Domestic coal transport.
Business in coal transport is brisker in the country with growing exports of that commodity and domestic consumption for the industry notably for coal fired power plants. Demand for transport service, therefore, has increased sharply. Transport equipment such as barges and coal carriers are no longer easiy available.
The problem in coal transport is feared to continue or may be worse in the coming years with the fast growing demand for the servcie in 2010 when most of the projects under the crash program in the electricity sector have been completed. Under the crash program the state electricity company PLN to build coal-fired power plants with a total capacity fo 10,000 megawatts to be completed in 2010.
Currently demands for the coal transport service come mainly from the existing coal-fired power plants and coal exporters.
Coal Transport Types
There are a number of systems used in the transport coal depending on the locations.
Land transport is mainly with trains, conveyor belts or dump trucks with a carrying capacity of 120 to 200 tons. In East and South Kalimantan coal producers use barge for the transport of coal via river to seaport or place of stock-pile.
PT Bukit Asam uses railway transport covering the distance of 164 kilometers from its coal mine in Tanjung Enim to the port of Kertapati and 420 km from Tanjung Enim to the port of Tarahan.
In West Sumatra, Bukit Asam uses trains and trucks to carry coal from the Ombilin mine to the Teluk Bayur port 155 km away.
PT Arutmin in South Kalimantan use dump trucks and barges to transport coal from its mine in Kota Baru to the port of Pulau Laut Utara 150 km away.
PT Adaro uses dump trucks and Triple trailer trains with a carrying capacity of 200 tons each to carry coal from the Hulu Sungai Utara and Tabalong mines to the port of Kelanis 75 km away.
PT Kaltim Prima Coal (KPC) uses a 13-kilometer conveyor belt to transport coal from its mines to the port of Tanjung Bara in Sangatta, East Kalimantan.
Barges dominate coal transport in the country. There are 600 units of barges operating in the country. There are few bulk cargo vessel of the Panamax and Handymax types, which are used mainly for large shipments to large consumers like Suralaya and Paiton coal fired power plants.
Communications ministry estimates that in 2011, when the cabotage principle is fully implemented, the country will need around 367 units of barge and 4 units of dry bulk cargo ship of the Panamax class and 9 units of the Handymax class.
Main coal transport companies
Kartika Samudra Adijaya is one of major coal transport companies in the country having a fleet of 30 barges with a total capacity of 48,670 GT.
The company transport coal mainly from Kalimantan and Sumatra such as Samarinda, Balikpapan, Banjarmasin, Berau, Kota Baru, Batu Licin, Kertapati, Tarahan and Panjang to ports of consuming areas in Java such as Cigading, Cirebon, Merak, Tanjung Priok, Tanjung Perak, Gresik, etc.
Agus Suta Line is also a major coal transport company with a fleet of 34 barges serving the routes between the ports of coal producing areas Samarinda, Balikpapan, Bontang, Kotabaru, Banjarmasin, Dumai, Pekan Baru, etc and ports of consuming areas in Java including Tanjung Priok, Marunda, Panjang, Merak, Suralaya, Gresik, Paiton, Madura, Tanjung Perak, Banyuwangi, etc.
Coal sea ports
Indonesian Bulk Terminal is the largest coal port in Indonesia, located in the Pulau Laut Selatan. It is jointly owned by Bulk Handling of Australia and PT Terminal Batubara Indonesia.
The port which serves coal mining company Adaro as well as other coal mining companies has a stock yard with a capacity of 1.6 million MT. It could accommodate ships measuring up to 200.000 DWT. The port is located in the domestic and international shipping lanes.
The second largest coal port is Tanjung Bara in Sangatta, Samarinda Utara, East Kalimantan, built by Kaltim Prima Coal (KPC).
The port could serve ships measuring up to 200,000 DWT and has stock yard with a capacity of 500,000 MT. This port started operaiton in 1991 serving only KPC.
The Balikpapan coal port in East Kalimantan is a large coal port in Indonesia, built by PT Dermaga Perkasa Pratama (DPP) in Balikpapan.
Its jetty terminal has the capacity to accommodate ships measuring up to 80,000 DWT, with stock yard having the capacity of 800,000 MT. This port serve a number of coal producers with mines in area along the Mahakam river such as PT Multi Harapan Utama, PT Tanito Harum, PT Kitadin, PT Bukit Baiduri and PT Fajar Bumi Sakti.
PT Arutmin operates 4 coal terminals including Pulau Laut port, which has he capacity to handle ship measuring up to 60,000 DWT with stock yard having the capacity of 500,000 MT.
Three other coal ports are Pemancingan, Sembilang and Air Tawar all small ports, which could only handle ships measuring up to 7,500 DWT each with a 200,000 MT stock-yard.
PT Kideco Jaya Agung has and operates coal port in Tanah Merah, that could serve ship measuring up to 60,000 DWT (the size of Panamax) with 260,000 MT stockyard.
In Cirebon, West Java, there is a small coal port built by PT Terminal Batubara Indonesia (TBI), which also built the port of Pulau Laut in South Kalimantan in cooperaiton with Adaro.
The Cirebon coal port is a coal receiving port that could serve a ship measuring up to 5,000 DWT. The port serves mainly to unload coal for industrial uses in West Java. The coal is supplied by Adaro, Arutmin and other producers in Kalimantan.
Perusahaan Tambang Batubara Bukit Asam (PTBA) has four coal terminals Kertapati and Tarahan in Southern Sumatra, Teluk Bayur in West Sumatra and Pulau Bai in Bengkulu.
Among manufacturing companies and power plants using coal supplied by PTBA transported via Tarahan in Lampung and Teluk Bayur include PT Semen Nusantara in Cilacap, Central Java, PLTU Suralaya in Banten, PT Indocement and PT Semen Cibinong in West Java and PT Semen Gresik and PLTU Paiton in East Java.
Coal transport by main players
PT. Bukit Asam (PTBA)
PT BA uses railway trains as the main means of transport for its coal from its coal mines to ports. In South Sumatra it plans to increase the carrying capacity of railway trains for coal from Tanjung Enim to port towns of Tarahan, Kertapati. In West Sumatra it also use railway trains for coal transport from Ombilin to Teluk Bayur.
The ports of Tarahan in Lampung has stockpile with a capacity of 560,000 tons and the port could accommodate a ship measuring up to 80,000 DWT. The port of Kertapati in South Sumatra has stockpile with a capacity of 50,000 tons and could serve a ship measuring up to 8,000 DWT. The port of Teluk Bayur in West Sumatra has stockpile with a capacity of 90,000 tons and could serve a ship measuring up to 40,000 DWT.
In 2007, PTBA shipped 6,310,400 tons of coal to the port of Tarahan and 1,695,690 tons to the port of Kertapati from Tanjung Enim.
In order to support land transport, PTBA will open new tracks in cooperation with state-owned railway company PT Kereta Api Indonesia, PT Transpacific, and other investors especially to facilitate transport to and from Bangko Tengah mine. In its plan to reactivate the old coal mine of Ombilin in 2009, PTBA will cooperate with Time Technology to develop railway transport facility with a carrying capacity of 520,000 tons a year.
PT. Kaltim Prima Coal (KPC)
KPC has separate stockpiles for coal from two mines Prima and Pinang respectively with capacity of 60,000 tons and 35,000 tons. The coal is then sent to via a 13 kilometer conveyor belt, which has a carrying capacity of 2,100 tons per hour to the coal port in Tanjung Bara.
Stockyard in the port could take up to 350,000 tons of coal from the Prima mine and 150,000 tons from the Pinang mine.
The port of Tanjung Bara could handle a ship measuring up to 220,000 DWT using 2 units of 2 km Jetty to load coal up to 4,700 tons per hour. The depth of the port basin will enable a ship measuring up to 180,000 DWT fully loaded to move in and out from the port.
The coal stockpile of PT Adaro in Kelani is located on the bank of the Barito river, which is 18 meters deep and 400 meters wide.
Coal is sent from the mine using conveyor belt to the stockpile in Kelani that could take up to 450,000 tons of coal. Using bulldozer, the coal is pushed to underground conveyor with a capacity of 75,000 tons per day to be loaded into barges with a capacity of 7,000 to 10,000 MT, which will sail along the river to a coal port from it the coal would be loaded to larger barges or ships.
With a barge measuring 14,000 MT, the coal is carried directly to the port of consumer or to a bulk carrier off shore or a coal port.
The transhipment to a bulk carrier is made in the Banjarmasin port, some 15 sea miles from the Barito river mouth. The port could serve ship measuring up to 225,000 DWT.
Adaro also ships coal from the coal port of Pulau Laut, which has a capacity of 10 million tons a year and could be used to load a Panamax type of ship measuring more than 75,000 DWT in less than 2 days.
The coal port of Pulau Laut was designed as the main bulk handling centre in South East asia. This port was built by Indonesia Bulk Terminal (IBT).
PT. Berau Coal
PT Berau has completed the construction of a road from the Binungan mine to the location where barges will be loaded, in 1997. From the loading location coal will be sent with using larger barges or ships to export market.
The distance from the barge loading location to the carrier loading location in the port of Lati is around 74 km. The distance is 57 km from the barge loading location to the carrier loading location in the port of Suaran and 98 km to the pot of Sambarat.
PT Berau also uses a number of conveyors with a capacity of 1,000 tons per hour to load coal to a transfer station and to stockpile, which has a capacity of 200,000 tons.
Coal from Arutmin mines in Senakin, Satui and Petangis is exported via the coal port of Pulau Laut Utara which is located in the northern part of Pulau Laut. Pulau Laut is is located i 100km off South Kalimantan.
Coal for domestic consumption is shipped directly with barges from the coal stockpile
Batubara is carried from the mines to the port of Pulau Laut Utara using barges of Arutmin, including 4 units of barges with a capacity of 7,000 tons to serve the Senakin mine, one barge with a capacity of 7,000 tons to serve the Petangis mine and four barges with a capacity of 3,500 tons to serve the Satui mine.
Barges of Arutmin were specially designed to be able to directly connect with conveyor at the port of Pulau Laut Utara, as in the rear part of the barges there is fluffing conveyor that could be connected with hopper in the conveyor in the port.
With the equipment, coal from barges could be directly loaded into ship or unloaded at the stockpile in the port without using heavy equipment.
Proper implementation of the cabotage principle is a key to expansion of he country's shipping and shipbuilding industries. The announcement of the cabotage principle has encouraged procurement of more ships and barges that will help full implementation of the principle in 2011. Delay in the implementation of the principle may result in banks stepping back from offering more support. Currently banks have begun to see the real potential of business in the shipping and shipbuilding sector especially with the guarantee for growth promised by the full implementation of the cabotage principle in 2011.
INSA predicted that in the next two to three years there will be additional 250 to 300 units of new ships ordered by domestic shipping companies. The additional ships would not be sufficient to meet the domestic requirement for coal transport in 2011 but the shortage would not be too many. The country needs 367 barges for coal transport in 2011. The shortage of 67 ships is expected to be covered with the operation of foreign ships flying Indonesian flag by domestic shipping companies.
Smooth shipments of coal will also depend on the facilities available in loading and unloading ports to serve carriers, as well as facilities in land transport from the mines to loading ports and from unloading port to consumers.
Each mining company has various techniques to speed up shipment over land according to condition of the terrain. PT Bukit Asam already has railway transport facility with 400 kilometer tracks and plans to build new tracks in cooperation with the state-owned railway company to increase carrying capacity of the coal trains by 20 million tons a year. The company hopes to be able to increase its sales to 40 million tons of coal a year after the operation of the new tracks in 2012.
KPC, one of the country's largest coal producer, has 13-km conveyor belt from its mines to sea port with a carrying capacity of 2,100 tons an hour.
Arutmin, an affiliate of KPC, under Bumi Resources, uses barges to move coal from stockyards at ports to coal carriers.
Table--2 Destinations and distance to be covered in coal transport from mines to port by main coal producers Distance to port Minin companies Minin areas (km) I. Sumatera PT Bukit Asam Tanjung Enim, Kertapati--164 Km South Sumatra ; Tarahan--420 Km Ombilin, West Sumatra Teluk Bayur-0155 Km PT Allied Indo Coal Ombilin, West Sumatra Teluk Bayur--155 Km II. Kalimantan Selatan: PT Arutmin Indonesia Kota Baru, Tanah Laut Pulau Laut Utara-- Banjar 150 Km PT Adaro Indonesia Hulu Sungai Utara & Kelanis--75 Km Tabalong III. Kalimantan Timur PT Kaltim Prima Coal San afta Tanjun Bara--13 Km PT Kideco Jaya Agung Batu So an Tanah Merah--40 Km PT Multi Harawan Utama Busan Bloro Coal--60 Km PT Tanito Harum Tenggarong, Kutai Loa Tebu--50 Km PT BHP Kendilo Coal Pasir Satui--30 Km PT Berau Coal Berau Tanjung Redep Minin companies Means of transport I. Sumatera PT Bukit Asam Train Train Train and trucks PT Allied Indo Coal Train and trucks II. Kalimantan Selatan: PT Arutmin Indonesia Truck and barges PT Adaro Indonesia dump trucks (capacity 200 tons) Triple trailer train (capacity 200 tons III. Kalimantan Timur PT Kaltim Prima Coal Conveyor belt PT Kideco Jaya Agung Truck PT Multi Harawan Utama Truck PT Tanito Harum Truck PT BHP Kendilo Coal Truck PT Berau Coal Truck Source: Data Consult Table--3 Number and capacity of coal transport ships in Indonesia Year Bulk cargo Barges Panamax Hand max In 2007 6 4 600 In 2011 * 10 13 967 Number: INSA, Communications ministry * Estimate of Communications ministry Table--4 Major coal transport companies, 2008 Name of company Number Capacity/ Ports of call of measure vessels GT Amas International 5 10,094 Bintuni, Sorong, Fakfak, Lines Ambon, Timika, Samarinda, Balikpapan, Cirebon, Tg Priok, Merak, Gresik Kartika Samudra 30 48,670 Samarinda, Berau, Adijaya Banjarmasin, Kotabaru, Batu Licin, Balikpapan,Tarahan, Panjang Tarakan, Merak, Ciwandan, Cigading, Cirebon, Gresik, Tg Priok, T Perak, Tan'un Emas Agus Suta Line 34 45,834 Balikpapan, Samarinda, Bontang, Kotabaru, Banjarmasin, Dumai, Pekan Baru, Batam, Tg Priok, Marunda, Panjang, Merak, Suralaya, Ciwandan, Gresik, Paiton, Madura, Banyuwangi, Tanjung Perak Bahtera Lestari 24 33,876 Tanjung Pinang, Batam, Shipping Pekan Baru, Panjang, Palembang, Tg Priok, Tg Perak, Merak, Suralaya, Banten, Dumai, Gresik, Cirebon, Marunda Samarinda, Balikpapan, Tarakan, Batu Licin, M Santoso 5 9,860 Kotabaru, Banjarmasin, Tg Priok, Tuban, Gresik, Tg Perak, Paiton, Cirebon, Cilegon, Cilacap Surya Indah Muara 5 13,136 Samarinda, Berau, Pantai Banjarmasin, Kotabaru, Batu Licin, Jorong, Balikpapan, Kertapati, Merak, Cigading, Cirebon, Tg Priok, Tg Emas, Tg Perak, Devil Marine 2 4,012 Pontianak, Banjarmasin, Transport ansport Samarinda, Dumai, Belawan, Panjang, Batu Licin, Sampit, Cirebon, Tg Perak, T Priok, Marunda Marine Mandiri 5 16,712 Palembang, Tg Panaan, Tg Shipping Sea Line Pinang, Sekupang, Panjang, Banjarmasin, Balikpapan, Banten, Bojonegara, Ciwandan, Tg Priok, Marunda, Cirebon, Gresik, T Perak Mitra Kaltim 2 6,288 Samarinda, Balikpapan, Samudera Sampit, Batu Licin, Tarakan, Nunukan, Banjarmasin, Pomala, Gresik, Paiton, Tg Perak, Cirebon, Tg Priok Artha Gunung Mas 3 4,521 Pekanbaru, Palembang, Dumai, Belitung, Panjang, Bengkulu, Merak, Ciwandan, Bojonegara, Tg Priok, Marunda, Cirebon, Tuban, Gresik Mitra Bahari 2 5,047 Banjarmasin, Balikpapan, Sentosa Samarinda, Batam, Muara Teweh, Asam-asam, Kelanis, Batu Licin, Kotabaru, Sungai Puting, Tg Perak, Gresik, Tuban, Tg Emas, Cirebon, Cilacap, Ciwandan, Suralaya, Merak, Banten, Tg Priok, Paiton Sayusan Bahari 7 10,240 Samarinda,Balikpapan, Serongga, Batu Licin, Kotabaru, Sepapah, Sampit, Banjarmasin, Gresik, Tg Emas, Cirebon, Tg Priok, Merak, Batam Source: Sea Transport Directorate General, Communications ministry Table--5 Coal ports in Indonesia Max vessel Coal ports Location capacity (DWT) I. SUMATRA (5): 1. Teluk Bayur Coal Padang, West 35,000 dan Terminal PTBA Sumatra 7,000 bares 2. Tarahan Coal Terminal Tarahan, 40,000 PTBA Lam un 3. Kertapati Coal Terminal Palembang, 10,000 (barges) PTBA South Sumatra 4. Pulau Bai (PTBA) Pulau Bai, 35,000 Ben kulu 5. Tanjun Api-api PT BA South Sumatra 40,000 II. SOUTH KALIMANTAN (8): 1. Indonesia Bulk Terminal Pulau Laut (PT Terminal Batubara Selatan 200,000 Indah--serving Adaro 2. Pelabuhan Pulau Laut Pulau Laut Utara Utara 60,000 PT Arutmin Indonesia 3. Sembilang Senakin 7,500 PT Arutmin 4. Air Tawar Senakin 7,500 PT Arutmin 5. Satui (PT Arutmin) Sungai Satui, 5,000 Kelanis 6. Pemancingan Senakin 7,500 PT Arutmin 7. Kelanis Sungai Barito, 8,000 PT Adaro Kelanis 8. Mekar Putih Kota Baru n.a. III. EAST KALIMANTAN 7: 1. Tanjung Bara Coal Sangatta, Terminal (PT KPC) Samarinda 200,000 Utara 2. Tanjung Redep (PT Berau 5,000 Berau 3. Binu an PT Berau Berau 5,000 4. Tanah Merah (PT Kideco Tanah Merah 20,000 Ja a Aun 5. Balikpapan Coal Terminal Balikpapan, (Dermaga Perkasa East 60,000 Pratama) Kalimantan Stock Yard Start Coal ports (MT) up I. SUMATRA (5): 1. Teluk Bayur Coal 900,000 1991 Terminal PTBA 2. Tarahan Coal Terminal 3,100,000 1988 PTBA 3. Kertapati Coal Terminal 400,000 1962 PTBA 4. Pulau Bai (PTBA) 2,000,000 1985 5. Tanjun Api-api PT BA 500,000 2000 II. SOUTH KALIMANTAN (8): 1. Indonesia Bulk Terminal (PT Terminal Batubara 1,600,000 1997 Indah--serving Adaro 2. Pelabuhan Pulau Laut Utara 500,000 1994 PT Arutmin Indonesia 3. Sembilang 200,000 1994 PT Arutmin 4. Air Tawar 200,000 1994 PT Arutmin 5. Satui (PT Arutmin) 150,000 n.a. 6. Pemancingan 200,000 1994 PT Arutmin 7. Kelanis 120,000 n.a. PT Adaro 8. Mekar Putih n.a. 1998 III. EAST KALIMANTAN 7: 1. Tanjung Bara Coal Terminal (PT KPC) 500,000 1991 2. Tanjung Redep (PT 50,000 n.a. Berau 3. Binu an PT Berau 120,000 2000 4. Tanah Merah (PT Kideco 260,000 1992 Ja a Aun 5. Balikpapan Coal Terminal (Dermaga Perkasa 800,000 1995 Pratama) Source: Sea Transport Directorate General, Communications ministry Table--6 Coal transport from Tanjung Enim to Tarahan and Kertapati via railway, 2005-2007 Railway transport 2005 2006 2007 Tanjung Enim--Tarahan 6,262,000 6,606,450 6,310,400 Tanjung Enim Kertapati 1,654,830 1,665,870 1,695,690 Source: PT Bukit Asam Table--7 Coal handling capacity of PT Berau Coall Capacity/Power/ Plant & Equipment Dimensions Function Qty Receiving Hopper & 1,000 tph Receives coal from 1 Feeder haul trucks Transfer Conveyor 1,000 tph Transfer coal to the 1 transfer station Trestle Conveyor 1,000 tph Transports coal to 1 stockpile using 4 adjustable ploughs By-pass Conveyor 1,000 tph Transport coal directly 1 to overland conveyor Reclaim Feeders 1,500 tph Transport coal to coal 1 port Overland Conveyor 1,500 tons 1 Product Stockpile 200,000 1 capacity Source: PT. Berau Coal Table--8 Specifications of Arutmin coal port in Pulau Laut Utara Port facilities Units Bare Capacity 3,500 / 7,000 tons Stockpile Capacity 472,000 tons Loading Capacity 4,000 tph Shiploader Travel 275 meters LOA indicative 720 meters Beam 47 meters DWT 150,000 Draft at Berth LAT 14 meters Sailing Draft Minimum Maximum departure draft is 14.00 + height of tide m/1.10 Source: PT Arutmin Indonesia
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|Publication:||Indonesian Commercial Newsletter|
|Date:||Aug 1, 2008|
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