Does cosmic weather affect infant mortality rate?
Galactic cosmic rays are highly energetic particles, originating from unknown sources outside our solar system and hitting the Earth's surface at an extremely high speed. Although the atmosphere shields the Earth's surface from cosmic rays, some of these highly penetrating particles can still reach the ground, and their presence can be detected even more than a mile below the Earth's surface (Dorman, 2003).
Energetic cosmic rays have a damaging effect on living organisms, which is substantially greater than X-rays or gamma-rays (Goldman, 1982; Shimada, Shima, Nojima, Seino, & Setlow, 2005). Cosmic rays have been reported to affect gene mutation and genome instability (Arenz, Hellweg, Meier, & Baumstark-Khan, 2005; Yang, Mei, George, & Craise, 1996), break DNA strands (Baumstark-Kahn, Heilmann, & Rink, 2003), and degrade the immune system (Todd, Pecaut, & Fleshner, 1999). The effect of cosmic rays has also been linked to sudden cardiac death (Soupel, 2006), and convincing evidence exists that irradiated cells can send out signals that can result in damage to nearby unirradiated cells (Brenner & Elliston, 2001). Other studies suggest that cosmic rays are among the causes of cancer in pilots and aircrew (Badrinath & Ramaiah, 1999), due to their exposure to cosmic rays in the higher atmosphere.
Considering its damaging effect on living organisms, one can reasonably assume that galactic cosmic radiation (CR) can also damage embryos in their early stages of development. The number of cosmic rays hitting an embryo is dependent on its size, so that the number of cosmic rays hitting the fetus increases as the fetus enlarges. Damage is expected to have a greater impact, however, if the embryo is hit at an earlier stage of development. With ~2 primary cosmic ray hits per [cm.sup.2] per minute (Johnson, 1938), and assuming an average surface size of the embryo of 0.0075 [mm.sup.2] in the first week, the order of primary cosmic rays hitting an embryo before the end of the first week is ~1.5, and around 15 hits in the second week, assuming an average embryo surface size of 0.075 [mm.sup.2].
The frequency of galactic cosmic rays hitting the earth is inversely correlated with solar activity (Wang, Sheeley, & Rouillard, 2006), which peaks once about every 11 years when the sun flips its magnetic pole (Howard & Labonte, 1980). When galactic cosmic rays approach the sun, they encounter the magnetic field of the heliosphere. This interaction results in the loss of some of the energy of the cosmic ray, making it less energetic and therefore less likely to ever reach the ground (Dorman, 2003). Solar activity during the magnetic polarity flip reduces the energy of galactic cosmic rays, so that the number of cosmic rays at sea level during the peak of the solar activity is smaller than the number of cosmic rays when the solar activity is at its minimum.
The analysis is based on the correlation between the change in CR density and the infant mortality rate (IMR) decrease in the following year. Assuming that a cosmic ray hit can damage an embryo in its early stages of development, a sharper IMR decrease is expected in the year following a sharp decrease in CR flux. Figure 1 shows the CR density at terrestrial altitude, as measured in Oulu Cosmic Ray Station, and Figure 2 shows the IMR recorded in the U.S. between 1977 and 2006.
As can be seen in Figure 2, the year 2001 had a very low infant mortality rate, followed by a surprising increase (of nearly three per 1,000 births) in 2002. These data are in agreement with the intensive solar activity in 2000, which provided a better shield against cosmic rays during that time.
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]
[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]
Examining the previous solar cycle, peaking in 1989, infant mortality rate in 1990 was 0.6 (per 1,000 live births) lower than the one recorded in 1989. This sudden drop of more than 6% followed five consecutive years of decrease of less than 2% per year, and is the highest IMR decrease recorded in nearly 30 years.
Figure 3 shows the CR flux decrease and the IMR decrease in the following year. Since IMR is a function of very many parameters (Frey & Field, 2004), a perfect correlation between the two variables is not expected. A partial correlation is noticeable, however, and the Pearson correlation between the two variables is ~0.36 (p < .05).
This article presents a correlation between CR flux and IMR decrease in the following year. In particular, sharp IMR decreases were recorded in the years following the end of the solar cycle. The decrease is followed by an increase (or an unusually small decrease) in the following year, when the solar activity was getting less intensive.
The effect of cosmic rays may be even more significant on the number of miscarriages. Unlike IMR, however, miscarriage statistics are not well recorded, and therefore no conclusion can be established based on these data.
Cosmic rays are significantly stronger and more frequent at higher altitudes. For instance, at an altitude of one mile above sea level, the cosmic ray density is 3.7 times greater than at sea level, and it is 12.8 times greater at two miles in altitude (Ziegler et al., 1996). These data are in agreement with the observation of higher IMR at altitudes of two miles above sea level (Keyes et al., 2003).
Since cosmic rays are highly penetrating particles, no mechanism that can effectively protect embryos from cosmic rays is yet available. Since the magnetic field of the earth is consistently weakening (Sabaka, Olsen, & Purucker, 2004), its effectiveness as a shield is degrading. This trend might also contribute to infant mortality rate in future years.
Acknowledgments: This research was supported entirely by the Intramural Research Program of the NIH, National Institute on Aging.
Arenz, A., Hellweg, C.E., Meier, M.M., & Baumstark-Khan, C. (2005). Gene expression in mammalian cells after exposure to 95 MeV/amu argon ions. Advances in Space Research, 36(9), 1680-1688.
Badrinath, P., & Ramaiah, S. (1999). Risk of breast cancer among female airline cabin attendants: Findings may have been due to exposure to cosmic radiation or recall bias. British Medical Journal, 318, 125.
Baumstark-Khan, C., Heilmann, J., & Rink, H. (2003). Induction and repair of DNA strand breaks in bovine lens epithelial cells after high LET irradiation. Advances in Space Research, 31(6), 1583-1591.
Brenner, D.J., & Elliston, C.D. (2001). The potential impact of bystander effects on radiation risks in a Mars mission. Radiation Research, 156, 612-617.
Dorman, L.I. (2003). Cosmic rays in the Earth's atmosphere and underground. Norwell, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Frey, R.S., & Field, C. (2004). The determinants of infant mortality in the less developed countries: A cross-national test of five theories. Social Indicators Research, 52(3), 215-234.
Goldman, M. (1982). Ionizing radiation and its risks. Western Journal of Medicine, 137, 540-547.
Howard, R., & Labonte, B.J. (1980). The sun is observed to be a torsional oscillator with a period of 11 years. The Astrophysical Journal, 239, L33-L36.
Johnson, T.H. (1938). The intensity of the primary cosmic radiation and its energy distribution. Physical Review, 53(7), 499-501.
Keyes, L.E., Armaza, J.F, Neirmeyer, S., Vargas, E., Young, D.A., & Moore, L.G. (2003). Intrauterine growth restriction, preeclampsia, and intrauterine mortality at high altitude in Bolivia. Pediatric Research, 54(1), 20-25.
Sabaka, T.J., Olsen, N., & Purucker, M.E. (2004). Extending comprehensive models of the Earth's magnetic field with Orsted and CHAMP data. International Geophysical Journal, 159(2), 521-547.
Shimada, A., Shima, A., Nojima, K., Seino, Y., & Setlow, R.B. (2005). Germ cell mutagenesis in medaka fish after exposures to high-energy cosmic ray nuclei: A human model. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 102(17), 6063-6067.
Soupel, E. (2006). Cardiac arrhythmia and geomagnetic activity. Indian Pacing Electrophysiol Journal, 6(1), 49-53.
Todd, P., Pecaut, M.J., & Fleshner, M. (1999). Combined effects of space flight factors and radiation on humans. Mutatation Research, 430(2), 211-219.
Wang, Y.M., Sheeley, N.R., & Rouillard, A.P. (2006). Role of the sun's nonaxisymmetric open flux in cosmic-ray modulation. The Astrophysical Journal, 664(1), 638-645.
Yang, T.C., Mei, M., George, K.A., & Craise, L.M. (1996). DNA damage and repair in oncogenic transformation by heavy ion radiation. Advances in Space Research, 18(1-2), 149-158.
Ziegler, J.F, Curtis, H.W., Muhlfeld, H.P., Montrose, C.J., Chin, B., Nicewicz, M., Russell, C.A., Wang, W.Y., Freeman, L.B., Hosier, P., LaFave, L.E., Walsh, J.L., Orro, J.M., Unger, G.J., Ross, J.M., O'Gorman, T.J., Messina, B., Sullivan, T.D., Sykes, A.J., Yourke, H., Enger, T.A., Tolat, V., Scott, T.S., Taber, A.H., Sussman, R.J., Klein, W.A., & Wahaus, C.W. (1996). IBM experiments in soft fails in computer electronics (1978-1994). IBM Journal of Research and Development, 40(1), 3-18.
Lior Shamir, PhD
Corresponding Author: Lior Shamir, Research Fellow, Laboratory of Genetics, National Institute on Aging, NIH, 251 Bayview Boulevard, Baltimore, MD 21224. E-mail: email@example.com
|Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback|
|Title Annotation:||GUEST COMMENTARY|
|Publication:||Journal of Environmental Health|
|Date:||Jul 1, 2010|
|Previous Article:||Reduced [PM.sub.2.5] in Trujillo, Peru, on El Dia Sin Autos ("The Day Without Cars").|
|Next Article:||Communication as an essential component of environmental health science.|