine camp established Aug.-Sept. 1898 for troops returning from the Spanish-American War. (34) By 12 Sept., CBH was back in Washington, D.C. He appears to have returned to his family then, but by November he left them and moved into his father's home on Capitol Hill, in which he would reside until he left for California in the spring of 1901. Although, he would have close relations with his children, it appears that he never saw his wife again.
CBH now entered what was probably a difficult period of his life. Suffering from the ill effects of yellow fever and the emotional stress of separating himself from his children, if not from his wife, he produced only a few magazine illustrations in 1899 and published no articles of his own (nor would he until 1903). He produced few, if any, illustrations of fishes during the year, as we imply in the section on "CBH's Ichthyological Illustrations" (see date illustrated for illustrations P03239, P03416, P06885, P09663, P10343, P15116).
By 1900, CBH was busily at work again. He prepared several illustrations, published in 1902, for the reports of several of the scientists who participated in the Harriman Alaska Expedition of 1899. (35) The original of one of these illustrations, a small oil painting of sea lions, hung in the E. H. Harriman home for many years, but its whereabouts have been unknown since about 1993. CBH completed a few magazine illustrations during 1900 and a series of pictorial identification labels for the bird exhibit of the New York Zoological Society, of which his friend Hornaday was the director and probably the source of his employment (CBH apparently did this work in New York (36)). In late 1900, CBH was awarded a bronze medal for his paintings of fishes, which had been included in the Paris Exposition Universelle (World's Fair).
On 29 Dec. 1900, the first publication of CBH's ichthyological illustrations would appear (Evermann and Marsh, 1900). These included colored lithographs of the paintings he had made mostly in Key West, Fla., in 1896, and pen-and-ink illustrations made in either 1899 or 1900.
In early Jan. 1901, Christine Hudson brought her first suit for divorce, claiming CBH deserted her in 1898. (37)
West to California and Beyond
Hawaii became a territory of the United States on 22 Feb. 1900. By Act of Congress, 20 Apr. 1900, the Commissioner of the USFC was "empowered and required to examine into the entire subject of fisheries ... in the Territory of Hawaii ..." (Smith, 1902:123). The Commissioner placed the investigations under the direction of D. S. Jordan, then President of Stanford University, and B. W. Evermann, ichthyologist, with the Commission (Smith, 1902:124). The artists selected to go on the expedition to Hawaii were CBH and A. H. Baldwin, both of whom had previously prepared illustrations of fishes for Evermann
The expedition was scheduled to begin in June 1901. Apparently, in early March 1901, Jordan had written Evermann requesting that CBH illustrate certain species of fishes and offering CBH an "appointment [without pay] as associate artist in the Hopkins Laboratory," (38) located in Pacific Grove, Calif., when CBH came out to California. Hudson accepted with alacrity, but his response puzzles us. In it (dated 15 Mar. 1901) he indicated that he will leave for California as soon as he could arrange his affairs, "I have an order from the U.S. Fish Commission for three drawings in color which will probably require between two and three weeks to complete ..." We do not know of any CBH USFC paintings in color done in 1901 other than those prepared during his participation in Jordan and Evermann's expedition to Hawaii.
CBH departed Washington, D.C., for California, probably arriving sometime in mid Apr. or May, 1901. By the first of June, he was on the boat for Hawaii together with the rest of the expedition's participants, and some other folks (Fig. 9). Among them was Claire Grace Barnhisel (in the future usually known as Grace), a Stanford University graduate, on her way to Hawaii to teach school. Two and one-half years later (9 Dec. 1903), CBH (38) and Grace (32), born 29 Oct. 1871, would marry. (39)
CBH painted Hawaiian fishes from life from early June to late July 1901, at which time he and the other members of the expedition returned to California. An article in the Honolulu Evening Bulletin, 8 July 1901, described him at work: "Hudson's studio is an interesting den. It is not in at [sic] attic nor under a eucalyptus tree. He is perched on a bench at the outer end of the pier seaward from the Moana hotel. He has before him a glass aquarium, full of sea water. Here he poses his models." The article also mentions that it took CBH a week to complete each illustration (Fig. 10).
The fishes he illustrated were published in Jordan and Evermann's (1905) study of the shore fishes of the Hawaiian Islands. They would be reproduced in postcard format, though suffering in quality, in several editions over the years by the Waikiki Aquarium (40), and four would also be reproduced as postcards by the Steinhart Aquarium, San Francisco, about 1923.
On his return to California from Hawaii in Aug. 1901, CBH resumed preparing illustrations, probably for D. S. Jordan's studies of Japanese fishes. In August, the first filing of Christine Hudson for divorce was dismissed "without prejudice," but a second filing was made about 20 Aug. It alleged that CBH had left his home in November 1898, and had been absent for more than 2 years. (41) The divorce was granted 21 Nov. 1902 (DVA copy of divorce decree), in which it was specified that CBH's wife would have custody of their daughter, Christine, during her minority, but allowing CBH to have her visit him for 2 months each year. Similarly, CBH was granted custody of their son, Lester, but allowing Christine to have him visit her for 2 months each year.
At some period during 1900-01, CBH's parents would move from Washington, D.C., to Detroit, Mich.
On 4 Feb. 1902, CBH, in Pacific Grove, wrote J. O. Snyder (42) at Stanford that he was working "seven days in the week" and that "... my health, which I have never fully recovered since the war, has been better here than in any other place. (43)" He wasn't only drawing fishes, however, as in March he began working on his first novel. (44) On 22 Apr. 1902, A. H. Baldwin, who was at Stanford University illustrating fishes, wrote Dr. Hugh M. Smith, soon to be the first Deputy Commissioner of Fisheries, "Hudson is here now and looks very well. He enjoys California more than I do I think, and expects to stay here some time I believe. (45)" Baldwin's thinking was spot on! From that time until his death in 1939, CBH would make California, mostly in Pacific Grove, his permanent home. Probably, contributing to his initial desire to stay, we presume, was a blooming romance between him and Grace Barnhisel, enhanced when his wife's divorce decree was granted.
About 12 Feb. 1903, however, CBH had been called to Detroit to help his mother attend to his father, who had serious health problems. (46) CBH had taken specimens with him, which he was illustrating as time permitted, and Jordan repeatedly importuned him to finish them so that he could submit his papers for publication. CBH remained in Detroit, and on 26 May 1903, his father died. CBH would stay on in Detroit until at least November to help settle his father's estate and also to write a biography of his father and preface for his father's posthumous book, "The Evolution of the Soul and Other Essays," 1904.
[FIGURE 9 OMITTED]
By early Dec. 1903, CBH was back in California, and on 9 Dec. 1903, he and Claire Grace Barnhisel were married in San Jose. (47) They would make their permanent home in Pacific Grove, building a house in 1910 at 317 Alder Street and, with occasional extended absences would live there until CBH died in 1939 and his wife moved away in 1941 (in litt., 6 Jan. 1941, Grace B. Hudson to DVA). It was in the Alder Street home that they would raise their two children, Bradford Benedict and Claire Barnhisel, and Lester, son of CBH's first marriage. By 1926, CBH would build or acquire a separate studio at 440 Asilomar Avenue (from the Spanish, asilo, a refuge + mar, sea, hence, refuge by the sea), less than a mile (1.61 km) from their home, near to, and with an unimpeded view of, the Pacific (Fig. 11). (48) After Grace, 93, died (1964), or perhaps some years earlier, the Alder Street home was sold, but today the entranceway bears a Pacific Grove historic marker, "Grace Hudson 1910." The studio remains in the family and the ashes of Claire Hudson Brett, are spread on the grounds around a tree. (49) CBH was also cremated, and his ashes, presumably, were similarly dispersed. The ashes of his son, Rear Admiral Lester J. Hudson, were dispersed at sea off Point Lobos, Calif., a favorite subject for CBH's paintings (Fig. 12, 13).
From Lake Tahoe to the Golden Trout of the High Sierras
In the spring of 1904, Stewart Edward White (50), a prominent author who had visited California's Sierra Nevada Mountains in 1903, wrote President Theodore Roosevelt of his concern for the preservation of the golden trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita, of the High Sierras. It was considered to be the most beautiful of all trout species. It had a limited distribution and it was easily caught by trout fishermen, who could fish it to extinction. Roosevelt contacted George Meade Bowers (51), fifth U.S. Commissioner of Fisheries, who wrote White on 22 Apr. 1904:
I have received a letter from the President in which he calls attention to the golden trout of Mount Whitney, concerning which he states that he has received a letter from you. It affords me pleasure to inform you that this Bureau is alive to the interest attaching to this beautiful trout and has already taken steps toward its preservation. During the summer an investigation will be made for the purpose of determining in just what streams it is now found and what steps may be taken for its preservation and wider distribution.
[FIGURE 10 OMITTED]
Bowers appointed Barton Warren Evermann to head the investigation of the golden trout, which was known from Volcano Creek (52) in the Kern River region of the High Sierras, an area of rugged terrain, deep canyons with vertical walls, streams, waterfalls, and meadows, among mountains reaching heights well over 10,000 ft (3,048 m), with Mt. Whitney having the highest peak (15,505 ft, 4,421 m) in the contiguous United States. Evermann knew that an expedition into such wilds to make a biological study of a fish would require several weeks, much equipment, and pack animals to carry the supplies, personnel, and equipment.
[FIGURE 11 OMITTED]
Among the personnel he wanted were scientists with differing specialties, assistants, packers, a cook, and a competent artist to capture the life colors of what was considered to be the most beautiful trout in the United States. Trout fishermen in the early 1900's were just as avid about their sport and prey as they are today, and the Bureau sought to make every effort possible to learn about and to protect such an attractive fish, no less than how to satisfy Theodore Roosevelt.
Evermann put together a team of 10 people, which included, beside himself: Oliver Peebles Jenkins, (1850-1935), professor of physiology and histology, and Rufus L. Green (3 Mar. 1862-19 Nov. 1932), professor of mathematics, both of Stanford University; Chancey Juday (5 May 1871-29 Mar. 1944), then professor of zoology (limnologist, freshwater planktonologist) of the University of Colorado; and three assistants, two packers, a cook, and, last but not least, the artist, Charles Bradford Hudson.
But first, there were the moderately complex problems involving the genteel art of financial negotiations and overcoming what appears to have been a budgetary obstacle to the Bureau of Fisheries' paying CBH's transportation expenses from Michigan to the expedition's origination point in Visalia, Calif., and probably those of Chancey Juday, who was in Colorado.
Sometime before May 1904, CBH, with his wife, had returned to his mother's home in Detroit and Evermann had written him there requesting him to participate in the expedition to the Sierras. On 1 May 1904, CBH replied (53):
Dear Professor Evermann,
Your very kind favor of offering me the opportunity of a trip into the Sierras next summer is at hand, and makes me regret more than ever that I am not in California. It appeals to me a lot. There is little possibility, however, that I shall go west before next winter--if, indeed, I go then. But if I were there I should certainly accept your proposition, not only for the sake of the chance to paint the trout, but for the outing with you and Dr. Jenkins. I thank you for the invitation. I infer that the Fish Commission would not pay my expenses from a point as remote as this. If that could be arranged I should be very much tempted.
[FIGURE 12 OMITTED]
On 25 May 1904, Evermann included the following comment in a letter to Jenkins, "Our party, so far as provisionally determined, will include [a list of participants follows]. To these I would add Hudson, if he were on the coast, for the Golden Trout of Mount Whitney surely ought to be done in colors and Hudson can do it beautifully. He may be willing to go anyway."
Also, on 25 May, Evermann wrote CBH in response to CBH's May 1 letter:
My dear Mr. Hudson:
I am awfully sorry you are not on the coast; for I would like mightily to have you go with me to beard the Golden Trout in its native waters. And I would be pleased if some way [emphasis ours] could be arranged by which you might be induced to go. I regret that there is so little money available for this investigation; but as there are so few fishes in that region available for painting, the Bureau could not offer the compensation which you should have as an artist. The best that I can offer is a most delightful trip into America's wonderland, which I was sure would appeal to you. I can assume all our expenses while in the field. Now how much toward your other expenses (getting to Palo Alto, etc.) would induce you to go? If it is not too much, I'll try hard to raise it. There are special California rates which we might strike. My idea is to start as early in July as possible and finish up sometime in August, I hope not later than the 10th.
[FIGURE 13 OMITTED]
It appears that CBH had not received Evermann's 25 May letter before 2 June, when CBH wrote him the following:
My dear Professor Evermann:
I have been thinking very hard about your proposed trip, and confess it is a great temptation; but I really do not feel that I can afford my part of the expense. I wish very much that I could do so, for I appreciate the value of the opportunity, to say nothing of the pleasure of bashing my shins on the Sierras with you and Doctor Jenkins. I would be glad to give you my time and would be willing to travel tourist or any other old way, but my expenses have been rather heavy this winter and I am pretty nearly as hard up as our Uncle Sam. I am sorry that I can not give you a more favorable reply. If I were in Palo Alto I would not hesitate a moment. Is it quite impossible for the office to furnish transportation?
Two letters were sent to CBH, both dated June 7, that allows us to understand how Evermann solved CBH's transportation problem and, perhaps, permits us to hazard a guess as to why CBH's three paintings of the Lake Tahoe cutthroat trout, made before the Sierra expedition, were never published by either Evermann or D. S. Jordan, both of whom published extensively on California salmonids. The first 7 June letter reads:
Captain Charles B. Hudson
You are hereby appointed a temporary assistant in this Bureau and assigned to duty in connection with the study of the statistics and methods of fisheries of the interior waters of California. Your compensation, until otherwise ordered, will be at the rate of sixty dollars per month. Your actual and necessary expenses while engaged upon this work will be refunded to you upon the presentation of properly executed vouchers. At your earliest convenience, you will proceed to Lake Tahoe, where you will report to Professor Chancey Juday.
Respectfully, Geo. M. Bowers Commissioner
The other letter was written by Evermann. We did not find a copy of Evermann's response to CBH's letter, which Evermann stamped "Answered June 7 1904," among the CASA Evermann files. A copy of that letter, however, is mentioned in SQBMS, with a brief descriptive note of its contents. The note reads (bracketed inclusion is ours), "Barton Evermann letter to CBH informing him to proceed to Lake Tahoe and report to Professor Chancey Juday to render assistance and paint four species [specimens ?: male and female of each of two species?] of trout: the Pogy or Snipe (Salmo henshawi) and the Silver Trout (S. tahoensis)-be sure to save and tag specimens ...." Salmo henshawi is now considered to be a valid, but extinct, subspecies of the cutthroat trout, Oncorhynchus clarkii. Salmo tahoensis is now considered to be a junior synonym of Oncorhynchus clarkii henshawi.
It appears that there were funds to hire an assistant for a study of statistics and methods of fisheries, but not for an artist to illustrate fishes. Whether Bowers was aware of the content of Evermann's letter is unknown, but it might have been embarrassing for a copy of Evermann's letter to be available in the files. In any event, under the guise of working on a research project as an assistant to Juday, CBH would receive pay that would be adequate to cover his transportation to Lake Tahoe and to the expedition starting point in California. As for the Tahoe paintings, neither Evermann nor Bowers would have wanted to call attention to their provenance, so they sat in the USFC files unutilized until well after the death of everyone concerned.
CBH replied to Evermann's June 7 letter on 9 June 1904:
My dear Doctor Evermann,
Your letter of instructions and my marching orders came this morning. I will leave for California on the 11th--the day after tomorrow via So. Pac. to Tahoe. The compensation mentioned in the orders comes as a very agreeable surprise for it was quite unexpected. I thank you very sincerely.
I am taking a good supply of materials and will work in watercolor, as I find it much more speedy than the oil, and consider it quite as effective for fresh-water species, whose markings are not usually elaborate. I would be very glad, if you can do so, if you will send the large proportional dividers (54) which I used before. Mine are too small for convenience. However, I will take them along. Could you not send the F. C.[Fish Commission's] proportionals to Prof. Juday?
Mrs. Hudson sends her greetings, but tells me to say that she does not consider it a bit nice that she has not been invited. She would like to go, but declines to cook. I suggested it as a possible opening, but she refuses to make herself useful otherwise than in her former capacity as cousin to the party. I hope to see you very soon.
CBH arrived in Tahoe on 14 June, and immediately began work on painting the trout. Apparently, Evermann was not concerned about CBH's letter becoming noticed. We suspect that a similar subterfuge was used to cover the transportation of Juday who, unlike CBH, was professionally competent to "study the statistics and methods of the fisheries of the interior waters of California." Juday did not require any help from CBH, as his letters concerning CBH alluded only to the latter's painting and equipment for the High Sierras trip.
We found it most interesting that the Commissioner's reports from 1904 to 1906 contain comprehensive reports of the fishery studies the Bureau was involved in, but make no mention of Juday, Hudson, or the Bureau's order for an investigation of the fisheries of Lake Tahoe. Juday (1907), then working for the Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey, did publish a short report on his Lake Tahoe investigations in the Bureau of Fisheries Bulletin 26, but he included no illustrations and made no mention of CBH. Nevertheless, the three illustrations of the Lake Tahoe cutthroat trout that CBH made are the only ones known that record the life color of that subspecies. Two (Plate 16 A, C) were first published by Ono et al. in 1983, 79 years after their preparation, and we publish the third (Plate 16 B) for the first time, over 100 years after it was prepared.
To finally get CBH to Visalia, Commissioner Bowers wrote CBH at Lake Tahoe on 28 June 1904:
Having completed the statistical inquiry upon which you have been engaged at lake Tahoe, under orders dated June 7, you will, on or about July 8, report at Visalia, California to Dr. Barton W. Evermann whom you will assist during the investigation of the trout and trout streams and lakes of middle and southern California.
Your compensation will be at the rate of sixty dollars per month. Your actual and necessary expenses will be refunded to you on presentation of proper vouchers.
The expedition departed 13 July 1904 (Evermann, 1906:3) and reached Volcano Creek, in which the golden trout was originally endemic, no later than 30 July (O. P. Jenkins in Evermann, 1906:40-41) (Fig. 14). The trout, which Evermann would name for Roosevelt, occurred throughout the entire creek from near its mouth at an altitude of about 6,300 ft (1,920 m) to its highest reach, about 10,000 ft (3,048 m). The expedition would go on to explore terrain and streams around and well beyond Volcano Creek (Evermann, 1906: foldout map), reaching or nearly so, the peak of Mt. Whitney, and continuing west about 6 miles (9.6 km) along Lone Pine Creek to a position ca. long. 118[degrees] 10'W, lat. 36[degrees] 35'N. We were unable to locate an ending date for the expedition. Jennings (1997:200) mentioned the expedition lasted 2 months, but his source for this is not given. In Evermann's CASA files is a printed invitation of the Massachusetts Fish and Game Protective Association, dated 6 Mar. 1909. It announces a lecture to be given by Evermann, 18 Mar. 1909, in Boston, with the title, "With pack train to the tip-top of the United States in search of the Golden Trout," and includes the following statement in its brief description of the talk, "The party was composed of fifteen men and they were gone a month or six weeks, going in by donkey pack train."
If we accept the month estimate, CBH, would have been away from his new bride for at least 2 months since leaving Detroit for Lake Tahoe. During that time, he would have made three illustrations of the endemic Lake Tahoe cutthroat trout subspecies and two illustrations, one each, of two endemic subspecies of golden trout from the Sierras, both of which Evermann thought represented undescribed species. Evermann's Salmo whitei would persist as a valid subspecies, Oncorhynchus mykiss whitei (Evermann), but his Salmo roosevelti would ultimately be found to be a junior synonym of O. m. aguabonita (Jordan). Roosevelt (27 Oct. 1858-06 Jan. 1919), however, would not live to learn of his patronymic loss.
[FIGURE 14 OMITTED]
CBH did not restrict his artistic efforts only to fishes during the expedition; he was also sketching the scenery. He made an etching from one of his sketches, prints of which he intended to give to the expedition participants as a souvenir, and Evermann (1905) published it.
CBH returned to Michigan after the High Sierra trip. Evermann must have been as pleased with CBH's trout paintings as he had anticipated. Within a few weeks (29 Sept. 1904) after his return, CBH was telegraphed orders to travel east to Maine to prepare paintings of the local freshwater trout species. He arrived in Mountain View, Maine, on 6 Oct., accompanied by his wife. Between 6 Oct. and mid Dec. 1904, CBH would complete ten color illustrations of salmonids. The work on these would take place in Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont. We are uncertain that Claire was with him during the entire trip, but presumably, CBH was with her and back at his mother's home in Detroit in time for Christmas.
Fish Illustrations for Ernest Thompson Seton (55)
In the following discussion, all references to numerous letters (dated between 07/15/1901 and 11/05/1906) from Ernest Thompson Seton (Fig. 15) to Barton Warren Evermann, and relevant other papers (two letters from other sources to Evermann and undated handwritten notes made by Evermann and an unknown employee) are based on the contents of CASA, Barton Warren Evermann, letter box 19. For the sake of brevity, we indicate only a few of the actual letter dates in support of statements we make. No copies of Evermann's letters to Seton were available and may not exist. (56)
[FIGURE 15 OMITTED]
Seton (1898 (57)) had published a list of the fishes of Manitoba and continued his interest in the subject by planning an update to the list. At least as early as July 1901 and as late as May 1904, Seton was corresponding with Barton Warren Evermann, then with the USFC in Washington, D.C. Seton had been sending Evermann specimens of Manitoba fishes, and occasionally amphibians, for identification and, in some cases, for deposit in the U.S. National Museum.
Seton was planning a book on Manitoba that was to include an appendix listing and illustrating all the species of fishes found in the province. Although only Seton's letters relating to obtaining the illustrations of fishes are available, it was possible to infer much about the content of Evermann's letters. In addition to available line cuts of species of fishes that occur in Manitoba that appeared in Jordan and Evermann's (1900), Bulletin 47, volume 4 of the United States National Museum, Seton needed 13 more illustrations. Evermann, who was based in Washington, D.C., arranged for CBH, who had returned to California, to prepare the illustrations, which CBH did during 1905. Apparently, there were 12 inkwash (gray-scale) drawings and one in color. Evermann sent the completed illustrations to Seton at Seton's Connecticut home before receiving Hudson's invoice for payment. Seton inscribed his initials, E. T. S., in small letters, on the reverse of each illustration.
It appears that Seton had been led to believe that he was to be charged $5.00 for each illustration, and his publisher had limited him to spending a total of $85 (he originally thought he was going to need 17 species illustrated). The total cost for these was later increased to $90 and then to $100. CBH, however, sent Evermann a bill for $325 (58) for the 13 drawings, and Evermann, forwarded the bill to Seton. Seton was clearly surprised by the size of the charge and stated that he was put "in a most distressing predicament." He requested Evermann to intervene on his behalf with CBH, and have CBH reconsider the charges.
Seton suggested three solutions to the problem: "First, CBH would "keep all the drawings" and use them as he wanted, and Seton would pay CBH a "bonus" of $40. Second, Seton and his intended publisher would share in the cost of the drawings, but would pay only $10 each for the drawings [i.e. a total of $130, which is what CBH would have charged the USFC for similar illustrations]. Third, the Fish Commission would take ownership of the drawings and Seton would pay the Commission $65 and promise not to use the drawings for a year, in order that the Commission would have the first opportunity to publish them.
It is uncertain what CBH's decision was, but because the illustrations were among the large group that the Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service (under which the Bureau of Fisheries was placed in the early 1940's) transferred to USNM in 1962 (59), it appears that some aspect of the second option, proffered in Oct. 1905, was agreed on. Between October and 5 Nov. 1906, there is no correspondence in the file. On 5 Nov. 1906, before which date Seton had returned the illustrations to Evermann to be processed for publication, Seton asked to countermand his order that half-tone plates be made from them because he found he could only use line cuts (black and white drawings as opposed to gray-scale or colored ones) for his purposes. Not only did Seton not use the illustrations, he never published another paper on fishes--from Manitoba or elsewhere.
In 1909, at the annual meeting in Winnipeg of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, the Association issued "A Handbook to Winnipeg and the Province of Manitoba." In it, Seton authored a paper on the mammals and birds, of which groups he was an authority; the article on the fishes and fisheries was authored by E[dward]. E[rnest]. Prince (1858-1936; British-Canadian scientist). Neither article contained illustrations.
Return to General Illustrating and Authorship
By the end of 1905 CBH was either close to finishing, or had finished, writing his first novel and submitted it for publication. Also about this time he completed three book illustrations that appeared as half-tone plates in Hornaday (1906). They are the last illustrations he did for Hornaday. At least one of the plates was rendered in color as an oil painting, but it was redrawn in gray scale for the published version.
During 1906, CBH was illustrating fishes again for the USBF (successor of the USFC). He produced one inkwash painting of a new species of a freshwater fish from Argentina for a paper by Evermann and Kendall (1906) and spent the summer and fall in Michigan preparing seven colored illustrations of Great Lakes whitefishes for the USBF, but his presence in Michigan began in the spring (60), probably a response to concern for his mother's health. The illustrations were first published by Koelz (1929) (61) 23 years later. Given the delay in publication, we presume that the order for the fish paintings was partly Evermann's desire to support CBH while in Michigan, and probably for a study Evermann intended to undertake, given his interest in salmonids (at that time whitefishes were considered to belong in the family Coregonidae, separate from, but related to the Salmonidae).
On 8 Dec. 1906, Grace Hudson gave birth in California to their first child, Bradford Benedict Hudson, who would later become a professor at Rice University, specializing in the culture of the Near and Middle East. We assume that CBH had returned to California from Michigan in time to be present for his son's birth.
The year 1907 was a busy one for CBH. He again spent time with his mother in Detroit. He would have received proofs on his first novel, "The Crimson Conquest," a romance based on Pizarro's conquest of Peru which would be published in October, and he published a nonillustrated article in the Popular Science Monthly on the background of emerging militarism in China. Evermann requested more illustrations of salmonids, but we only have evidence that CBH illustrated two (Plates 15 E and 16 F).
By the end of 1907 or the beginning of 1908, CBH's mother died, and CBH returned to Detroit to settle her estate (CHBMS, entry: ~8 Jan.-8 Mar.).
The End of Fishes
There is no firm evidence that CBH illustrated fishes in 1908 or 1909. Although doubtful, it is possible, however, that three species of Oregon freshwater fishes that Evermann collected in 1904 and CBH illustrated in gray tones (Plate 2 B, C, D), and which appeared in Snyder (1908; issued 28 Sept.), were prepared in 1908.
In the summer of 1908, CBH began painting pictures of fruits and flowers for the seed catalogs of Luther Burbank62, an internationally famous and immensely successful horticulturist, whose farms were in Santa Rosa, Calif. CBH sketched at the farms in 1908, and in the summer of 1909, and appears to have finished some of the paintings at home. By 20 Nov. 1909, CBH completed 20 illustrations for Burbank, for which he received a total of $1,015.00 in at least two payments. (63)
Among the illustrations for Burbank are a series of seven colorful paintings of some of Burbank's fruit and berry cultivars. In 1982, the Luther Burbank Home and Gardens in Santa Rosa, issued "Artistry With Plants" (Anonymous, 1982), a group of high-quality reproductions (each 8 x 10" [20.3 x 25.4 mm]) of these paintings printed on firm paper and suitable for framing, together with a card, describing each cultivar and brief biographies of Burbank and CBH. These seven prints appear to be the only CBH paintings that have been reproduced individually and intended for sale and display. (64) As of March 2009, the individual prints were still available. See also Anonymous (1982) in section "CBH's Non-Ichthyological Illustrations in Publications by Other Authors."
Claire Hudson (later, CHB), CBH's daughter of his second marriage, was born in early 1910 (65), about the time of the building of the Hudson's permanent home at 317 Alder St, Pacific Grove, Calif. The 1910 Census report, entered 12 May, indicates that CBH, his wife Claire, Lester (age 15, son of CBH's first marriage), and both children of his present marriage were residents at the Alder St home.
In early 1910 (66), CBH illustrated three species of California salmonid fishes in color for the California Fish and Game Commission at the request of Charles A. Vogelsang, Chief Deputy of the commission. These illustrations are signed, dated, and presently framed and hanging in the commission offices in Sacramento. A fourth painting, of a Chinook salmon, clearly done by CBH, but unsigned and undated, is also present and framed in the commission offices. We suspect it was painted about the same time as the other three, as all the correspondence listed between Vogelsang and CBH in SQBMS is dated 1910.
During 1911, CBH painted one illustration of a fish (Plate 15 B), a rainbow trout from a hatchery on the McCloud River. It was done for the USBF, but, until our present study, was only published on a postcard issued by the Steinhart Aquarium, San Francisco, possibly at its opening in 1923.
Similarly, during 1912, CBH painted his last illustration of a fish, again for the USFC, again it was a rainbow trout (Plate 15 C), and again it was only first published (Bond, 1985) well after its preparation, and then only as part of an announcement of, and poster for, the Smithsonian exhibition "Drawn from the Sea, Art in the Service of Ichthyology" (curated by VGS).
CHBMS for May, 1912, wrote, "Grace in Palo Alto hospital-hopes CBH will 'never paint another fish,'" and for ~23 May: "CBH complains of eye strain. CBH finishes Steelhead" [trout; actually, the rainbow form, Plate 15 C].
In 1913, probably right after completing the "steelhead," and similar to it, CBH painted a rainbow trout in oil, which painting we saw hanging on the wall of Claire Hudson Brett's home in 1987.
California Academy of Sciences Days (67)
Associated with the cessation of his illustrating fishes, CBH was turning more toward his interests in fine art and writing. In 1914, he attended William Merritt Chase's (68) Summer School of Art in Carmel-by-the-Sea, very close to CBH's home. Chase was one of America's foremost impressionist artists. CBH was also about to finish writing his second novel, which would be published in 1917.
In 1914, Barton Warren Evermann resigned his position with the USBF in Washington, D.C., and on 16 Mar. 1914 became director of the California Academy of Sciences (69) in San Francisco. The Academy was then in the process of finishing construction of a new building and planning for exhibits. Its first building had been destroyed in the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. The move brought Evermann within easy commuting distance of his most important colleague, David Starr Jordan, and the active group of Stanford University ichthyologists at Palo Alto, and, no less importantly, Evermann's favorite illustrator of fishes, Charles Bradford Hudson, at Pacific Grove. Although proximity to CBH would benefit Evermann, proximity to Evermann would benefit CBH even more.
On learning of Evermann's move to San Francisco, CBH wrote him from Pacific Grove on 30 Sept. 1914:
"I have recently finished another novel. It has taken me considerably longer than a year to write and reduced my capital materially. I'm looking for a job. Can I do anything for you, for the Academy, or for anyone you know about?"
Well, not quite "anything." In a letter with the same date as CBH's (the short distance between Pacific Grove and San Francisco, may have made this possible), Evermann responded that he had submitted a proposal to the Carnegie Foundation to do a study of the salmonid fishes of the world, which he had mentioned to CBH in the past, and wanted CBH to be the illustrator--it would provide CBH work for years to come. CBH responded on 18 Oct 1914:
"I am glad you still have the Salmonidae project in mind. It will be a great work, and under the auspices of the Geographical Society [sic] will get a desirable sort of publicity. I surmised they might be interested in the matter and sincerely hope they will put it through. (70) But really, I am very doubtful about painting any more fish. The last work I did put me into eye-glasses, and I've wondered that the business did not put me into an insane asylum, though it was always interesting, and such a great work as you propose would be a[n] inspiration."
Possibly, even before arriving at CAS, Evermann and John Rowley (71), an exhibits specialist at CAS since 1907, were preparing plans for a new way, the diorama, to exhibit mounted wildlife. A diorama shows groups of animals naturally posed in their native habitat. The models are placed in the foreground, which, depending on the species, includes sand, rocks, logs, or lifelike reproductions of the vegetation. To give a sense of depth to the diorama, the background is painted to blend in with the foreground, and variously shows, for example, the ocean, shore, trees, distant mountains, or a desert scene. The size of the CAS dioramas was variable, but the largest painted backgrounds were 18 x 25 ft (5.5 x 7.0 m) (72), mural size.
The next letter between Evermann and CBH, came from Evermann some months later. On 28 Apr. 1915 (a Wednesday), he wrote that he was going to visit Pacific Grove "next Saturday" and "I want to talk Salmonidae with you, also background painting for the Academy."
If salmonids were broached during Evermann's visit, CBH was not interested, but the possibility of painting the diorama backgrounds did interest him. After all, CBH had been sketching, drawing, etching, and painting outdoor scenes for himself and for others for many years.
Having finished his second novel, and lacking any contracts for illustration, CBH had time in 1915 to pursue his interest in art and writing. In August, CBH (1915) published a magazine article, "Monterey on the Etching Plate," about the historic Monterey area and its physical and cultural deterioration. It included reproductions of several of his etchings, also done in 1915, and it would be the last article, either his own or for another author, for which he specifically prepared illustrations. In an appreciative, if effusive, review of CBH's article (see a more complete discussion in the CBH Authored Publications section), the writer mentioned that CBH's canvases, which were mostly of scenes along the Monterey coast, had "received attention and recognition" for their "artistic handling" and "splendid technique."
On 27 July 1915, Grace Hudson wrote Evermann that CBH was away sketching and "studying marines 'down the coast.'" Because CBH had promised Evermann to be in San Francisco in the fall, she wanted to know if the new CAS building would be finished by September. If so, she could make plans about renting the Hudson's Pacific Grove home and moving closer to the Academy so CBH might begin work. Evermann responded a few days later that the staff would be finished moving into the new building by 1 Sept., but that there would be no need for artists before the middle or last of September.
Things moved slowly. Evermann was not ready for CBH to begin work at CAS in September, but Rowley had assigned CBH a subject, leopard seals, for his first background painting. Eager to get moving, CBH wrote Evermann on 10 Sept. that he would soon send him "a small preliminary study of the subject selected by Mr. Rowley for the background assigned to me. If the study meets your approval I will [prepare] a larger one at once. Can you tell me about when I may begin work ... I am figuring, in a general way, on the middle of October." Evermann responded on 13 Sept. that it would be the middle of October or "at worst, a little later" before the museum would be ready to begin on the backgrounds, and that it was not decided whether the leopard seals would be among the first. Evermann was ever optimistic.
Throughout the correspondence among Rowley, Evermann, and CBH, and including payment invoices and the labeling of the seal diorama, the participants were actually referring to the harbor seal, Phoca vitulina Linnaeus, of the northern hemisphere, not the leopard seal, Hydruga leptonyx (Blainville), which is native to the Antarctic and sub Antarctic. At one point the finished diorama was labeled "Leopard Seal; Harbor Seal" (Anonymous, 1939a), and indicated as Phoca richardii (Gray), currently considered to be a valid subspecies of P. vitulina.
CBH sent the small preliminary study to Evermann for approval on 6 Oct. 1915. On 13 Oct., Evermann replied,
"... the leopard seal background ... is now on exhibition in my office, where it is much admired by all who have seen it. I take special delight in calling it to the attention of visitors." Rowley, who must have been away, had not seen it, but CBH, wrote Evermann on 16 Oct. that he had heard from Rowley, who was gratified by the preliminary study and suggested some "features, which can be readily introduced." Furthermore:
"[Rowley] tells me the size of the painting is to be 18' x 48' instead of 18' x 25'--about double the area. I assume that the price will be increased in proportion. I should be glad to know before making the additional studies." [CBH's underlining]
To which Evermann responded somewhat tersely on 31 Oct. 1915:
Dear Captain Hudson:
The size of the backgrounds given by Mr. Rowley, 18 x 48 feet, is only approximate. The total length of the case is 25 feet. The fact that the background is curved will increase that but slightly. Our contract with Mr. Corwin [another artist CAS employed] is for $500.00 for backgrounds, regardless of size. We can't possibly increase the price. Our funds for this year are very limited at this time.
I hope you may come up soon and visit the Museum and see just what the cases are to be like.
With kindest regards,
Sincerely, [Barton Warren Evermann] Director
To which CBH blinked, and replied the next day:
Dear Doctor Evermann:
I can be ready to begin on the leopard seal background about the middle of the month. Would prefer not to leave Pacific Grove until the canvas (73) is entirely ready for me to commence, and shall be glad if [you] post me about a week in advance. Should be glad, too, if you will return the study, that I may have it on hand while making the supplementary ones.
I wish I could follow your suggestion to go up and look over the scene of trouble, but my hands will be full until the last day.
[FIGURE 16 OMITTED]
This spurt of correspondence did not get things moving, however, and two and a half months later, 19 Jan. 1916, a concerned CBH wrote Evermann:
"I presume from the fact that I have not heard from you that you had unexpected troubles and delays in the completion of the [CAS] building. I am not especially in a hurry to begin, but am anxious to know whether it is likely that I can finish the work before April 1. What is the average length of time required on the backgrounds--about? And is there any possibility that I may have two to make? ... I wish you could arrange it that I may have two of the orders, for, as I said to you before, the single painting will hardly make it worth my while to go to the expense and inconvenience of [me and my family moving to be near CAS] ... 'The [Royal] Outlaw' [CBH's second novel] has been taken by E. P. Dutton & Co.--one reason why I'm anxious about the dates, etc., for I am rushing another to get it in shape for their consideration at the earliest convenience." (74)
Evermann responded a week later that Rowley could be ready for CBH "any time after a week or two that may be convenient to you ... Besides the leopard seal group perhaps you would be willing to undertake the desert bird group." CBH would and did, but the delays did not end in 2 weeks.
Finally, on 6 Mar. 1916, Evermann wrote, "Mr Rowley ... is now ready for you to begin on the leopard seal group, so you can come on any time convenient ..." To which, CBH's response on Mar. 9, begins "Hooray!"
Thus, began a lengthy, if periodically interrupted, association of CBH as a diorama background painter for CAS. He is variously reported to have completed 12 background paintings (e.g. Wonders, 1993:232), but we have only been able to establish that he painted 11. (75) Among the first seven, all were scenes for California or other western American biota, of which three (leopard seal, fur seal, white pelican) include the Pacific Ocean in the background painting. Our source for the dates and payments for numbers 1, 2, and 7, below, is "CASA North American Hall, contracts, payments etc." (Fig. 16). (Among the following, we have entered a few of CBH's other activities among the chronologically arranged listings of the background paintings to indicate that he was involved in more than just painting backgrounds during the period he worked at CAS.)
1) For the leopard seal background, CBH was paid $500, in two $250 installments, 4 Apr. 1916 and 31 July 1916.
2) CBH received two $250 payments for the desert bird background, 30 June 1916 and 31 Aug. 1916. To prepare for this background painting, CBH made a trip to the California desert near the Salton Sea, where he made sketches that he used not only for the diorama, but later, probably, for some of his fine-art paintings of the California desert. On 7 June 1916 he sent a letter about his experiences in the desert to G. O. Shields, friend, publisher, author, and staunch conservationist, who forwarded the letter to the New York Times. The Times published it in its entirety on 18 June 1916 (which we repeat; see section "Publications by CBH").
3-5) CBH was finishing the background for the white pelican group in May 1918, and would soon start on a background for the fur seal group and one for the Roosevelt elk group (5). (76) The fur seal diorama was completed sometime after 19 Feb. 1919 and before 4 Aug. 1920 (based on Evermann, 1920:368, and publication date of the Proceedings of the CAS). The entire elk diorama was completed on 20 Dec. 1919 (Evermann, 1920: 369), which means the background would have been completed before the mounted specimens were in place.
On 6 Apr. 1917, the United States entered World War I. On 17 Mar. 1918, CBH (1918) published a letter to the editor of the New York Times, under the title "Persistence of Teuton's Traits from Caesar's Time." In it he developed his belief that Germanic bellicosity was a culturally fixed character trait. It would be the last publication he authored.
6) CBH completed the background for the waterfowl group after numbers 3-5, but before Apr. 1921 (based on a halftone photograph of the group in Evermann (1921:212).
7) CBH finished the background for the grizzly bear group on about 20 Feb. 1926, for which he was paid $1,200.
The last four backgrounds CBH painted were of African mammal groups (information from CASA Simson African Hall, agreement between CAS and Simson, box 2).
8) Oryx group background, 31 May 1932, $500.
9) Zebra group background, two payments, both dated 30 July 1932, progress, $300; final, $200.
10) Dik-dik group background, two payments, both dated 31 Oct. 1932, on account, $100; final, $100.
11) Bushbuck group, background, two payments, both indicated progress and dated 30 Nov. 1932, $150, 250.
There is a payment dated 28 Feb. 1933 "Final payment painting four groups in African Mammal Hall, $50." This was, perhaps, a bonus for having completed the paintings so promptly.
Finishing the last two of the African Hall backgrounds must have evoked mixed feelings of relief and sadness in CBH. They would be his last work for CAS, and Evermann would die before CBH finished them. CBH had just started working on the second of the four African backgrounds when Evermann, who had not been well for some time, entered Stanford University Hospital on 23 June 1932 (Jennings, 1997:305). Evermann died on 27 Sept. 1932, having never left the hospital. CBH and Evermann had worked and traveled together since 1901, and since 1916, there had been many social interactions between them and their families.
Few things last forever, and CBH's diorama backgrounds were not exceptions. Some of the dioramas, including the backgrounds, were eliminated in 1988, when the North American Hall was recast as the Wild California Hall. For the 9 Oct. 1988 opening of the Wild California Hall, a small spiral-bound booklet, "Wild California" (Anonymous, 1988), was issued containing comments and half-tone illustrations of the incorporated dioramas, of which two of the backgrounds were by CBH, Desert Floor (formerly, Desert Bird Group), and Montane Slope (formerly, Grizzly Bear Group) (Fig. 17).
The remarks in the booklet concerning the Montane Slope diorama stated, "Though in a Rocky Mountain setting, the plants, birds and small mammals here are the same species or closely related to those found in the subalpine zone of California's Sierra Nevada. One reason the Academy chose to retain this diorama in California is that the stunning background mural is one of the finest works by the well-known artist Charles Bradford Hudson. Its removal would mean its loss." The entire building was closed in 2004 and destroyed, and a new building opened in 2008. None of the backgrounds were saved from the old building (T. Iwamoto, CAS, emails to VGS 03, 23 July 2008).
There remains a grace note for CBH's diorama backgrounds. He prepared small studies to work from in painting some or all the backgrounds. We are unaware of the disposition of those studies, except for the one he made for the grizzly bear background. CBH had traveled to Jackson Lake, Wyoming, in the summer of 1925 to paint the Grand Teton scene used in the background. The study, oil on canvas, 18 x 24 in. (46 x 61 cm), was neither signed nor dated. CBH gave it to Evermann (77) and it hung in his office and that of subsequent directors for many years. Evermann's son and daughter donated it to CAS, along with many of Evermann's personal items that were in his office when he died. (78) The painting is no longer on view, but stored in the CASA holdings. We think it should be in a museum on display. In the meantime, we photographed it and reproduce it in color (Fig. 18). (79) This figure shows another, but less common theme than the Pacific Ocean, in CBH's paintings: mountains (Fig. 18).
[FIGURE 17 OMITTED]
[FIGURE 18 OMITTED]
"Scapeing" Sea and Land
Early in CBH's association with CAS, Evermann introduced him to Abraham L. Gump, whose family owned the well-known Gump's department store in San Francisco. Among fine articles of furniture and oriental art, the store also specialized in exhibiting and selling the artwork of California artists. Gump's would become the sole purveyor of CBH's landscapes and seascapes. In Wilson's (1949:147-148) book about Gump's, she mentioned how A. L. Gump became impressed with CBH and his paintings, noting that "Gump had felt a strong personal liking for Hudson from the beginning of their acquaintance. He particularly admired [Hudson's] scientific approach ... When Hudson undertook a long camping trip on a barren island in the middle of Pyramid Lake, Nevada [in 1917] to study the native habitat of white pelicans [for a CAS diorama background painting], Gump was fascinated. As he sold Hudson paintings, A. L. interjected his own enthusiasm for the personality of the man who could reproduce so faithfully the peculiar atmosphere of a desert sunrise or the exquisite blend of pink lavender in the dusk of sunset."
Wilson describes how in 1926, Crown Prince (later King) Gustaf Adolf of Sweden, on a visit to Gump's, admired a Hudson painting, "October, Point Lobos." Shortly after the Crown Prince departed, members of the Swedish-American Society of San Francisco purchased the painting and sent it as a gift to him. The painting (Fig. 19) still hangs in an office of the Royal Palace. (80) It is one of but a few CBH paintings or etchings we found that are still present in the collections specifically noted in his previous biographical statements. Others are at: Boston Museum of Fine Arts, the Crocker Museum (Sacramento, Calif.), Luther Burbank Museum (Santa Rosa, Calif.), and probably the Oakland Museum, Calif.
[FIGURE 19 OMITTED]
Among the CBH paintings noted in his biographies that we have not been able to locate are: the painting of the 11th Cavalry that hung in the officers club of the Presidio of Monterey, Calif. (Presidio and military archivists believe it may have been taken by an officer when the Cavalry vacated the Presidio during or just before World War II); small painting of sea lions in the E. H. Harriman collection, which vanished after 1993; the disposition of paintings (one or more not indicated) stated to be in the collection of California Senator James D(uval). Phelan (also a former mayor of San Francisco) (81); a painting indicated as being in the Dominion Gallery, New Zealand (now the Museum of New Zealand, or Te Papa Tongarewa, which informed us they have no record of ever having owned a CBH painting).
After finishing his work on the CAS dioramas in late 1932, and continuing until his death on 27 June 1939, CBH would restrict his artistic efforts to seascapes and landscapes. His daughter, CHB, wrote VGS (in litt., 31 May 1985) that CBH;
"... painted right up to 5 days before he died. (His heart was damaged by peritonitis 12 years earlier ...). The 3 little paintings he left on his easel were small masterpieces ... He was affected by the "Modern" art he saw around him in Paris and was amazed at its spread by the "lunatic fringe," but he admired what was being done by the "masters"--some of them, although he didn't know any of them ... He wrote a book (never published) entitled, "Fine art and the average man." I have only been able to find a few chapters. I think he vented his feelings and attitudes in that manuscript; a side occupation while he was painting."
Honors, Awards, Laudatory Assessments
Upon his graduation from Columbian Preparatory School (82) in Washington, D.C., in 1883, CBH, age 18, was awarded the Janus gold medal in French. (83) At his graduation from Columbian College (now George Washington University) 4 years later, CBH received a B.A. degree, and, additionally, a certificate of proficiency in collegiate mathematics and a diploma in Greek and Latin. (84) CBH was offered a chair in the Classics Department at Columbian College, which he did not accept. (85)
We have already mentioned the silver and bronze medals awarded CBH for his illustrations at the International Fisheries Exposition in Bergen, Norway (16 May-30 Sept. 1898). Hornaday (1899b) included an illustration of the silver medal. CBH was also awarded a bronze medal for drawings exhibited at the 1900 Exposition Universelle in Paris [world's fair].
There is confusion in the literature as to the nature of the medal that CBH was awarded for his drawings and paintings shown at the Paris Exposition. The confusion possibly originated from a New York Times article, 2 Sept. 1900, page 21, in which it is indicated that CBH (listed as a Collaborator [of the U.S. Fish Commission], New York) received a silver medal. The story is indicated as coming from the Paris Exposition Edition of The New York Times, 18 Aug. 1900. The confusion was compounded by an article by C. Ravenel (1902:18) who wrote that, "Silver medals were awarded to Mr. A. H. Baldwin and Mr. C. B. Hudson for 'water-color drawings of fishes made to illustrate publications of the Commission.'" A letter (86) from the Ex. Assistant Commissioner General of the United States Commission to the Paris Exposition of 1900 to CBH, states, "I have the honor to send you herewith a medal in bronze, commemorative of the award made to you on your exhibit in Class 53 at the Paris Exposition of 1900."
Biologists who describe new species consider that they have honored someone by naming a new species for them. There are four new species of fishes and one new species of opisthobranch mollusk that have been named for CBH. His friend, Barton Warren Evermann, participated in three of the four descriptions of new species of fishes, indicating overall his high regard for CBH's work. (87)
1) Dendrochirus hudsoni Jordan & Evermann (Family Scorpaenidae). Jordan and Evermann (1903:203) wrote, "Named for Capt. C. B. Hudson, in recognition of the excellence of his paintings of Hawaiian fishes." No illustrations accompanied the publication; however, CBH's illustration of the species appeared as Plate 73 in Jordan and Evermann (1905), and we reproduce it in our Plate 25 F. Jordan and Evermann's species is no longer valid, and is now considered a junior synonym of Dendrochirus barberi (Steindachner).
2) Emblemaria hudsoni Evermann and Radcliffe (Family Chaenopsidae). Evermann and Radcliffe (1917:147) wrote, "We take pleasure in naming this new species for our friend, Capt. Charles Bradford Hudson, artist and author, who has succeeded better than any other in depicting on canvas the life colors of American fishes." None of the illustrations of fishes in this study, including that of Emblemaria hudsoni, were drawn by CBH. Species is valid.
3) Lutianus hudsoni Evermann and Shaw, 1927 (Family Lutjanidae). Evermann and Shaw (1927:116) wrote, "This species is named for Captain Charles Bradford Hudson, most able American artist in depicting the life colors of fishes." The species was not illustrated. The name is no longer valid and is considered a junior synonym of Acanthopagrus schlegelii (Bleeker).
4) Callionymus hudsoni Fowler (Family Callionymidae). Fowler (1941:10) wrote, "Named for Capt. Charles B. Hudson, whose valuable figures of Japanese dragonets were published in 1903." All the species described in this study were illustrated by Fowler. The name is no longer valid and is considered to be a junior synonym of Callionymus enneactis Bleeker.
5) Acanthodoris hudsoni MacFarland (Family Onchidorididae). McFarland (1905: 51-52) wrote, "Species [of mollusk] named in recognition of the able work of my friend Capt. Chas. B. Hudson, Artist of the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries." The species was not illustrated. Frank Mace MacFarland (1869-1951) was a member of the Stanford University faculty for many years. He probably became acquainted with CBH through David Starr Jordan and or Barton Warren Evermann. The species name is still considered to be valid.
Appraisals of CBH as an Illustrator
Hornaday (1891:viii) wrote, "I am also under obligations to Mr. Charles Bradford Hudson, the accomplished artist, whose skill has done so much to explain and embellish the text. The spirit and interest with which he entered into his share of the work very materially lightened and encouraged my own tardy labors." (88)
Hornaday (1899b:449, 451) wrote, "The most remarkable thing about him [CBH] is his versatility, and in that re spect I have never seen his superior. He produces portraits, figures, landscapes, seascapes, interiors and exteriors, in pen and ink, oil, or wash drawing; all with a degree of artistic excellence which to me is astonishing."
On 12 Mar. 1903, CBH, who was in Detroit taking care of his ill father but also working on drawings for D. S. Jordan, wrote a letter to Jordan, at Stanford University, with a request, "I wish to ask a very great favor. You have, on one or two occasions, said that some of my drawings of fishes are the best that have been made in their time. A letter from you containing such an expression would be of the greatest value to me and I should appreciate it very highly. (89)" Jordan responded to this request, 20 Mar. 1903 (90):
"Dear Sir:--Referring to your drawings of fishes, permit me to say that of the many artists in that work who have arisen in this country and who have been employed at the United States National Museum and elsewhere, there are two whose work has been very distinctly better than that of any of the others, and who may be fairly said to have done the best work of the kind on record in any country. These two are Mrs. Chloe Leslie Starks (91) and yourself. The excellencies [sic] of your work and those of hers are somewhat different, but we cannot speak too high praise of either."
In Jordan's 1922 two-volume memoir, "Days of a Man," there is no mention of Chloe Starks, but Jordan continues to praise CBH, whose illustrations he compares, more favorably, only to those of Albertus Hutchinson Baldwin, a good friend of CBH's, and co-illustrator with CBH on Jordan's 1901 expedition to Hawaii. In volume 2, page 87, Jordan wrote:
"Hudson's fish paintings in oil are the finest yet made by any one. His custom was to draw first an outline sketch of a dead specimen, then paint from a living example in our aquarium at Waikiki ... The obvious drawback to this system was that it could be applied only to relatively common forms, those we were certain soon to capture and keep alive. For several of the most interesting, only one or two specimens have ever been taken, and for these we had to be content with Albertus Baldwin's more conventional method, good of its kind but necessarily in a different class."
In volume 2, pages 277-278, Jordan wrote, "In it [Jordan and Evermann, 1905] we gave full accounts of the numerous species, with drawings of most of them and especially fine colored plates of several, these last the work of Charles B. Hudson, that most skillful of fish painters." In a footnote to these remarks, Jordan mentioned that the paintings by Hudson and Albertus Baldwin, which were published in Jordan and Evermann (1905), were reduced to postcards and "have ever since found great favor with tourists." (92) In a second footnote, Jordan mentions, in referring to Hudson, that "This artist's natural history efforts have been by no means confined to fishes. Several of the finest panoramic scenes in the San Francisco Academy of Sciences are by him." Jordan (volume 1, page 238), probably intended to edit a comment he made, but unfortunately never completed his changes. We quote Jordan's remarks on that page and, in italics, add what we believe is the sense of what Jordan intended:
"Upon leaving the Bureau of Fisheries, he [Barton Warren Evermann] became curator of the California Academy of Sciences, an office he has successfully filled [here replace comma with period.] Evermann employed Charles Bradford Hudson, who painted a superb series of landscape groups in their natural environment, being the most striking features of the Academy Museum."
Charier (1924:15) reported on the 1924 exhibition of the Society of Independent Artists of New York (930 for a French periodical devoted to the arts. He singled out the work of only a few of the 710 artists represented in the exhibition for comment, and also provided brief biographies of those artists. His remarks on CBH's submission, "Sunset, California Coast," are extracted here and translated. Charier also expressed his general appreciation and knowledge of CBH's paintings, which implies a familiarity with CBH's work that antedated the exhibition.
"At the Salon of Independent Artists, in New York, I liked greatly an effect of "Summer" on the "Coast of Monterey County (California)" done with infinite penetration by Charles Bradford Hudson. This example shows him to be a trained draughtsman, an adroit technician, and a delicate and vibrant colorist."
"This artist ... was among the best equipped to avoid the difficulties that are inherent to the landscape style."
"Loving nature greatly, he approaches her as closely as possible in his work, in effect as well as color. His favorite subjects are the sea [!], first, and then the sights of the desert. He has a marked predilection for the great French school, whose influence he admits to gladly."
"Having traveled widely, admired much, and above all, contemplated much, he interprets the scenes of nature with remarkable eloquence, imprinting them with an indescribable expression of calm and serenity, an impression of space and "vastness," which impart to his works an imperishable quality of beauty."
A partial English translation of the French article was published in the Monterey Peninsula Daily Herald for 4 Dec. 1924. We presume it was prepared by CBH, as it reads identically to a copy of his handwritten translation of a selected portion of the French article (both made available to us by his daughter, CHB).
Emilia Hodel, 9 July 1938, probably from the San Francisco Chronicle (94), in an article titled "Landscapes in New Exhibition at Gumps by Charles Hudson" wrote, "The Uptown Galleries have a variety of exhibitions this week. First in importance is the group of landscapes by the Canadian-American artist, Charles Bradford Hudson at Gumps."
An Anonymous author (1939b:4) in the Christian Science Monitor, 26 Aug. 1939 [just two months after CBH's death], wrote, "At the San Francisco branch of the Society for Sanity in Art (95) ... in so large a show it is impossible to detail all meritorious items. Excellent oils are by [14 artists' names follow, one of which is] Charles Bradford Hudson."
Behnke (1982), on the dust jacket of the hard-bound edition, and the front cover of the paperback edition, are five reproductions of Salmo aguabonita (see our Plate 15 F). Behnke (1982: xiii) wrote, "... drawn from life by the eminent artist Charles B. Hudson. It is reproduced from the Nineteenth Biennial report of the State Board of Fish Commissioners of the State of California, for the years 1905-1906."
Pister (2003:102) wrote, in reviewing Peter Moyle's (2000) book on California inland fishes, wrote: "Moyle resorts to accurate and distinctive line drawings, supplemented by an assortment of Joe Tomelleri's superb color artwork. Tomelleri is indeed a worthy successor to the legendary artist Charles Bradford Hudson, who accompanied and illustrated the efforts of Barton Warren Evermann in his pioneering studies of California's golden trout a century ago ..."
We and others have noted the similarity of CBH's and Joseph R. Tomelleri's colored illustrations of salmonid fishes. We thought it worth while to write Tomelleri and ask if the similarity was coincidental or if at some point he was influenced by Hudson's techniques. He graciously responded (in litt., 24 Feb 2006), "I would have to say [CBH] did not influence the technique, as we used different media ... his being painted, mine being drawn." CBH used watercolor, ink and gouache. Tomelleri wrote that he uses "solid pencil pigments" highlighted "with acrylic paint when needed ... That being said, I have admired [CBH's] work for many years. Dr. Robert Behnke has always spoken in glowing terms of Hudson's paintings, and Hudson's achievements are a benchmark for illustrators." This from one of, if not the foremost illustrators of fishes in the world today!
CBH's Non-ichthyological Illustrations in Publications by Other Authors
The following comprises an annotated listing of publications not authored by CBH, but that include his illustrations. Excluded are publications that include CBH's illustrations of fishes that he made for the USFC, USBF and California Department of Fish and Game. We discuss those in the section "CBH's Ichthyological Illustrations." Although we made a concerted effort to locate all the nonexcluded type of publications, our list is undoubtedly incomplete. (96) Even late in this study we continued to encounter publications we had missed earlier.
With few exceptions, we report only the earliest dated publication for a CBH illustration that appeared in more than one publication. Arrangement is chronological by year of first publication, but not necessarily chronological within a given year. Unless indicated otherwise, all illustrations are black and white or gray-scale, although one or both of his two paintings (current dispositions unknown) of the Fish Commission Schooner Grampus may have been in color. The year in which an illustration was prepared, if indicated by CBH, is given in the listing.
The earliest CBH illustrations done for payment appear to have been drawn during 1882-85. These illustrations were apparently meant for archaeological or ethnological studies and done at Otis T. Mason's request, although not necessarily for him, and were paid for by the Smithsonian Institution. In a few instances, the Smithsonian account ledgers for these years indicate the names of the authors or general references (usually annual reports) for which these early illustrations were intended. In no case, however, have we found any of these illustrations, either as originals (search of SIA and NAASI records or annual reports of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution).
On the other hand, Otis T. Mason's diary (in NAASI), which covers the period 1884-91 (97), has several entries for 1887 and 1888 indicating CBH's work on studies for authors (during the period 1 July 1887-10 Apr. 1888), and we have located some, if not all, the publications for which these were intended. The earliest publications of the 1887 illustrations appeared in Willoughby (1889) and Merrill (1889). (98)
The first published CBH illustration for Joseph W. Collins (who was employed by the USFC) was dated 1888, although based on Mason's diary, work for Collins started in 1887. These drawings and others prepared for the USFC about the same time were all primarily concerned with boats and ships. CBH began a year of salaried work for the USFC on 1 July 1888 and was assigned to Collins, so it is not possible to distinguish CBH's 1888 drawings made during that year from those that were started or made before he became a salaried USFC employee. CBH is best known for his ichthyological illustrations of fishes (treated in another section), the first of which were done in 1896.
[FIGURE 20 OMITTED]
Willoughby (1889) published a study of the Indians of the Quinaielt [Quinault] Agency in the Washington Territory. It includes four pen and ink drawings, three portraying Indians, one of which shows an Indian using a small net to catch salmon. The fourth is an especially detailed scene, entitled, "Example of Quinaelt [sic] burial" (Fig. 20).
Merrill's (1889) extensive article on the U.S. National Museum's collection of building and ornamental stones includes five plates and two text figures prepared by CBH. All are pen and ink drawings. Four of the plates, based on photographs, concern rock quarries and are the most complex illustrations produced by CBH that we know of. We reproduce one of them as Figure 21.
Collins (1889:plate 9; our Figure 22 (99)) published an extensive report on beam-trawl fishing by European countries. It contained many illustrations, but only one, a scene of trawling cutters at Brixham, a port in southern England, is by CBH, it is dated 1888. It was undoubtedly based on a photograph or other illustration, perhaps a sketch by Collins, who was also a capable illustrator. The other vessels drawn by CBH during this early period were all done for, or closely supervised by, J. W. Collins (e.g. Watkins, 1891; Whitney, 1889-1891; Collins, 1901). Most were not published for 3 or 4 years after they were drawn (e.g. Collins, 1891a, b; Rathbun, 1892), but two (Collins, 1901: Fig. 14; plate 66) waited 13 years to be published.
Collins (1890) published "Fishing Craft of the World," an almost encyclopedic article, including 18 illustrations prepared by CBH of various relatively small fishing vessels and boats. Fifteen of the illustrations are dated 1890, the other three are undated. The illustrations are detailed, although presumably the originals have been much reduced in size in the publication. We also presume CBH worked from models, photographs, or other illustrations, which now appear to be lost. Although Collins was employed by the USFC in 1890, we are uncertain whether CBH was so employed at the time of drawing, or whether he was paid for these illustrations on contract. We include four examples of the illustrations in Figure 23.
[FIGURE 21 OMITTED]
Whitney (1891:5575 (100)) includes a detailed labeled line drawing of a sailing ship drawn by CBH (Fig. 24) in the Century Dictionary. The illustration is not credited to anyone, but his daughter, Claire, had a copy of it that her mother had excised from the dictionary and placed in her CBH files. (101) Supporting this attribution is the editor's acknowledgement of Capt. J. W. Collins, USFC, for nautical information, on page 30 of "Writers and Authorities" in a supplement to volume 8 of the 1895 edition of the Dictionary. During the years 1889-90, CBH had prepared paintings and drawings of ships, both for and with Collins (for the latter, see Watkins, 1891, and Collins, 1901). CBH's ship illustration appears on the same page (5,575) in all editions of the Dictionary through the last in 1914. In July 2008, a thumbnail of the illustration, which could be enlarged, appeared on a website advertising the Dictionary.
Hornaday (1891) published a book on taxidermy. The frontispiece (our Figure 25, upper) and plates 5, 7, 8, 10, 13, 16 (our Figure 25, lower), 19, 20, 21, and figures 18, 21, 23, 28, 54, 58, 69, 70, 72, 79 are by CBH. The frontispiece is dated 1889; plates 7, 8, 10, 19 are not dated, all other plates and figures are dated 1890. All the illustrations, except plate 19, a half-tone, are pen and ink drawings. Plate 16 was reproduced, without attribution to CBH, in Wonders (1993). (102)
Mason (1891) includes six plates, all consisting of line drawings, dated as follows: two, '87; one, '88; three undated. All portray various aspects of handling deer skins and are indicated as "(After Shufeldt)" in the legends to the plates. In the lower left-hand corner of each plate are the initials WHC [= W. H. Chanlee] & CBH, positioned over the year date, if one is present. Chanlee illustrated a number of ethnological articles for the Smithsonian and was mentioned as jointly working with CBH "on Mr. Shufeldt's paper" in Mason's diary, although the diary does not indicate that either Chanlee or CBH were working on Shufeldt's paper in 1888. (103) In fact, CBH is only indicated as working for Capt. [J. W.] Collins or the Fish Commission after 16 Sept. 1887 and until 10 Apr. 1888. Because both Chanlee and CBH were working in close proximity, we suspect that CBH may have devoted only a minor amount of time to the Shufeldt project during early 1888.
Smith (1891) wrote a short article on the crab fishery of a small town on the Chesapeake Bay. The article included six plates, two by CBH; one, a small scene of crabbing from a "Chesapeake canoe;" the other, a simple one of a crab dredge.
[FIGURE 22 OMITTED]
[FIGURE 23 OMITTED]
Watkins (1891:plate 151) contains an illustration (reproduced as our Figure 26) of the steamship Savannah, reputed to be the first steamship to cross the Atlantic Ocean (1819). This illustration, which has been published subsequently in many different venues, was prepared in 1889 by CBH under the direction of J. W. Collins, and both their names appear at lower left on the painting. According to Watkins (p. 611), prior to this illustration, there were no reliable drawings of the ship, and a "lithograph, faulty in many of the details of hull, sails, and rigging, has been the basis of all previous illustrations of this historic vessel." Following this remark, details are given by Collins explaining the basis for the reconstruction. The present location of the original painting is unknown, but an old photographic negative of it is present in the files of the Smithsonian's Photographic Services.
Collins (1891a) includes two pen and ink drawings of Great Lakes fishing boats by CBH:plate 1 (dated 1888) and plate 4 (undated), which we reproduce in Figure 27 (upper two figures).
Collins (1891b) described the construction and equipment of the U.S. Fish Commission schooner Grampus, which he had designed. Among the many illustrations, plates 1, 5, 7, 8, 11 (all dated 1888), 6 and 9 (undated), and 10 (dated 1889) are pen and ink drawings by CBH. Colllins' plate 1 (our Figure 28, upper) is a line drawing of the Grampus sailing to the left. It is based on, or served as a basis for, a CBH painting (Figure 29 upper), also dated 1888. The other plates are interior views of the Grampus, of which we reproduce plates 6 and 11 as Figures 28, lower left and right. (See remarks about Plate 1 following Ronnberg reference below.) The original drawing of plate 1 is present in the Smithsonian American History Archives, Collection 256, Box 4, Folder 3. It is much larger than the published version (or the one we reproduce in Figure 28. See also Collins (1987) and Ronnberg (1987), below, for further information and comments about the Grampus. Chapelle (1960:224) provided additional information on the construction of the Grampus and noted the presence of a model (No. 29832) of the ship in the National Watercraft Collection.
[FIGURE 24 OMITTED]
Collins and Collins (1891:plate 9-10) includes two CBH pen-and-ink drawings of pinkie boats and fishing skiffs, signed and dated 1890, which we reproduce in Figure 22 B, C. The Collins' report covers the period 14 Mar. 1887-30 June 1888, as indicated in the text, and it would appear that CBH's drawings were made after his salaried position with the Commission had ended.
Libbey's (1891) plate 124 (reproduced as our Figure 29, lower) is a half-tone reproduction of a CBH painting, dated 1891 below his name, of the Grampus, sailing to the right. Except for the direction in which it is sailing, it is almost identical in appearance to CBH's 1888 painting of the Grampus sailing to the left upon which the line drawing shown in Figure 28 is based.
Lewis (1892) contains about 30 line drawings by CBH, all dated 1891, so far as can be discerned. The drawings cover a wide variety of subjects. We reproduce two of these: one on page 17 in Lewis, is reproduced in our Figure 1 (frontispiece), and the other, on page 21 in Lewis, we reproduce in our Figure 30. Of the two men in the left foreground of Figure 30, we suspect that CBH has included his own face on the man to the left and his father's on the man to the right. A short review of the Lewis book (104) contained the following remark, "To add to the attractiveness of his little collection it has been handsomely illustrated by Charles Bradford Hudson." The Publisher's Weekly, for 12 Mar. 1892, page 418, states that many of the poems, had "already been published in the Philadelphia Star, New York Sun, and Frank Leslie's Monthly, etc." We are uncertain if any of these included a CBH illustration.
Rathbun (1892) wrote a general article on the work of the U.S. Fish Commission. Of the many illustrations in this article, only one (on page 691), a pen and ink drawing of the steamer Albatross, dated 1888, is by CBH. Although there are many photographs of the Albatross, this illustration has been reproduced many times, and we reproduce it in our Figure 31. It may be the only illustration of the Albatross steaming under full sail.
[FIGURE 25 OMITTED]
Collins (1892a:20), in an introduction to a group of articles on the fisheries of the Pacific coast of the United States, wrote, "The maps have mostly been made, under my direction, by Mr. C. E. Gorham; the other drawings for illustration have been prepared by Messrs. C. B. Hudson and A. H. Baldwin." Among the numerous illustrations in these articles, there are none that can be clearly attributed to CBH or Baldwin, except plate 18, which has a "B" in the lower left corner and possibly refers to Baldwin. In spite of Collins' statement, some drawings (e.g. plate 15) include the name "H.W. Elliott." (105)
Collins (1892b), in an article on Pacific coast fishing vessels and boats, includes two pen and ink illustrations, both signed and dated 1889 by CBH. We reproduce Collins' Plate 15, Figure 2, and Plate 16 in Figure 27.
Hornaday (1894a:601) includes a half-tone illustration of sea otters signed and dated 1894 by CBH.
[FIGURE 26 OMITTED]
Hornaday (1894b:957) includes a fine, full-page half-tone illustration of a walrus being attacked by two Eskimos, signed and dated 1894 by CBH, reproduced by us as Figure 32.
Hornaday (1894c) contains five half-tone illustrations of sea lions and fur seals, and three, shown in habitat groups, are by CBH, all signed and dated 1894.
Yale (1894) published an article on American game fishes, which included eight CBH half-tone illustrations, all dated 1894. Three of the illustrations, brook trout, striped bass, and largemouth bass (Fig. 33), are essentially portraits. Three of the illustrations are excellent scenes of men fishing (of which we reproduce three, one in Figure 33 and two in Figure 34). A fourth scene, which we do not reproduce, is of a sailboat underway, on which one can just make out three men, one of whom is fishing. Unfortunately, the quality of some of our figures is lacking compared to that of those in the article from which we made our copies.
Hornaday's (1896) novel, "The Man Who Became a Savage," contains 16 illustrations [plates], all by CBH. Only the pen and ink frontispiece (first plate), unsigned, undated, and title page of this novel were seen by us.
Inman's (1898) novel includes four half-tone plates by CBH, all dated 1897. They show people and animals in various and usually fearsome situations, e.g. our Figure 35 (upper).
Webster's (1898) frontispiece (our Figure 35, lower), signed and dated 1898 by CBH, illustrates a hunter aiming a rifle at a crouching tiger. Hornaday (1899b:451) reported that the frontispiece was CBH's last illustration before leaving for duty in the Spanish-American War. If so, the illustration was completed before May 1898, as the Washington Post for 11 May 1898, reported that Lieut. Charles B. Hudson was among those encamped in the District of Columbia, and the issue for 22 May 1898, described the 21 May departure of the troops from the District. The troops returned on following 19 Aug. (historical summary in the Washington Post, 26 Dec. 1927). (106)
Hornaday's (1899a) poem contains seven small CBH half-tone illustrations, initialed but not dated, variously depicting a wolf and a hunter and his horse in desert scenes.
Hornaday's (1899b) tribute to CBH, includes a full-page half-tone plate (page 450), signed and dated 1899, by CBH, that was to be included in Brown (1899; see below). It depicts white Rhodesian horsemen battling out-gunned African natives.
Barry (1899:460) includes a small CBH, initialed but undated, and uncomplicated, half-tone mountain scene; the legend reads, "In the Sioux country."
Brown's (1899) book about South Africa contains four half-tone illustrations, signed by CBH and dated variously 1898 or 1899. We reproduce one plate (opposite page 338 in the book) as our Figure 36. Brown gives special acknowledgment to W. T. Hornaday for involving him in the expedition that led to the writing of the book, and it seems probable that Hornaday recommended CBH to Brown as an illustrator. See also Hornaday (1899b, above).
[FIGURE 27 OMITTED]
Henshall (1899:289) mentions in a footnote that "The pen-drawings of the oldest [fishing] reels are by Mr. Charles Bradford Hudson, except several by myself." There are 13 drawings of fishing reels, excluding several line drawings of reel mechanisms. Six or seven of the reel drawings appear to have names of the artist in a lower corner, underneath four of which appears to be a year date. Our copy is not clear enough to discern the names or dates.
S. H.'s (1899) article is a poor attempt to be humorous by an author who chose to identify himself only by his initials. It includes two large and two small half-tone signed but undated CBH illustrations.
Sharp's (1899) poem about his rifle includes five full-page, half-tone CBH illustrations, each dated 1899 and accompanied by a stanza of the poem.
Allen (1900) has a half-tone frontispiece (with legend, "I killed 17 of them") signed "Chas. B. Hudson 1900." It illustrates a man riding a horse and aiming his shotgun at a high-flying flock of birds, and illustrates the author's description of a tall tale told by a person who claimed to have shot 17 flying curlews without a miss while riding along and keeping abreast of the flying flock.
Collins (1901) published an extensive volume describing the USFC exhibit at the International Fisheries Exposition in Bergen, Norway, in 1898. Among the numerous illustrations, one (Collins' plate 66, our Figure 37) is a detailed pen-and-ink drawing of a British trawler, and is initialed by CBH and dated 1888. The other (Figure 14, not reproduced here) is of a fishing sloop, less detailed and undated, but indicates that it was drawn by J. W. Collins and CBH. We presume that CBH's early drawings of boats for the USFC were closely supervised by the demanding Collins, who prepared many excellent drawings of ships during his time with the Commission. CBH would have been a quick study and after brief instruction would have needed little supervision. Collins (1901:17) noted that CBH was awarded two medals for his illustrations at the exhibition: a silver one for his "drawings of fishing vessels and boats," (for an illustration of the medal, see Hornaday, 1899b:449), and a bronze medal "for [a] painting illustrating [a] method of fishing." Collins (1901:49) described the painting as a "fleet of American schooners fishing for mackerel with hook and line; entitled 'Mackerel fishing in the fifties.'" It is unfortunate that Collins did not reproduce this painting in his, otherwise comprehensive volume. The present location of the painting, if it exists, is unknown.
[FIGURE 28 OMITTED]
[FIGURE 29 OMITTED]
[FIGURE 30 OMITTED]
Burroughs' (1902) narrative of the Harriman Alaska expedition of 1899, includes a fine photogravure reproduction, opposite page 94, (which we reproduce as Figure 38) of a CBH painting. The legend reads, "Sea-Lions, Pribilof Islands, Bering Sea," signed and dated 1900. It appears that the painting on which the lithograph was based was once hanging in the home of Mrs. Edward H. Harriman (107), and it is the basis for reports in biographical sketches of CBH that his paintings are included in the Harriman collections. (108) The present location of the painting is unknown. Burroughs' article also includes two other CBH illustrations, both small linecuts signed and dated 1900. On page 78 of the article is a scene, "Uyak Bay, Kadiak Island," showing a section of the bay in the foreground with vegetation on the shore and mountains indicated in the distant background. On page 95 is a scene, "Sea-lions," illustrating eight sea lions resting on rocks.
Muir (1902), who wrote on Pacific coast glaciers in the Harriman Alaska expedition report, included on page 124, a small CBH linecut signed and dated 1900, and labeled "Mountains on Lynn Canal opposite Davidson Glacier."
Grinnell (1902a), who wrote on Alaska natives in the Harriman Alaska expedition report, contains three very small linecut figures by CBH, all initialed but not dated: on page 156, a carved two-headed dancing mask and two perspectives of a carved curved mixing bowl (both views initialed); on page 178, an Eskimo dish carved from a whale vertebra.
[FIGURE 31 OMITTED]
Merriam (1902) wrote an article on a new volcano discovered during the Harriman Alaska expedition. The article includes two CBH illustrations. One is an unsigned and undated linecut on page 329, entitled "Fig. 37. Murres," and shows a group of auks, diving birds of northern seas, perched on a cliff. Its attribution to CBH is made in the list of text figures in volume 1 of the Harriman Alaska Series. The other illustration, opposite page 332, is a photogravure entitled "Stampede of Sea-Lions, Bogoslof Volcano, July 8, 1899," based on a CBH painting dated 1900. By chance, we found that this illustration is a composite that was based on three photographs taken by Merriam. (109) In our Figure 39, we reproduce CBH's illustration and the three photographs on which it is based. The sum of these elements provides an excellent and unique example of CBH's creativity.
[FIGURE 32 OMITTED]
Gannett (1902:278) is here included arbitrarily as a part of Gannett's article. It only contains a signed CBH linecut figure, dated 1900, of a group of fur seals based on a photograph taken by C. H. Merriam. The figure is a gratuitous insertion that belongs neither to Gannett's article nor the article following Gannett's in the volume.
Grinnell's (1902b) article on the Alaska salmon fishery includes six CBH signed and dated 1900, linecut text figures. The sixth figure, a large group of seals on a rocky shore, is all that is on the last page, and it is not actually a part of Grinnell's article, but it was inserted, apparently, to separate his article from the next one in the volume, with which it is also irrelevant. CBH indicated that the first five figures (scenes associated with the salmon fishery) were based on photographs. The figure of the seals lacks a legend.
[FIGURE 33 OMITTED]
Dall's (1902) poem contains one CBH figure, a small linecut, signed and dated 1900. It shows a group of Alaska natives seated and standing around a fire in an otherwise darkened enclosure. It lacks a legend but was used to illustrate a passage in the poem.
Evermann (1905) wrote a popular article about the golden trout of Mt. Whitney in California. In it, Evermann included a full-page reproduction of a black-and-white CBH etching, signed and dated 1904, and entitled "a shoulder of Mt. Whitney." In a letter to Evermann, written in Detroit and dated 29 Sept. 1904, CBH wrote, "I will send you tomorrow, or the day after, an etching of Crabtree Meadow (110), made from the water-color sketch. I have made the plate between times, and have made a number of prints on Japanese paper, one of which I intend to present to each of our party as a memento of the expedition. I do not know whether you are partial to etchings or not--I am--but I hope you will be partial to this one on account of association. (111)" Although not certain, it appears that the published figure is the etching of which CBH wrote. We suspect, however, that CBH made many watercolor sketches during the Mount Whitney expedition.
Hornaday's (1906) book on camping in the Canadian Rocky Mountains has been reprinted several times. It includes only three plates, all halftones, which are credited to CBH. The plate, facing page 196, is captioned "Mr. Phillips's Most Dangerous Position;" that facing p. 286, "A Great Snow-slide" [drawn from photograph]; that facing p. 334, "Risking His Life for a Kid. (112)" The first illustration is either based on, or was a study for, a CBH painting in color, 12" x 16.75" (305 x 425 mm], oil on board, which was auctioned by Cowan's auction house of Cincinnati, Ohio, as item 349, on 31 Mar. 2007, and listed as "Daring photographer in western landscape" (which sold for $1,375). Perceptively, the painting was indicated as a possible study for an illustration. We reproduce both versions in Figure 40.
Anonymous (1914) is a Luther Burbank seed catalog. It contains one full-page color illustration, opposite page 48, "The Burbank Poppies," signed "Hudson 1909" (Fig. 41, left) This and/or other CBH illustrations, including those mentioned in Anonymous (1982), probably appeared in other Burbank catalogs, but this was the only catalog available to us. (113)
[FIGURE 34 OMITTED]
[FIGURE 35 OMITTED]
Evermann's (1917) plates 10 and 17 are full-page half-tone photographs of two California Academy of Sciences dioramas for which CBH painted the backgrounds; acknowledgments to him are on pages 280 and 294.
Anonymous (1982) contains a placard and seven color prints of fruits and vegetables, cultivars developed by Luther Burbank, on heavy paper, the prints suitable for framing. The placard states that the paintings were done in 1909. Four of the prints bear CBH's name and 1909; the other three bear neither. The front of the placard has brief biographies of Burbank and CBH. The rear of the placard describes the fruits and has acknowledgments, including CBH's daughter, Claire Hudson Brett, for historical information. We reproduce one of the prints as our Figure 41, right. The prints are still available (2008) for purchase from the Luther Burbank Home & Gardens (see also Anonymous (1914)).
Collins (1987) is a reproduction of Collins' (1891b) report, with type reset. It includes all eight CBH illustrations, enlarged, that appeared in the original publication.
Ronnberg (1987:182, Fig. 1) includes CBH's 1888 painting of the Grampus, sailing to the left (our Fig. 29, upper). Either Ronnberg's publication or that of Backus and Bourne (1987, see below) was the first to publish a reproduction of this painting. Ronnberg mentions that the painting was probably done in tempera and, perceptively, recognized that it is so similar to CBH's 1888 line drawing of the Grampus, which appears as Plate 1 in both Collins (1891b) and (1987), that the latter was undoubtedly based on the painting.
The 1888 painting, when photographed at the Smithsonian, was framed and under glass, and an accompanying label with the ship's name had split in half. We presume that the 1888 painting, which was unpublished for almost 100 years, was probably hanging in someone's office or forgotten, so that a new painting was requested for the article by Libbey (1891). CBH probably remembered his original painting, and reoriented the sailing direction of the Grampus, in order not to duplicate his original. Our many concerted attempts to locate the original 1888 and 1891 paintings over the course of many years were unsuccessful.
[FIGURE 36 OMITTED]
[FIGURE 37 OMITTED]
Backus and Bourne (1987:4) published a photograph of CBH's 1888 painting of the U.S. Fish Commission schooner Grampus, sailing to the left, based on a print made from a negative (#4969) in the files of the Smithsonian Institution Imaging Services (see Ronnberg (1987), for discussion). They did not discuss the image.
[FIGURE 38 OMITTED]
Shields (2006:11) introduces his Chapter 5 with a quotation from CBH's 1915 article, "Monterey on the etching plate" (q.v.). On pages 117-118, he quotes extensively from the article and reproduces one of CBH's etchings that were included in it. Shields credits CBH with representing the deep concern felt by the artists' community resulting from the modernization and deterioration of landmarks and native buildings of the area. On pages 228-230, Shields presents a brief biographical sketch of CBH, including general comments on CBH's landscapes and seascapes. Page 229 includes a color reproduction of a CBH painting, "Spanish Bay" (also our Figure 42), in the collection of the Crocker Art Museum. Much enlarged, and rendered in subdued tones of tan, Shields used this painting as the background on which his book's title page is printed.
|Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback|
|Author:||Springer, Victor G.; Murphy, Kristin A.|
|Publication:||Marine Fisheries Review|
|Date:||Sep 22, 2009|
|Previous Article:||Song of the sea.|
|Next Article:||Drawn to the sea: Charles Bradford Hudson (1865-1939), artist, author, army officer, with special notice of his work for the United States Fish...|