Printer Friendly

Diversity of cicadomorpha (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha) in citrus orchards in Northeastern Argentina.

The citrus (Sapindales: Rutaceae) industry is the most economically important activity in the world fruit market. The major producers of citrus are Brazil, China and the United States. Argentina ranks ninth and its geographical position has allowed the country to become a supplier of fresh citrus fruit during the boreal summer. Citrus orchards are located in 2 regions: Northwest (NOA) (Jujuy, Salta, Catamarca and Tucuman provinces) and Northeast (NEA) (Entre Rios, Corrientes and Misiones provinces). The species grown mainly in NEA are sweet orange (Citrus x sinensis (L.) Osbeck) and tangerine (Citrus unshiu Marc) trees, which constitute 90% of agricultural production in this region (Segovia 2003; FEDERCITRUS 2011).

Among the most biodiverse lineages of phytophagous insects, the hemipteran infraorder Cicadomorpha comprises the superfamilies Cicadoidea (cicadas), Cercopoidea (spittlebugs and froghoppers) and Membracoidea (leafhoppers and treehoppers). To date, approximately 30,000 cicadomorphan species have been described worldwide (Dietrich 2002; Cryan 2005).

These insects have received much attention because of their economic importance. They can damage crops by sucking plant sap and transmitting plant disease organisms such as viruses, mollicutes and bacteria (Nielson 1968; Purcell 1985).

The causal agent of Citrus Stubborn Disease (CSD) is Spiroplasma citri, a phloem-limited mollicute that infects most citrus species as well as a wide range of non-rutaceous plant species. It is distributed in the United States, Northern Africa, the Mediterranean countries and Southeast Asia. CSD is naturally transmitted by leafhopper vectors such as Circulifer tenellus Baker and species of genus Scaphytopius Ball in the United States (Nejat et al. 2011).

Xylella fastidiosa Wells et al. 1987, is a xylem-limited bacterium that cause diseases such as 'Pierce's Disease' in grape (Vitis vinifera L.), 'Phony Peach Disease', 'Citrus Variegated Chlorosis' (CVC), and 'Leaf Scorch' in coffee, oleander, mulberry, oak, and maple, among others (Hopkins & Purcell 2002). It has a wider distribution in the Americas, from the United States to Argentina. Insect dissemination of X. fastidiosa is possible by vector insects belonging to the families Cicadellidae (leafhoppers) and Cercopidae (spittlebugs) (Redak et al. 2004). Recently species of Membracidae (treehoppers) have also tested DNA positive for X. fastidiosa in oaks (Zhang et al. 2011).

In citrus orchards, X. fastidiosa causes 'Citrus Variegated Chlorosis' (CVC), which was detected in northeastern Argentina in 1984 and in Brazil 3 yr later (Hopkins & Purcell 2002). This disease is considered a potential threat to the production of oranges, if a suitable vector is present (Damsteegt et al. 2006). In total, 11 species of leafhoppers have been shown to be vectors of CVC in Brazil (Lopes 1996; Gravena et al. 1998; Parra et al. 2003).

In Argentina, studies conducted by De Coll et al. (1996, 2000) in Misiones province revealed that many species of cicadomorphs were able to acquire X. fastidiosa, including leafhoppers: Bucephalogonia xanthophis (Berg), Diedrocephala bimaculata (Gmelin), Hortensia similis (Walker) Macugonalia cavifrons (Stal), Sibovia sagata (Signoret), Sonesimia grossa (Signoret), Frequenamia spiniventris (Linnavuori), Scaphytopius bolivianus (Oman), Curtara samera De Long & Freytag; and treehoppers: Ceresa ustulata Fairmaire, Entylia carinata (Forster). CVC was also observed in Corrientes province, where species associated with citrus were studied (Beltran et al. 2004). In the last decade, CVC has been recorded in Concordia department, Entre Rios province (Costa et al. 2009) in sweet orange and tangerine, but the insects associated with the affected orchards have not yet been studied.

Considering the importance of these insects for the transmission of X. fastidiosa and other plant pathogens, the aim of this work was to study the diversity of Cicadomorpha associated with citrus orchards in Entre Rios province, Argentina, and their seasonal fluctuation in relation with climatic and phenological conditions.

The knowledge of cicadomorph species composition in citrus orchards and their abundance in the community are essential for integrated pest management, and can be used to predict situations that favor population peaks of these insects.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Study Sites and Record of Climatic and Phenological Conditions

The study was conducted at the Agricultural Experimental Station of INTA, in Concordia department, Entre Rios, Argentina (S 31[degrees] 22' 27" W 58[degrees] 06' 59"; 46 m asl). Two orchards were chosen as study sites: sweet orange, variety 'Valencia Late', grafted onto trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliate (L.) Raff.), planted at 7 x 3.5 m row spacing, which were 25 yr-old at the beginning of the experiment (779 trees); and tangerine orchard, variety 'Satsuma Okitsu' (Citrus unshiu Marc), grafted onto trifoliate orange, planted at 5 x 2 m row spacing, 12 yr-old at the beginning of the experiment (200 trees).

Between 2006 and 2009, the phenological stages of sweet orange plants were recorded monthly as follows: F1 (early sprouts), F2 (elongating shoots, small leaves), F3 (elongated shoots, leaves completing expansion), F4 (leaves reaching final size), and F5 (no new shoots, twigs and leaves predominantly adult). Meteorological data were collected by the weather station located in the Agricultural Experimental Station of INTA, in Concordia, Entre Rios.

Sampling Method and Specimen Identification

The specimens were collected with yellow sticky traps, measuring 12.5 x 10 cm, installed at 1.5 m height. Four traps were installed in the orange orchard, and in the tangerine orchard 2 traps (1 trap per 100 plants, approximately) (Felippe et al. 2006); traps were replaced every 2 wk between Oct 2006 and Jan 2009. The specimens collected from sticky traps were removed using benzene to dissolve the glue and separately placed in plastic tubes with 70% alcohol.

Taxonomic terminology for the Cicadomorpha at the family and subfamily levels followed Remes Lenicov et al. (1999) and Dietrich (2005). Species identifications were based on literature available for identifying leafhoppers: Lawson (1931), Christensen (1942), Linnavuori (1959), Nielson (1968), De Long & Freytag (1976), and Young (1952, 1968, 1977); treehoppers: Barreira & Sakakibara (2001) and Andrade (2004a, 2004b), and spittle bugs: Torres (1950) and Costa & Sakakibara (2002). The collected specimens were deposited in the Entomological Collection of Museo de La Plata, Argentina (MLP). Material that was damaged by removal from the traps could not be identified.

The geographic distribution for each identified species was taken from the literature and summarized in a table, along with the new information provided by this work.

Data Analysis

The Cicadomorpha samples were identified to the subfamily and species level and counted under a stereo microscope. Total numbers of collected individuals (N) and species (S) were recorded monthly.

The relative importance (RI) of a species takes into account not only its abundance but also its occurrence or frequency. Thus, species poorly represented in terms of individual numbers but frequently recovered over a long period can be balanced with abundant species with sporadic occurrence (Remes Lenicov & Virla 1993; Murua et al. 2006). For each sampled site the relative importance of species was determined using the formula: RI = ([n.sub.i]/[n.sub.t]) x ([m.sub.i]/[m.sub.t]) x 100, where [n.sub.i] = number of individuals of species "i", [n.sub.t] = number of individuals of all species, [m.sub.i] = number of samples containing species "i", and [m.sub.t] = total number of samples. A "very frequent" species is defined as having a RI equal to or higher than 1%, the RI of "frequent" species lies between 0.02% and 0.99%; and "rare or occasional" species have a RI equal to or lower than 0.019% (Paradell et al. 2001).

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

Community or habitat diversity, can be measured by methods that consider only the number of species (Margalef's index), or methods that highlight the structure of the community considering both the number of species and their relative importance. Such methods may highlight the dominance of a few species (Simpson's index), or else the degree of evenness among the whole set of species (Shannon-Wiener's index). The specific richness index of Margalef ([D.sub.Mg]), the Shannon-Wiener index (H'), and the dominance index of Simpson (D) were calculated as follows: H' = -[summation][p.sub.i] x log2[p.sub.i]; D = 1-[summation] [([p.sub.i]).sup.2]; [D.sub.Mg] = S-1/LnN; where [p.sub.i] = [n.sub.i]/N, [n.sub.i] = number of individuals of species "i", N = number of individuals of all species, and S = number of species (Moreno 2001).

[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]

Seasonal fluctuation of Cicadomorpha in sweet orange orchards was evaluated through monthly values of collected individuals and analyzed with respect to climatic and phenological variables.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

A total of 1,554 specimens were collected (1,068 on sweet orange and 486 in tangerine plants) belonging to 4 families of Cicadomorpha, of which Cicadellidae was the most abundant in both orchards, followed by Membracidae. Other studies in citrus have shown similar results in terms of higher abundance of Cicadellidae (De Coll et al. 2006; Giustolin et al. 2009). Of all collected specimens, 95.56% (1,485 specimens) were identified and used in further analysis (Table 1).

The number of collected specimens varied between samples (Fig. 1). The highest number was obtained in Jan 2007 (N = 149) and the lowest number in Jun 2007 (N = 3).

In total, 28 species of Cicadomorpha were collected. Of these, 24 species were found in the orange orchard, while 20 species were collected in tangerine trees, and 16 were shared by both study sites. Cicadellidae presented the highest species richness in both orchards (Table 1).

Species composition also varied between different months. The highest value of species richness was recorded in Jan and Dec 2007, and Apr 2008 for the orange orchard (S = 8) and only in Dec 2007 for tangerines (S = 10). The lowest species richness was recorded in May 2007 in both orchards (S = 1) (Fig. 1).

Frequenamia spiniventris was the most abundant species in all samples with 773 specimens, followed by the leafhoppers S. bolivianus (251 specimens), Molomea lineiceps Young (136), Tapajosa rubromarginata Signoret (74), and the treehoppers Cyphonia sp. with 66 specimens. All other species comprised less than 60 collected specimens (Table 2). Other studies conducted in Argentina have shown similar results, although F. spiniventris was more abundant in weeds associated with citrus (Beltran et al. 2004; De Coll et al. 2006).

Frequenamia spiniventris was also the most frequent species in all samples, followed by S. bolivianus and M. lineiceps. The species T. rubromarginata had not been previously reported in citrus, whereas in this study it was very frequent in the tangerine orchard and frequent in oranges, similarly to Cyphonia sp. (Table 2).

Other frequent species in the sweet orange orchard were Osbornellus infuscatus Linnavuori, Curtara samera (De Long & Freytag), Ceresa sp., Agalliana ensigera Oman, Protalebrella brasiliensis Young, and Xerophloea viridis (Fabricius). The first 3 were also frequent in tangerine, along with Cephisus siccifolius (Walker), B. xanthophis and D. bimaculata (Table 2). The remaining species were rare or occasional in both orchards. Similar results have been obtained by studies in Brazil (Molina et al. 2006; Nunes et al. 2007; Menegatti et al. 2008; Miranda et al. 2009; Molina et al. 2010), where Dilobopterus costalimai Young was the dominant species; but other research has shown B. xanthophis as the most abundant and frequent species on citrus (Yamamoto et al. 2001; 2002; Coelho et al. 2008).

Both orchards presented high species richness with [D.sub.Mg] = 3.312 for sweet orange, and [D.sub.Mg] = 3.113 for tangerine. For the diversity analysis we used the Shannon-Wiener index and the Simpson dominance index. The results obtained for the Shannon index in the orange (H' = 1.6) and tangerine orchards (H' = 1.8) suggested a similar trend in the distribution of dominant species. This was also reflected by the Simpson index with D = 0.342 for orange and D = 0.261 for tangerine) (Table 3).

In sweet orange orchards, Cicadomorpha presented 2 population increases throughout the sample: 1 in the summer, between the months of Dec and Feb; and another in the winter (Jul-Aug). Results also showed that temperature increases (spring and summer) were coincident with increases in abundance of specimens. On the other hand, a significant increase in the number of specimens during winter months was coincident with the increases of early sprouts (phenological stage F1) of the citrus plants (Fig. 2).

Most Cicadomorpha tend to be extremely polyphagous and range widely within a number of agricultural and native plant communities (Re dak et al. 2004; Giustolin et al. 2009). Citrus are not primary but occasional hosts for them, while other alternative host plants are also important for the development of the different cicadomorphan species (Milanez et al. 2001). This may explain why the number of collected insects was so low in some months during the sampling. These studies require further analysis, since species with a wide range of host plants will exhibit low seasonality (Novotny 1998).

Following a literature review, all known information on geographic distribution of the species found in this study and their associations with citrus was summarized in Table 4. Entre Rios province was cited as a new distribution record for the following species: A. ensigera, Atanus serricauda (Linnavuori), B. xanthophis, C. siccifolius, C. samera, D. bimaculata, F. spiniventris, M. cavifrons, O. infuscatus, S. bolivianus, S. sagata, S. grossa, and X. viridis.

Tangerine represents a new record as host-plant for all species studied here, while the occurrence of A. ensigera, A. serricauda, Dalbulus maidis (De Long & Wolcott), O. infuscatus, P. brasiliensis, T. rubromarginata, Tretogonia notatifrons Melichar, and X. viridis in Valencia Late Orange is reported for the first time (Table 4).

The present work, along with research conducted by De Coll (1996, 2000, 2006), Remes Lenicov et al. (1999) and Paradell et al. (2000), gathers all information about diversity, frequency and seasonal fluctuation of Hemiptera Cicadomorpha associated with citrus orchards in Argentina. This knowledge is essential for the control of the vectors of one of the most important diseases of citrus in America.

Caption: Fig. 1. Seasonal abundance and species richness of Cicadomorpha on sweet orange and tangerine orchards in Entre Rios during 2006-2009.

Caption: Fig. 2. Relationships between climatic and phenological conditions and seasonal abundance of Cicadomorpha on sweet orange orchards in Entre Rios during 2006-2009.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We thank the reviewers for helpful comments, and Dr. A. Macia (MLP) and D.A. Barrasso for critically reading the manuscript. This research was supported by CONICET, CIC, and grant No 630 from UNLP.

REFERENCES CITED

ANDRADE, G. S. 2004a. Uma nova especie do genero Cyphonia Laporte (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Membracidae). Rev. Brasileira Zool. 21(1): 13-14.

ANDRADE, G. S. 2004b. As especies do genero Ceresa Amyot & Serville (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Membracidae). Rev. Brasileira Zool. 21 (4): 671-738.

BARREIRA, R. L., AND SAKAKIBARA, A. M. 2001. Duas species novas de Cyphonia Laporte da regiao central do Brasil (Homoptera, Membracidae, Smiliinae). Rev. Brasileira Zool. 18(1): 239-244

BELTRAN, V. M., CACERES, S., ZUBRZYCKI, H., PLOPER, D., WILLINK, E., AND JALDO, H. 2004. CVC associated vectors in Valencia Orange of Corrientes, Argentina. Proc. Intl. Soc. Citriculture, 10th Intl. Citrus Congress 75-83.

CATALANO, M. I. 2011. Cicadelidos vectores de fitoplasmas a cultivos de importancia economica en la Argentina. Sistematica y bioecologia (Insecta- Auchenorrhyncha-Cicadellidae). PhD Thesis. UNLP. 134 pp. Available online http://sedici.unlp.edu.ar/ bitstream/handle/10915/5330/Documento_completo. pdf?sequence=1

CHRISTENSEN, J. R. 1942. Nota sobre Agalliana ensigera Oman (Homoptera). Notas del Museo de La Plata VII. 55: 27-38.

COELHO, J. H. C., XIMENES, N. L., FELIPPE, M. R., MONTESINO, L. H., GARBIM, L. F., SANCHES, A. L., DALLA PRIA, W. J., AND YAMAMOTO, P. T. 2008. Faunistic Analysis of Sharpshooters (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha, Cicadellidae) in a 'Westin' Sweet Orange Orchard. Neotropical Entomol. 37(4): 449-456.

COSTA, A. C. F., AND SAKAKIBARA, A. M. 2002. Reestrturacao do genero Deois Fennah; descrcao de um novo genero e de novas species (Homoptera, Cercopidae, Tomaspidinae). Rev. Brasileira Entomol. 46(2): 195-207.

COSTA, N., PLATA, M. I., GARRAN, S. M., AND MIKA, R. 2009. Deteccion de Clorosis Variegada de los Citricos (CVC) en el Departamento de Concordia, provincia de Entre Rios. XIII Jornadas Fitosanitarias Argen tinas E021.

CRYAN, J. R. 2005. Molecular phylogeny of Cicadomorpha (Insecta: Hemiptera: Cicadoidea, Cercopoidea and Membracoidea): adding evidence to the controversy. Syst. Entomol. 30: 563-574.

DAMSTEEGT, V. D., BRLANSKY, R. H., PHILLIPS, P. A., and Roy, A. 2006. Transmission of Xylella fastidiosa, causal agent of Citrus Variegated Chlorosis, by the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca coagulata. Plant Dis. 90: 567-570.

DE COLL, O. R. 1996. Estudio sistematico y bioecologico de Homopteros Cicadelidos, potenciales vectores de la "Clorosis Variegada de los Citricos". PhD Thesis. UNLP. 268 pp.

DE COLL, O. R., REMES LENICOV, A. M. M., AGOSTINI, J., AND PARADELL, S. 2000. Detection of Xylella fastidiosa in weeds and sharpshooters in orange groves affected with Citrus Variegated Chlorosis in Misiones, Argentina, pp. 216-222 In Proc. 14th Conf. Intl. Org. Citrus Virologists, Insect-Transmitted Procaryotes.

DE COLL, O. R., REMES LENICOV, A. M. M., PARADELL, S., AND AGOSTINI, J. 2006. Comportamiento poblacional de chicharritas (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha) presentes en el Departamento Montecarlo, Misiones. EEA Montecarlo Publ. No 6: 1-17.

DELLAPE, G., LOGARZO, G. A., VIRLA, E. G., AND PARADELL S. L. 2011. New records on the geographical distribution of South American Sharpshooters (Cicadellidae: Cicadellinae: Proconiini) and their potential as vectors of Xylella fastidiosa. Florida Entomol. 94(2): 364-366.

DE LONG, D. M., AND FREYTAG, P. H. 1976. Studies of the world Gyponinae (Homoptera-Cicadellidae). A synopsis of the genus Curtara. Brenesia 7: 1-97.

DIETRICH, C. H. 2002. Evolution of Cicadomorpha (Insecta, Hemiptera). Denisia. 4: 155-170.

DIETRICH, C. H. 2005. Keys to the families of Cicadomorpha and subfamilies and tribes of Cicadellidae (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha). Florida Entomol. 88(4): 502-517.

FEDERCITRUS. 2011. The Argentine Citrus Industry. Available online: http://www.federcitrus.org/actividad-citricola-2011.pdf

FELIPPE, M. R., UEHARA-CARMO, A., RUGNO, G. R., COELHO, J. H., XIMENES, N. L., GARBIN, L. F., AND YAMAMOTO, P. T. 2006. Influencia de las armadilhas adesivas amarelas na fluctuacao populacional de insetos vetores da CVC e HLB (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae e Psyllidae) na bordure e area central de pomar citrico. Huanglongbing Greening Wkshp. Intl. 100.

GIMENEZ PECCI, M. P., LAGUNA, I. G., AVILA, A. O., REMES LENICOV, A. M. M., VIRLA, E. G., BORGOGNO, C., NOME, C. F., AND PARADELL, S. L. 2002. Difusion del Corn Stunt Spiroplasma del maiz (Spiroplasma kunkelii) y el vector (Dalbulus maidis) en la Argentina. Rev. Fac. Agronom. 105 (1): 1-8.

GIUSTOLIN, T. A., LOPES, J. R. S., QUERINO, R. B., CAVICHIOLI, R. R., ZANOL, K., AZEVEDO FILHO, W. S., AND MENDES, M. A. 2009. Diversidade de Hemiptera Auchenorrhyncha em Citros, Cafe e Fragmento de Floresta Nativa do Estado de Sao Paulo. Neotropical Entomol. 38(6): 834-841.

Gravena, S., Lopes, J. R. S., Paiva, p. E. B., Yamamoto, P. T., and Roberto, S. R. 1998. The Xylella fastidiosa vetors, pp. 36-53 In L. C. Donadio and C. S. Moreira [eds.], Citrus Variegated Chlorosis. Bebedouro, Estacao Experimental de Citricultura.

HOPKINS, D. L., AND PURCELL, A. H. 2002. Xylella fastidiosa: Cause of Pierce's disease of grapevine and others emergent diseases. Plant Dis. 86: 1056-1066.

LAWSON, P. B. 1931. The Genus Xerophloea in North America (Homoptera, Cicadellidae). The Pan-Pacific Entomol. 7(4): 159-169.

LINNAVUORI, R. 1959. Revision of the Neotropical Deltocephalinae and some related subfamilies (Homoptera). Ann. Zool. Soc. 'Vanamo' 20 (1): 1-370.

LOPES, J. R. S. 1996. Mecanismo de transmissao de Xylella fastidiosa por cigarrinhas. Laranja 17: 79-92.

MENEGATTI, A. C. O., GARCIA, F. R. M., AND SAVARIS, M. 2008. Analise faunistica e flutuacao populacional de cigarrinhas (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) em pomar citrico no municipio de Chapeco, Santa Catarina. Biotemas 21(1): 53-58.

MILANEZ, J. M., PARRA, J. R. P., AND MAGRI, D. C. 2001. Alternation of host plants as a survival mechanism of leafhoppers Dilobopterus costalimai and Oncometopia facialis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), vectors of the citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC). Sci. Agric. 58(4): 699-702.

MIRANDA, M. P., LOPES, J. R. S., DO NASCIMENTO, A. S., DOS SANTOS, J. L., AND CAVICHIOLI, R. R. 2009. Levantamento Populacional de Cigarrinhas (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) Associadas a Transmissao de Xylella fastidiosa em Pomares Citricos do Litoral Norte da Bahia. Neotropical Entomol. 38(6): 827-833.

MOLINA, R. O., NUNES, W. M. C., GONQALVES, A. M. O., CORAZZA-NUNES, M. J., ZANUTTO, C. A., YAMAMOTO, A. Y., AND VARGAS, R. G. 2006. Ocorrencia de cigarrinhas vetoras de Xylella fasidiosa em pomares citricos do municipio de Loanda, no noroeste do Parana. Laranja 27: 243-250.

MOLINA, R. O., GONQALVES, A. M. O, ZANUTTO, C. A., AND NUNES, W. M. C. 2010. Populational Fluctuation of Vectors of Xylella fastidiosa Wells in Sweet Orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] Varieties of Northwest Parana State, Brazil. Brazilian Arch. Biol. Technol. 53: 549-554.

MORENO, C. 2001. Metodos para medir la biodiversidad. M&T - Manuales y Tesis SEA, vol. 1. Zaragoza: CITED, UNESCO & SEA.

MURUA, M. G., MOLINA-OCHOA, J., AND COVIELLA, C. 2006. Population dynamics of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and its parasitoids in Northwestern Argentina. Florida Entomol. 89(2): 175-182.

NEJAT, N., VADAMALAI, G., AND DICKINSON, M. 2011. Spiroplasma citri: a wide host range phytopathogen. Plant Pathol. J. 10(2): 46-56.

NIELSON, M. W. 1968. The Leafhopper Vectors of Phytopathogenic Viruses (Homoptera, Cicadellidae): Taxonomy, Biology, and Virus Transmission. United States Dept. Agr. Tech. Bull. 1382, 386 pp.

NOVOTNY, V., AND BASSET, Y. 1998. Seasonality of sap-sucking insects (Auchenorrhyncha, Hemiptera) feeding on Ficus (Moraceae) in a lowland rain forest in New Guinea. Oecologia. 115: 514-522.

NUNES, W. M. C., MOLINA, R. O., ALBUQUERQUE, F. A., CORAZZA-NUNES, M. J., ZANUTTO, C. A., AND MACHADO, M. 2007. Flutuacao populacional de cigarrinhas vetoras de Xylella fastidiosa em pomares comerciais de citros no noroeste do Parana. Neotropical Entomol. 36: 254-260.

PARADELL, S. 1995. Especies argentinas de homopteros Cicadelidos asociados al cultivo de maiz Zea mays L. Rev. Fac. Agronom. 71(2): 213-234.

PARADELL, S., REMES LENICOV, A. M. M., DE COLL, O., AND AGOSTINI, J. 2000. Cicadelidos asociados a citrus afectados por la Clorosis Variegada de los citrus (CVC) en Montecarlo, Misiones, Republica Argentina (Hemiptera-Auchenorrhyncha). Rev. Soc. Entomol. Argentina 59 (1-4): 103-118.

PARADELL, S., VIRLA, E., AND TOLEDO, A. 2001. Leafhoppers species richness and abundance on crops in Argentina (Insecta-Hemiptera-Cicadellidae). Bol. San. Veg. Plagas 27 (4): 465-475.

PARADELL, S., VIRLA, E. G., LOGARZO, G. A., AND DELLAPE, G. 2012. Proconiini Sharpshooters of Argentina, with notes on its distribution, host plants, and natural enemies. J. Insect Sci. 12 (116): 1-17.

PARRA, J. R. P., OLIVEIRA, H. N., AND PINTO, A. S. 2003. Pragas e insetos beneficos com Citros. FEALQ, Piracicaba, Brasil, 73 pp.

PURCELL, A. H. 1985. The ecology of bacterial and mycoplasma plant diseases spread by leafhoppers and planthoppers, pp. 351-380 In L. R. Nault and J. G. Rodriguez [eds.], The Leafhoppers. J. Wiley & Sons Publishers.

REDAK, R., PURCELL, A., LOPES, J. R. S., BLUA, M., MIZELL, R. F., AND ANDERSEN, P. C. 2004. The biology of xylem fluid-feeding insect vectors of Xylella fastidiosa and their relation to disease epidemiology. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 49: 243-270.

REMES LENICOV, A. M. M. 1982. Aportes al conocimiento de los Agallinae argentinos (Homoptera-Cicadellidae). Neotropica 28(80): 215-138.

REMES LENICOV, a. M. M., and Teson, a. 1985. Hallazgo de uno de los vectores del "Mal de Rio Cuarto" del maiz. Gaceta Agronomica 5(25): 251-258.

REMES LENICOV, A. M. M., AND VIRLA, E. 1993. Homopteros auquenorrincos asociados al cultivo de trigo en la Republica Argentina. I. Analisis de la importancia relativa de las especies. Stud. Neotropical Fauna Environ. 28: 211-222.

REMES LENICOV, A. M. M., PARADELL, S., VIRLA, E., MARIANI, R., COSTAMAGNA, A., AND VARELA, G. 1997. Cicadelidos y Delfacidos perjudiciales al cultivo de maiz en la Republica Argentina (Insecta-Homoptera). VI Congreso de Maiz. I: 58-74.

REMES LENICOV, A. M. M., PARADELL, S., DE COLL, O. R., and Agostini, J. 1999. Cicadelinos asociados a citrus afectados por Clorosis Variegada (CVC) en la Republica Argentina (Insecta: Homoptera: Cicadellidae). Rev. Soc. Entomol. Argentina 58(3-4): 211-225.

REMES LENICOV, A. M. M., PARADELL, S., AND CATALANO, M. I. 2006. Hemipteros Auquenorrincos asociados al cultivo de sorgo en la Argentina (Insecta-Hemiptera). RIA 35(2): 3-20.

SALUSO, A. 2006. Insectos vectores de enfermedades del maiz en el Departamento de Parana. Primer registro de Dalbulus maidis "chicharrita del maiz" (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). Actualizacion tecnica-MAIZ. EEA Parana. Serie Extension No 4: 85-87.

SEGOVIA, F. 2003. Potencial y Limitantes de la Produccion de Citricos en Argentina. Available online: http://www.producirconservando.org.ar/documentos/informe_citricos.pdf

TORRES, A. B. 1950. El cercopido Cephisus siccifolius (Walker 1851). Notas del Museo de La Plata XV. 131: 7-21.

WELLS, J. M., RAJU, B. C., HUNG, H. Y., WEISBURG, W. G., MANDELCO-PAUL, L., AND BRENNER, D. J. 1987. Xylella fastidiosa: Gram-negative, xylem-limited, fastidious plant bacteria related to Xanthomonas. Intl. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 37: 136-143.

YAMAMOTO, P. T., DALLA PRIA, W. J., ROBERTO, S. R., FELIPPE, R. M., AND FREITAS, E. P. 2001. Flutuacao populacional de cigarrinhas (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) em pomar citrico em formacao. Neotropical Entomol. 30: 175-177.

YAMAMOTO, P. T., ROBERTO, S. R., DALLA PRIA, W. J., FELIPPE, R. M., AND FREITAS, E. P. 2002. Especies e flutuacao populacional de cigarrinhas em viveiro de citros no municipio de Mogi-Guacu-SP. Rev. Brasilei ra Frut. 24: 389-394.

YOUNG, D. A. 1952. A reclassification of Western Hemisphere Typhlocybinae (Homoptera, Cicadellidae). Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 35(1): 3-217.

YOUNG, D. A. 1968. Taxonomic study of the Cicadellinae (Homoptera: Cicadellidae). Part 1. Proconiini. Bull. United States. Nat. Mus. 261:1-287.

YOUNG, D. A. 1977. Taxonomic Study of the Cicadellinae (Homoptera: Cicadellidae). Part 2. New World Cicadellini and the Genus Cicadella. North Carolina Agric. Exp. Sta. Tech. Bull. 239: 1-1135.

ZHANG, J., LASHOMB, J., GOULDM, A., AND HAMILTON, G. 2011. Cicadomorpha insects associated with bacterial leaf scorch infected oak in central New Jersey. Environ. Entomol. 40(5): 1131-43.

GIMENA DELLAPE (1) *, JUAN P. BOUVET (2) AND SUSANA L. PARADELL (1)

(1) Division Entomologia. Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo, UNLP, Paseo del Bosque s/no (B1900FWA), La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina

(2) Seccion Entomologia, INTA EEA Concordia, CC 34 (E3200AQK), Entre Rios, Argentina

* Corresponding autor; E-mail: gimenadellape@gmail.com
TABLE 1. ABUNDANCE (N) AND SPECIES RICHNESS (S) OF CICADOMORPHA
FAMILIES, ON SWEET ORANGE AND TANGERINE ORCHARDS IN ENTRE RIOS.

Superfamily/Family                        Orange     Tangerine

                                         N      S    N      S

CERCOPOIDEA (Spittlebugs, Froghoppers)

Aphrophoridae                              3    1      6    1
Cercopidae                                 3    1      3    1

MEMBRACOIDEA

Cicadellidae (Leafhoppers)               1013   17   435    15
Membracidae (Treehoppers)                 49    5     42    3
Total Identified                         1038   24   447    20
TOTAL                                    1068        486

TABLE 2. ABUNDANCE (N) AND RELATIVE IMPORTANCE (RI) OF CICADOMORPHA
SPECIES COLLECTED FROM SWEET ORANGE AND TANGERINE ORCHARDS IN ENTRE
RIOS.

Family/ Subfamily   Species

                    CERCOPOIDEA

APHROPHORIDAE

Aphrophorinae       Cephisus siccifolius (Walker)

CERCOPIDAE

Tomaspidinae        Deois sp.
Unidentified

                    MEMBRACOIDEA

CICADELLIDAE

Agallinae           Agalliana ensigera Oman
                    Unidentified

Cicadellinae        Bucephalogonia xanthophis (Berg)
                    Diedrocephala bimaculata (Gmelin)
                    Hortensia similis (Walker)
                    Macugonalia cavifrons (Stal)
                    Molomea lineicepsYoung
                    Sibovia sagata (Signoret)
                    Sonesimia grossa (Signoret)
                    Tapajosa rubromarginata Signoret
                    Tretogonia notatifrons Melichar
                    Unidentified

Deltocephalinae     Amplicephalus marginellanus Linnavuori
                    Atanus serricauda (Linnavuori)
                    Atanus sp.
                    Balclutha sp.
                    Dalbulus maidis (De Long & Wolcott)
                    Frequenamia spiniventris
                    Linnavuori & De Long
                    Osbornellus infuscatus Linnavuori
                    Scaphytopius bolivianus (Oman)
                    Unidentified

Gyponinae           Curtara samera (De Long & Freytag)
                    Unidentified

Typhlocybinae       Protalebrella brasiliensis Young
                    Unidentified

Xerophloeinae       Xerophloea viridis (Fabricius)

                    MEMBRACIDAE

Smiliinae           Ceresa sp.
                    Cyphonia sp.
                    Unidentified
                    Sp1
                    Sp2
                    Sp3

Family/ Subfamily    Orange    Tangerine

                    N     RI    N     RI

APHROPHORIDAE

Aphrophorinae        3    *      6    **

CERCOPIDAE

Tomaspidinae         3    *      2    *
Unidentified         0           1

CICADELLIDAE

Agallinae           28    **     0
                     9           3

Cicadellinae         1    *      7    **
                     1    *      2    **
                     0           1    *
                     2    *      1    *
                    99    ***   37    ***
                     0           1    *
                     0           1    *
                    29    **    45    ***
                     1    *      0
                     0           7

Deltocephalinae      0           1    *
                     1    *      0
                     1    *      0
                     1    *      0
                     2    *      0
                    570   ***   203   ***

                    12    **    10    **
                    169   ***   82    ***
                    14          24

Gyponinae            9    **     4    **
                     3           1

Typhlocybinae       51    **     1    *
                     4           2

Xerophloeinae        6    **     2    *

Smiliinae            7    **     7    **
                    35    **    31    ***
                     0           1
                     4    *      3    **
                     2    **     0
                     1    *      0

(*) Rare or occasional, (**) Frequent, (***) Very frequent

TABLE 3. DIVERSITY INDEXES OF CICADOMORPHA ON
SWEET ORANGE AND TANGERINE ORCHARDS IN
ENTRE RIOS.

Index       [D.sub.Mg]   H'    D

Orange      3.312        1.6   0.342
Tangerine   3.113        1.8   0.261

DM is the specific richness index of Margalef. H' is the
Shannon-Wiener, and D is the dominance index of Simpson.

TABLE 4. GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF CICADOMORPHA COLLECTED SPECIES
AND THEIR ASSOCIATION WITH CITRUS ORCHARDS IN ENTRE RIOS.

Species                             Geographic Distribution

Agalliana ensigera Oman             Brazil; Bolivia; Argentina:
                                    Salta, Jujuy, Tucuman, Cordoba,
                                    San Juan, Mendoza, Chaco,
                                    Misiones, Buenos Aires, La Pampa,
                                    Rio Negro (7,10). New record for
                                    Entre Rios province

Amplicephalus marginellanus         Brazil; Bolivia; Paraguay;
Linnavuori                          Argentina: Jujuy, Tucuman,
                                    Cordoba, San Luis, Chaco, Santa
                                    Fe, Misiones, Corrientes, Entre
                                    Rios, Buenos Aires (7)

Atanus serricauda (Linnavuori)      Argentina: Tucuman, San Luis,
                                    Santa Fe6. New record for Entre
                                    Rios province

Bucephalogonia xanthophis (Berg)    Brazil; Bolivia; Argentina:
                                    Jujuy, Cordoba, Santa Fe,
                                    Misiones, Corrientes, Mendoza,
                                    Salta, Buenos Aires1,2,13,17.
                                    New record for Entre Rios
                                    province

Cephisus siccifolius (Walker)       Mexico; Central America; Brazil;
                                    Paraguay; Uruguay; Argentina:
                                    Salta, Tucuman, Misiones, Buenos
                                    Aires (3).
                                    New record for Entre Rios
                                    province.

Curtara samera De Long & Freytag    Brazil; Argentina: Jujuy,
                                    Misiones (8).
                                    New record for Entre Rios
                                    province

Dalbulus maidis                     United  States;  Mexico;  Central
(De Long & Wolcott)                 America; Colombia; Venezuela;
                                    Peru; Brazil; Bolivia; Argentina:
                                    Salta, Jujuy, Catamarca, Tucuman,
                                    Santiago del Estero, Chaco, Santa
                                    Fe, Entre Rios, Buenos
                                    Aires (5,7,12,15).

Diedrocephala bimaculata (Gmelin)   Mexico; Honduras; El Salvador;
                                    Nicaragua; Costa Rica; Panama;
                                    Colombia; Venezuela; Guyana;
                                    Suriname; French Guiana; Peru;
                                    Brazil; Bolivia; Paraguay;
                                    Argentina: Tucuman, Chaco,
                                    Misiones, Santa Fe,
                                    Corrientes (1,13,17).
                                    New record for Entre Rios
                                    province.

Frequenamia spiniventris            Brazil; Paraguay; Argentina:
Linnavuori & De Long                Misiones, Corrientes1,8. New
                                    record for Entre Rios province

Hortensia similis (Walker)          United States; Mexico; Puerto
                                    Rico; Nicaragua; Panama;
                                    Antilles; Cuba; Colombia;
                                    Venezuela; Suriname; Guyana;
                                    French Guiana; Ecuador; Peru;
                                    Bolivia; Brazil; Paraguay;
                                    Argentina: Misiones, Corrientes,
                                    Santa Fe, Entre Rios, Buenos
                                    Aires, Salta, Jujuy,
                                    Chaco (11,13,14,17)

Macugonalia cavifrons (Stal)        Venezuela; Colombia; Peru;
                                    Brazil; Bolivia; Paraguay;
                                    Argentina: Misiones (13,17).
                                    New record for Entre Rios
                                    province

Molomea lineiceps Young             Brazil; Paraguay; Argentina:
                                    Cordoba, Corrientes, Entre
                                    Rios (1,16)

Osbornellus infuscatus Linnavuori   Brazil; Paraguay; Argentina:
                                    Tucuman, Cordoba, Formosa,
                                    Misiones, Buenos Aires (6).
                                    New record for Entre Rios
                                    province

Protalebrella brasiliensis Young    United States; Mexico; Central
                                    America; Colombia; Venezuela;
                                    Ecuador; Brazil; Bolivia;
                                    Paraguay; Argentina: Tucuman,
                                    Cordoba, Mendoza, Chaco, Santa
                                    Fe, Misiones, Entre Rios (2)

Scaphytopius bolivianus             Bolivia; Argentina: Misiones (8).
(Oman)                              New record for Entre Rios
                                    province

Sibovia sagata (Signoret)           United States; Mexico; Antilles;
                                    Brazil; Bolivia; Argentina:
                                    Jujuy, Misiones, Corrientes,
                                    Buenos Aires (13,17). New record
                                    for Entre Rios province

Sonesimia grossa (Signoret)         Brazil; Bolivia; Paraguay;
                                    Argentina: Misiones, Corrientes.
                                    (1,13,17)
                                    New record for Entre Rios
                                    province

Tapajosa rubromarginata Signoret    Brazil; Paraguay; Argentina:
                                    Salta, Tucuman, Chaco, Cordoba,
                                    Entre Rios (47,9,12,14,18).

Tretogonia notatifrons Melichar     Suriname; French Guiana; Brazil;
                                    Ecuador; Bolivia; Paraguay;
                                    Argentina: Chaco, Misiones,
                                    Corrientes, Cordoba, Entre Rios,
                                    Buenos Aires (11,16)

Xerophloea viridis (Fabricius)      United States; Mexico; Venezuela;
                                    Peru; Brazil; Bolivia; Argentina:
                                    Salta, Catamarca, Tucuman,
                                    Santiago del Estero, Cordoba,
                                    Neuquen, Chaco, Misiones, Santa
                                    Fe, Buenos Aires (8).
                                    New record for Entre Rios
                                    province

Species                             Host Plants

Agalliana ensigera Oman             New record of Citrus sinensis
                                    (L.) Obs.

Amplicephalus marginellanus         New record of Citrus unshiu Marc.
Linnavuori

Atanus serricauda (Linnavuori)      New record of Citrus sinensis
                                    (L.) Obs.

Bucephalogonia xanthophis (Berg)    Citrus sinensis (L.) Obs. (1, 13)
                                    New record of Citrus unshiu Marc.

Cephisus siccifolius (Walker)       Citrus sinensis (L.) Obs. (3)
                                    New record of Citrus unshiu Marc.

Curtara samera De Long & Freytag    Citrus sinensis (L.) Obs. (8)
                                    New record of Citrus unshiu Marc.

Dalbulus maidis                     New record of Citrus sinensis
(De Long & Wolcott)                 (L.) Obs.

Diedrocephala bimaculata (Gmelin)   Citrus sinensis (L.) Obs. (1,13)
                                    New record of Citrus unshiu Marc.

Frequenamia spiniventris            Citrus sinensis (L.) Obs. (1,8)
Linnavuori & De Long                New record of Citrus unshiu Marc.

Hortensia similis (Walker)          Citrus sinensis (L.) Obs.
                                    (1,13,17)
                                    New record of Citrus unshiu Marc.

Macugonalia cavifrons (Stal)        Citrus sinensis (L.) Obs. (13)
                                    New record of Citrus unshiu Marc.

Molomea lineiceps Young             Citrus sinensis (L.) Obs. (1)
                                    New record of Citrus unshiu Marc.

Osbornellus infuscatus Linnavuori   New record of Citrus sinensis
                                    (L.) Obs. and C. unshiu Marc.

Protalebrella brasiliensis Young    New record of Citrus sinensis
                                    (L.) Obs. and C. unshiu Marc.

Scaphytopius bolivianus             Citrus sinensis (L.) Obs. (8)
(Oman)                              New record of Citrus unshiu Marc.

Sibovia sagata (Signoret)           Citrus sinensis (L.) Obs.13
                                    New record of Citrus unshiu Marc.

Sonesimia grossa (Signoret)         Citrus sinensis (L.) Obs. (113)
                                    New record of Citrus unshiu Marc.

Tapajosa rubromarginata Signoret    New record of Citrus sinensis
                                    (L.) Obs. and C. unshiu Marc.

Tretogonia notatifrons Melichar     New record of Citrus sinensis (L.)
                                    Obs.

Xerophloea viridis (Fabricius)      Weeds associated with citrus (8)
                                    New record of Citrus sinensis
                                    (L.) Obs. and C. unshiu Marc.

(1) Beltran et al. 2004, (2) Catalano 2011, (3) De Coll 1996,
(4) Dellape et al. 2011, (5) Gimenez Pecci et al. 2002, (6) Linnavuori
1959, (7) Paradell 1995, (8) Paradell et al. 2000, (9) Paradell et al.
2012, (10) Remes Lenicov 1982, (11) Remes Lenicov & Teson 1985,
(12) Remes Lenicov et al. 1997, (13) Remes Lenicov et al. 1999,
(14) Remes Lenicov et al. 2006, (15) Saluso 2006, (16) Young 1968,
(17) Young 1977.
COPYRIGHT 2013 Florida Entomological Society
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2013 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Dellape, Gimena; Bouvet, Juan P.; Paradell, Susana L.
Publication:Florida Entomologist
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:3ARGE
Date:Sep 1, 2013
Words:5449
Previous Article:Capture of Anastrepha suspensa and sterile male Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in multilure traps versus phase 4 traps.
Next Article:Towards development of a mass trapping device for Mexican fruit fly Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) control.
Topics:

Terms of use | Copyright © 2017 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters