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Divertimenti zu funf und mehr Stimmen fur Streichund Blasinstrumente.

The two volumes of the complete edition of Joseph Haydn's works under consideration here present a repertory of music with simple, light textures, much of it intended for social occasions such as dances or an evening's music-making. Ironically, the editing of this music is anything but simple. I congratulate the Joseph Haydn-Institut for presenting this repertory in such a carefully considered, scholarly manner. As usual, the quality of the engraving is superb, and the critical commentaries are very clear and enlightening, unswollen by inconsequential details. Works are cited by Hoboken number or by the number assigned by the Haydn-Institut. Sonja Gerlach has edited the volume of divertimentos in five or more parts for both strings and winds, while Gunter Thomas has prepared the edition of minuets and German dauces scored for orchestra, keyboard arrangements of dances, sketches, two minuets attributed to Haydn, marches for wind instruments, the "Marche Regimento de Marshall" of uncertain authenticity, and marches arranged for orchestra or keyboard.

The most difficult decision facing both editors may have been exactly which works to include in the volumes. No autograph manuscripts are extant for the divertimentos and there are good, possibly authentic copies for only two works. Like the researchers before her, Gerlach found it necessary to weigh the evidence provided by Haydn's own records of his output, the provenance of the sources, and the style of the music to establish which pieces are really by Haydn. Not surprisingly, her results differ in some cases from those of previous authorities, including Anthony van Hoboken. She deems the nonette (II:G1) to be authentic, even though it is not mentioned in the catalogues and lists compiled by Haydn and his copyists, because it is transmitted in several contemporaneous sources that attribute this work and the three undoubtedly authentic nonettes to Haydn. Furthermore, Gerlach finds the musical style consistent with Haydn's, particularly the formal structures, melodic design, and overall elegance of the part writing. Stylistic considerations likewise inform her decisions regarding those works probably not composed by Haydn. Gerlach lists these pieces in a long, detailed table (pp. 222-30), which provides the identifying number, title, instrumentation, number and order of movements, and attributions in eighteenth-century manuscript copies and catalogues for each of the works. In the last category, she distinguishes between attributions to "Giuseppe Haydn" (or some such variant) and those merely to "Haydn." The table continues with details on eighteenth-century editions that attribute the works to Haydn, nineteenth-century sources, sources with conflicting attributions, and a final column for miscellaneous information, including the editor's surmised composer. Throughout, Gerlach provides extensive citations of the secondary literature. In some cases not one, but two or more other composers in addition to Haydn are candidates, the most extreme case being a piece for three violins and bass (IIF:10) attributed in various sources to Haydn, Ferandini, Franklin, Martinez, Pleyel, and Roller.

Rather than discussing each of the eighty-one works listed in the table separately, Gerlach provides a single summary of the reasons why she does not regard these works as genuine. The demonstrably authentic divertimentos are transmitted in five or more copies from the eighteenth century, some of which are usually from the Vienna circle. A divertimento not listed in Haydn's records is further suspect if it exists in only one or two sources from the eighteenth century, or if the few sources outside of Vienna come from widely separated places; if the transmission broadens only around 1800 or later; if the source appears to derive from a print; or if the transmission of the work appears to have its beginnings with Breitkopf in Leipzig. The Breitkopf firm maintained a library of

archival house copies from which its copyists wrote out sale copies. Since Breitkopf did not always acquire the house copies from the composer, errors in attribution are common. Recently Yoshitake Kobayashi has begun to identify the Breitkopf copies ("On the Identification of Breitkopf's Manuscripts," in J. S. Bach, the Breitkopfs, and Eighteenth-Century Music Trade, ed. George B. Stauffer, Bach Perspectives, 2 [Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1996], 107-22), noting that "a modest but useful result of this research is a concordance of scribes and watermarks compiled in collaboration with the Joseph-Haydn-Institut in Cologne" (p. 112). Kobayashi describes six types of watermarks encountered in Breitkopf copies and explains the distinctive numbering systems used by Breitkopf on title pages, as well as other characteristics that point to a source's origin within the Leipzig firm.

With increased awareness of a source's provenance, it may be possible to use better evidence for reaching conclusions on a work's authenticity. In the first volume of his Thematisch-bibliographisches Werkverzeichnis (Mainz: Schott, 1957), Hoboken usually assumed that works attributed to both Haydn and another composer were not by Haydn. Two exceptions are the nocturnes II:18 and II:19 written by Haydn's copyist Johann Elssler in 1805, which Hoboken regarded as authentic. Gerlach disputes this attribution, however, noting that the two divertimentos are the only ones missing from Haydn's Entwurf-Katalog, and are the sole works entered in Elssler's catalogue without indications of the number of parts or tempos. The works are never attributed to Haydn, but rather to Vanhall. In her judgment, the scoring for the flute quartet further discounts Haydn as the composer, and the melodic progressions, especially in the minuets, show tendencies foreign to Haydn. Regarding the Cassatio for four horns, violin, viola, and bass (II:D22), Gerlach agrees with Hoboken rather than H.C. Robbins Landon in regarding the work as unauthentic.

In the murky area of authenticity, it is not surprising that new information can lead to reassessments. Thomas reports just such a case in his edition of Haydn's dances and marches. Ulrich Leisinger has established that the Minuet in F[sharp] Major (IX:26) is actually a transposition of a piece by Johann Philipp Kirnberger (p. xv). The Haydn-Institut already published this minuet in the Anhang to Series XVIII, 1 (Klaviersonaten, 1 Folge, ed. Georg Feder [Munich: Henle, 1970], 186), from which it should now be stricken.

Like Gerlach, Thomas devotes a sizable section of his preface to matters of authenticity. Although Landon and Georg Feder accept the "Marche Regimento de Marshall" as genuine, Thomas regards its authenticity as unestablished, including the work in the volume with the caveat "Echtheit nicht bezeugt" after the title. The last piece in the volume is a keyboard arrangement of Haydn's March in E[flat] preserved in a manuscript anthology in the Osterreichische Nationalbibliothek (Mus. Hs. 23 435) and scored originally for wind instruments (VIII:3) and also arranged for orchestra (VIII:[3.sup.bis]). Thomas believes this keyboard arrangement could be authentic. To Thomas's reservation about the uncharacteristic notation of the top system notated in soprano clef I would add the distinctly amateurish parallel octaves between mm. 8 and 9. In the authentic versions of this march Haydn avoided these parallel octaves both times, either by doubling the top note or by voice-crossing.

This volume of marches and dances presents other interesting questions regarding the historical background and origins of the pieces. Thomas devotes several pages to a description of the various balls for which the dances were written, noting that contemporaneous reports clearly record minuets and contredances by Haydn that are now either lost or unidentified. Thomas also discusses the relevant sketch material and includes diplomatic transcriptions of the sketches, as well as some facsimile reproductions of the manuscripts (pp. 250-51). The Anhang to the first part of this volume contains cycles of minuets, possibly traces of lost pieces, whose extant incarnations cannot, according to Thomas, be Haydn's; some may be arrangements by others of various early works by Haydn.

These two recent volumes in the Haydn Werke reflect the thinking of many Haydn specialists past and present. In some of the cases of contested authenticity, new information that might come to light in the future may overturn the present conclusion of the editors. But this in no way detracts from their achievement in accomplishing the difficult task of editing and presenting Haydn's divertimentos, dances, and marches within the standards currently expected in scholarly editions.

RACHEL W. WADE Columbia, Md.
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Author:Wade, Rachel W.
Article Type:Book Review
Date:Sep 1, 1997
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