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Diversity of the insect fauna within the unique Sinking Pond habitat in middle Tennessee.

ABSTRACT--A research project was initiated in 1997 at Sinking Pond, Coffee County, Tennessee, to document the insect species in this unique habitat. Insects were collected using nine sampling methods: beat sheeting, canopy fogging, direct collecting, leaf-litter sampling, light trapping, malaise trapping, Manitoba trapping, pitfall trapping, and sweep netting. A database listing the insect species collected at Sinking Pond was created to provide a foundation for future comparative studies. This research also compared insect diversity among sampling methods, assessed the ecological significance of select species, and identified potential indicator species. A total of 13,162 insect specimens were collected representing 877 species in 193 families in 19 orders. Specimens from seven of the insect orders comprised 98.4% of the insect specimens. Coleoptera represented the majority, followed by Collembola, Hymenoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, Lepidoptera, and Orthoptera. The overall Shannon diversity index score (H') was 4.98, a high diversity, while evenness (J) was 0.73, a moderately high value. Collection of some insect species, such as the trichopteran Wormaldia shawnee (Ross), from Sinking Pond represented new state records. Four species, Cicindela unipunctata Fab., Enodia anthedon Clark, Glaucopsyche lygdamus (Doubleday), and Speyeria cybele (Fab.), are on one of the rare, threatened or endangered species lists of Alabama or North Carolina. Also, 16 species were documented that represented disjunct species. Thirteen introduced species to Sinking Pond were identified, four of which could potentially adversely affect the community structure.

Sinking Pond is a unique, seasonally Hooded karst depression managed by Arnold Air Force Base (AAFB) that was designated a national natural landmark in 1975. Within Sinking Pond's watershed, two other karst depressions occur that intermittently overflow into Sinking Pond (Wolfe, 1996). The water level of Sinking Pond is governed by underground water sources and by the overflow from the two other sinkhole ponds in the watershed. Sinking Pond normally remains filled with water from November through July and becomes relatively dry throughout the remaining months. The pond (c. 52 ha) can empty or fill as much as 2 m in as little as 24 h, and water depths vary from 0 to 3.5 m (Wolfe, 1996).

Patterson (1989) documented several unique attributes of the vegetation associated with Sinking Pond. Vegetation within the pond is limited due to wet and dry periods, and little shrub growth exists in the areas exposed to high levels of flooding. As the water becomes shallower ([less than or equal to] 25 cm), vegetation is dominated by small trees, shrubs, and grasses that form a dense area of vegetation that can tolerate flooding. The Sinking Pond watershed has at least seven tree community types (Patterson, 1989) comprised primarily of: blackgum (Nyssa sylvatica Marshall), northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.), post oak (Q. stellata Wangenh.), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), river birch (Betula nigra L.), scarlet oak (Q. coccinea Muench.), southern red oak (Q. falcata Michaux), water oak (Q. nigra L.), white oak (Q. alba L.), willow oak (Q. phellos L.), and overcup oak (Q. lyrata Walter). The dominant community type within the Sinking Pond watershed is the white oak community, which can be found most often on well drained upper slopes (Patterson, 1989; Pyne et al., 1998). This area (the pond and the immediate area beyond the pond) contains extensive growths of willow oak, and water tupelo (Nyssa aquatica L.) swamps (comparable to the disjunct Gulf Coastal Plain water tupelo community) are present within the flood zone of the pond. The edge of the pond (bank area), not experiencing seasonal flooding, is characterized most commonly by southern red oak communities and white oak communities (Patterson, 1989). The overcup oak component of the forest area makes up only a small percentage (9%) of the communities in the Sinking Pond area (Patterson, 1989).

The overcup oak habitat contains several federally and state listed species of concern, e.g., Eggert's sunflower (Helianthus eggertii Small), Southern twayblade (Listera australis Lindl.), the dusky gopher frog (Lithobates sevosus (Goin and Netting)), the mole salamander (Ambystoma talpoideum (Holbrook)), and the four-toed salamander (Hemidactylum scutatum (Temminck and Schlegel)) (Patterson, 1989; Clebsch and Pyne, 1995; Carver et al., 1998). Eggert's sunflower was removed from the federal listing in 2005 (Merritt, 2005) but remains listed as a threatened species in Tennessee (Crabtree, 2008). Overcup oak and water tupelo are two of the 87 disjunct plant species identified from the Sinking Pond area (Patterson, 1989). Disjunct species in the Barrens are generally associated with three main regions in the U.S.: 1) the Coastal Plains area of the Gulf of Mexico and southern Atlantic; 2) the northern prairies; and 3) the northern Appalachians (Wolfe, 1996; Patterson, 1989). According to Wolfe (1996), "Disjunct taxa are not distributed evenly across The Barrens, but are highly localized at discrete sites, notably in seasonally flooded karst depressions." Insect biodiversity within the area is quite high. For example, 7% of the bark beetles, 25% of the ambrosia beetles of eastern U.S. (Grant et al., 2003), and 19% of all tenebrionid species known from the eastern U.S. (Lambdin et al., 2003; Wiggins et al., 2007) have been documented from habitats within AAFB.

National landmark status does not carry restrictions or regulations pertaining to management or future development of these sites (United Nations, 1988). Several studies have been conducted to document rare, threatened or endangered (RTE) arthropods present at AAFB (Lambdin and Grant, 1999; Mullen et al., 1995). However, no RTE species were documented, although 144 insect species have been listed as rare in Tennessee by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation's Division of Natural Areas (Withers, 2009). Information on the insects associated with Sinking Pond may be used to develop more comprehensive management practices by AAFB (i.e., selection of appropriate delivery systems for chemical applications against pest species). Sinking Pond and other compound sink wetlands are sensitive to factors that affect, and especially lower, the local water table. If the water table was lower, the flooding regime may not be extensive enough to support those species dependent on damp conditions, such as overcup oak (Wolfe, 1996). Hawksworth (1991) stated that "Indeed, if we do not have adequate species inventories for the protected areas, what are we aiming to conserve, and how can we be sure we are conserving it?" Because inventories are important tools in addressing conservation and management problems and because Sinking Pond constitutes such a unique habitat, a research project was initiated in 1997 to assess the insect species at Sinking Pond. The specific objectives of this research were to establish baseline data on insect species associated with Sinking Pond, to evaluate species diversity, and to assess the ecological significance of select species.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Study Site--Sinking Pond is located in Coffee County, Tennessee (coordinates 35[degrees]24'37"N, -86[degrees]4'10"W), and comprises approximately 52 ha, while the basin and watershed including the pond comprise over 159 ha.

Sampling Methods--Because of the diverse feeding habits, behavior, and activity of insect species, nine sampling methods (beat-sheet sampling, canopy fogging, direct collecting, leaf-litter sampling, light trapping, malaise trapping, Manitoba trapping, pitfall trapping, and sweep-net sampling) were utilized within the collection area that occupied the western area of Sinking Pond (Fig. 1) to sample the insect fauna. Sampling of the fauna was conducted at weekly, biweekly, or monthly intervals as appropriate to the season, sampling method, and insect group of interest (Vlach, 1999; Lambdin and Grant, 1999; Lambdin et al., 2003).

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

Beat-Sheet Sampling: In 1997, ten beat-sheet samples were collected on 17 September, and five beat-sheet samples were collected weekly until 5 November. In 1998, five samples were taken bimonthly from 18 June to 30 September. Each sample was obtained by laying a cloth sheet (94.1 [cm.sup.2]), secured at opposing sides with dowel rods, under branches and foliage of randomly selected trees and shrubs and shaking or striking the vegetation to dislodge any arthropods. Specimens were transferred into a sealable plastic bag (900 ml), labeled, and taken to the laboratory for identification.

Canopy Fogging: No fogging collections were made in 1997. In 1998, three randomly selected trees were sampled monthly from 20 May to 14 October. Selected trees were treated with a broad spectrum, synthetic, pyrethrin insecticide (30 ml of Asana XL, 0.66 emulsifiable concentrate mixed with 3000 ml of water). Chemical applications were made using a modified Dyna Fog Golden Eagle (model 2610) logger. Each tree was fogged only once during the study. Plastic sheets (3 X 7.5 m) were placed around the base of the tree to collect specimens that fell from the canopy. A throw rope was used to place a nylon rope in the tree. The fogger was then attached to the rope, started, and pulled into the canopy of the tree(s). The insecticide (3030 ml of solution) used to fog the canopy was formulated to provide fog over a 4-to-6-min period. After 24 h, insects were retrieved from the plastic sheets using a modified, hand-held, Dust Buster Vacuum[R], placed in plastic bags, labeled, and taken to the laboratory.

Direct Collections: Visual searches for insect specimens were made weekly from 9 October to 5 November, 1997. In 1998, collections were made from 26 March to 18 November. Visual searches were made by removing dead bark; looking under rocks and stones; breaking open rotting logs; examining dead animals; examining branches, foliage, and flowers; and hand-picking arthropods. Collecting also concentrated on finding new niches and substrates to collect from within the site. Insects flying in different areas of Sinking Pond were collected where possible using an aerial net. Most specimens were placed in a "kill" jar saturated with ethyl acetate and taken to the laboratory for processing

Leaf-Litter Samples: In 1997, ten 900-ml leaf-litter samples were collected monthly from 17 September to 19 November from randomly selected areas around the pond. Each leaf-litter sample consisted of a scalable bag filled with leaf-litter within 15 m of the water's edge and within the pond basin as the water receded. Samples were taken to the laboratory for processing through Tullgren funnels using procedures outlined in Haarlov (1947). In 1998, five leaf-litter samples were obtained per month from 30 March through 30 September and taken to the laboratory to be processed in the Tullgren funnels.

Light Trapping: Nocturnal insects were collected using a modified Universal black light trap equipped with photoelectric cells. The light trap consisted of a 12-watt, U-shaped black light tube and a collecting unit. The trap contained four clear Plexiglass windows (12.5 X 25.4 cm) arranged at 90[degrees] angles from one another. This unit held an aluminum funnel that directed insects into a plastic bucket (29.4 cm diameter, 26.8 cm depth) with a killing agent (ethyl acetate). The light was automatically activated at dusk and remained lit until the battery discharged (usually within 6-8 h). Arthropods were removed and taken to the laboratory. A light trap collection was made once during 1997 on 9 October. In 1998, collections were made bimonthly from 31 March to 6 October, and an additional light trap collection was made on 19 November. Arthropods were removed from the trap the following morning, placed in kill jars or specimen cups, and taken to the laboratory for processing and identification.

Malaise Trapping: Samples from one trap positioned at the mid to upper canopy level on an overcup oak were taken weekly in 1997 (1 October through 19 November) and 1998 (March 31 through October 14). A 60 [cm.sup.3] cube frame was constructed of 1.9-cm-diameter PVC pipe. The frame was covered with No-see-um[R] fabric (73 perforations per 2.54 [cm.sup.2]) on two parallel sides, and the fabric was used to form a flat surface, positioned perpendicular to the ground in the middle of the cube that would act as a barrier to flying insects. Insects struck the barrier and flew upwards where the fabric was formed into a pyramid-shaped top (also constructed of No-seeum[R] fabric), funneling the insects into the collecting head (two plastic specimen bottles, each 7.5 cm wide by 5 cm long by 12.5 cm high, glued together). Insects were captured in a 120-ml collecting cup (60 mm wide by 65 mm deep) containing 30-60 ml of a 50/50 mixture ethylene glycol and water. Each week the collection cup was unscrewed from the collecting head, capped, and taken to the laboratory.

Manitoba Trapping: Collections from one trap were taken weekly from 18 June 1998 to 7 October 1998. The trap consisted of a sheet (2 [m.sup.2]) of plastic with a stake (2 m tall) supporting it at its center. The corners of the plastic were pulled taut with ropes to form a tent-like structure. The plastic was clear at the top of the tent and black at the base. Insects would fly under the tent, then attempted to fly out through the clear plastic and became trapped. The top of the stake was modified to support a collecting bucket (11 cm diameter and 14 cm tall), which contained ammonium carbonate. The specimens were collected, placed in a kill jar, and taken to the laboratory for processing.

Pitfall Trapping: Ten numbered pitfall traps were used to sample the insect fauna weekly from 1 October to 5 November 1997. In 1998, five of the original pitfall traps were used to collect insects weekly from 9 April to 29 October. Each pitfall trap consisted of a 120-ml collection cup (60 mm wide and 65 mm deep) filled with a 50/50 mixture of water and propylene glycol placed within a second cup. These were then placed in shallow holes dug into the ground so that the top of the collection cup was level with the substrate. A plastic cover, equipped with four radial fins (which guide arthropods into the collection cup), was placed over the centrally positioned collection cup. Traps were placed randomly along the western edge of the pond both near and above the highest water mark to insure they would not become submerged. On each sampling date, the collection cup with preservative was removed, capped, and taken to the laboratory.

The five pitfall traps that were used throughout the study were placed within four different plant community types associated with Sinking Pond as described by Geoff Call, a biologist from AAFB, using the classifications of Pyne et al. (1998). Pitfall trap number 23 (35[degrees]24'32"N, -86[degrees]04'14"W; elevation 296 m) was in a white oak/southern red oak, post oak/slender spanglegrass (Chasmanthium laxum (L.) Yates) forest. Pitfall trap number 22 (35[degrees]24'37"N, -86[degrees]04'12"W; elevation 299 m) and pitfall number 25 (35[degrees]24'34"N, -86[degrees]04'14"W elevation 298 m) were both in a white oak/mockernut hickory (Carya alba (L.) Nutt.)/shagbark hickory (Carya ovata (Mill.) K. Koch)/willow oak/sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) forest. Pitfall number 31 (35[degrees]24'32"N, -86[degrees]04'17"W; elevation 295 m) was in a southern red oak-white oak/scarlet oak/sourwood (Oxydendrum arboreum (L.) DeCandolle)/hillside blueberry (Vaccinium pallidum Aiton) forest. Pitfall number 49 (35[degrees]24'37"N, -86[degrees]04' 10"W; elevation 297 m) was in a willow oak-water oak/swamp blackgum (Nyssa biflora Walter) forest. The provisional community type found at pitfall number 49 also has been given the tentative label of G1 by the Tennessee Chapter of the Nature Conservancy, which means "critically imperiled globally." This community is probably endemic to Coffee County, Tennessee.

Sweep-Net Sampling: Ten sweep-net samples were taken 17 September 1997, using a canvas bag 82 cm deep and 38 cm in diameter. On the remaining dates, five sweeps were taken weekly until 5 November. In 1998, five sweep-net samples were taken weekly from 31 March to 21 October. One sweep-net sample consisted of swinging the net through the foliage once each step, each stroke counting as one sweep, for a total of twenty sweeps. Each sample was transferred to a sealable plastic bag (900 ml) and taken to the laboratory.

Processing and Identification of Specimens--After collection, most specimens were stored in a freezer until they could be sorted and identified, with the exception of pitfall, malaise trap, leaf-litter, and Odonata and Lepidoptera samples. Pitfall and malaise samples were placed in labeled vials of ethanol, and leaf-litter samples were transferred to Tullgren funnels where vials containing alcohol were used to collect specimens. Specimens of Odonata and Lepidoptera were placed in paper triangles or mounted on pins. Each specimen was provided a label with the following information: site collected, date collected, trap type, and sample number. Insects were identified to order, family, genus, or species using standard dichotomous keys. Some specimens were sent to specialists for identification or verification (Lambdin and Grant, 1999).

Data Analysis--Data consisting of order, family, genus, species, author, collection site, collection date, method of collection, and number of specimens were entered into the BIOTA database (Colwell, 1996). Collection data for each species were examined for each sampling method. The number of insects was tabulated to provide species lists and diversity comparisons. Comparisons with the RTE arthropod lists of Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, North Carolina, Missouri, and Virginia were made to species identified from Sinking Pond. Species lists also were examined for species with distributions that may indicate a potentially disjunct species. Exotic species and potential indicator species for the Sinking Pond area were identified and documented. Comparisons between the numbers of specimens and species collected were made among the nine sampling methods to evaluate the numbers of insects obtained by each sampling method. Diversity and evenness were calculated, using SAS, for each individual sampling method and for all collection methods combined using the Shannon index (= Shannon-Wiener or Shannon-Weaver index) (SAS Institute, 1997). The formula (Smith, 1986; Whittaker, 1975) used was

s

H' = -[phi]([p.sub.i] 1n [p.sub.i]) - [(S - 1)/2N]

i = 1

H' = diversity of species

s = the number of species

[p.sub.i] = proportion of individuals of the total sample belonging to the ith species

1n = natural log

N = total number of all individuals

thus: [H.sub.max.] = In s

evenness = J = [H'/[H.sub.max]].

The Shannon index compares samples of different sizes to assess the number of species and the abundance of species present. The Shannon index is essentially a measure of randomness; the more difficult it is to predict the identity of a specimen selected from the data set at random, the more diverse the data set will be. A large number of a dominant species present makes it easier to predict what the randomly selected specimen would be, reducing the Shannon index score. Species richness is the total number of species in an area. [H.sub.max]. ([H.sub.max].) is an estimate of the maximum diversity value for "s" species. Species evenness is measured on a scale of 0 to 1, where one represents the most even value for a community; thus, evenness is essentially the percentage of the diversity collected from the potential diversity a collection with s species could have. Evenness is a component of diversity and its interpretation. The highest evenness values are the result of a collection of species which is represented by the same number of specimens. Species in a healthy and biologically rich community are generally represented by a range of specimen numbers. Therefore, both evenness and diversity were considered in the assessment of each sampling method at Sinking Pond.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The nine sampling methods used collected 13,162 insect specimens representing 877 species in 193 families in 19 orders (Table 1). Although the highest numbers of insect specimens collected were in the two orders Coleoptera (42.1%) and Collembola (32.8%), 71.2% of all species collected were from the orders Coleoptera (44.0%), Diptera (13.9%), and Hemiptera (13.3%). Most orders (13) were represented by fewer than 20 species.
TABLE 1. The number and percentage of insect species and specimens
collected at Sinking Pond, Coffee County, Tennessee, for each order
during 1997 and 1998.

 Order Families Species % of Specimens % of Insect
 (n = 877) Insect (n = 13,162) Specimens
 Species

Protura 1 1 0.11 31 0.24
Collembola 10 57 6.50 4315 32.78
Diplura 1 1 0.11 6 0.05
Odonata 4 12 1.37 47 0.36
Phasmida 1 2 0.23 6 0.05
Orthoptera 5 13 1.48 115 0.87
Blattaria 1 2 0.23 42 0.32
Isoptera 1 1 0.11 1 ~ 0
Plecoptera 1 2 0.23 2 0.02
Psocoptera 1 6 0.68 34 0.26
Hemiptera 28 117 13.30 855 6.49
Thysanoptera 1 2 0.34 3 0.02
Ncuroptera 4 5 0.57 28 0.21
Coleoptera 58 386 44.01 5539 42.08
Mecoptera 2 3 0.34 5 0.04
Diptcra 36 122 13.91 892 6.78
Trichoptera 4 7 0.80 19 0.14
Lepidoptera 18 82 9.23 260 1.98
Hymenoptera 16 57 6.50 962 7.31


Overall diversity (H' = 4.98 and [H.sub.max.] = 7.13) demonstrates that the combined collections were successful in collecting a greater amount of diversity from the site than any single collection method (Table 2). The calculated evenness (J) of 0.73 represents a moderately high value; therefore, the H' represents about 73% of the diversity that could potentially be found in a collection of 877 species. Insect species diversity (H') varied among sampling methods, as the lowest diversity was found with leaf-litter sampling and the highest diversity with direct sampling (Table 2). A listing of insect species associated with Sinking Pond was compiled (Table 3). The number of orders (Fig. 2A), families (Fig. 2B) and species (Fig. 2C) captured varied by trapping method. Each of the sampling methods captured from six (beat-sheet and Manitoba trapping) to 11 orders (direct and sweep-net sampling) (Fig. 2A-C). Light trapping captured the most species, primarily Coleoptera and Lepidoptera, followed by direct collecting and sweep netting.

No. of Orders

A

Beat 6
Direct 11
Canopy Fog 10
Leaf Litter 7
Light Trap 9
Malaise 9
Manitoba 6
Pitfall 7
Sweep 11

No. of Families

B

Beat 24
Direct 108
Canopy Fog 57
Leaf Litter 22
Light Trap 69
Malaise 27
Manitoba 21
Pitfall 37
Sweep 82

No. of Species

C

Beat 45
Direct 226
Canopy Fog 121
Leaf Litter 62
Light Trap 287
Malaise 43
Manitoba 30
Pitfall 135
Sweep 222

Note: Table made from bar graph.

FIG. 2A-C. Number of insect orders, families, and species identified
using nine collection methods at Sinking Pond, Coffee County,
Tennessee, 1997-1998.

TABLE 3. Insect species identified from nine collection methods at
Sinking Pond, Coffee County, Tennessee, during 1997 - 1998.

 Order Family Genus

Protura Unident. Unident.

Collembola Enlomobryidae Entomobrya

Collembola Entomobryidae Entomobrya

Collembola Entomobryidae Entomobrya

Collembola Entomobryidae Homidia

Collembola Entomobryidae Lepidocyrtus

Collembola Entomobryidae Lepidocyrtus

Collembola Entomobryidae Lepidocyrtus

Collembola Entomobryidae Orchesella

Collembola Entomobryidae Orchesella

Collembola Entomobryidae Pseudosinella

Collembola Entomobryidae Pseudosinella

Collembola Entomobryidae Pseudosinella

Collembola Entomobryidae Pseudosinella

Collembola Hypogastruridae Hypogastrura

Collembola Hypogastruridae Xenylla

Collembola Isotomidae Appendisotoma

Collembola Isotomidae Folsomia

Collembola Isotomidae Folsomia

Collembola Isotomidae Folsomides

Collembola Isotomidae Folsomides

Collembola Isotomidae Isotoma

Collembola Isotomidae Isotoma

Collembola Isotomidae Isotomiella

Collembola Isotomidae Isotomodes

Collembola Isotomidae Isotomurus

Collembola Isotomidae Micrisotoma

Collembola Isotomidae Proisotoma

Collembola Isotomidae Pseudisotoma

Collembola Neanuridae Anurida

Collembola Neanuridae Friesea

Collembola Neanuridae Micranurida

Collembola Neanuridae Neanura

Collembola Neanuridae Neanura

Collembola Neanuridae Neanura

Collembola Neanuridae Pseudachorutes

Collembola Neanuridae Pseudachorutes

Collembola Neanuridae Sensillanura

Collembola Neanuridae Superodontella

Collembola Neanuridae Superodontella

Collembola Neelidae Neelus

Collembola Oncopoduridae Harlomillsia

Collembola Onychiuridae Mesaphorura

Collembola Onychiuridae Mesaphorura

Collembola Onychiuridae Onychiurus

Collembola Onychiuridae Tullbergia

Collembola Poduridac Podura

Collembola Sminthuridae Arrhopalites

Collembola Sminthuridae Bothriovolsus

Collembola Sminthuridae Ptenothrix

Collembola Sminthuridae Sminthurides

Collembola Sminthuridae Sminthurinus

Collembola Sminthuridae Sminthurinus

Collembola Sminthuridae Sminthurus

Collembola Sminthuridae Sphaeridia

Collembola Tomoceridae Pogonognathellus

Collembola Tomoceridae Pogonognathellus

Collembola Tomoeeridae Pogonognathellus

Collembola Unident. Unident.

Diplura Japygidae Parajapyx

Odonata Aeshnidae Aeshna

Odonata Aeshnidae Epiaeschna

Odonata Coenagrionidae Ischnura

Odonata Lestidae Lestes

Odonata Lestidae Lestes

Odonata Lestidae Lestes

Odonata Libellulidae Libellula

Odonata Libellulidae Libellula

Odonata Libellulidae Libellula

Odonata Libellulidae Pachydiplax

Odonata Libellulidae Plathemis

Odonata Libellulidae Sympetrum

Orthoptera Aerididac Arphia

Orthoptera Gryllidae Allonemobious

Orthoptera Gryllidae Gryllus

Orthoptera Gryllidae Oecanthus

Orthoptera Gryllidae Oecanthus

Orthoptera Gryllidae Oecanthus

Orthoptera Rhaphidophoridae Ceuthophilus

Orthoptera Tetrigidae Tetrix

Orthoptera Tetrigidae Tettigidea

Orthoptera Tetrigidae Tettigidea

Orthoptera Tettigoniidae Neocono cephalus

Orthoptera Tettigoniidae Pterophylla

Orthoptera Tettigoniidae Microcentrum

Phasmatodea Heteronemiidae Anisomorpha

Phasmatodea Heteronemiidae Diapheromera

Plecoptera Perlidae Acroneuria

Plecoptera Perlidae Perlesta

Isoptera Unident. Unident.

Blattodea Blattellidae Ischnoptera

Blattodea Blattellidae Parcoblatta

Hemiptera Aradidae Mezira

Hemiptera Belostomatidae Lethocerus

Hemiptera Berytidae Jalysus

Hemiptera Coreidae Acanthocephala

Hemiptera Coreidae Leptoglossus

Hemiptera Corixidae Hesperocorixa

Hemiptera Corixidae Sigara

Hemiptera Corixidae Trichocorixa

Hemiptera Gerridae Gerris

Hemiptera Hydrometridae Hydrometra

Hemiptera Lygaeidae Kleidocerys?

Hemiptera Miridae Fulvius

Hemiptera Miridae Hyaliodes

Hemiptera Miridae Phytocoris

Hemiptera Miridae Unident.

Hemiptera Nabidae Hoplistoscelis

Hemiptera Nepidae Ranatra

Hemiptera Notonectidae Notonecta

Hemiptera Pentatomidae Banasa

Hemiptera Pentatomidae Brochymena

Hemiptera Pentatomidae Brochymena

Hemiptera Pentatomidae Euschistus

Hemiptera Pentatomidae Euschistus

Hemiptera Pentatomidae Mormidea

Hemiptera Pentatomidae Podisus

Hemiptera Pentatomidae Thyanta

Hemiptera Pentatomidae Unident.

Hemiptera Phymatidae Phymata

Hemiptera Reduviidae Arilus

Hemiptera Reduviidae Barce

Hemiptera Reduviidae Empicoris

Hemiptera Reduviidae Melanolestes

Hemiptera Rhopalidae Stictopleurus

Hemiptera Thyreocoridae Corimelaena

Hemiptera Thyreocoridae Corimelaena

Hemiptera Thyreocoridae Galgupha

Hemiptera Tingidae Corythucha

Hemiptera Tingidae Corythucha

Hemiptera Tingidae Leptopharsa

Hemiptera Aphidae Unident.

Hemiptera Cercopidae Aphrophora

Hemiptera Cercopidae Prosapia

Hemiptera Cercopidae Unident.

Hemiptera Cercopidae Unident.

Hemiptera Cicadellidae Agallia

Hemiptera Cicadellidae Agalliopsis

Hemiptera Cicadellidae Cloanthus

Hemiptera Cicadellidae Coelidia

Hemiptera Cicadellidae Coelidia

Hemiptera Cicadellidae Colladonus

Hemiptera Cicadellidae Draeculacephala

Hemiptera Cicadellidae Erythroneura

Hemiptera Cicadellidae Erythroneura

Hemiptera Cicadellidae Erythroneura

Hemiptera Cicadellidae Erythroneura

Hemiptera Cicadellidae Erythroneura

Hemiptera Cicadellidae Erythroneura

Hemiptera Cicadellidae Erythroneura

Hemiptera Cicadellidae Erythroneura

Hemiptera Cicadellidae Eutettix

Hemiptera Cicadellidae Graphocephala

Hemiptera Cicadellidae Gyponana

Hemiptera Cicadellidae Oncometopia

Hemiptera Cicadellidae Sibovia

Hemiptera Cicadellidae Unident.

Hemiptera Cicadellidae Unident.

Hemiptera Cicadellidae Unident.

Hemiptera Cicadellidae Unident.

Hemiptera Cicadellidae Unident.

Hemiptera Cicadellidae Unident.

Hemiptera Cicadellidae Unident.

Hemiptera Cicadellidae Unident.

Hemiptera Cicadellidae Unident.

Hemiptera Cicadellidae Unident.

Hemiptera Cicadellidae Unident.

Hemiptera Cicadellidae Unident.

Hemiptera Cicadellidae Unident.

Hemiptera Cicadellidae Unident.

Hemiptera Cicadellidae Unident.

Hemiptera Cicadellidae Unident.

Hemiptera Cicadidae Magicicada

Hemiptera Cicadidae Tibicen

Hemiptera Cixiidae Bothriocera

Hemiptera Cixiidae Oliarus

Hemiptera Cixiidae Unident.

Hemiptera Cixiidae Unident.

Hemiptera Cixiidae Unident.

Hemiptera Cixiidae Unident.

Hemiptera Cixiidae Unident.

Hemiptera Cixiidae Unident.

Hemiptera Delphacidae Liburniella

Hemiptera Derbidae Cedusa

Hemiptera Derbidae Neocenchrea

Hemiptera Derbidae Omolicna

Hemiptera Derbidae Omolicna

Hemiptera Derbidae Otiocerus

Hemiptera Derbidae Unident.

Hemiptera Flatidae Anormenis

Hemiptera Flatidae Metcalfa

Hemiptera Flatidae Unident.

Hemiptera Membracidae Cyrtolobus

Hemiptera Membracidae Enchenopa

Hemiptera Membracidae Entylia

Hemiptera Membracidae Heliria

Hemiptera Membracidae Platycotis

Hemiptera Membracidae Spissistilus

Hemiptera Membracidae Stictocephala

Hemiptera Membracidae Stictocephala

Hemiptera Membracidae Telamona

Hemiptera Membracidae Unident.

Hemiptera Membracidae Unident.

Hemiptera Membracidae Unident.

Hemiptera Membracidae Unident.

Hemiptera Psyllidae Unident.

Hemiptera Psyllidae Unident.

Hemiptera Psyllidae Unident.

Hemiptera Psyllidae Unident.

Thysanoptera Phlaeothripidae Neheegeria?

Thysanoptera Phlaeothripidae Unident.

Psocoptera Psocidae Psocus

Psocoptera Unident. Unident.

Psocoptera Unident. Unident.

Psocoptera Unident. Unident.

Psocoptera Unident. Unident.

Psocoptera Unident. Unident.

Coleoptera Aderidae Zonantes

Coleoptera Anobiidae Tricorynus

Coleoptera Anobiidae Tricorynus

Coleoptera Anthicidae Anthicus

Coleoptera Anthicidae Sapintus

Coleoptera Anthribidae Toxonotus

Coleoptera Biphyllidae Diplocoelus

Coleoptera Bostrichidae Endecatomus

Coleoptera Bostrichidae Lichenophanes

Coleoptera Bostrichidae Stephanopachys

Coleoptera Brentidae Arrhenodes

Coleoptera Buprestidae Acmaeodera

Coleoptera Buprestidae Agrilus

Coleoptera Byturidae Byturus

Coleoptera Cantharidae Cantharis

Coleoptera Cantharidae Cantharis

Coleoptera Cantharidae Malthodes

Coleoptera Cantharidae Rhaxonycha

Coleoptera Carabidae Abacidus

Coleoptera Carabidae Acupalpus

Coleoptera Carabidae Agonum

Coleoptera Carabidae Agonum

Coleoptera Carabidae Agonum

Coleoptera Carabidae Agonum

Coleoptera Carabidae Agonum

Coleoptera Carabidae Agonum

Coleoptera Carabidae Aspidoglossa

Coleoptera Carabidae Badister

Coleoptera Carabidae Bembidion

Coleoptera Carabidae Bembidion

Coleoptera Carabidae Brachinus

Coleoptera Carabidae Brachinus

Coleoptera Carabidae Brachinus

Coleoptera Carabidae Calleida

Coleoptera Carabidae Calosoma

Coleoptera Carabidae Chlaenius

Coleoptera Carabidae Chlaenius

Coleoptera Carabidae Chlaenius

Coleoptera Carabidae Cicindela

Coleoptera Carabidae Clivina

Coleoptera Carabidae Clivina

Coleoptera Carabidae Clivina

Coleoptera Carabidae Clivina

Coleoptera Carabidae Coptodera

Coleoptera Carabidae Cyclotrachelus

Coleoptera Carabidae Cymindis

Coleoptera Carabidae Cymindis

Coleoptera Carabidae Dicaelus

Coleoptera Carabidae Galerita

Coleoptera Carabidae Harpalus

Coleoptera Carabidae Harpalus

Coleoptera Carabidae Lebia

Coleoptera Carabidae Lebia

Coleoptera Carabidae Lebia

Coleoptera Carabidae Leptotrachelus

Coleoptera Carabidae Loxandrus

Coleoptera Carabidae Mioptachys

Coleoptera Carabidae Myas

Coleoptera Carabidae Pasimachus

Coleoptera Carabidae Platynus

Coleoptera Carabidae Poecilus

Coleoptera Carabidae Pterostichus

Coleoptera Carabidae Pterostichus

Coleoptera Carabidae Pterostichus

Coleoptera Carabidae Pterostichus

Coleoptera Carabidae Selenophorus

Coleoptera Carabidae Selenophorus

Coleoptera Carabidae Stenolophus

Coleoptera Carabidae Stenolophus

Coleoptera Carabidae Stenolophus

Coleoptera Carabidae Synuchus

Coleoptera Carabidae Tachys

Coleoptera Carabidae Tachyta

Coleoptera Cerambycidae Anelaphus

Coleoptera Cerambycidae Astylidius

Coleoptera Cerambycidae Astylopsis

Coleoptera Cerambycidae Goes

Coleoptera Cerambycidae Hyperplatys

Coleoptera Cerambycidae Lepturges

Coleoptera Cerambycidae Oherea

Coleoptera Cerambycidae Prionus

Coleoptera Cerambycidae Strangalia

Coleoptera Cerambycidae Typocerus

Coleoptera Cerambycidae Typocerus

Coleoptera Cerambycidae Urgleptes

Coleoptera Cerylonidae Mychocerus

Coleoptera Cerylonidae Philothermus

Coleoptera Chrysomelidae Acalymma

Coleoptera Chrysomelidae Altica

Coleoptera Chrysomelidae Altica

Coleoptera Chrysomelidae Brachypnoea

Coleoptera Chrysomelidae Brachypnoea

Coleoptera Chrysomelidae Capraita

Coleoptera Chrysomelidae Cerotoma

Coleoptera Chrysomelidae Chaetocnema

Coleoptera Chrysomelidae Chalepus

Coleoptera Chrysomelidae Colaspis

Coleoptera Chrysomelidae Demotina

Coleoptera Chrysomelidae Diabrotica

Coleoptera Chrysomelidae Distigmoptera

Coleoptera Chrysomelidae Paria

Coleoptera Chrysomelidae Paria

Coleoptera Chrysomelidae Paria

Coleoptera Chrysomelidae Rhabdopterus

Coleoptera Chrysomelidae Sumitrosis

Coleoptera Chrysomelidae Systena

Coleoptera Chrysomelidae Tymnes

Coleoptera Chrysomelidae Tymnes

Coleoptera Ciidae Ceracis

Coleoptera Ciidae Cis

Coleoptera Ciidae Cis

Coleoptera Cleridae Cymatodera

Coleoptera Cleridae Enoclerus

Coleoptera Cleridae Placopterus

Coleoptera Coccinellidae Axion

Coleoptera Coccinellidae Coccinella

Coleoptera Coccinellidae Cycloneda

Coleoptera Coccinellidae Didion

Coleoptera Coccinellidae Harmonia

Coleoptera Coccinellidae Scymnus

Coleoptera Coccinellidae Scymnus

Coleoptera Coccinellidae Scymnus

Coleoptera Colydiidac Bothrideres

Coleoptera Colydiidae Eucicones

Coleoptera Curculionidae Ambrosiodmus

Coleoptera Curculionidac Anthonomus

Coleoptera Curculionidae Apteromechus

Coleoptera Curculionidae Aulobaris

Coleoptera Curculionidae Conotrachelus

Coleoptera Curculionidae Conotrachelus

Coleoptera Curculionidae Cryptorhynchus

Coleoptera Curculionidae Cryptorhynchus

Coleoptera Curculionidae Curculio

Coleoptera Curculionidae Cyrtepistomus

Coleoptera Curculionidac Dryocuetes

Coleoptera Curculionidae Eubulus

Coleoptera Curculionidae Eugnamptus

Coleoptera Curculionidac Eugnamptus

Coleoptera Curculionidae Hypothenemus

Coleoptera Curculionidae Ips

Coleoptera Curculionidae Ips

Coleoptera Curculionidae Monarthrum

Coleoptera Curculionidae Rhinoncus

Coleoptera Curculionidae Smicronyx

Coleoptera Curculionidae Unident.

Coleoptera Curculionidae Unident.

Coleoptera Curculionidae Xyleborinus

Coleoptera Curculionidae Xyleborus

Coleoptera Curculionidae Xyleborus

Coleoptera Curculionidae Xyleborus

Coleoptera Curculionidae Xyleborus

Coleoptera Curculionidae Xylosandrus

Coleoptera Curculionidae Xylosandrus?

Coleoptera Curculionidae Xyloterinus

Coleoptera Derodontidae Derodontus

Coleoptera Dytiscidae Acilius

Coleoptera Dytiscidae Agabetes

Coleoptera Dytiscidae Agabus

Coleoptera Dytiscidae Bidessonotus

Coleoptera Dytiscidae Copelatus

Coleoptera Dytiscidae Copelatus

Coleoptera Dytiscidae Coptotomus

Coleoptera Dytiscidae Laccophilus

Coleoptera Dytiscidae Neoporus

Coleoptera Dytiscidae Rhantus

Coleoptera Dytiscidae Thermonectus

Coleoptera Elateridae Ampedus

Coleoptera Elateridae Ampedus

Coleoptera Elateridae Ctenicera

Coleoptera Elateridae Ctenicera

Coleoptera Elateridae Glyphonyx?

Coleoptera Elateridae Lacon

Coleoptera Elateridae Lacon

Coleoptera Elateridae Lacon

Coleoptera Elateridae Limonius

Coleoptera Elateridae Limonius

Coleoptera Elateridae Limonius

Coleoptera Elateridae Melanotus

Coleoptera Elateridae Melanotus

Coleoptera Elateridae Melanotus

Coleoptera Elateridae Melanotus

Coleoptera Elateridae Melanotus

Coleoptera Elateridae Melanotus

Coleoptera Elateridae Melanotus

Coleoptera Elateridae Melanotus

Coleoptera Elateridae Melanotus

Coleoptera Elateridae Melanotus

Coleoptera Elateridae Melanotus

Coleoptera Elateridae Melanotus

Coleoptera Elateridae Orthostethus

Coleoptera Elateridae Pherhimius

Coleoptera Endomychidae Rhanidea

Coleoptera Endomychidae Stenotarsus

Coleoptera Erotylidae Ischyrus

Coleoptera Erotylidae Megalodacne

Coleoptera Erotylidae Tritoma

Coleoptera Eucnemidae Deltometopus

Coleoptera Eucnemidae Dirrhagofarsus

Coleoptera Eucnemidae Dromaeolus

Coleoptera Eucnemidae Dromaeolus

Coleoptera Eucnemidae Isorhipis

Coleoptera Eucnemidae Melasis

Coleoptera Gyrinidae Dineutus

Coleoptera Haliplidae Peltodytes

Coleoptera Heteroceridae Tropicus

Coleoptera Histeridae Aeletes

Coleoptera Histeridae Atholus

Coleoptera Histeridae Margarinotus

Coleoptera Histeridae Paromalus

Coleoptera Histeridae Platysoma

Coleoptera Hydrophilidae Berosus

Coleoptera Hydrophilidae Berosus

Coleoptera Hydrophilidae Cercyon

Coleoptera Hydrophilidae Enochrus

Coleoptera Hydrophilidae Enochrus

Coleoptera Hydrophilidae Enochrus

Coleoptera Hydrophilidae Helocombus

Coleoptera Hydrophilidae Hydrochara

Coleoptera Hydrophilidae Hydrochara

Coleoptera Hydrophilidae Hydrochus

Coleoptera Hydrophilidae Hydrochus

Coleoptera Hydrophilidae Hydrophilus

Coleoptera Hydrophilidae Tropisternus

Coleoptera Hydrophilidae Tropisternus

Coleoptera Hydrophilidae Tropisternus

Coleoptera Laemophloeidae Laemophloeus

Coleoptera Laemophloeidae Placonotus

Coleoptera Lampyridae Lucidota

Coleoptera Lampyridae Photinus

Coleoptera Latridiidae Corticaria

Coleoptera Latridiidae Melanophthalma

Coleoptera Leiodidae Agathidium

Coleoptera Leiodidae Aglyptinus

Coleoptera Leiodidae Anisotoma

Coleoptera Leiodidae Anisotoma

Coleoptera Leptodiridae Catops

Coleoptera Leptodiridae Ptomaphagus

Coleoptera Lucanidae Platycerus

Coleoptera Lucanidae Pseudolucanus

Coleoptera Lycidae Calopteron

Coleoptera Lycidae Calopteron

Coleoptera Lycidae Eropterus

Coleoptera Melandryidae Dircaea

Coleoptera Melandryidae Melandrya

Coleoptera Melandryidae Microtonus

Coleoptera Melandryidae Phloeotrya

Coleoptera Melandryidae Synchroa

Coleoptera Melandryidae Synstrophus

Coleoptera Meloidae Meloe

Coleoptera Mordellidae Falsomordellistena

Coleoptera Mordellidae Glipa

Coleoptera Mordellidae Glipostenoda

Coleoptera Mordellidae Mordellistena

Coleoptera Mordellidae Mordellistena

Coleoptera Mycetophagidae Mycetophagus

Coleoptera Nitidulidae Carpophilus

Coleoptera Nitidulidae Carpophilus

Coleoptera Nitidulidae Carpophilus

Coleoptera Nitidulidae Carpophilus

Coleoptera Nitidulidae Carpophilus

Coleoptera Nitidulidae Carpophilus

Coleoptera Nitidulidae Colopterus

Coleoptera Nitidulidae Colopterus

Coleoptera Nitidulidae Glischrochilus

Coleoptera Nitidulidae Glischrochilus

Coleoptera Nitidulidae Glischrochilus

Coleoptera Nitidulidae Pallodes

Coleoptera Nitidulidae Prometopia

Coleoptera Nitidulidae Stelidota

Coleoptera Passalidae Odontotaenius

Coleoptera Pselaphidae Cylindrarctus

Coleoptera Pselaphidae Unident.

Coleoptera Ptiliidae Ptinella

Coleoptera Ptilodactylidae Ptilodactyla

Coleoptera Pyrochroidae Dendroides

Coleoptera Rhysodidae Omoglymmius

Coleoptera Rhyzophagidae Bactridium

Coleoptera Rhyzophagidae Rhizophagus

Coleoptera Scaphidiidae Eubaeocera

Coleoptera Scarabaeidae Anomala

Coleoptera Scarabaeidae Aphodius

Coleoptera Scarabaeidae Aphodius

Coleoptera Scarabaeidae Aphodius

Coleoptera Scarabaeidae Ataenius

Coleoptera Scarabaeidae Ataenius

Coleoptera Scarabaeidae Ateuchus

Coleoptera Scarabaeidae Bolboceras

Coleoptera Scarabaeidae Bolbocerosoma

Coleoptera Scarabaeidae Copris

Coleoptera Scarabaeidae Copris

Coleoptera Scarabaeidae Copris

Coleoptera Scarabaeidae Cotinis

Coleoptera Scarabaeidae Cyclocephala

Coleoptera Scarabaeidae Deltochilum

Coleoptera Scarabaeidae Dyscinetus

Coleoptera Scarabaeidae Euphoria

Coleoptera Scarabaeidae Geotrupes

Coleoptera Scarabaeidae Geotrupes

Coleoptera Scarabaeidae Germarostes

Coleoptera Scarabaeidae Germarostes

Coleoptera Scarabaeidae Hoplia

Coleoptera Scarabaeidae Macrodactylus

Coleoptera Scarabaeidae Onthophagus

Coleoptera Scarabaeidae Parastasia

Coleoptera Scarabaeidae Phyllophaga

Coleoptera Scarabaeidae Phyllophaga

Coleoptera Scarabaeidae Phyllophaga

Coleoptera Scarabaeidae Phyllophaga

Coleoptera Scarabaeidae Phyllophaga

Coleoptera Scarabaeidae Phyllophaga

Coleoptera Scarabaeidae Phyllophaga

Coleoptera Scarabaeidae Popillia

Coleoptera Scarabaeidae Pseudocanthon

Coleoptera Scarabaeidae Serica

Coleoptera Scarabaeidae Serica

Coleoptera Scarabaeidae Serica

Coleoptera Scarabaeidae Valgus

Coleoptera Scirtidae Cyphon

Coleoptera Scirtidae Cyphon

Coleoptera Scirtidae Prionocyphon

Coleoptera Scirtidae Scirtes

Coleoptera Scydmaenidae Napochus

Coleoptera Scydmaenidae Napochus

Coleoptera Silphidae Necrophila

Coleoptera Silphidae Nicrophorus

Coleoptera Silphidae Nicrophorus

Coleoptera Silphidae Oiceoptoma

Coleoptera Silphidae Oiceoptoma

Coleoptera Silvanidae Cathartosilvanus

Coleoptera Silvanidae Silvanus

Coleoptera Silvanidae Silvanus

Coleoptera Silvanidae Uleiota

Coleoptera Staphylinidae Genus E

Coleoptera Staphylinidae Genus E

Coleoptera Staphylinidae Genus E

Coleoptera Staphylinidae Genus E

Coleoptera Staphylinidae Genus E

Coleoptera Staphylinidae Genus G

Coleoptera Staphylinidae Genus H

Coleoptera Staphylinidae Genus I

Coleoptera Staphylinidae Genus K

Coleoptera Staphylinidae Genus M

Coleoptera Staphylinidae Genus N

Coleoptera Staphylinidae Genus O

Coleoptera Staphylinidae Genus P

Coleoptera Staphylinidae Genus Q

Coleoptera Staphylinidae Genus Q

Coleoptera Staphylinidae Genus S

Coleoptera Staphylinidae Genus T

Colcoptera Staphylinidae Genus T

Coleoptera Staphylinidae Homaeotarsus

Coleoptera Staphylinidae Homaeotarsus

Coleoptera Staphylinidae Homaeotarsus

Coleoptera Staphylinidae Platydracus

Coleoptera Staphylinidae Platydracus

Coleoptera Staphylinidae Reichenbachia

Coleoptera Staphylinidae Sepedophilus

Coleoptera Staphylinidae Stemis

Coleoptera Staphylinidae Stenus

Coleoptera Staphylinidae Sunius

Coleoptera Staphylinidae Tachimts

Coleoptera Tenebrionidae Adelina

Coleoptera Tenebrionidae Anaedus

Coleoptera Tenebrionidae Bolitophagus

Coleoptera Tenebrionidae Centronopus

Coleoptera Tenebrionidae Corticeus

Coleoptera Tenebrionidae Diaperis

Coleoptera Tenebrionidae Haplandrus

Coleoptera Tenebrionidae Hymenorus

Coleoptera Tenebrionidae Idiobates

Coleoptera Tenebrionidae Isomira

Coleoptera Tenebrionidae Lobopoda

Coleoptera Tenebrionidae Merinus

Coleoptera Tenebrionidae Neomida

Coleoptera Tenebrionidae Platydema

Coleoptera Tenebrionidae Strongylium

Colcoptera Tenebrionidae Strongylium

Coleoptera Tenebrionidae Uloma

Coleoptera Tenebrionidae Vloma

Coleoptera Tenebrionidae Unident.

Coleoptera Trogidae Trox

Coleoptera Trogidae Trox

Coleoptera Trogidae Trox

Coleoptera Trogidae Trox

Coleoptera Trogossitidae Tenebroides

Coleoptera Trogossitidae Tenebroides

Neuroptera Chrysopidae Chrysopa

Neuroptera Corydalidae Chauliodes

Neuroptera Corydalidae Chauliodes

Neuroptera Hemerobiidae Hemerobius

Neuroptera Sialidae Sialis

Hymenoptera Anthophoridae Xylocopa

Hymenoptera Apidae Apis

Hymenoptera Chrysididae Chrysis

Hymenoptera Colletidae Hylaeus

Hymenoptera Cynipidae Unident.

Hymenoptera Diapriidae Unident.

Hymenoptera Diapriidae Unident.

Hymenoptera Formicidae Aphaenogaster

Hymenoptera Formicidae Aphaenogaster

Hymenoptera Formicidae Aphaenogaster

Hymenoptera Formicidae Aphaenogaster

Hymenoptera Formicidae Aphaenogaster

Hymenoptera Formicidae Aphaenogaster

Hymenoptera Formicidae Camponotus

Hymenoptera Formicidae Camponotus

Hymenoptera Formicidae Camponotus

Hymenoptera Formicidae Camponotus

Hymenoptera Formicidae Camponotus

Hymenoptera Formicidae Camponotus

Hymenoptera Formicidae Crematogaster

Hymenoptera Formicidae Crematogaster

Hymenoptera Formicidae Dolichoderus

Hymenoptera Formicidae Formica

Hymenoptera Formicidae Formica

Hymenoptera Formicidae Formica

Hymenoptera Formicidae Formica

Hymenoptera Formicidae Lasius

Hymenoptera Formicidae Lasius

Hymenoptera Formicidae Leptothorax

Hymenoptera Formicidae Myrmecina

Hymenoptera Formicidae Myrmica

Hymenoptera Formicidae Paratrechina

Hymenoptera Formicidae Paratrechina

Hymenoptera Formicidae Ponera

Hymenoptera Formicidae Ponera

Hymenoptera Formicidae Prenolepis

Hymenoptera Formicidae Prenolepis

Hymenoptera Formicidae Tapinoma

Hymenoptera Formicidae Tetramorium

Hymenoptera Formicidae Wasmannia

Hymenoptera Halictidae Augochlorella

Hymenoptera Halictidae Sphccodes

Hymenoptera Ichneumonidae Ophion

Hymenoptera Mutillidae Dasymutilla

Hymenoptera Pelecinidae Pelecinus

Hymenoptera Platygastridae Unident.

Hymenoptera Scoliidae Scolia

Hymenoptera Sphecidae Eremnophila

Hymenoptera Sphecidae Sphex

Hymenoptera Sphecidae Trypoxylon

Hymenoptera Sphecidae Trypoxyion

Hymenoptera Tiphiidae Tiphia

Hymenoptera Vespidae Dolichovespula

Hymenoptera Vespidae Polistes

Hymenoptera Vespidae Vespa

Hymenoptera Vespidae Vespula

Trichoptera Hydropsychidae Cheumatopsyche

Trichoptera Hydropsychidae Hydropsyche

Trichoptera Leptoceridae Oecetis

Trichoptera Leploceridae Oecetis

Trichoptera Philoptamidae Wormaldia

Trichoptera Phryganeidae Agrypnia

Trichoptera Phryganeidae Ptilostomis

Lepidoptera Arctiidae Apantesis

Lepidoptera Arctiidae Cisthene

Lepidoptera Arctiidae Cisthene

Lepidoptera Arctiidae Halysidota

Lepidoptera Arctiidae Haploa

Lepidoptera Arctiidae Haploa

Lepidoptera Arctiidae Hypoprepia

Lepidoptera Arctiidae Spilosoma

Lepidoptera Danaidae Danaus

Lepidoptera Drepanidae Drepana

Lepidoptera Epipyropidae Fulgoraecia

Lepidoptera Geometridae Anacamptodes

Lepidoptera Geometridae Ectropis

Lepidoptera Geometridae Euchlaena

Lepidoptera Geometridae Eupithecia

Lepidoptera Geometridae Hypagyrtis

Lepidoptera Geometridae Hypomecis

Lepidoptera Geometridae Lambdina

Lepidoptera Geometridae Macaria

Lepidoptera Geometridae Nemoria

Lepidoptera Geometridae Probole

Lepidoptera Geometridae Protoboarmia

Lepidoptera Geometridae Scopula

Lepidoptera Hesperiidae Atalopedes

Lepidoptera Hesperiidae Epargyreus

Lepidoptera Hesperiidae Erynnis

Lepidoptera Lasiocampidae Artace

Lepidoptera Lasiocampidae Malacosoma

Lepidoptera Lasiocampidae Malacosoma

Lepidoptera Limacodidae Lithacodes

Lepidoptera Limacodidae Sibine

Lepidoptera Lycaenidae Celastrina

Lepidoptera Lycaenidae Everes

Lepidoptera Lycaenidae Glaucopsyche

Lepidoptera Noctuidae Acronicta

Lepidoptera Noctuidae Agrotis

Lepidoptera Noctuidae Amphipyra

Lepidoptera Noctuidae Catocala

Lepidoptera Noctuidae Catocala

Lepidoptera Noctuidae Helicoverpa

Lepidoptera Noctuidae Idia

Lepidoptera Noctuidae Lesmone

Lepidoptera Noctuidae Maliattha

Lepidoptera Noctuidae Metaxaglaea

Lepidoptera Noctuidae Phoberia

Lepidoptera Noctuidae P/athypena

Lepidoptera Noctuidae Polygrammate

Lepidoptera Noctuidae Protolampra

Lepidoptera Noctuidae Spodoptera

Lepidoptera Noctuidae Sunira

Lepidoptera Noctuidae Thioptera

Lepidoptera Notodontidae Datana

Lepidoptera Notodontidae Heterocampa

Lepidoptera Notodontidae Heterocampa

Lepidoptera Notodontidae Hyperaeschra

Lepidoptera Notodontidae Nadata

Lepidoptera Nymphalidae Junonia

Lepidoptera Nymphalidae Limenitis

Lepidoptera Nymphalidae Phyciodes

Lepidoptera Nymphalidae Speyeria

Lepidoptera Nymphalidae Vanessa

Lepidoptera Papilionidae Eurytides

Lepidoptera Papilionidae Papilio

Lepidoptera Pieridae Abaeis

Lepidoptera Picridae Colias

Lepidoptera Pieridae Eurema

Lepidoptera Pyralidae Desmia

Lepidoptera Pyralidae Dolichomia

Lepidoptera Pyralidae Herpetogramma

Lepidoptera Pyralidae Hypsopygia

Lepidoptera Pyralidae Spoladea

Lepidoptera Saturniidae Actios

Lepidoptera Saturniidae Anisota

Lepidoptera Saturniidae Automeris

Lepidoptera Saturniidae Callosamia

Lepidoptera Saturniidae Citheronia

Lepidoptera Saturniidae Dryocampa

Lepidoptera Satyridae Cyllopsis

Lepidoptera Satyridae Enodia

Lepidoptera Satyridae Hermeuptychia

Lepidoptera Tortricidae Sparganothis

Mecoptera Bittacidae Bittacus

Mecoptera Panorpidae Panorpa

Mecoptera Panorpidae Panorpa

Diptera Anthomyzidae Mumetopia

Diptera Asilidae Asilus

Diptera Asilidae Laphria

Diptera Asilidae Laphria

Diptera Asilidae Leptogaster

Diptera Asilidae Leptogaster

Diptera Asilidae Ommatius

Diptera Bombyliidae Anthrax

Diptera Bombyliidae Villa

Diptera Calliphoridae Cochliomyia

Diptera Calliphoridae Phaenicia

Diptera Calliphoridae Phormia

Diptera Ceratopogonidae Dasyhelea

Diptera Ceratopogonidae Stilobezzia

Diptera Chaoboridae Chaoborus

Diptera Chloropidae Apotropina

Diptera Chloropidae Elachiptera

Diptera Chloropidae Homaluroides

Diptera Clusiidae Clusia

Diptera Conopidae Stylogaster

Diptera Culicidae Aedes

Diptera Culicidae Culex

Diptera Culicidae Culiseta

Diptera Culicidae Ochlerotatus

Diptera Culicidae Psorophera

Diptera Culicidae Toxorhynchites

Diptera Dolichopodidae Campsicnemus

Diptera Dolichopodidae Chrysotus

Diptera Dolichopodidae Condylostylus

Diptera Dolichopodidae Condylostylus

Diptera Dolichopodidae Dolichopus

Diptera Dolichopodidae Gymnoptemus

Diptera Dolichopodidae Hercostomus

Diptera Dolichopodidae Sciapus

Diptera Dolichopodidae Tachytrechus

Diptera Drosophilidae Chymomyza

Diptera Drosophilidae Cladochaeta

Diptera Drosophilidae Drosophila

Diptera Drosophilidae Leucophengu

Diptera Drosophilidae Scaptomyza

Diptera Empididae Chelipoda

Diptera Empididae Drapetis

Diptera Empididae Euhybus

Diptera Empididae Rhamphomyia

Diptera Ephydridae Diseocerina

Diptera Ephydridae Ochthera

Diptera Ephydridae Paralimna

Diptera Ephydridae Psilopa

Diptera Ephydridae Scatella

Diptera Heleomyzidae Suiltia

Diptera Hybotidae Oedalea

Diptera Hybotidae Syneches

Diptera Hybotidae Tachyempis

Diptera Keroplatidae Orfelia

Diptera Lauxaniidae Camp top rosopella

Diptera Lauxaniidae Homoneura

Diptera Lauxaniidae Melanomyza

Diptera Lauxaniidae Minettia

Diptera Lonehaeidac Lonchaea

Diptera Mieropezidae Rainieria

Diptera Museidae Caricea

Diptera Museidae Caricea

Diptera Museidae Coenosia

Diptera Museidae Drymeia

Diptera Museidae Neodexiopsis

Diptera Museidae Phaonia

Diptera Museidae Potamia

Diptera Mycetophilidae Acnemia

Diptera Mycetophilidae Boletina

Diptera Mycetophilidae Dynatosoma

Diptera Mycetophilidae Exechia

Diptera Mycetophilidae Lygistorrhina

Diptera Mycetophilidae Macrocera

Diptera Mycetophilidae Mycetophila

Diptera Mycetophilidae Mycomya

Diptera Mycetophilidae Neoempheria

Diptera Mycetophilidae Rymosia

Diptera Mycetophilidae Sceptonia

Diptera Odiniidae Traginops

Diptera Phoridae Conicera

Diptera Phoridae Diplonevra

Diptera Phoridae Dohrniphora

Diptera Phoridae Gymnophora

Diptera Phoridae Puliciphora

Diptera Phoridae Spiniphora

Diptera Phoridae Triphleba

Diptera Psychodidae Telmatoscopus

Diptera Rhagionidae Chrysopilus

Diptera Sarcophagidae Boettcheria

Diptera Sarcophagidae Udamopyga

Diptera Scatopsidae Colobostema

Diptera Sciaridae Bradysia

Diptera Sciaridae Corynoptera

Diptera Sciaridae Epidapus

Diptera Sciaridae Lycoriella

Diptera Sciaridae Pseudosciara

Diptera Sciaridae Schwenkfeldina

Diptera Sciaridae Sciara

Diptera Sciomyzidae Euthycera

Diptera Sciomyzidae Limnia

Diptera Sepsidae Sepsis

Diptera Sphaeroceridae Leptocera

Diptera Sphaeroceridae Pterogramma

Diptera Stratiomyidae Ptecticus

Diptera Syrphidae Cheilosia

Diptera Syrphidae Epistrophella

Diptera Syrphidae Syrphus

Diptera Syrphidae Toxomerus

Diptera Syrphidae Toxomerus

Diptera Syrphidae Xylota

Diptera Tabanidae Tabanus

Diptera Tabanidae Tabanus

Diptera Tabanidae Tabanus

Diptera Tabanidae Tabanus

Diptera Tabanidae Tabanus

Diptera Tachinidae Anisia

Diptera Tachinidae Hemyda

Diptera Tachinidae Peleteria

Diptera Tipulidae Epiphragma

Diptera Tipulidae Tipula

Diptera Xylophagidae Dialysis

Diptera Xylophagidae Rachicerus

Order species Method(s) * # Collected

Protura species 1 LL 31

Collembola assuta Folsom ML, PF 5

Collembola purpurascens Packard LL, PF 20

Collembola species 1 LL, PF 17

Collembola sauteri Borner LL 4

Collembola cinereus Folsom LL, ML, PF 388

Collembola species 2 LL 5

Collembola species 3 LL 5

Collembola celsa Christiansen & PF 7
 Tucker

Collembola species 1 LL, PF 42

Collembola aera Christiansen and LL 7
 Bellinger

Collembola sexoculata Schott LL 4

Collembola species 1 LL 1

Collembola violenta (Folsom) LL 21

Collembola species 1 LL, PF 123

Collembola species 1 LL 6

Collembola species 1 LL 35

Collembola prima Mills LL 64

Collembola Stella Christiansen & LL 5
 Tucker

Collembola marchicus (Frenzel) LL 1

Collembola parvulus Stach LL 29

Collembola species 1 LL

Collembola viridis Bourlet LL, PF 51

Collembola minor (Schaffer) LL 301

Collembola falsus Christiansen & LL
 Bellinger

Collembola species 1 LL

Collembola achromata Bellinger LL

Collembola minima (Absolon) LL 141

Collembola monochaeta Kos LL

Collembola tullbergi Schdtt LL 22

Collembola sublimis Macnamara LL 1

Collembola pygmaea (Borner) LL 92

Collembola muscorum (Templeton) LL 10

Collembola species 1 LL, PF 3

Collembola species 2 LL 7

Collembola aureofasciatus (Mac PF 9
 Gillivray)

Collembola species 1 LL, PF 7

Collembola caeca (Folsom) LL 22

Collembola cornifer Mills LL 12

Collembola species 1 LL 1

Collembola species 1 LL 1

Collembola oculata (Mills) LL 3

Collembola silvicola Folsom LL 3

Collembola yosiii (Rusek) LL 182

Collembola species 1 LL 103

Collembola mala Christiansen & LL 3
 Bellinger

Collembola aquatica L. LL 4

Collembola species 1 LL 1

Collembola pineolae (Wray) PF 1

Collembola species 1 LL, PF 7

Collembola malmgreni (Tullberg) LL 18

Collembola quadrimaculatus ML 1
 (Ryder)

Collembola species 1 LL 9

Collembola species 2 LL 14

Collembola pumilis (Krausbauer) LL 17

Collembola elongatus Maynard PF 2

Collembola species 1 LL, PF 100

Collembola species 2 PF 1

Collembola species 1 LL, PF 2372

Diplura Isabellae (Grassi) LL 6

Odonata umbrosa Walker DI 1

Odonata heros (Fab.) DI 1

Odonata hastata (Say) DI 2

Odonata disjunctus Selys DI, SW 6

Odonata rectangularis Say DI, FG, SW 9

Odonata species 1 DI 1

Odonata incesta Hagen DI 2

Odonata semifasciata DI 1
 Burmeister

Odonata vibrans Fab. DI 3

Odonata longipennis DI 8
 (Burmeister)

Odonata lydia Drury DI 2

Odonata ambiguum (Rambur) DI, SW 11

Orthoptera sulphurea (Fab.) SW 1

Orthoptera fasciatus (De Geer) LT, ML, PF 35

Orthoptera assimilis (Fab.) FG, PF, SW 36

Orthoptera latipennis Riley MN 2

Orthoptera niveus (De Geer) DI, FG, LT, PF, SW 16

Orthoptera species 1 FG, PF, SW 9

Orthoptera brevipes Scudder PF 4

Orthoptera arenosa Burmeister DI 1

Orthoptera armata Morse DI 1

Orthoptera lateralis (Say) DI, PF, SW 6

Orthoptera triops (L.) DI 1

Orthoptera camellifolia (Fab.) DI 2

Orthoptera retinerve DI 1
 (Burmeister)

Phasmatodea buprestoides (Stoll) BT 1

Phasmatodea femorala (Say) DI, SW 5

Plecoptera frisoni? Stark & LT 1
 Brown

Plecoptera species 1 LT 1

Isoptera species 1 DI 1

Blattodea deropeltiformis PF 12
 (Brunner)

Blattodea bolliana (Saussure & LT, PF 30
 Zehntner)

Hemiptera granulata (Say) DI 1

Hemiptera griseus (Say) LT 2

Hemiptera species 1 SW 12

Hemiptera terminalis (Dallas) FG 1

Hemiptera fulvicornis DI 1
 (Westwood)

Hemiptera species 1 DI 1

Hemiptera species 1 LT 1

Hemiptera calva (Say) LT 1

Hemiptera argenticollis DI 4
 Parshley

Hemiptera species 1 DI 1

Hemiptera species 1 FG 1

Hemiptera brunneus (Provancher) PF 12

Hemiptera vitripennis (Say) BT, FG 15

Hemiptera depictus Knight FG 6

Hemiptera species 1 FG, LT, PF, SW 27

Hemiptera sordidus (Reuter) BT, SW 22

Hemiptera nigra DI 3
 Herrich-Schaffer

Hemiptera irrorata Uhler DI 3

Hemiptera dimidiata (Say) SW 1

Hemiptera arborea (Say) DI, SW 2

Hemiptera cariosa Stal DI 1

Hemiptera servus (Say) DI 1

Hemiptera tristigmus (Say) SW 2

Hemiptera lugens (Fab.) SW 3

Hemiptera maculiventris (Say) DI, FG, LT 5

Hemiptera species 1 LT 1

Hemiptera species 1 FG 1

Hemiptera fasciata (Gray) DI 1

Hemiptera cristatus (L.) MN 2

Hemiptera fraterna fraterna DI 1
 (Say)

Hemiptera errabundus (Say) FG 5

Hemiptera picipes DI 1
 (Herrich-Schaffer)

Hemiptera crassicornis (L.) FG 1

Hemiptera obscura McPherson & DI, SW 5
 Sailer

Hemiptera pulicaria (Germar) DI 1

Hemiptera aterrima Malloch SW 1

Hemiptera arcuata (Say) FG, LL, ML, SW 221

Hemiptera species 1 SW 2

Hemiptera oblonga (Say) SW 1

Hemiptera species 1 DI 14

Hemiptera quadrinotata Say SW 1

Hemiptera bicincta (Say) DI, LT, ML 4

Hemiptera species 1 SW 1

Hemiptera species 2 SW 1

Hemiptera quadripunctata SW 13
 (Provancher)

Hemiptera novellus (Say) SW 1

Hemiptera species 1 BT, SW 4

Hemiptera borealis (Spangberg) SW 2

Hemiptera olitoria (Say) DI, ML, SW 5

Hemiptera clitellarius (Say) SW 1

Hemiptera antica (Walker) LT, ML, SW 7

Hemiptera comes (Say) BT, SW 5

Hemiptera hamata Beamer BT, SW 7

Hemiptera kansand? Group ML 1

Hemiptera micheneri Hepner LT 1

Hemiptera obliqua? group FG, PF, SW 7

Hemiptera ontari Robinson FG, SW 3

Hemiptera species 1 BT, LT, ML, PF, SW 116

Hemiptera vulnerata group SW 3

Hemiptera luridus (Van Duzee) LT 1

Hemiptera versuta (Say) SW 6

Hemiptera species 2 LT, SW 2

Hemiptera orbona (Fab.) BT, SW 2

Hemiptera occatoria (Say) SW 1

Hemiptera species 1 FG 23

Hemiptera species 2 SW 13

Hemiptera species 3 LT, SW 7

Hemiptera species 4 ML, SW 3

Hemiptera species 5 LT 1

Hemiptera species 6 FG 1

Hemiptera species 7 LT, SW 8

Hemiptera species 8 SW 1

Hemiptera species 9 SW 1

Hemiptera species 10 ML 1

Hemiptera species 11 SW 1

Hemiptera species 12 SW 1

Hemiptera species 13 LT 1

Hemiptera species 14 LT 1

Hemiptera species 15 FG 1

Hemiptera species 16 SW 1

Hemiptera tredecassini Alexander DI 1
 & Moore

Hemiptera canicularis (Harris) DI 2

Hemiptera species 1 ML, SW 3

Hemiptera species 1 FG, LT, SW 6

Hemiptera species 1 BT, SW 5

Hemiptera species 2 SW 1

Hemiptera species 3 FG 1

Hemiptera species 4 FG 1

Hemiptera species 5 DI, LT 2

Hemiptera species 6 SW 2

Hemiptera ornata (Stal) SW 1

Hemiptera species 1 LT, SW 3

Hemiptera heidemanni (Ball) SW 2

Hemiptera brunnea (McAtee) BT, SW 2

Hemiptera uhleri (Ball) SW 1

Hemiptera amyotii Fitch DI, SW 2

Hemiptera species 1 SW 1

Hemiptera chloris (Melichar) SW 1

Hemiptera pruinosa (Say) LT 1

Hemiptera species 1 SW 1

Hemiptera pallidifrontis FG 1
 (Emmons)

Hemiptera binotata (Say) SW 1

Hemiptera carinata (Forster) BT 1

Hemiptera gibberata Ball LT 1

Hemiptera vittata (Fab.) BT, DI, FG, LT, 45
 ML, SW

Hemiptera festinus (Say) DI, FG, LT, SW 58

Hemiptera lutea (Walker) SW 4

Hemiptera species 1 BT, SW 3

Hemiptera reclivata Fitch BT, LT 3

Hemiptera species 1 LT 1

Hemiptera species 2 LT 1

Hemiptera species 3 FG 1

Hemiptera species 4 BT 2

Hemiptera species 1 DI 43

Hemiptera species 2 BT 1

Hemiptera species 3 SW 1

Hemiptera species 4 FG, SW 2

Thysanoptera species 1 ML 1

Thysanoptera species 1 FG 2

Psocoptera species 1 BT, FG, SW 8

Psocoptera species 1 BT, SW 4

Psocoptera species 2 BT, FG, ML 4

Psocoptera species 3 FG 1

Psocoptera species 4 BT 1

Psocoptera species 5 FG 16

Coleoptera subfasciatus SW 2
 (LeConte)

Coleoptera dichrous (Fall) LT 1

Coleoptera gravis (LeConte) FG, LT 3

Coleoptera species 1 FG 1

Coleoptera species 1 LT, SW 2

Coleoptera cornutus (Say) FG 1

Coleoptera rudis (LeConte) DI 4

Coleoptera rugosus (Randall) DI 1

Coleoptera bicornis (Weber) LT 2

Coleoptera species 1 FG 2

Coleoptera minuta (Drury) LT 1

Coleoptera tubulus (Fab.) SW 1

Coleoptera species 3 FG 2

Coleoptera unicolor Say SW 1

Coleoptera rectus Melsheimer SW 13

Coleoptera species 1 LT, SW 5

Coleoptera species 1 SW 2

Coleoptera carolinus (Fab.) LT 1

Coleoptera atratus Newman PF 1

Coleoptera species 1 LT, SW 6

Coleoptera albicrus Dejean LT, PF 8

Coleoptera decorum Say LT 1

Coleoptera errans Say LT 3

Coleoptera melanarium? Dejean PF 1

Coleoptera punctiforme Say LT 2

Coleoptera tenue? LeConte LT, PF 12

Coleoptera subangulata LT 3
 (Chaudoir)

Coleoptera maculatus LeConte LT 1

Coleoptera species 1 LL, LT 334

Coleoptera species 2 LT, PF, SW 122

Coleoptera alternans Dejean DI 2

Coleoptera fumans (Fab.) DI, PF 9

Coleoptera ovipennis LeConte LT, PF 2

Coleoptera viridipennis (Say) FG 2

Coleoptera scrutator Fab. LT 1

Coleoptera erythropus Germar DI, LT, PF 36

Coleoptera impunctifrons Say PF 1

Coleoptera platyderus Chaudoir PF 1

Coleoptera unipunctata Fab. PF 2

Coleoptera americanal Dejean LT 151

Coleoptera bipustulata Fab. LT 75

Coleoptera dentipes Dejean LT 6

Coleoptera impressifrons LeConte LT 13

Coleoptera aerata Dejean DI 2

Coleoptera sigillatus Say PF 2

Coleoptera complanatus Dejean FG, LT 2

Coleoptera limbatus Dejean FG, LT 5

Coleoptera furvus Dejean PF 1

Coleoptera bicolor Drury PF 11

Coleoptera faunas Say LT 2

Coleoptera species 1 LT, PF 4

Coleoptera grandis Hentz LT 4

Coleoptera ornata Say LT, SW 4

Coleoptera viridis Say LT 2

Coleoptera dorsalis Fab. LT 1

Coleoptera species 1 DI, LT 3

Coleoptera flavicauda Say DI 3

Coleoptera coracinus Say PF 4

Coleoptera punctulatus Haldeman PF 1

Coleoptera decent is Say DI 3

Coleoptera lucoblandus PF 1
 lucublandus (Say)

Coleoptera coracinus Newman PF 1

Coleoptera haldemani LeConte PF 7

Coleoptera longicornis Fall PF

Coleoptera species 1 DI, PF 7

Coleoptera opalinus LeConte LT

Coleoptera species 1 LT 2

Coleoptera lecontei Chaudoir LT 9

Coleoptera ochropezus Say BT, LT 101

Coleoptera spretus? Dejean LT

Coleoptera impunctatus Say PF

Coleoptera species 1 LT, ML 115

Coleoptera species 1 DI

Coleoptera pumilus (Newman) LT

Coleoptera parvus (LeConte) FG 2

Coleoptera macula (Say) SW

Coleoptera tigrinus (De Gecr) LT

Coleoptera aspersa (Say) DI

Coleoptera confluens (Haldeman) LT

Coleoptera ruficollis (Fab.) DI

Coleoptera imbricornis (L.) LT

Coleoptera luteicomis (Fab.) DI

Coleoptera deceptus Knull DI

Coleoptera velutinus (Olivier) DI

Coleoptera querci (Fitch) FG

Coleoptera depressus LeConte DI

Coleoptera glabriculus LeConte DI

Coleoptera vittata (Fab.) SW 2

Coleoptera betulae? Schaffer SW

Coleoptera species 2 SW

Coleoptera clypealis (Horn) DI

Coleoptera puncticollis? (Say) LT

Coleoptera quercata (Fab.) DI, SW 12

Coleoptera trifurcata (Forster) SW

Coleoptera pulicaria Melsheimer SW

Coleoptera bicolor (Olivier) DI

Coleoptera brunnea (Fab.) LT

Coleoptera modesta Baly FG, SW 5

Coleoptera undecimpunctata SW 2
 howardi Barber

Coleoptera pilosa (Illiger) SW 1

Coleoptera fragariae Wilcox FG, SW 10

Coleoptera scutellaris (Notman) FG 2

Coleoptera species 1 BT 1

Coleoptera praetexlus (Say) BT, ML 2

Coleoptera rosea (Weber) SW 1

Coleoptera marginalis (Illiger) SW 1

Coleoptera metasternalis FG 1
 (Crotch)

Coleoptera tricolor (Fab.) DI 1

Coleoptera thoracicornis DI 1
 (Ziegler)

Coleoptera creberrimus Mellie DI 2

Coleoptera fuscipes Mellie DI 1

Coleoptera undulata (Say) MN 1

Coleoptera ichneumoneus (Fab.) FG 1

Coleoptera thoracicus (Olivier) FG 1

Coleoptera tripustulata (De DI 1
 Geer)

Coleoptera septempunctata L. SW 1

Coleoptera munda (Say) FG 2

Coleoptera punctatum FG 1
 (Melsheimer)

Coleoptera axyridis (Pallas) DI, FG, ML 90

Coleoptera americanus Mulsant FG 1

Coleoptera kansanus Casey FG 1

Coleoptera species 1 FG 1

Coleoptera cryptus Stephan DI 3

Coleoptera marginalis LT 2
 (Melsheimer)

Coleoptera tachygraphus LT 1
 (Zimmerman)

Coleoptera rubidus LeConte LT 1

Coleoptera texanus Fall LT 1

Coleoptera pusilla (LeConte) DI 1

Coleoptera anaglypticus (Say) LT 1

Coleoptera posticatus Boheman PF 10

Coleoptera minutissimus LeConte FG 2

Coleoptera obliquus (Say) LT 1

Coleoptera iowensis (Casey) FG 2

Coleoptera castaneus (Roelofs) BT, DI, FG, LT, PF, 70
 SW

Coleoptera granicollis (LeConte) LT I

Coleoptera parochus (Herbst) ML 1

Coleoptera angustatus (Herbst) FG, SW 2

Coleoptera sulcifrons Gyllenhal FG 1

Coleoptera dissimilis FG 2
 (Zimmerman)

Coleoptera avulsus (Eichhoff) DI 4

Coleoptera grandicollis DI 5
 (Eichhoff)

Coleoptera mali (Fitch) LT, PF 18

Coleoptera longulus LeConte SW 1

Coleoptera amoenus Say SW 1

Coleoptera species 1 LT 1

Coleoptera species 2 LT 5

Coleoptera saxeseni (Ratzeburg) DI, PF 2

Coleoptera affinis Eichhoff LT 8

Coleoptera atratus Eichhoff DI, LT 5

Coleoptera ferrugineus (Fab.) LT, PF 5

Coleoptera pelliculosus Eichhoff DI, LT 2

Coleoptera crassiusculus LT 1
 (Motschulsky)

Coleoptera species 1 LT 1

Coleoptera politus (Say) DI 1

Coleoptera maculatus DI 1
 (Melsheimer)

Coleoptera fraternus (Harris) DI 2

Coleoptera acuductus (Harris) DI 1

Coleoptera gagates Aube LT 126

Coleoptera inconspicuus LT 1472
 (LeConte)

Coleoptera chevrolati renovatus LT 2
 Guignot

Coleoptera glyphicus (Say) LT 40

Coleoptera longulus lenticus LT 5
 Hilsenhoff

Coleoptera fasciatus fasciatus LT 1
 Aube

Coleoptera undulatus Say LT 52

Coleoptera calidus (Fab.) LT 5

Coleoptera basillaris basillaris LT 6
 (Harris)

Coleoptera militaris (Harris) SW 1

Coleoptera sanguinipennis (Say) SW 1

Coleoptera signaticollis FG 3
 (Melsheimer)

Coleoptera species 1 LT 1

Coleoptera species 1 BT, SW 3

Coleoptera discoidea (Weber) DI 2

Coleoptera impressicollis (Say) LT 1

Coleoptera marmoratus (Fab.) LT 1

Coleoptera basalaris Say SW 4

Coleoptera griseus (Beauvois) LT 3

Coleoptera quercinus (Say) FG, LT, SW 25

Coleoptera americanus (Herbst) LT, SW 4

Coleoptera decumanus (Erichson) LT 19

Coleoptera dietrichi Quate DI 1

Coleoptera difficilis Blatchley LT 1

Coleoptera emissus (LeConte) LT 1

Coleoptera ignobilis LT, SW 2
 (Melsheimer)

Coleoptera indistinctus Quate LT 4

Coleoptera insipiens? (Say) LT 3

Coleoptera miscellus Quate DI 1

Coleoptera morosus Candeze BT 1

Coleoptera spadix (Erichson) LT 1

Coleoptera species 1 BT, FG, LT, SW 46

Coleoptera infuscatus (Germar) LT 3

Coleoptera fascicularis (Fab.) LT 2

Coleoptera unicolor (Ziegler) LT 1

Coleoptera hispidus (Herbst) FG 1

Coleoptera quadripunctatus LT 1
 quadripunctatus
 (Olivier)

Coleoptera fasciata (Fab.) DI 4

Coleoptera unicolor Say LT I

Coleoptera rufipes (Melsheimer) DI 1

Coleoptera lewisi (Fleutiaux) FG 1

Coleoptera badius (Melsheimer) LT 1

Coleoptera species 1 SW 1

Coleoptera obliqua (Say) LT 2

Coleoptera pectinicornis DI 1
 Melsheimer

Coleoptera carolinus LeConte DI, LT 2

Coleoptera dunavani Young LT, SW 2

Coleoptera pusillus (Say) LT 45

Coleoptera floridae Marseul DI 10

Coleoptera nubilus (LeConte) SW 1

Coleoptera foedatus (LeConte) DI 2

Coleoptera bistriatus Erichson DI 1

Coleoptera lecontei Marseul LT 3

Coleoptera exiguus (Say) LT 19

Coleoptera pantherinus LeConte LT 2

Coleoptera species 1 LT 3

Coleoptera diffusus (LeConte) LT 10

Coleoptera ochraceus LT 9
 (Melsheimer)

Coleoptera perplexus (LeConte) LT 7

Coleoptera bifidus (LeConte) LT 49

Coleoptera obtusata (Say) LT 1

Coleoptera soror Smetana LT 3

Coleoptera rufipes Melsheimer LT, PF 630

Coleoptera rugosus Mulsant LT 1

Coleoptera triangularis Say LT 4

Coleoptera collaris striolatus LT 3
 (LeConte)

Coleoptera lateralis nimbatus LT 4
 Say

Coleoptera mixtus (LeConte) LT 1

Coleoptera biguttatus (Say) DI 1

Coleoptera zimmermanni (LeConte) DI 3

Coleoptera atra (Olivier) DI, FG 2

Coleoptera species 1 FG, PF, SW 4

Coleoptera species 1 FG 1

Coleoptera species 1 ML 3

Coleoptera exiguum Melsheimer DI 10

Coleoptera laevis (LeConte) DI 1

Coleoptera basalis (LeConte) DI 25

Coleoptera discolor (Melsheimer) DI 27

Coleoptera simplex Say PF 1

Coleoptera consobrinus (LeConte) PF 2

Coleoptera virescens (Fab.) DI 6

Coleoptera capreolus (L.) LT 1

Coleoptera reticulatum (Fab.) DI, MN 4

Coleoptera terminale (Say) DI 1

Coleoptera trilineatus FG 1
 (Melsheimer)

Coleoptera liturata LeConte LT 2

Coleoptera striata Say DI 1

Coleoptera sericans LeConte DI 1

Coleoptera vaudoueri Mulsant LT 2

Coleoptera punctata Newman LT 4

Coleoptera repandus (Horn) LT 2

Coleoptera americanus Leaeh LT 1

Coleoptera puhescens (Fab.) FG 1

Coleoptera hilar is (Say) MN 1

Coleoptera ambusta (LcConte) LT 1

Coleoptera species 1 PF 1

Coleoptera trifasciata (Say) SW 1

Coleoptera pini Ziegler DI 1

Coleoptera antiquus Melsheimer LT 2

Coleoptera corticinus Erichson DI 8

Coleoptera floralis Erichson LT 2

Coleoptera lugubris Murray DI 1

Coleoptera marginatus Erichson DI 12

Coleoptera sayi Parsons DI 5

Coleoptera niger (Say) LT 1

Coleoptera truncatus (Randall) LT 4

Coleoptera obtusus (Say) LT 3

Coleoptera quadrisignatus (Say) DI 1

Coleoptera sanguinolentus LT 3
 (Olivier)

Coleoptera pallidas (Beauvois) PF 2

Coleoptera sexmaculata Say LT 3

Coleoptera geminata (Say) LL, PF 5

Coleoptera disjunctus (Illiger) DI 3

Coleoptera longipalpus (LeConte) LL, LT 9

Coleoptera species 1 LT 2

Coleoptera species 1 LL 521

Coleoptera species 1 BT, LT, SW 3

Coleoptera canadensis Latreille DI 1

Coleoptera americanus (Laporte) DI 4

Coleoptera nanus Erichson DI 11

Coleoptera bipunctatus (Say) DI I

Coleoptera species 1 PF 1

Coleoptera marginata (Fab.) LT 7

Coleoptera badipes Melsheimer LT 1

Coleoptera bicolor Say PF 1

Coleoptera stercorosus LT 2
 Melsheimer

Coleoptera fattigi Cartwright LT 6

Coleoptera strigatus (Say) LT 11

Coleoptera histeroides Weber DI, LT 4

Coleoptera species 1 PF 2

Coleoptera faretum (Fab.) PF 1

Coleoptera fricator (Fab.) LT 8

Coleoptera minutus (Drury) PF 3

Coleoptera tullius Olivier LT 7

Coleoptera nitida (L.) DI 1

Coleoptera lurida Bland LT 2

Coleoptera gibbosum (Fab.) DI, PF 3

Coleoptera monitor (Fab.) LT 25

Coleoptera fulgida fulgida DI, LT 2
 (Fab.)

Coleoptera blackburnii PF 7
 blackburnii (Fab.)

Coleoptera splendidus (Fab.) DI, PF 3

Coleoptera aphodiodes (Illiger) LT 1

Coleoptera globosus (Say) LT 8

Coleoptera modesta Haldeman SW 1

Coleoptera angustatus (Beauvois) DI 7

Coleoptera hecate (Panzer) PF 8

Coleoptera brevipes (LeConte) LT 1

Coleoptera delata (Horn) LT 5

Coleoptera ephilida (Say) LT 1

Coleoptera forsteri (Burmeister) LT 3

Coleoptera fusca (Frolich) LT 7

Coleoptera hirticula hirticula LT 1
 (Knoch)

Coleoptera kentuckiana Ritcher LT 2

Coleoptera species 1 LT 2

Coleoptera japonica Newman DI, SW 5

Coleoptera perplexus (LeConte) LT, PF 5

Coleoptera georgiana Leng LT 4

Coleoptera intermixta Blatchley LT 5

Coleoptera species 1 LT 9

Coleoptera seticollis (Beauvois) DI 3

Coleoptera padi (L.) FG, LT, ML 46

Coleoptera variabilis (Thunberg) FG, LT, ML, SW 80

Coleoptera discoidens (Say) ML 1

Coleoptera tibialis Guerin LT 1

Coleoptera species 1 LT, PF 21

Coleoptera species 2 LT 1

Coleoptera americana (L.) DI 5

Coleoptera orbicollis Say LT, PF 4

Coleoptera pustulatus Herschel DI, LT 7

Coleoptera inaequale (Fab.) DI 5

Coleoptera noveboracense DI 5
 (Forster)

Coleoptera imbellis (LeConte) DI 4

Coleoptera muticus Sharp DI 4

Coleoptera planatus Germar DI 1

Coleoptera dubius dubius (Fab.) DI 2

Coleoptera species 5 LT 2

Coleoptera species 16 LT 6

Coleoptera species 17 LT 2

Coleoptera species 22 LT 4

Coleoptera species 25 LT 6

Coleoptera species 7 LT 6

Coleoptera species 8 PF 4

Coleoptera species 9 PF 7

Coleoptera species 40 PF 1

Coleoptera speceis 13 PF 1

Coleoptera species 15 BT, SW 3

Coleoptera species 23 PF 1

Coleoptera species 24 LT 2

Coleoptera species 26 LT 55

Coleoptera species 27 LT 68

Coleoptera species 30 PF 2

Coleoptera species 32 LT 2

Colcoptera species 34 LT 1

Coleoptera bicolor (Gravenhorst) LT 2

Coleoptera cinctus (Say) LT 1

Coleoptera pimerianum (LeConte) DI 2

Coleoptera fossator PF 1
 (Gravenhorst)

Coleoptera maculosus DI, PF 6
 (Gravenhorst)

Coleoptera species 1 LT, PF 23

Coleoptera species 1 DI 1

Coleoptera species 1 FG I

Coleoptera species 2 BT 1

Coleoptera confluentus (Say) LT 2

Coleoptera fimbriatus PF 16
 Gravenhorst

Coleoptera pallida (Say) DI 6

Coleoptera hrunneus (Ziegler) LT, PF 3

Coleoptera corticola Say DI 5

Coleoptera calcaratus (Fab.) DI 1

Coleoptera parallelus DI 1
 (Melsheimer)

Coleoptera nigronotata Pic LT 2

Coleoptera fulvipes (Herbst) FG 1

Coleoptera humeralis LeConte LT 1

Coleoptera castaneus (Knoch) DI 1

Coleoptera species 1 FG, LT 3

Coleoptera punctulata FG, LT 2
 (Melsheimer)

Coleoptera laevis (Olivier) DI 1

Coleoptera bicornis (Fab.) DI 8

Coleoptera picilabrum Melsheimer FG, LT 8

Coleoptera crenaium Maklin FG, LT 5

Colcoptera tenuicolle (Say) LT 1

Coleoptera imberbis LeConte DI 5

Coleoptera men talis Horn DI 2

Coleoptera species 1 LT I

Coleoptera aequalis (Say) LT 6

Coleoptera capillaris Say DI 1

Coleoptera monachus (Herbst) DI, PF 6

Coleoptera sordidus LeConte DI 2

Coleoptera cart kalis LT I
 (Melsheimer)

Coleoptera rugosipennis (Horn) FG 5

Neuroptera species 1 DI, FG, LT, ML, SW 6

Neuroptera rastricornis Rambur DI, LT 12

Neuroptera species 1 LT 2

Neuroptera species 1 FG, ML, SW 7

Neuroptera mohri Ross LT 1

Hymenoptera virginiea (L.) DI 1

Hymenoptera mellifera L. DI 1

Hymenoptera coerulans Fab. DI, MN 2

Hymenoptera species 1 MN 1

Hymenoptera species 1 FG, SW 5

Hymenoptera species 1 SW 9

Hymenoptera species 2 BT, SW 3

Hymenoptera fulva Roger DI, FG, PF, SW 112

Hymenoptera lamellidens Mayr BT, PF, SW 122

Hymenoptera rudis (Emery) PF 3

Hymenoptera species 1 FG, PF 9

Hymenoptera tennesseensis (Mayr) FG, PF 19

Hymenoptera texana Wheeler PF, SW 10

Hymenoptera chromaiodes Bolton BT, DI, FG, PF, SW 95

Hymenoptera nearcticus Emery FG 50

Hymenoptera pennsylvanicus (De DI, FG, LT, PF 50
 Geer)

Hymenoptera rasilis Wheeler FG, PF, SW 50

Hymenoptera species 1 DI, LT 3

Hymenoptera species 1 PF 2

Hymenoptera lineolata (Say) BT, FG, SW 15

Hymenoptera species 1 ML 1

Hymenoptera mariae Forel SW 4

Hymenoptera pallidefulva FG, PF, SW 8
 Latreille

Hymenoptera rubicunda Emery FG, PF, SW 14

Hymenoptera schaufussi Mayr MN, PF 6

Hymenoptera species 1 SW 1

Hymenoptera alienus (Forster) PF, SW 3

Hymenoptera umbratus (Nylander) PF 1

Hymenoptera species 1 FG 1

Hymenoptera americana Emery FG, PF 2

Hymenoptera punctiventris Roger FG 3

Hymenoptera melanderi (Wheeler) ML, PF, SW 29

Hymenoptera parvula (Mayr) BT, PF, SW 5

Hymenoptera coarctata (Latreille) PF 3

Hymenoptera species 1 FG, LT 2

Hymenoptera species 1 PF, SW 8

Hymenoptera imparis (Say) FG, PF, SW 253

Hymenoptera sessile (Say) FG, PF, SW 15

Hymenoptera caespitum caespitum PF 1
 (L.)

Hymenoptera auropunetata SW 1
 auropunetata (Roger)

Hymenoptera species 1 DI 1

Hymenoptera species 1 SW 1

Hymenoptera species 1 SW 2

Hymenoptera occidentalis (L.) DI 1

Hymenoptera polyturator (Drury) DI, SW 4

Hymenoptera species 1 LL 5

Hymenoptera bicincta Fab. DI 3

Hymenoptera aureonotata (Cameron) DI, MN 2

Hymenoptera ichneumoneus (L,) DI 1

Hymenoptera lactitarse Saussure MN 1

Hymenoptera species 1 MN 1

Hymenoptera species 1 SW 3

Hymenoptera maculata (L.) DI, MN, SW 6

Hymenoptera annularis (L.) DI 3

Hymenoptera crabro L. DI 1

Hymenoptera maculifrons (Buysson) DI, SW 4

Trichoptera species 1 LT 1

Trichoptera betteni Ross LT 2

Trichoptera inconspicua (Walker) LT 1

Trichoptera species 1 LT 12

Trichoptera shawnee (Ross) LT I

Trichoptera vestita (Walker) LT 1

Trichoptera species 1 LT I

Lepidoptera phalerata (Harris) LT 1

Lepidoptera paekardii (Grote) LT 5

Lepidoptera plumbea Stretch LT 2

Lepidoptera tessellaris (J.E. LT 28
 Smith)

Lepidoptera clymene (Brown) LT 1

Lepidoptera lecontei LT 2
 (Guerin-Meneville)

Lepidoptera fucosa Hubner LT 15

Lepidoptera virginica (Fab.) LT 1

Lepidoptera plexippus (L.) DI 1

Lepidoptera arcuata Walker LT 1

Lepidoptera exigua (Edwards) DI 1

Lepidoptera defectaria (Guenee) LT 4

Lepidoptera crepuscularia (Denis & LT 1
 Schiffermuller)

Lepidoptera pectinaria (Denis & LT 1
 Schiffermuller)

Lepidoptera miserulata Grote LT 1

Lepidoptera unipunctata (Haworth) LT 6

Lepidoptera umbrosaria (Hubner) LT 1

Lepidoptera fervidaria (Hubner) LT 1

Lepidoptera transitaria (Walker) LT 1

Lepidoptera rubrifrontaria FG 1
 (Packard)

Lepidoptera amicaria LT 4
 (Herrich-Schaffer)

Lepidoptera porcelaria (Guenee) LT 1

Lepidoptera limboundata (Haworth) LT I

Lepidoptera campestris DI 1
 (Boisduval)

Lepidoptera clarus (Cramer) MN 2

Lepidoptera juvenalis (Fab.) DI I

Lepidoptera cribraria (Ljungh) LT 5

Lepidoptera americanum (Fab.) LT 1

Lepidoptera distria Hubner LT 4

Lepidoptera fasciola DI 1
 (Herrich-Schaffer)

Lepidoptera stimulea (Clemens) DI 1

Lepidoptera ladon (Cramer) DI 5

Lepidoptera comyntas (Godart) DI 2

Lepidoptera lygdamus (Doubleday) DI 2

Lepidoptera lobeliae Guenee LT 1

Lepidoptera ipsilon (Hufnagel) LT 1

Lepidoptera pyramidoides Guenee DI 2

Lepidoptera ilia (Cramer) DI 2

Lepidoptera lacrymosa Guenee DI 1

Lepidoptera zea (Boddie) LT 1

Lepidoptera americalis (Guenee) FG I

Lepidoptera detrahens (Walker) LT 1

Lepidoptera synochitis (Grote & LT 1
 Robinson)

Lepidoptera semitaria LT 1
 (Franclemont)

Lepidoptera atomaris Hubner LT 1

Lepidoptera scabra (Fab.) LT, SW 5

Lepidoptera hebraeicum Hubner LT 18

Lepidoptera brunneicollis (Grote) LT 1

Lepidoptera ornithogalli (Guenee) MN 1

Lepidoptera bicolorago (Guenee) LT 2

Lepidoptera nigrofimbria (Guenee) LT 1

Lepidoptera drexelii H. Edwards LT 1

Lepidoptera biundata Walker LT 2

Lepidoptera umbrata Walker LT 1

Lepidoptera georgica LT 3
 (Herrich-Schaffer)

Lepidoptera gibbosa (J.E. Smith) LT 6

Lepidoptera coenia (Hubner) MN 3

Lepidoptera arthemis astyanax DI, MN 3
 (Fab.)

Lepidoptera tharos (Drury) MN 6

Lepidoptera cybele (Fab.) DI 1

Lepidoptera atalanta rubria DI 1
 (Fruhstorfer)

Lepidoptera marcellus (Cramer) DI 1

Lepidoptera troilus L. DI 1

Lepidoptera nicippe (Cramer) DI 1

Lepidoptera eurytheme Boisduval DI 1

Lepidoptera lisa (Boisduval & DI 2
 LeConte)

Lepidoptera funeralis (Hubner) LT 1

Lepidoptera olinalis (Guenee) DI, LT 16

Lepidoptera thestialis (Walker) LT 1

Lepidoptera costalis (Fab.) LT 1

Lepidoptera recurvalis (Fab.) LT 1

Lepidoptera luna (L.) DI 1

Lepidoptera stigma (Fab.) LT 6

Lepidoptera to (Fab.) LT 1

Lepidoptera angulifera (Walker) LT 1

Lepidoptera regalis (Fab.) LT 1

Lepidoptera rubicunda (Fab.) LT 42

Lepidoptera gemma (Hubner) DI 4

Lepidoptera anthedon Clark DI, SW 2

Lepidoptera sosybius (Fab.) DI 1

Lepidoptera reticulatana FG 1
 (Clemens)

Mecoptera stigmaterus Say SW 1

Mecoptera debilis Westwood DI 2

Mecoptera nebulosa? Westwood DI, SW 2

Diptera occipitalis Melander SW 1

Diptera species 1 DI, MN, SW 7

Diptera species I DI, MN 5

Diptera species 2 DI 1

Diptera species 1 SW 2

Diptera species 2 SW 1

Diptera gemma Brimley DI, FG 2

Diptera species 1 DI 1

Diptera species 1 DI 3

Diptera species 1 FG, SW 20

Diptera species 1 PF 1

Diptera regina (Meigen) FG, SW 16

Diptera species 1 SW 1

Diptera species 1 SW 1

Diptera species 1 SW 1

Diptera species 1 SW 2

Diptera species 1 FG 1

Diptera species 1 SW 1

Diptera lateralis (Walker) DI 1

Diptera species 1 DI 1

Diptera species 1 DI, SW 8

Diptera species 1 SW 1

Diptera species 1 SW 1

Diptera triseriatus (Say) DI, SW 7

Diptera species 1 DI 1

Diptera rutilus LT 1
 septentrionalis (Dyar
 & Knab)

Diptera species 1 BT, SW 2

Diptera species 1 ML, SW 8

Diptera species 1 FG 1

Diptera species 2 DI 2

Diptera species 1 FG, SW 6

Diptera species 1 DI, FG, PF, SW 44

Diptera tibialis? (Van Duzee) FG, SW 8

Diptera species 1 MN 1

Diptera species 1 PF, SW 2

Diptera species 1 PF,SW 13

Diptera species 1 SW 2

Diptera species 1 BT, MN, PF, SW 22

Diptera species 1 FG,SW 4

Diptera species 1 SW 14

Diptera sicaria Melander BT, DI 2

Diptera species 1 PF, SW 3

Diptera species 1 SW 3

Diptera species 1 FG 1

Diptera species 1 ML 1

Diptera species 1 BT, DI, FG, SW 39

Diptera punetipennis BT, DI, FG, SW 21
 (Wiedemann)

Diptera dupla? Cresson SW 1

Diptera species 1 LL 1

Diptera species 1 SW 1

Diptera astylata Melander FG 1

Diptera species 1 LT, SW 2

Diptera calva (Melander) SW 1

Diptera species 1 SW 3

Diptera species 1 FG 1

Diptera species 1 BT, SW 3

Diptera species 1 SW 2

Diptera species 1 FG, SW 3

Diptera species 1 FG 1

Diptera antennaepes (Say) DI, SW 3

Diptera species 1 ML, SW 2

Diptera species 2 SW 1

Diptera species 1 SW 4

Diptera species 1 FG, ML 2

Diptera species 1 SW 3

Diptera species 1 DI, MN, PF, SW 9

Diptera species 2 SW 1

Diptera flaveola Coquillet SW 1

Diptera species 1 SW 1

Diptera species 1 SW 1

Diptera species 1 ML, PF, SW 3

Diptera sanetaecatharinae SW 1
 Thompson

Diptera species 1 SW 1

Diptera species 1 PF, SW 5

Diptera species 1 PF, SW 9

Diptera species 1 SW 1

Diptera species 1 SW 1

Diptera species 1 SW 1

Diptera irroratus Coquillet DI 1

Diptera dauci (Meigen) DI, PF 8

Diptera hamata Borgmeier SW 1

Diptera species 1 BT, LL, ML, PF, SW 269

Diptera species 1 BT, ML, PF 14

Diptera virginiensis? Malloch PF 9

Diptera excisa? (Becker) SW 1

Diptera lugubris (Meigen) PF,SW 2

Diptera species 1 ML 2

Diptera species 1 SW 2

Diptera species 1 ML, PF, SW 4

Diptera niagarana (Parker) FG 1

Diptera variatum Cook DI 1

Diptera species 1 ML, PF 4

Diptera species 1 LL,ML, PF 25

Diptera species 1 PF 2

Diptera species 1 BT, ML, PF 5

Diptera forceps (Pettey) PF 1

Diptera species 1 DI, MN, PF, SW 8

Diptera species 1 LT, ML 25

Diptera arcuata (Loew) SW 1

Diptera bosci? DI 1
 (Robineau-Desvoidy)

Diptera species 1 SW 4

Diptera fontinalis (Fallen) PF, SW 72

Diptera species 1 PF 13

Diptera species 1 DI 1

Diptera species 1 LT 1

Diptera species 1 FG, MN 3

Diptera species 1 MN, SW 4

Diptera geminatus (Say) SW I

Diptera species 1 MN 2

Diptera species 1 DI 1

Diptera calens L. DI 5

Diptera fulvulus Wiedemann ML, MN 4

Diptera molestus Say MN 1

Diptera pallidescens Philip ML 1

Diptera sulcifrons sulcifrons MN 1
 Macquart

Diptera species 1 MN 1

Diptera aurata DI 1
 Robineau-Desvoidy

Diptera species 1 DI 1

Diptera solatrix? SW 8
 (Osten-Sacken)

Diptera species 1 DI, SW 17

Diptera species 1 LT 1

Diptera species 1 DI, FG, SW 5

* BT = beat sheet; DI = direct collect; FG = canopy fog; LL = leaf
litter; LT = light trap; ML = malaise trap; MN = Manitoba trap;
PF = pitfall trap; and SW = sweep net.


Beat-sheet sampling collected 71 specimens representing six orders. 24 families and 45 species (Fig. 2), and represented 0.54% of all insect specimens (n = 13,162). The greatest numbers of species collected using beat-sheets were in the Coleoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, and Lepidoptera, respectively. A high species to specimen ratio may have resulted from the wide variety of plant species sampled. Most of the hymenopteran species present were Formicidae, which may have been foraging on plants or tending plant-feeding insects. Species evenness for beat-sheet sampling was high (Table 2), and it can be inferred that the specimens sampled in beat sheeting were 85.0% of estimated maximum potential diversity. Although diversity appeared to be high (Table 2), the Shannon index tends to overestimate diversity when there are low numbers of specimens; therefore, the H' may be inflated for this sampling method. There were 15 species (33.3% of all species sampled by this method) captured that were not found by any other sampling method (Table 2).
TABLE 2. Species richness, Shannon diversity, maximum potential
diversity, and evenness value for nine sampling methods, combined and
individually, employed at Sinking Pond, Coffee County, Tennessee,
during 1997 and 1998.

 Trap Number of Single (a) H' (b) [H.sub.max] (c) Evenness
 Species Species

Beat 45 15 3.28 4.85 0.85
Canopy Fog 121 36 3.42 4.93 0.68
Direct 226 161 4.76 5.79 0.92
Leaf Litter 62 44 2.62 4.17 0.67
Light 287 218 3.52 5.70 0.59
Malaise 43 12 3.30 3.80 0.85
Manitoba 30 16 3.22 3.51 0.96
Pitfall 135 65 3.07 4.81 0.65
Sweep 222 100 4.57 5.38 0.81
Overall 877 667 4.98 7.13 0.73

(a) Number of species unique to the specified trapping method.
(b) H' = the Shannon index value.
(c) [H.sub.max] = [H.sub.max] = the maximum potential value of the
Shannon index.


Canopy fogging collected 828 specimens representing 10 orders, 57 families, and 121 species (Fig. 2A-C). The highest numbers of species were in the orders Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera, and Hemiptera. The coleopteran species represented were primarily herbivorous species which may have been feeding on trees, but there were several predatory species as well. Approximately one-half of the Diptera, as adults or larvae, were associated with plants in some state of decay; therefore, these adults may be using the tree canopy as a place for mating and resting. The remaining Diptera were primarily predatory species, while the majority of the hymenopteran species collected were ants. This method collected 6.28% of all insect specimens. Species diversity and evenness for canopy fogging may have been low for the number of species captured by this method (Table 2), because some species were captured on only one sampling date. Fifty-nine species (48.8% of the species) captured by canopy fogging were not found by another sampling method which may be due to the spatial separation of the tree canopy from the other habitats or to a higher degree of habitat specialization in the canopy species. From the data examined, 14 unique families and 36 unique species were identified from the 14 October 1998 fogging sample when compared to the other Sinking Pond fogging samples. Families collected from the overcup oak canopy were significantly different ([[PI].sup.2] = 703.26; SD = 56. P = 0.001) from the families collected in the other fogging samples.

Direct collections obtained 587 specimens representing 11 orders, 108 families, and 226 species (Fig. 2). The highest numbers of species collected were in the orders Coleoptera, Diptera, Lepidoptera, and Hymenoptera, respectively. Coleopterans collected included detritivores, carrion feeders, predators, herbivores, and wood-boring species. Dipteran species collected tended to be the larger, more obvious species, but they represented a variety of niches. The large number of lepidopteran species collected by direct collection may have been influenced by their conspicuous presence. Direct collecting accounted for 4.45% of all insect specimens obtained. Diversity for this sampling method was the highest and evenness the second highest when compared to the eight other methods (Table 2). Direct collections captured 161 species (71.2%) that were not found by any other sampling method, which represents more unique species than were captured by any other sampling methods except light trapping (Table 2). Direct collections were artificially biased, because sampling was conducted to acquire new species, rather than to just randomly accumulate specimens.

Leaf-litter samples consisted of 2989 specimens that were identified. Collembolan populations are often large, as many as 100,000 per [m.sup.3] of soil (Borror et al., 1989). Leaf-litter samples collected seven orders representing 22 families and 62 species (Fig. 2A-C), and represented 22.7% of all specimens. Leaf-litter samples had the lowest diversity score for any of the sampling methods and evenness also was low (Table 2), due to the large amount of variation in numbers of specimens per species. Forty-four species were found to be unique to this sampling method (Table 2). The high proportion of unique species found in the samples may be a result of many of these species spending their entire life cycle in the leaf-litter, and they are not generally collected by other methods. Additionally, many of these species are also sensitive to dessication, especially the soft-bodied Collembola. The composition of leaf litter is dependent on the plant community; therefore, species inhabiting these habitats must be adapted to the type of litter present. Other groups may fly or move into an area although they may not actually require resources from the habitat for the completion of their life cycles. Species in leaf-litter have limited dispersal abilities, so species collected would be inhabitants of the area and not transients moving through the area. As a result, species in the leaf-litter may be potential indicators of the community. One species, Isotomiella minor (Schaffer), was collected on 80% of the 1997 sampling dates with an average of 20.75 specimens per leaf-litter sample. Three species, Lepidocyrtus cinereus Folsom, Mesaphorura yosiii (Rusek), and an Orchesella species, were present on all 1997 leaf-litter collection dates. These may represent species that are well adapted to the particular leaf-litter composition of Sinking Pond. Not enough information is known about these species, such as why they may be common in this habitat, to suggest them as indicator species.

Light trapping collected 4547 specimens from nine orders, 69 families, and 287 species (Fig. 2). This method collected 34.5% of all specimens. The three dominant insect orders by number of species were Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, and Hemiptera. Light trap collections had the highest species richness and the third highest diversity (Table 2). There were 218 species (75.7% of the species) captured by light trapping that were unique to this sampling method (Table 2). The large number of species exclusive to this sampling method were Lepidoptera (61 species) and aquatic beetles (26 species in the families: Dytiscidae, Gyrinidae, Haliplidae, and Hydrophilidae). Specimens of Plecoptera, Trichoptera and Neuroptera also were collected primarily by this method.

The malaise trap collected 103 specimens representing nine orders, 27 families, and 43 species (Fig. 2A-C). This method collected 0.78% of all specimens. This trap captures those insects with the behavior to fly or crawl upward toward the light when confronted with a barrier as opposed to those that drop to the ground. The small number of specimens collected using this sampling method suggests that there were not many insects flying along the edge of the pond. Species associated with the wet edges of ponds are often Diptera, but these species may have stayed close to the moist ground and avoided the suspended trap. Also, the pond was patrolled by odonates for the majority of the sampling season, but they were not captured by this method. The orders represented by the largest number of species were Diptera, Hemiptera, and Coleoptera. Dipterans may have represented the majority of the species collected because the trap was placed near the moist edge of the pond with sparse vegetation. As such, most of the dipteran species collected are generally associated with decay and fungus, although two tabanid species were collected. Because traps were generally placed in areas of sparse vegetation, the hemipteran species may have been collected as they moved into a new area to feed. A high diversity can be inferred from diversity and evenness values (Table 2), but the Shannon index tends to be biased when there are a small number of specimens. Therefore, diversity of malaise traps may be overestimated. The malaise trap collected 12 species not obtained by any other sampling method (Table 2).

The Manitoba trap collected 51 specimens representing six orders, 21 families, and 30 species (Fig. 2). The three orders with the highest number of species were Diptera, Hymenoptera, and Lepidoptera. Although Diptera was represented by the largest number of species, only three were Tabanidae. This trap type is intended to be placed in an open, sunny area to heat the black plastic, which serves as an attractant for Tabanidae and other blood-feeding insects. In Sinking Pond, no area receives sunlight continuously throughout the day; therefore, the effectiveness of the trap was reduced. This method collected 0.39% of all insect specimens. Manitoba trapping produced the third lowest diversity among sampling types but yielded the highest evenness, as each species was represented by a similar number of specimens (six or fewer) (Table 2). The Manitoba trapping collected 16 species that were not found by any other sampling method (Table 2). A large number of non-blood feeding species were collected by the Manitoba trap.

Pitfall traps collected 3133 specimens representing seven orders, 37 families, and 135 species (Fig. 2). The orders represented by the largest number of species were Coleoptera, Diptera, and Hymenoptera, respectively. The Coleoptera were represented by a large number of species in the families Carabidae, Staphylinidae, and Scarabaeidae, which are generally associated with ground level habitats. The carabids and staphylinids are a major component of the predatory ground fauna, while the scarab beetles tend to feed on foliage, detritus, and dung. A large number of dipteran species are associated with moisture and decay at the ground level, as demonstrated by the large number of species captured. The Hymenoptera were represented by a large number of ant species that tend to live and forage on the ground. This method collected 23.8% of all insect specimens. The large number of species collected combined with low abundance of most species and high abundance of a few species resulted in an intermediate diversity value and low evenness of pitfall trap samples (Table 2). Pitfall traps collected 65 species that were not found by any other sampling method (Table 2). Species unique to pitfall traps may represent groups that are poor fliers, not attracted to lights, and not generally found on vegetation. Species exhibiting these behaviors would not usually be sampled by the other methods especially in the wettest areas sampled by the pitfall traps. Because some traps were located close to the edge of the water, it is possible that a small flooding event could have washed some of these specimens out of or into the cup. In the pitfall traps, only a few species occurred on greater than 10% of the sampling dates; therefore, no species was considered an indicator species.

Sweep nets captured 853 specimens representing 11 orders, 83 families and 222 species (Fig. 2). Hemiptera and Diptera were the most commonly collected orders using sweep-net samples. Sweep-net sampling yielded the second highest diversity and intermediate evenness among sampling methods (Table 2). Using sweep netting, some species occurred on greater than 20% of the sampling dates. An unidentified wasp species in the family Diapriidae represented the most consistently collected species occurring on 21.2% of the sampling dates and averaged 0.27 specimens captured each sampling date.

Insect Species of Interest--No Tennessee listed or federally listed RTE insects were collected and identified from Sinking Pond; however, four species were on the RTE species lists of one or more neighboring states. Glaucopsyche lygdamus Doubleday and Speyeria cybele Fab. were identified from Sinking Pond, and Cicindela unipunctata Fab. is listed in Alabama as "S?", meaning its status is unknown at this time. Enodia anthedon Clark was listed in Alabama as "SR," referring to its having been reported from the state, but without persuasive documentation. Glaucopsyche lygdamus Doubleday was listed in Alabama as "SU," inferring that it is possibly in peril, but its status is uncertain. In North Carolina, this species is listed as S2S3, meaning it is either imperiled in the state due to rarity or it is rare to uncommon. For example, Speyeria cybele Fab. was indicated as "SU" in Alabama; however, this species is widely distributed in eastern Tennessee.

Disjunct Species One collected species, Apteromechus texanus Fall, has been recorded as a subtropical species (Whitehead, 1979). This collection places it northeast of its recorded geographical range previously listed as Arkansas and Texas (O'Brien and Wibmer, 1982). Several beetle species were collected with recorded distributions outside of the southeastern U.S. (Downie and Arnett, 1995). An elaterid, Ctenicera signaticollis (Melsheimer), previously recorded from Indiana and Alabama, and an eucnemid, Dirrhagofarsus lewisi (Fleutiaux), listed from Maryland and Georgia, were identified. A scirtid, Cyphon padi (L.), associated with swamps and bogs in Ontario, Pennsylvania, Indiana, Florida, and Washington was identified. A histerid beetle, Atholus nubilus (LeConte), was collected that had been reported from Indiana, Iowa, and Kansas. Two hydrophilid species collected were reported from the northern U.S. and southern Canada. Enochrous diffusus (LeConte) was listed as far south as New York, and Hydrochara obtusata (Say) was listed with a similar distribution, but slightly farther south into Indiana, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. Also, two staphylinid species, Homaeotarsus pimerianus (LeConte) reported from Indiana, Texas, Arizona, California, and Iowa, and Sunius confluentus (Say) reported from Quebec, Connecticut, New York, Indiana, and Minnesota, were collected. In addition, two tenebrionids were reported with northern distributions. These included Haplandrus fulvipes (Herbst) reported from Connecticut, Indiana, and New York, and Idiobates castaneous (Knoch) that had been previously recorded from New York, Indiana, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia (Wiggins et al., 2007). Other species of interest included the lepidopteran species, Fulgoraecia exigua (Edwards) (an external parasitoid of planthoppers) and Dolichomia olinalis (Guenee), an uncommonly collected species that feeds on oaks (Covell, 1984). The dipteran, Pseudosciara forceps (Pettey), had only been previously recorded from Florida (Stephan, 1981).

CONCLUSIONS

This research project resulted in the compilation of a list of insect species associated with Sinking Pond and development of a database of insect information that can be used in future studies. Species diversity, the ecological significance of select species, and potential indicator species at Sinking Pond were assessed. Collection of some insect species, such as the trichopteran Wormaldia shawnee, represented new state records (Wiggins et al., 2001). From the nine sampling techniques used, 13,162 insect specimens were collected representing 19 orders. Insect diversity for combined methods was higher than any sampling method. Therefore, using a combination of collection techniques collected a greater diversity of insects and provided a more complete assessment of the insect community than individual collection methods, which obtained fewer than 300 species each, whereas the combined collection methods amassed 877 different species identified. Of those species identified, 376 were represented by the collection of a single specimen. In addition, each method captured a number of species not sampled by other methods. Therefore, the use of multiple sampling methods was an asset during the effort to collect a representative sample of the Sinking Pond community.

Direct collecting and sweep-netting both collected a similar number of species. Light trapping collected the largest proportion of species not sampled by other methods, although some of these species may have been attracted from other habitats surrounding Sinking Pond. Light trapping also collected numerous aquatic specimens which were not collected by other methods. The number of species collected unique to each sampling method ranged from 12 (malaise trapping) to 218 (light trapping). Differences in the species collected by each sampling method contributed to a more complete picture of the insect community at Sinking Pond.

At least 13 species collected at Sinking Pond were known to be introduced. These included five beetle species [Cyrtepistomus castaneus (Roelofs) (Asiatic oak weevil), Demotina modestus Baly, Coccinella septempunctata L. (seven-spotted lady beetle), Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Asian multicolored lady beetle), and Popillia japonica Newman (Japanese beetle)], and two hymenopterans [Tertramorium caespitum (L.) (the pavement ant) and Wasmannia auropunctata (Roger) (the little fire ant)]. Four of these species may adversely affect Sinking Pond. Cyrtepistomus castaneus, which feeds on oak foliage as an adult, was widely distributed at Sinking Pond and was collected by six sampling methods (beat sheeting, direct collecting, fogging, light trapping, pit-fall trapping, and sweep-netting). This species has been recorded to reach pest status on oaks. Harmonia axyridis was collected by three sampling methods (canopy fogging, direct collecting, and malaise trapping). Although H. axyridis was imported as a biological control agent, it is considered a household pest when it overwinters in homes and buildings (Potter et al., 1998). Harmonia axyridis could potentially affect the Sinking Pond community by disrupting the natural proportions of the predator populations. Although immature P. japonica are noted as a pest of lawns and grasses, adults feed on more than 300 plant species; thus, adults could injure plants if large populations become established in Sinking Pond. Wasmannia auropunctata, a neo-tropical species that tends plant-feeding insects that secrete honeydew, was associated with reduced species richness in tree canopies in New Caledonia, where it is also an exotic species (Guilbert et al., 1994). Although only one specimen was collected at Sinking Pond, it may still warrant observation. If future studies are conducted in this area, it may be beneficial to look at the effects of this species.

Twelve potentially disjunct species were collected. The occurrence of species such as Apteromechus texanus Fall and Pseudosciara forceps (Pettey), which both have ranges recorded as more southern, suggests that the area of Sinking Pond may be conducive to their survival outside of their native range. Conversely, disjunct species present at Sinking Pond may represent unusual genotypes that have the ability to survive outside of their established habitat range. As such, Sinking Pond may be important in maintaining these potentially unusual genotypes that would be sensitive to changes in the habitat. Therefore, these species may be good indicators of the current state of Sinking Pond and may be useful in evaluating future changes to this area. Information on their criteria for survival outside of their range or how Sinking Pond facilitates their survival would be beneficial.

The uniqueness of Sinking Pond stems primarily from its unique plant community and the nature of its flooding regime. The database of insects collected at Sinking Pond compiled in this study could be cross referenced with Geographical Information Systems data to verify the presence of species, estimate the population density, and evaluate community structure. Blackmore (1996) stated that "... all countries stand to benefit from global biodiversity information systems comprising distributed, but interconnected, databases." This information could be used for comparison with similar areas to determine where differences occur, to gauge the effects of human activities, or to note other future changes in and around the Sinking Pond area. For example, populations of gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), are expected to become established in Tennessee in the coming decade. Thus, the Sinking Pond area, which is populated with many oaks that are the primary host of gypsy moth, could be severely impacted by this introduced pest. These baseline data on the insect communities at Sinking Pond will be necessary to gauge the overall impact of gypsy moth, or any other introduced species, on the community structure of Sinking Pond.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We are grateful to S. Layman, T. Simpson, M. Singer, and the staff of [CH.sub.2]M Hill (Atlanta, Georgia) and Arnold Air Force Base, Tennessee (AAFB), for providing financial support and assisting in the administration of this project; to D. Bynum and M. Moran at ACS; and to G. Call, P. Jackson (AEDC), J. Lamb (ACS), and the personnel at AAFB, for providing assistance in the selection and maintenance of the study site.

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J. VLACH, P. LAMBDIN, C. DILLING, J. GRANT, D. PAULSEN, AND G. WIGGINS

Oregon Department of Agriculture, Salem, OR 97301-2532 (JV) Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-4560 (PL, CD, JG, DP, and GW)
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Author:Vlach, J.; Lambdin, P.; Dilling, C.; Grant, J.; Paulsen, D.; Wiggins, G.
Publication:Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:1U6TN
Date:Sep 1, 2010
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