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Dr. Walter and Adelia Hillman: preserving the commitment of Mississippi Baptists to higher education during the Civil War Era.

Mississippi Baptists have been committed to education from their earliest days.

Their first attempt to work directly in higher education occurred in 1836 with the founding of the Judson Institute. Although the Judson endeavor was ultimately short-lived, the Baptist commitment to higher education intensified, culminating in the acquisition of Mississippi College in 1850. Since 1836, the state convention and several local associations had supported at least ten different educational institutions within the state, many of which no longer exist. (1) The Civil War brought physical or economic destruction to many of the institutions, resulting in their closure. Other institutions survived. Though Walter and Adelia Hillman may be relatively unknown among today's Mississippi Baptists, their leadership during the Civil War era ensured the longevity of the involvement of Mississippi Baptists in education by preserving two antebellum institutions: the Central Female Institute and Mississippi College.

Mississippi College Background

Mississippi College began in 1826 as Hampstead Academy with the hopes that it might become the state's public university. The college was coeducational, becoming the first such institution in the United States to grant a college degree to a female in 1831. (2) When the legislature decided to place the state's university in Oxford, control of the college passed through several entities until the Mississippi Baptist Convention acquired it in 1850. The first priority of the Convention was to bring financial stability to the college. One measure implemented toward this goal was to discontinue the female department, making Mississippi College an all-male institution. Under the leadership of Mississippi Baptists, student enrollment and financial endowments increased steadily with a total attendance of 230 students at the dawn of the Civil War and an endowment that exceeded $100,000. In 1860, this represented the largest student enrollment of any college or university within Mississippi and one of the largest among the twenty-one Baptist colleges in the southern states. (3) Soon after the war began, the president of Mississippi College issued a citation on April 24, 1861, confirming that forty students and several teachers had formed a volunteer company to serve in the Confederate cause but denying rumors that the college itself would soon be closing, stating that "the College has never been more prosperous than at prese[nt.]" (4)

Central Female Institute (Hillman College) Background

In its sixth year of existence, the Central Baptist Association resolved to "aid in building an institution of learning, for females, of a high grade, second to none in our land; said institution to be located at Clinton." (5) The Association chose Clinton as the best site to place their school for three primary reasons. First, Clinton was seen as a healthy environment not prone to epidemic diseases. Secondly, its location was accessible by the state's largest railroad and by the Vicksburg seaport only thirty-five miles west of the city. Finally, the Mississippi Baptist Convention had already assumed the operation of Mississippi College in Clinton, giving parents an opportunity to educate their sons and daughters in close proximity to one another. (6) The educational aim of the Central Female Institute was "for imparting high literary culture to the female mind amid the purifying influences of morality and religion." (7)

The Central Female Institute opened in Clinton four blocks north of the campus of Mississippi College in the fall of 1853. (8) The Institute drew pupils from Mississippi, Louisiana, Arkansas, and Texas, with approximately one-half of the students boarding on campus. (9) Since the only students permitted to board off-campus lived with a parent or guardian, students were frequently turned away due to a lack of on-campus boarding space. Dr. Walter Hillman became the Institute's third principal in 1856 and served in such capacity until his death in 1894. During his tenure, the title for the top position at the Central Female Institute changed from principal to president. Further, the Institute itself was renamed Hillman College in 1891. After the death of Dr. Hillman, his wife, Adelia Hillman served as its president for the next two years.

Dr. Walter Hillman

Dr. Walter Hillman was born in 1829 in Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts, graduating from Brown University in the summer of 1854 with a Master of Arts degree. (10) The president of Mississippi College, Isaac Urner, attended the graduation ceremony seeking a science teacher who might be induced to come south to Clinton. Upon the recommendation of Francis Wayland, president of Brown University, Urner hired Hillman to fill this position beginning in the 1854-1855 school term. After completing his first year of teaching, Hillman returned north to marry Adelia M. Thompson on September 18, 1855. Having taught at Mississippi College for two years, Hillman resigned his teaching position and became principal at the Central Female Institute having a reputation "as a scholar and disciplinarian ... with [a] gentlemanly and Christian deportment." (11) Following the Civil War, Hillman served as president of Mississippi College for six years in addition to his duties at the Central Female Institute. When he resigned from Mississippi College, the school conferred upon him an honorary Doctor of Laws degree for his services rendered. Hillman also served as the first president of the State Teacher's Association, writing "A Plea for Common Schools" that was largely responsible for the educational measures concerning the character and management of common schools adopted by the state legislature in 1870. (12)

In 1858, Dr. Hillman had been ordained to the ministry but did not take a church pastorate until 1862 when he became pastor of First Baptist Church of Clinton, serving in such capacity for two years. He continued serving as the pastor of the African-American congregation when they withdrew from the Clinton congregation to form their own church. (13) Dr. Hillman was very active in the Mississippi Baptist Convention, serving as president of its Board of Ministerial Education for sixteen years and being a charter member of the Mississippi Baptist Historical Commission. In addition to his teaching abilities and denominational involvement, Dr. Hillman proved to be a capable businessman. In 1891, he owned 3,500 acres of land--one-half of which were in cultivation.

Mrs. Adelia Hillman

Adelia Thompson Hillman was a native of Union, Maine, graduating from Warren Ladies' Seminary in Rhode Island. Brown University conferred upon Mrs. Hillman an honorary Master of Arts degree in 1898, the third such honorary degree granted to a female by Brown University. (14) Prior to her marriage, Mrs. Hillman had been the principal of a public school in Rhode Island and the head lady teacher at a young ladies' seminary in Kentucky. Following her marriage to Dr. Hillman, the Central Female Institute hired Mrs. Hillman as its head lady teacher. An account from one of the earliest students at the Institute credits Mrs. Hillman with convincing the board of trustees to change the color of dresses and style of hats allowed to be worn by the students. (15) Another student describes Mrs. Hillman as "a fiend for neatness." (16)

Like her husband, Mrs. Hillman became very involved in the work of Mississippi Baptists. She chaired the convention's Central Committee of the Woman's Missionary Union for twelve years and was also a charter member of the Mississippi Baptist Historical Commission. She further served the Mississippi Baptist Historical Commission by accepting the position of its librarian. For two years Mrs. Hillman was president of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union. (17)

Although the Hillmans had no children of their own, they personally provided for the education of Adelia's nephew Charles Brough, who eventually taught at the University of Arkansas before becoming governor of Arkansas. (18) At the request of Dr. Isaac Tichenor of the Southern Baptist Convention's Home Mission Board, they assumed the expenses necessary to educate Cuban-native Jose Felipe Molina so that he might return to Cuba as a missionary. (19) Finally, the Hillmans advocated for free, public education of both Caucasian and African-American children following the Civil War. (20)

Civil War Years

Dr. Hillman was president of the Central Female Institute during the Civil War. Although Clinton was amidst the heart of the central Mississippi battlefields, the Central Female Institute never missed a day of classes, averaged a total enrollment of more than one hundred pupils, and graduated nineteen students from the college department between 1861 and 1865. (21) Neighboring Mississippi College remained open with a preparatory course load for approximately thirty pre-college students but was used as a hospital by both the Confederate and Union troops who occupied Clinton. (22) During one Union occupation General Ulysses S. Grant ordered the "destruction of the railroad, all communications, several plantations and parts of downtown Clinton." (23)

One of the most intriguing stories in the history of the Central Female Institute is the legend that Mrs. Hillman saved its buildings from destruction when the Union troops occupied the city. In short, the story is usually told that Mrs. Hillman approached General Grant and sought relief for the school's buildings. General Grant was so impressed that not only did he spare the buildings, but he also posted a guard detail around the campus to protect it from harm. While numerous Hillman College sources cite this story as how the school was saved during the Civil War, no general accounts of the Civil War or biographies of General Grant mention this incident. (24) When the Hillmans' nephew Charles Brough wrote an account of historic Clinton, he included this legend saying:
   General Grant, while he had his headquarters in Clinton, was
   considerate of the rights of the citizens, and at the request of
   Mrs. Hillman placed a guard about the Central Female Institute ...
   he stationed a guard around the two schools, one of which
   Mississippi College, was used as a hospital, and the other, the
   Central Female Institute, kept open its doors throughout the war.

The question for the modern historian is whether this legend could be an accurate reflection of how the Central Female Institute continued operating during the war and had its buildings spared. One of the biggest factors against the validity of this legend is that General Grant personally spent very little time in Clinton. Although there was fighting between the Union and the Confederacy in Clinton in the summer of 1863, Clinton was not a primary battlefield. Instead, the actual fighting in Clinton was more akin to skirmishes attempting to slow down the Union advance into the state's capital of Jackson following the fall of Vicksburg. General Grant spent at least one night in Clinton on his way into Jackson, but it is unlikely that a female teacher at the local ladies' college was able to approach Grant and curry his favor in such a short time period. Also calling into question the veracity of this legend is the lack of its repetition in non-Hillman-related sources. Finally, it is entirely possible that Mrs. Hillman created or embellished this legend during her fund-raising campaign in 1867.

However, some circumstantial evidence suggests the validity of this legend. First and foremost, the buildings of the Central Female Institute were unharmed by either army and apparently not used by either side as a hospital. In April 1863, General Pemberton granted the Central Female Institute's request for exemption from use as a Confederate hospital. However, this Confederate exemption does not account for why the Union leaders would leave the college untouched, especially since other female colleges in Mississippi were not similarly spared. Mississippi College, only four blocks south, was used as a hospital and received extensive physical damage during these skirmishes, indicating that some form of Union restraint must have saved the institution. Secondly, several accounts reveal the fighting that took place on the campus of Mississippi College. One such account that was collected by the Daughters of the Confederacy describes how a small contingent of Confederate soldiers pushed the Union soldiers as far back as the Chapel of Mississippi College. As reinforcements arrived, the Confederates fled with Captain W. A. Montgomery and Lieutenant E. C. Montgomery, each getting a "Yankee horse that was hitched by Dr. Hamilton's gate in front of Hillman College." (26) A third factor supporting the validity of the story is that this legend paints General Grant in a positive light at a time when most Mississippians would have been slow to praise the man responsible for the fall of Vicksburg and so much destruction in their state. Finally, when the Union troops left Jackson toward the end of July 1863, they once again camped in Clinton. On their departure, Major General Sherman ordered his quartermaster to issue 15,000 rations to the citizens of Clinton provided that these rations would not be handed over to the Confederate army. (27)

Although the Hillmans became very active in the lives and causes of Mississippi Baptists, at the time the Union troops entered Clinton they had been "Southerners" for less than a decade. Perhaps it is not coincidence that the school under the leadership of a couple with strong Union ties was spared by Union troops. Although the Central Female Institute would be surrounded by war with troops advancing and retreating and the destruction and burning of many buildings in Clinton, the institution's buildings and students remained safe.

Regardless of why the campus was spared, the Central Female Institute's claim to fame is that it was the only Southern college to never miss a day of classes during the Civil War. This feat would be an accomplishment for any Southern college, but it is especially notable due to its proximity to some of the fighting. Some surviving student accounts relate what it was like to attend college in the midst of the Civil War.

One such account was given by Alice Timberlake, an 1866 graduate of the Central Female Institute:
   There were some raids through old Clinton that year-notably
   Sherman's from Vicksburg to Meridian. Bullets were flying about the
   old Institute, houses blazing, Confederates retreating, Yankees
   advancing and wild excitement all around us. But we had level heads
   and firm hands at the helm and in a little while went on with our
   tasks. (28)

Timberlake recounts that three teachers remained during the war: Dr. and Mrs. Hillman and Professor Menger, the school's renowned music professor. In the second year of her studies, the effects of the war became visible. Student bills were being paid in produce: cotton, sweet potatoes, watermelons, molasses, corn meal, and fresh pork. The students had few textbooks available to them, with a class of eight pupils sharing one book. Living near Vicksburg, Timberlake at times had to trek across battle lines to get to and from school. On one occasion, she and a friend had packed for the trip knowing their trunks would be searched by the Union troops for contraband. Later, Timberlake recounted:
   My dear old alma mater still kept open her doors to the few who
   were able to get to her. So my dear chum and myself, furnished with
   passes to rebeldom, were carried to the "Lines." There we were to
   have our trunks searched, passes approved, and be allowed to cross
   the river. Now we thought having our trunks searched was quite an
   indignity and this is the way we chose, in our schoolgirl
   silliness, to avenge ourselves. We each possessed ourselves of
   several cast off hoop skirts left around the house. Even the
   Yankees did not want them. Did you ever see anyone fold up a
   hoopskirt? The old timey dry goods clerk had a sleight of hand
   twist that brought the hoops around in a nice little package not
   much larger than a saucer. Well, we proceeded to try our hands at
   this and dexteriously slipped our folded hoops in on top of our
   trunk trays and quickly shut down the lid. When the trunks were set
   up to be searched of course we protested and declared there was
   nothing contraband in them, but the officer was obdurate and after
   some crocodile tears on our part we exacted a promise that he would
   put everything just as he found it. We reluctantly passed over our
   keys. The result was all we had fondly hoped for when our
   jack-in-the-box was sprung. Such shouts of laughter! And how that
   poor man was chaffed! We tried to hold him to his promise to put
   everything back as he found it--everything being only the old hoop
   skirts because he didn't take anything else out. He even declined
   to lift the trays. I do not remember what became of the hoop
   skirts--if we put them back in the trunks or not. Perhaps we left
   them as a souvenir to the officer. But how we did enjoy that
   adventure to relate when we got out in the Confederate States of
   America! (29)

In addition to this encounter, Timberlake and her party on one occasion were stuck in a blizzard and had to stay overnight in a deserted home before reaching the Institute that term. A second student who wrote of her accounts during the Civil War was Alice Shirley, an off-campus boarder staying in the home of her sister-in-law, Mrs. Harriet Shirley. When the Union troops entered Vicksburg and Central Mississippi in May 1863, her father journeyed from Vicksburg to Clinton to retrieve Alice so that the family might be together. After Mr. Shirley arrived in Clinton, Alice's trunks were sent ahead to Vicksburg with the intention that she and her father would board the west-bound train the following morning to return to Vicksburg. However, during this delay, the rail lines were destroyed and all other means of transportation were similarly cut off between Clinton and Vicksburg. Mr. Shirley walked the forty miles back to his home in Vicksburg alone as it would have been unsafe for Alice to travel across a battlefield with only her father as a protector. (30) General Grant sent a telegram on July 18, 1863, to the commanding officer at Clinton, Mississippi, that stated: "See Miss Alice Shirley staying at the house of Mrs. Shirley [in] Clinton and say her father desires her to come to Vicksburg. You may give Miss Shirley any facility of reaching here." (31)s Alice would reunite with her family in Vicksburg but would not return to the Central Female Institute as her father died later that year and she married a Union chaplain the following year.

Post-Civil War Years

Following the end of the Civil War, both the Central Female Institute and Mississippi College found themselves in serious financial trouble. Prior to the outbreak of the war, the Central Female Institute had initiated a building campaign to solve the problem of insufficient student accommodations. (32) The foundation and first floor were completed in 1861, after which work came to a standstill. Most of the support that had been raised for the project was in the form of pledges payable upon the completion of the building, but the war-time devastation of the Mississippi economy halted construction and curtailed the collection of pledges. Although the Institute's other buildings remained intact at the war's conclusion, the board faced serious financial issues with no way to pay the incurred debts. (33) Among the persons to whom the Institute owed money were its president, Dr. Hillman, and the contractor for the unfinished building.

Having few options, the board approached Hillman with an offer that if he would pay the school's debt, they would deed all of its property over to him. The president accepted the board's proposal and paid the Institute's debts in exchange for the deed to 18.8 acres of land that then constituted the Central Female Institute. (34) In 1866, he volunteered a redemption clause to the board so that the property would be returned to them if they could repay the debt within three years. However, in 1869, the financial condition of the Central Baptist Association had not improved, leaving it unable to redeem the property. With the transfer of property to Dr. Hillman finalized, the Association was relieved of all financial responsibility for the Central Female Institute, but its board of trustees would continue in an advisory role to the president and owner of the Institute. (35)

Four blocks away, Mississippi College faced an even greater crisis. Although the Union troops did not burn any building on the college campus, many buildings were severely damaged during the war. (36) In its 1869 catalogue, the college described its post-war condition:
   Not only was she deprived of her Faculty and Students, but in the
   general bankruptcy of the country, her fine endowment, to within a
   very small fraction was lost; her enclosures destroyed by encamping
   armies; and her buildings injured by use as barracks and hospitals.

By 1867, Mississippi College had incurred a debt of about $7,000 including a judgment payable to its president, Isaac Urner. (38) As Dr. Hillman had saved the Central Female Institute from financial ruin, the trustees of Mississippi College now turned to him to see if he could raise the money necessary to pay off the debt and restore the college to its pre-war days.

On behalf of her husband and the board of trustees, Mrs. Hillman went north into New England to raise money for Mississippi College. After approximately one week, she returned with enough money to satisfy the school's debts and start the rebuilding process. (39) Some of the money was in the form of gifts to the college while the bulk of the money raised was a loan to the school. The collateral for this loan became the grounds of Mississippi College. If the school could not repay the loan by January 1, 1869, ownership of the land and buildings would transfer to Dr. Hillman leaving him the private owner of Clinton's two Baptist institutions. (40) Unable to repay the loan on time, Mississippi College was granted a three-year extension by Hillman, enabling the school to retire the debt.

In addition to needing operating funds, Mississippi College sought a new president in 1867 following Urner's resignation. In deliberations on who should succeed Urner, the Mississippi College board of trustees reported that "it was necessary to have an eye to his scholarship, and to his disciplinary and general executive ability, and at the same time to the fact the college was unable to compensate fully one possessed of these qualities." (41) It is important to remember the general condition of Mississippi College at this time. The school had a devastated endowment, owed a money judgment to its former president, and could only offer the successor a little more than one-half of his predecessor's salary. (42) The campus was unfenced and its buildings were without doors, windows, roofs, and in some of the buildings, floors. (43) Since it had just announced the resumption of its academic program, Mississippi College had neither college students nor professors and no guarantee any would come. Despite these and other difficulties, Dr. Hillman accepted the board's offer to become the school's next president.

Dr. Hillman was now the president of both the Central Female Institute and Mississippi College and would serve in this dual capacity for six years. The college program at Mississippi College resumed in 1867 amidst criticism for re-opening prior to the satisfaction of the school's debts. The re-opening was shaky, as only two college students and nine preparatory students enrolled. Yet under Hillman's leadership, enrollment increased to one hundred ninety students in his sixth and final school term. Upon Hillman's retirement from Mississippi College in 1873, the school was debt-free with a renewed endowment and habitable buildings for its growing numbers of faculty and students. (44) In appreciation for "his distinguished services during the six years of his presidency in relieving the College from her embarrassments, rebuilding her broken down columns ... giving her once more prominence as an institution of learning ... the breadth and accuracy of his scholarship, his uncommon executive ability, and his high moral worth," the Mississippi College board of trustees conferred upon Walter Hillman a Doctor of Laws degree on May 26, 1873. (45)

The largest structural change that occurred during Hillman's tenure as president of Mississippi College was effecting the cooperation of the Baptist conventions of Arkansas and Louisiana. Both states adopted Mississippi College as their own Baptist institution for higher education and financially supported the school for a time. Although the support from Arkansas Baptists was short-lived, Louisiana Baptists continued to support and share responsibility for Mississippi College until 1885. (46) Also during Hillman's tenure the college "secured the reissuance of the New Orleans, Jackson, and Great Northern Railroad bonds, which had been lost during the War, valued at $1,000.00 each ... the only portion of the pre-war endowment funds recovered by the college." (47) The Central Female Institute was renamed Hillman College in 1891 to honor the Hillmans and all they had done for the school. When Dr. Hillman died three years later, Mrs. Hillman became the owner and president of the school. She offered to sell it at a discounted price to the Mississippi College board of trustees or the Hillman College board of trustees but was refused as neither group had the funds available to purchase the property from her.

Although Hillman College had been privately owned since just after the Civil War, it continued to be viewed as a Baptist collegiate institution. For example, at the 1924 Hinds County Baptist Association meeting, Hillman College was praised with the following statement:
   Although Hillman is a private school, it was founded by Baptists,
   is owned by Baptists, is endorsed by the Baptist State Convention,
   and is located in the center of Baptist influences. Tuition is free
   to wives and daughters of Baptist preachers. Director of music is
   one of the best educated in music in the South. All other
   departments are headed by specialists. Religious advantages in
   Clinton are the very best. Hillman does not ask for financial aid,
   but only the interest, prayers and patronage of the people she is
   serving. (48)

Hillman College and Mississippi College officially merged in 1942. However, their history of cooperation with one another predated 1942 in the form of shared faculty, courseloads, and at times administrators. During her tenure as president, Mrs. Hillman laid the groundwork for the eventual merger by obtaining the agreement of several members of the Mississippi College faculty to teach her advanced students. (49) In 1905, Mississippi College awarded its first degree to a female student in more than seventy years as a Hillman College alumna had earned enough credits at Mississippi College to qualify for a Bachelor of Arts degree. (50)

As college standards developed and were implemented, Hillman College became fully accredited as a junior college and joined the American Association of Junior Colleges and the Southern Association of Colleges for Women. (51) Mississippi College officially remained an all-male institution, but by the mid-1920s a regular plan had been developed that allowed Hillman graduates to continue their studies at Mississippi College. The female students remained in a Hillman dormitory while taking classes at Mississippi College. (52) Daughters of Mississippi College professors and Hillman College graduates were the only female students admitted to Mississippi College during this time.

The official merger of Hillman College into Mississippi College occurred in 1942 when Mississippi College leased the Hillman College property from M. R L. Berry, president and owner of Hillman College, for a period of five years with the option to purchase the property at a set price at the conclusion of the five years. Even though Mississippi College had been quietly granting degrees to Hillman College graduates for almost four decades, some alumni opposed the merger and the official return of the school to the status of a coeducational institution. Their objections were largely overlooked since the move was viewed as mutually beneficial, with Mississippi College needing students during World War II and Hillman College needing financial stability following the Great Depression. (53)

The buildings that comprised Hillman College have now been demolished. Some of the property of the former college has been converted into a public park known as Hillman-Berry Lions' Club Park. Although Hillman College and the work of Dr. Walter and Adelia Hillman may have begun to fade from the institutional memory of Mississippi College, it is important that their place remain. The Hillmans undoubtedly contributed the most to the institution that would bear their surname. However, they helped save the Civil War campus of Mississippi College from destruction in the post-war years, restoring it to a position from which it could grow and become the school that it is today. Mrs. Hillman laid the foundation for what would ultimately be a merger of the two schools when she obtained an agreement from some Mississippi College faculty members to teach her advanced students. The merger of these two antebellum institutions has proven successful for Mississippi College as fifty-three percent of its residential students as of the fall semester of 2010 are female. (54) Through their leadership both during and following the Civil War, the Hillmans preserved the tradition of education for Mississippi Baptists, who yet operate the oldest college within the state.

(1), accessed January 5, 2011.

(2) Charles E. Martin, Mississippi College with Pride: A History of Mississippi College 1826-2004 (Clinton, MS: Mississippi College 2007), 130.

(3) Richard Aubrey McLemore and Nannie Pitts McLemore, The History of Mississippi College (Jackson, MS: Hederman Brothers 1979), 75.

(4) Isaac Urner, April 24, 1861. A copy of this one-page circular can be found in the collections of the Mississippi Baptist Historical Commission.

(5) Martin, Mississippi College, 118.

(6) Z. T. Leavell and T. J. Bailey, A Complete History of Mississippi Baptists from the Earliest Times, 2, (Jackson, MS: Mississippi Baptist Publishing Co. 1904), 1255.

(7) Netta Sue Miller, "In Days of Long Ago," 1950 Arrowhead (Summer 1950): 6.

(8)"Clinton to Get Park When It Gets Rid of Old Buildings," Clarion-Ledger: Jackson Daily News, March 7, 1965.

(9) Edward Mayes, History of Education in Mississippi (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1899), 100.

(10) Martha Mitchell (Brown University Archivist) to Charles Martin, November, 13, 1998, transcript in the hand of the Mississippi Baptist Historical Commission. It should also be noted that in 1854 this degree was an undergraduate degree and should not to be confused with the Master of Arts graduate degrees awarded on and after 1888.

(11) Mrs. Kitty A. Vaughn, "Biography of Dr. Walter Hillman," original date unknown, Mississippi Department of Archives and History, 2-3.

(12) Ibid., 4.

(13) Martin, Mississippi College, 125.

(14) Mitchell to Martin.

(15) "Ante-bellum Hillman," original date unknown, Mississippi Baptist Historical Commission. The author of this two-page account identifies herself as the oldest graduate of the Central Female Institute.

(16) Alice J. Timberlake, "Hillman College in War Times," January 1928, Mississippi Baptist Historical Commission.

(17) Martin, Mississippi College, 126.

(18) Michael B. Dougan, "Charles Hillman Brough (1876-1935)," The Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture ( aspx?entryID = 89), accessed May 13, 2011.

(19) Mrs. Kitty A. Vaughn, "Biography of Mrs. Adelia M. Hillman," original date unknown, Mississippi Department of Archives and History.

(20) Mary Carol Miller, Lost Mansions of Mississippi, 2 (Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi, 2010), 59.

(21) The Civil War graduates of the Central Female Institute were: 1861- Carrie A. Baskin-Butt, Julia S. Lewis, Laura A. Taylor, Sallie M. Yellowly-Herring, Pallis F. Bradley; 1862- Harriett B. Coulson-Kells, Magnolia R. Bennett-Bell, Lucy A. Harris, Dortia W. Wallace; 1863- Sarah E. Wells-Stovall, Michaux Stratton-Moore, Jane A. Carloss-McIntosh, Lucy A. Jones-Spencer; 1864- Susan M. Osborn-Cotton, Fannie Banks-Johnson, Emma Newton-Williams, Annie E. Arnold; and 1865- Ellen G. Moffit-Johns, Lizzie Montgomery-Bush. "Alumnae List," Mississippi Baptist Historical Commission.

(22) Martin, Mississippi College, 121.

(23) T. K. Saul, "Hillmans dedicated lives to further quality education," The Clinton News, January 14, 1999.

(24) Another version of this legend credits General Sherman as the Union officer who granted Mrs. Hillman's request. As Sherman spent more time in Clinton than did Grant and has at least one documented act of benevolence to the citizenry of Clinton, he is a more likely candidate. However, this version is less well-known than the one crediting General Grant and is plagued by its scarcity of reference within historical documents.

(25) Charles Hillman Brough, "Historic Clinton," Publications of the Mississippi Historical Society, 7, ed. Franklin L. Riley (Oxford, MS: Mississippi Historical Society 1903), 306.

(26) Carl McIntire, "Manuscript describes Civil War skirmishes on MC campus," The Clarion-Ledger Jackson Daily News, June 1, 1980.

(27) Edwin C. Bearss, "The Siege of Jackson July 10-17, 1863," The Battle of Jackson May 14, 1863, The Siege of Jackson July 10-17, 1863, Three Other Post-Vicksburg Actions (Baltimore, MD: Gateway Press Inc. 1981), 104-105.

(28) Timberlake, "Hillman College in War Times."

(29) Mrs. Howard Jefferson Cabell, "A Personal Experience by Mrs. Alice J. Timberlake," The North Hinds Messenger (part of series History of Clinton) 1924, copy in Mississippi Department of Archives and History.

(30) U.S. Department of the Interior, "Environmental Assessment: Rehabilitation and Restoration of the Shirley House," Vicksburg National Military Park (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 2009), 44. The Shirley home survived the Civil War even though it was between the fighting lines of the Union and Confederate armies for much of the Battle of Vicksburg. Today, it remains within the Vicksburg National Military Park.

(31) John Y. Simon, ed. The Papers of Ulysses S. Grant vol. 9: July 7-December 31, 1863 (Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press 1982), 75.

(32) T. K. Saul, "Hillmans dedicated lives to further quality education."

(33) Martin, Mississippi College, 122.

(34) Ibid., 120.

(35) Ibid., 122.

(36) Various persons are credited with protecting the Mississippi College campus from total destruction by the Union troops during the war: President Urner (McLemore, History of Mississippi College, 77), Presidents Urner and Hillman (Mayes, History of Education, 87), President and Mrs. Hillman (Miller, Lost Mansions of Mississippi, 59), and President Hillman (Miller, "In Days of Long Ago," 6).

(37) "Catalogue of the Officers and Students of 1869-1870 Mississippi College," (New Orleans: REA's Stream Book and Job Printing Office 1870), bound in MC Catalogue 1860-80 and maintained in the Mississippi Baptist Historical Society collections.

(38) McLemore, History of Mississippi College, 79. Urner had obtained a judgment against Mississippi College in the amount of $6,681.55 when the court system in Mississippi restarted following the Civil War. He agreed to accept $6,000.00 as payment in full if he received the money by January 1, 1868.

(39) Miller, "In Days of Long Ago," 6.

(40) Martin, Mississippi College, 123.

(41) McLemore, History of Mississippi College, 79.

(42) Ibid., 77-79.

(43) Leavell, A Complete History, vol 2, 1263.

(44) McLemore, History of Mississippi College, 80-86.

(45) Florence Spiars and Kate Willis, eds., "The Snowflake," 17, no. 1 (Clinton, MS: Central Female Institute) June 25, 1873.

(46) Martin, Mississippi College, 159.

(47) McLemore, History of Mississippi College, 84.

(48) M. R L. Berry, "Changes Wrought in Fifty Years," unknown date, Mississippi Baptist Historical Commission. This author was the president of Hillman College from 1923 until 1942.

(49) Martin, Mississippi College, 132.

(50) Ibid. This student was Anna Ward Aven, a daughter of a Mississippi College professor. Ms. Aven had the option to study with the Mississippi College faculty but still receive her B.A. from Hillman College. Instead, Ms. Aven earned her Hillman diploma in 1904 and then continued her studies at Mississippi College.

(51) Joe Abrams, "Hillman College," Encyclopedia of Southern Baptist, (Nashville, TN: Broadman Press, 1958).

(52) Martin, Mississippi College, 132

(53) McLemore, History of Mississippi College, 193.

(54), accessed October 15, 2010.

Jennifer L. Hawks is a student at George W. Truett Theological Seminary, Baylor University, Waco, Texas.
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Author:Hawks, Jennifer L.
Publication:Baptist History and Heritage
Article Type:Biography
Geographic Code:1U6MS
Date:Jun 22, 2011
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