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Diversity and abundance of edaphic arthropods associated with conventional and organic sugarcane crops in Brazil.

Abstract

Although studies have shown enhancement of insects, birds, and plants in organically managed agroecosystems, information on arthropod diversity and abundance in conventional and organic sugarcane farms is scarce. This research was conducted to analyze and compare the diversity and abundance of edaphic arthropods in organic and conventional sugarcane by using pitfall traps. The study was conducted during 2 growing seasons in Jaboticabal, Sao Paulo, Brazil. In total, 13,244 individuals belonging to 190 morphospecies were collected. In the conventional system, 4,964 specimens were collected, representing 122 morphospecies distributed in 15 orders and 50 families. In the organic system, 8,280 individuals were captured, representing 142 morphospecies in 13 orders and 45 families. Ants of the genera Pheidole Westwood, Dorymyrmex Mayr, Camponotus Mayr, and Crematogaster Lund (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) were predominant. Higher abundance and richness of arthropods (especially predators and omnivores) were found in the organic than the conventional system, which could be important in regulating key pests of sugarcane. Our results show that the organic management in sugarcane increased the abundance and diversity of arthropods.

Key Words: community; conservation biological control; environmental disturbance; functional group

Resumo

Embora estudos ja tenham mostrado que ha incremento de insetos, passaros e plantas em agroecossistemas manejados organicamente, informacao sobre diversidade e abundancia de artropodes em plantios organicos e convencionais de cana-de-acucar e rara. Este trabalho foi realizado para analisar e comparar a diversidade e abundancia de artropodes edaficos em cana-de-acucar convencional e organica utilizando armadilhas pitfall. O estudo foi conduzido durante duas safras de cana-de-acucar em Jaboticabal, Sao Paulo, Brasil. Foram coletados 13244 individuos pertencentes a 190 morfo-especies. No sistema convencional 4964 especimens foram coletados e representaram 122 morfo-especies, distribuidos em 15 ordens e 50 familias. No sistema organico, 8280 individuos foram capturados, correspondendo a 142 morfoespecies, distribuidos em 13 ordens e 45 familias. Formigas dos generos Pheidole Westwood, Dorymyrmex Mayr, Camponotus Mayr e Crematogaster Lund (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) foram predominantes. Maior abundancia e riqueza de artropodes (especialmente predadores e onivoros) foram encontradas no sistema organico em comparacao ao sistema convencional e poderiam ser importantes para a regulacao de pragas chaves da cana-de-acucar. Os resultados mostram que o manejo organico em cana-de-acucar aumentou a abundancia e diversidade de artropodes.

Palavras Chave: comunidade; controle biologico conservativo; disturbio ambiental; grupo funcional

Conventional agriculture has often caused the simplification of agricultural landscapes, mainly due to the establishment of monocultures (Pogue & Schnell 2001). These simplified agricultural practices and overuse of insecticides can lead to a reduction in biodiversity (Butler et al. 2007), and thus the reduction of ecological services. On the other hand, with the increase of organic farming, conservative biological control is also expected to increase due to the reduction in pesticide use and land management, which in turn enhance survival, fecundity, efficiency, longevity, and maintenance of natural enemies of arthropod pests (Eilenberg et al. 2001; Landis et al. 2005).

Current agricultural system management can be characterized by frequent and intense disturbances, which are unfavorable for conservation of natural enemies (Letourneau 1998). Thus, development and maintenance of an ecological infrastructure to provide food resources, shelter, and alternative prey and hosts are the basis of environmental management. Consequently, it is possible to expand natural biological control by preserving and increasing existing populations of beneficial arthropods in crops (Gurr et al. 2000; Landis et al. 2000; Wilkinson & Landis 2005).

Environmental problems associated with conventional sugarcane agriculture due to the use of fire prior to harvest (forbidden in certain Brazilian regions since 2014), and use of pesticides, are well documented (Nunes et al. 2006). However, few studies have characterized the soil-dwelling arthropods that could be affected by these disturbances in sugarcane agroecosystems (Castelo Branco et al. 2010; Pasqualin et. 2012; Abreu et al. 2014). Consequently, the objective of this work was to analyze and compare the diversity and abundance of edaphic arthropods in conventional and organic sugarcane fields.

Materials and Methods

CHARACTERIZATION OF THE AREA

The experiment was conducted in 2 sugarcane areas in Jaboticabal municipality, Sao Paulo, Brazil. The sugarcane variety RB5536 was used in each of 2 seasons. Each area was about 10 ha. In the conventional field (21.1978[degrees]S, 48.2897[degrees]W, altitude 589 m), agricultural practices included pre-harvest burning and herbicide use for weed control but no insecticide application. In the organic field (21.1858[degrees]S, 48.2450[degrees]W; altitude 623m), sugarcane has been harvested without burning for about 10 yr (green cane) and grown without use of any pesticide. In the 1st growing season (2011/2012, 7th ratoon), the experiment started when plants were in the 4th month of development, whereas in the 2nd growing season (2012/2013, 8th ratoon), the experiment started just after harvest.

COLLECTION METHOD

In each plot, 3 parallel transects distanced 10 m apart from each other were established. Five pitfall traps (700 mL plastic cups buried and adjusted to ground level) were installed every 10 m on each transect, with the 1st trap installed 20 m from the edge of the plot. The traps received 100 mL of solution (98 mL water + 2 mL detergent) to prevent captured arthropods from escaping.

Sample collections began 24 h after installation of traps to reduce the effect of disturbance caused by soil excavation and trap installation (Araujo et al. 2005). The traps remained for 48 h in the experimental areas. Collected arthropods were taken to the laboratory for sorting and identification. Fifteen monthly collections were conducted during the 2011/2012 (Dec 2011 to May 2012) and 2012/2013 (Oct 2012 to Mar 2013) growing seasons.

IDENTIFICATION OF COLLECTED ARTHROPODS

The arachnids were sent to Instituto Butantan (Sao Paulo, Brazil) for identification. The other arthropods collected were identified to lowest possible taxonomic level by using specialized literature (Loureiro & Queiroz 1990; Borror et al. 1992; Baccaro 2006; Suguituru et al. 2015). Unidentified species were differentiated into morphospecies (Oliver & Beattie 1996).

DATA ANALYSES

Data were analyzed using the software ANAFAU (Moraes & Haddad 2003), and the faunistic indices dominance, abundance, frequency, and constancy were obtained for each system. Moreover, the program performs residual analysis of discrepant data that can be classified into exclusive categories known as super-dominant, super-abundant, and super-frequent. The dominance was calculated by the equation DL = (1 / S) X 100, where DL = dominance limit and S = total number of species per sample. The abundance was calculated using the standard deviation and confidence interval of the arithmetic mean at 1 and 5% probabilities. For frequency, the equation F = (n / N) X 100 was adopted, where F = frequency (%), n = number of specimens of each species collected, and N = total number of specimens of the collected species. For constancy, the equation C = (P / N) X 100 was used, where C = constancy, P = number of samples containing the species, N = total number of samples collected (Silveira Neto et al. 1976).

Diversity was assessed using the species diversity indices of Shannon-Wiener (H') and Margalef ([alpha]). The equitability index (E) was calculated to evaluate the uniformity of the captures and how the individuals are distributed in the sample, using the ANAFAU software (Moraes & Haddad 2003). The similarity index assessed the number of species shared between the 2 cropping systems.

To estimate the total species richness for each system, the software EstimateS[R] 9.1 was used to generate species accumulation curves and to compare the conventional and organic system (Colwell 2006). Samples were randomized 100 times, without replacement, using the non-parametric estimator first order Jackknife (Jack 1), which uses the number of unique species or species occurring only once in a sample to produce richness estimates (Heltshe & Forrester 1983). Also, principal component analysis (STATISTICA, StatSoft, Inc., Tulsa, Oklahoma) was performed separately on the collection from each month. Thus, 15 samples (= months of evaluation) were used in the analysis for each area.

Results

ARTHROPOD RICHNESS AND ECOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

In total, 13,244 individuals belonging to 190 morphospecies were collected in sugarcane. The number of individuals collected during the 2 growing seasons in the conventional system was 4,964 (37.48%), and was represented by 122 morphospecies distributed in 15 orders and 50 families. In the organic system, 8,280 individuals (62.52%) were captured, corresponding to 142 morphospecies in 13 orders and 45 families (Table 1). The number of individuals collected in the organic crop was 66.8% higher, although the numbers of taxonomic orders and families observed were slightly lower than in the conventional crop.

The Shannon--Wiener index (H'), used to estimate the diversity of arthropods considering the uniformity of abundance of species, was 2.3 for the conventional system and 2.5 for the organic system (Table 1). The Margalef index (a), calculated by the number of species and the logarithm of the total number of individuals, was 14.1 for the conventional system and 17.1 for the organic system. The equitability or uniformity parameter, which varies from 0 to 1 (the closer to 1 the greater the equality of species abundance), was approximately 0.49 for both production systems, suggesting that the arthropod community sampled tends to coexist in both systems with some dominance of certain species. The similarity between the areas was 0.687.

FAUNISTIC ANALYSIS

Dominance

In total, 2 and 17 morphospecies in the conventional system and 4 and 30 morphospecies in the organic system were observed to be super-dominant and dominant, respectively (Table 2). The number of non-dominant species was about 7% lower for the conventional system (103 morphospecies) in comparison with the organic system (108 morphospecies) (Table 2).

Among the 43 super-dominant and dominant morphospecies, which represented 23.5% of the total number of morphospecies, 10 (23.3% of the super-dominant and dominant) were collected in both systems. The numbers of individuals of the dominant and non-dominant morphospecies were 1,577 and 367 (conventional system) and 1,825 and 345 (organic system), respectively. However, the number of individuals of the super-dominant morphospecies in the organic system (6,110) was twice that observed in the conventional system (3,020) (Table 2).

Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the genera Pheidole Westwood and Dorymyrmex Mayr collected in the conventional system were super-dominant morphospecies whereas Camponotus Mayr and Crematogaster Lund were considered dominant. On the other hand, these 4 genera were super-dominant in the organic system. Super-dominant species are native species that behave as invaders in a disturbed environment (Silva-Mattos & Pivello 2009). Other ant genera were important and classified as dominant. For example, leaf-cutting ants of the genus Atta F. are important pests in sugarcane crops and were found in both sugarcane fields. Moreover, other beneficial ant genera (Brachymyrmex Mayr, Ectatomma Smith, and Gnamptogenys Roger) were found in both organic and conventional systems. Also, we found dominant morphospecies of spiders (4 morphospecies in total) only in the organic system.

Abundance

Similarly to the observed dominance, morphospecies of the genera Pheidole and Dorymyrmex were super-abundant in both the conventional and organic systems, but morphospecies of the genera Camponotus and Crematogaster were super-abundant only in the organic system. These 2 latter genera, on the other hand, were classified as very abundant in the conventional system. The super-abundant and very abundant species are native species that behave as invaders in a disturbed environment (Silva-Mattos & Pivello 2009). The conventional system presented a greater number of rare morphospecies (84) compared with common (16), very abundant (11), occasional (7), and abundant (2) morphospecies. A similar trend was observed for the organic system, in which a greater number of rare morphospecies (86) were observed compared with common (19), very abundant (19), and occasional morphospecies (9), as well as abundant (5) morphospecies. Therefore, 69.4% and 61.1% of the morphospecies were rare in the conventional and organic system, respectively. Twenty-eight morphospecies (14.7% of the total morphospecies) considered to be rare occurred on both systems.

Frequency

The super-frequent morphospecies (i.e., species that occurred on all sampling dates) were the same as the super-abundant and the super-dominant morphospecies. Ants of the genera Camponotus, Crematogaster, Dorymyrmex, and Pheidole were the super-frequent morphospecies in the organic system, whereas only the last 2 genera were super-frequent in the conventional system (Tables 1 and 2).

Most morphospecies were considered uncommon, i.e., their occurrence was below 34% of the samplings, in both systems. In this category, 91 (47.9%) and 95 (51%) morphospecies occurred at low frequencies in the conventional and organic systems, respectively.

Constancy

In this category, most morphospecies occurred accidentally. In the conventional system, 95 morphospecies were considered accidental, 16 accessories, and 11 constant, whereas in the organic system, there were 103 accidental, 23 accessories, and 16 constant morphospecies (Table 1). The most constant morphospecies were the ants with 30% and 40% of total morphospecies in the organic and the conventional system, respectively.

We also analyzed the specimens classified among the high faunistic values (super-dominant, dominant, super-abundant, very abundant, abundant, super-frequent, very frequent, frequent, and constant), and we found 22 (8 predators, 5 omnivores, 5 detritivores, and 4 herbivores) and 10 (5 predators, 3 omnivores, and 2 herbivores) species for organic and conventional systems, respectively. Among the morphospecies collected, 7 were common in both systems (3 omnivores [Brachymyrmex spp., Camponotus spp., Pheidole spp.], 3 predators [Crematogaster spp., Dorymyrmex spp., Ectatomma spp.], and 1 herbivore [Atta spp.]), 3 were found exclusively in the conventional system (2 predators and 1 herbivore), and 15 were found exclusively in the organic system (5 predators, 5 detritivores, 2 omnivores, and 3 herbivores).

Estimates of species richness were similar and close to the expected number of species as shown in Fig. 1. The species curves for both organic and conventional sugarcane systems tended to stabilize (plateau) when 15 samples were taken on a monthly basis. Thus, the number of monthly collections and traps adopted in the study was adequate for assessing species diversity in sugarcane agroecosystems.

A comparison of the edaphic arthropods by using principal component analysis indicated that there was a difference between the sugarcane systems. Eleven samples (73.3%) out of 15 taken from the organic sugarcane field presented negative values, whereas 13 samples (86.7%) out of 15 from the conventional field presented positive values (Fig. 2). Therefore, the communities were different both quantitatively and qualitatively. Ants generally were the most abundant species found on both systems, but they were more abundant in the organic than the conventional system.

Discussion

Twice as many soil-dwelling arthropods were captured in the organic cropping system, relative to conventional sugarcane production. Also, greater numbers of arthropod predators and omnivores and smaller numbers of herbivores were captured in the organic field. This is shown by the high dominance and frequency of coleopteran and hymenopteran predators in the organic system. These predators are reported as important natural control agents of several pests that occur in different stages of sugarcane development (Mendonca & Marques 2005; Costa et al. 2007; Silva et al. 2009).

Our results also suggest that compared with the conventional system, the organic system could provide greater availability and abundance of resources such as pollen, nectar, and alternative sources of food and shelter, which favor the abundance and diversity of species (Landis et al. 2000). Root (1973) noted that systems providing appropriate conditions (food and shelter) tend to have greater abundance of arthropod predators and omnivores, and therefore greater potential for biological control of herbivores.

Among the predators, ant and spider species occurred frequently in both systems. Several studies have shown ants in the genera Crematogaster, Dorymyrmex, Ectatomma, and Pheidole are effective control agents of pests in sugarcane (Rossi & Fowler 2002, 2004; Araujo et al. 2004, 2005; Pereira et al. 2004; Philpott et al. 2008; Schatz et al. 2008), but their population dynamics remain to be better understood. For spiders in the sugarcane agroecosystem, there is practically no published information about their diversity, although this work suggests that they are especially abundant elements in organic sugarcane production, and their contribution should be assessed.

Pheidole spp. and Dorymyrmex spp. ants were the only super-dominant species in the conventional system. Thus, even with the disruption caused by the use of fire in conventional harvesting, populations of these species were not affected, as also observed by Araujo et al. (2004). Ant species generally present rapid colony restructuring, wide foraging area, and social organization. These features may have contributed to the high abundance, frequency, and constancy in the conventional area (Rossi & Fowler 2002; Araujo et al. 2004, 2005). The fact that most super-dominant species were detected in the organic system (Pheidole spp., Dorymyrmex spp., Crematogaster spp., and Camponotus spp.) may be related to the nesting strategy of these species. According to Longino (2003), Crematogaster and Dorymyrmex ants have shallow nests and therefore may be more affected by the fire, so the reestablishment of colonies requires longer period of time.

However, it is not only the direct effects of fire that can lead to reduced biodiversity in the conventional system. Herbicides are used to control weeds whose elimination can indirectly affect the population of arthropods. Many herbivorous insects feed on the weeds that occur in crops (Chiverton & Sotherton 1991). Arthropod predators and parasitoids also can utilize these weeds to supplement their diet by feeding on pollen and nectar. Thus, herbicides can affect biodiversity, either by acting directly (on herbivores) or indirectly (on predators and omnivores).

In spite of the higher species richness in the organic than the conventional system, both the faunistic and diversity indices were generally similar. We hypothesize that this finding may be related to surrounding sugarcane areas, which may have been used as a shelter or refuge for some arthropods, especially beneficial arthropods, during harvest in the 2 systems. Although this needs to be further studied in this agroecosystem, harvesting the sugarcane at different times may facilitate the movement of arthropods between different areas, allowing the reoccupation of the disturbed environment more quickly.

The study of arthropod biodiversity may allow us to identify important naturally occurring beneficials in the agroecosystem. Despite having used only pitfall trapping, this study provided comparative information on biodiversity in the sugarcane agroecosystem under 2 management systems. This new information may assist future studies on biological control, or even risk assessment of genetically modified sugarcane, where it is essential to know the diversity of arthropods. Overall, our results indicated that the organic management of sugarcane improves the abundance and diversity of arthropods (especially predators and omnivores) relative to conventional management.

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful to Antonio Brescovit and Joao Lucas Chavari, Instituto Butatan, Sao Paulo, Brazil, who kindly identified the spiders. Scholarship to the first author was provided by CAPES, Brazil.

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Luan Alberto Odorizzi dos Santos, Natalia Naranjo-Guevara, and Odair Aparecido Fernandes (*)

Departamento de Fitossanidade, Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias, Universidade Estadual Paulista - UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP 14884-900, Brazil;

E-mail: luanodorizzi1@hotmail.com (L. A. O. S.), nnaranjoguevara@gmail.com (N. N.-G.), oafernandes@fcav.unesp.br (O. A. F.)

(*) Corresponding author; E-mail: oafernandes@fcav.unesp.br (O. A. F.)

Caption: Fig. 1. Curve estimating species richness of edaphic arthropods in conventional and organic sugarcane fields in Jaboticabal, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Error bars represent the standard deviation.

Caption: Fig. 2. Principal component analysis of the arthropod communities in organic (ORG) and conventional (CON) sugarcane fields.
Table 1. Number of individuals captured, faunistic indices (dominance,
abundance, frequency, constancy) and functional groups of arthropods
captured using pitfall traps in conventional and organic sugarcane
systems in Jaboticabal, Sao Paulo, Brazil, during the 2011/2012 and
2012/2013 growing seasons.

                        C  onventional
Taxon           Morphospecies          No. Individuals   No.
                                         Captured        collections
Blattodea
Blatellidae     Blatellidae sp.1             11            6
                Blatellidae sp.2              .            .
Coleoptera
Carabidae       Loxandrus sp.1                .            .
                Loxandrus sp.2                .            .
                Loxandrus sp.3                2            2
                Pseudabarys sp.1              .            .
                Pseudabarys sp.2              .            .
                Pseudabarys sp.3              1            1
                Carabidae sp.1                .            .
                Carabidae sp.2                .            .
                Carabidae sp.3                .            .
                Carabidae sp.4                .            .
                Carabidae sp.5                2            2
Cincidelinae    Megacephala sp.1              2            2
                Cincidelinae sp.l             4            1
                Cincidelinae sp.2             4            3
Chrysomelidae   Bruchinae sp.1              111            2
Curculionidae   Metamasius hemipterus         1            1
                Curculionidae sp.1            1            1
Elateridae      Conoderus Scalaris            4            3
                Conoderus sp.1                .            .
                Conoderus sp.2                .            .
Passalidae      Passalidae sp.1               1            1
Rhizophagidae   Rhizophagidae sp.1          261            3
Scarabaeidae    Ataenius sp.1                 1            1
                Ataenius sp.2                 1            1
                Canthon sp.1                 11            6
                Canthon sp.2                  .            .
                Canthon sp.3                  .            .
                Canthon sp.4                  .            .
                Canthon sp.5                  1            1
                Cyclocephala sp.1             .            .
                Cyclocephala sp.2             .            .
                Cyclocephala sp.3            10            5
Staphylinidae   Staphylinidae sp.1            3            2
                Staphylinidae sp.2          165            2
                Staphylinidae sp.3            .            .
                Staphylinidae sp.4           16            6
                Staphylinidae sp.5            1            1
                Staphylinidae sp.6            .            .
                Staphylinidae sp.7            5            3
Dermaptera
Forficulidae    Doru sp.                      1            1
                Forficulidae sp.1            15            5
                Forficulidae sp.2             .            .
Labiduridae     Labidura sp.                 15            5
Diptera
Agromyzidae     Agromyzidae sp.1              .            .
Asilidae        Asilidae sp.                  5            2
Culicidae       Culicidae sp.1                .            .
                Culicidae sp.2                7            1
Dolichopodidae  Condylostylus sp.             2            1
                Dolichopodidae sp.1           2            1
Drosophilidae   Drosophilidae sp.1            1            1
                Drosophilidae sp.2            .            .
                Drosophilidae sp.3            8            2
                Drosophilidae sp.4            .            .
                Drosophilidae sp.5            .            .
Muscidae        Muscidae sp.1                 5            1
                Muscidae sp.2                 .            .
Mycetophilidae  Mycetophilidae sp.1           .            .
                Mycetophilidae sp.2           .            .
Phoridae        Phoridae sp.1                11            6
                Phoridae sp.2                12            5
                Phoridae sp.3                 7            4
                Phoridae sp.4                 8            3
                Phoridae sp.5                 .            .
                Phoridae sp.6                 .            .
                Phoridae sp.7                 .            .
                Phoridae sp.8                 3            3
Piophilidae     Piophilidae sp.1              .            .
Psychodidae     Psychodidae sp.1              .            .
Sciaridae       Sciaridae sp.1                .            .
                Sciaridae sp.2                1            1
                Sciaridae sp.3                3            3
                Sciaridae sp.4                .            .
                Sciaridae sp.5                8            3
                Sciaridae sp.6                3            2
                Sciaridae sp.7                .            .
                Sciaridae sp.8                .            .
                Sciaridae sp.9                2            1
                Sciaridae sp.10               2            1
                Sciaridae sp.11               1            1
                Sciaridae sp.12               1            1
Sphaeroceridae  Sphaeroceridae sp.1           .            .
                Sphaeroceridae sp.2           .            .
                Sphaeroceridae sp.3           .            .
                Sphaeroceridae sp.4           .            .
                Sphaeroceridae sp.5           1            1
Tachinidae      Tachinidae sp.1              11            4
Ulidiidae       Ulidiidae sp.1                1            1
                Diptera sp.1                  .            .
                Diptera sp.2                  .            .
                Diptera sp.3                  3            2
                Diptera sp.4                  .            .
                Diptera sp.5                  .            .
                Diptera sp.6                  .            .
                Diptera sp.7                  .            .
                Diptera sp.8                  1            1
Hemiptera
Aphididae       Aphididae sp.1               24            2
Aetalionidae    Aetalionidae sp.1             .            .
Cercopidae      Mahanarva fimbriolato         2            2
Coreidae        Coreidae sp.                  1            1
Cydnidae        Scaptocoris castanea          2            2
                Cyrtomenus mirabilis          3            2
Reduviidae      Rasahus sp.                   1            1
                Reduviidae sp.                1            1
                Hemiptera species
                (nymph)                       .            .
Hymenoptera
Apidae          Apis mellifera                1            1
Formicidae      Acanthognathus sp.            1            1
                Acromyrmex sp.               21            8
                Anochetus sp.                 2            2
                Atta sp.1                     .            .
                Atta spp.                    33            9
                Brachymyrmex spp.           253           14
                Camponotus spp.             184           14
                Crematogaster spp.          145            8
                Dolichoderus spp.            63            2
                Dorymyrmex spp.             988            5
                Ectatomma spp.               66           12
                Gnamptogenys spp.            25            7
                Hypoponera sp.                8            1
                Odontomachus sp.             26            6
                Pachycondyla sp.              1            1
                Paratrechina sp.              .            .
                Pheidole spp.             2,032           15
                Pseudomyrmex sp.              1            1
                Solenopsis sp.                .            .
                Tapinona sp.                 98            2
                Trachymyrmex sp.              1            1
                Wasmania sp.                  .            .
                Formicidae sp.1               3            1
Vespidae        Vespidae sp.1                 2            2
Isoptera
Termitidae      Termitidae sp.1               3            3
Lepidoptera
Hesperiidae     Hesperiidae sp.1              5            2
                Hesperiidae sp.2              1            1
Noctuidae       Noctuidae sp.1                1            1
Pieridae        Pieridae sp.1                 2            1
                Lepidoptera sp.1.             .            .
                Lepidoptera sp.2.             4            3
                Lepidoptera sp.3
                (immature)                    2            2
Neuroptera
Chrysopidae     Chrysoperla externa           1            1
Hemerobiidae    Hemerobiidae sp.1             2            2
Orthoptera
Acrididae       Acrididae sp.1               11            6
                Acrididae sp.2               12            3
Gryllidae       Gryllus assimilis            71           13
Thysanoptera
                Thysanoptera sp.1             2            1
Araneae
Araneidae       Araneidae sp.1                1            1
Corinnidae      Corinna sp.                  14            7
                Corinnidae sp.1               .            .
                Castianeirinae sp.1           3            1
Ctenidae        Ctenidae sp.1                 .            .
Gnaphosidae     Gnaphosidae sp.1              1            1
                Gnaphosidae sp.2              2            1
Hahniidae       Hahniidae sp.1                1            1
                Hahniidae sp.2                1            1
                Hahniidae sp.3                .            .
Linyphiidae     Lepthyphantes sp.             1            1
                Meioneta sp.1                 1            1
                Meioneta sp.2                 .            .
                Linyphiidae sp.1              .            .
Lycosidae       Lycosa sp.                    2            1
                Lycosidae sp.1                6            5
                Lycosidae sp.2                .            .
Miturgidae      Teminius insularis            2            2
                Miturgidae sp.1               1            1
Oonopidae       Onopinae sp.1                 .            .
Philodromidae   Berlandiella sp.1             .            .
                Berlandiella sp.2             .            .
                Philodromidae sp.1            .            .
Salticidae      Salticidae sp.1               1            1
                Salticidae sp.2               1            1
                Salticidae sp.3               1            1
                Salticidae sp.4               .            .
                Salticidae sp.5               .            .
                Salticidae sp.6               4            1
Scytodidae      Scytodes sp.                  3            2
                Scytodes ytu                  1            1
                Scytodidae sp.1               2            2
Tetragnathidae  Tetragnathidae sp.1           3            2
Theridiidae     Coleosoma sp.1                3            2
                Coleosoma sp.2                3            3
                Dipoena sp.1                  7            2
                Dipoena sp.2                  5            4
                Dipoena sp.3                  1            1
                Theridiidae sp.1              .            .
Titanoecidae    Goeldia sp.1                  4            2
                Goeldia sp.2                  .            .
Opiliones       Opiliones sp.1                1            1
Diplopoda       Diplopoda sp.1               24           11
Chilopode       Chilopode sp.1               15            8
                Chilopode sp.2                .            .

Taxon           Morphospecies          Dominance  Abundance

Blattodea
Blatellidae     Blatellidae sp.1         ND         C
                Blatellidae sp.2         .          .
Coleoptera
Carabidae       Loxandrus sp.1           .          .
                Loxandrus sp.2           .          .
                Loxandrus sp.3           ND         R
                Pseudabarys sp.1         .          .
                Pseudabarys sp.2         .          .
                Pseudabarys sp.3         ND         R
                Carabidae sp.1           .          .
                Carabidae sp.2           .          .
                Carabidae sp.3           .          .
                Carabidae sp.4           .          .
                Carabidae sp.5           ND         R
Cincidelinae    Megacephala sp.1         ND         R
                Cincidelinae sp.l        ND         R
                Cincidelinae sp.2        ND         R
Chrysomelidae   Bruchinae sp.1           D          VA
Curculionidae   Metamasius hemipterus    ND         R
                Curculionidae sp.1       ND         R
Elateridae      Conoderus Scalaris       ND         R
                Conoderus sp.1           .          .
                Conoderus sp.2           .          .
Passalidae      Passalidae sp.1          ND         R
Rhizophagidae   Rhizophagidae sp.1       D          VA
Scarabaeidae    Ataenius sp.1            ND         R
                Ataenius sp.2            ND         R
                Canthon sp.1             ND         C
                Canthon sp.2             .          .
                Canthon sp.3             .          .
                Canthon sp.4             .          .
                Canthon sp.5             ND         R
                Cyclocephala sp.1        .          .
                Cyclocephala sp.2        .          .
                Cyclocephala sp.3        ND         C
Staphylinidae   Staphylinidae sp.1       ND         R
                Staphylinidae sp.2       D          VA
                Staphylinidae sp.3       .          .
                Staphylinidae sp.4       ND         C
                Staphylinidae sp.5       ND         R
                Staphylinidae sp.6       .          .
                Staphylinidae sp.7       ND         R
Dermaptera
Forficulidae    Doru sp.                 ND         R
                Forficulidae sp.1        ND         C
                Forficulidae sp.2        .          .
Labiduridae     Labidura sp.             ND         C
Diptera
Agromyzidae     Agromyzidae sp.1         .          .
Asilidae        Asilidae sp.             ND         R
Culicidae       Culicidae sp.1           .          .
                Culicidae sp.2           ND         D
Dolichopodidae  Condylostylus sp.        ND         R
                Dolichopodidae sp.1      ND         R
Drosophilidae   Drosophilidae sp.1       ND         R
                Drosophilidae sp.2       .          .
                Drosophilidae sp.3       ND         D
                Drosophilidae sp.4       .          .
                Drosophilidae sp.5       .          .
Muscidae        Muscidae sp.1            ND         R
                Muscidae sp.2            .          .
Mycetophilidae  Mycetophilidae sp.1      .          .
                Mycetophilidae sp.2      .          .
Phoridae        Phoridae sp.1            ND         C
                Phoridae sp.2            ND         C
                Phoridae sp.3            D          D
                Phoridae sp.4            ND         D
                Phoridae sp.5            .          .
                Phoridae sp.6            .          .
                Phoridae sp.7            .          .
                Phoridae sp.8            ND         R
Piophilidae     Piophilidae sp.1         .          .
Psychodidae     Psychodidae sp.1         .          .
Sciaridae       Sciaridae sp.1           .          .
                Sciaridae sp.2           ND         R
                Sciaridae sp.3           ND         R
                Sciaridae sp.4           .          .
                Sciaridae sp.5           ND         D
                Sciaridae sp.6           ND         R
                Sciaridae sp.7           .          .
                Sciaridae sp.8           .          .
                Sciaridae sp.9           ND         R
                Sciaridae sp.10          ND         R
                Sciaridae sp.11          ND         R
                Sciaridae sp.12          ND         R
Sphaeroceridae  Sphaeroceridae sp.1      .          .
                Sphaeroceridae sp.2      .          .
                Sphaeroceridae sp.3      .          .
                Sphaeroceridae sp.4      .          .
                Sphaeroceridae sp.5      ND         R
Tachinidae      Tachinidae sp.1          ND         C
Ulidiidae       Ulidiidae sp.1           ND         R
                Diptera sp.1             .          .
                Diptera sp.2             .          .
                Diptera sp.3             ND         R
                Diptera sp.4             .          .
                Diptera sp.5             .          .
                Diptera sp.6             .          .
                Diptera sp.7             .          .
                Diptera sp.8             ND         R
Hemiptera
Aphididae       Aphididae sp.1           D          C
Aetalionidae    Aetalionidae sp.1        .          .
Cercopidae      Mahanarva fimbriolato    ND         R
Coreidae        Coreidae sp.             ND         R
Cydnidae        Scaptocoris castanea     ND         R
                Cyrtomenus mirabilis     ND         R
Reduviidae      Rasahus sp.              ND         R
                Reduviidae sp.           ND         R
                Hemiptera species
                (nymph)                  .          .
Hymenoptera
Apidae          Apis mellifera           ND         R
Formicidae      Acanthognathus sp.       ND         R
                Acromyrmex sp.           D          C
                Anochetus sp.            ND         R
                Atta sp.1                .          .
                Atta spp.                D          VA
                Brachymyrmex spp.        D          VA
                Camponotus spp.          D          VA
                Crematogaster spp.       D          VA
                Dolichoderus spp.        D          VA
                Dorymyrmex spp.          SD         SA
                Ectatomma spp.           D          VA
                Gnamptogenys spp.        D          A
                Hypoponera sp.           ND         D
                Odontomachus sp.         D          A
                Pachycondyla sp.         ND         R
                Paratrechina sp.         .          .
                Pheidole spp.            SD         SA
                Pseudomyrmex sp.         ND         R
                Solenopsis sp.           .          .
                Tapinona sp.             D          VA
                Trachymyrmex sp.         ND         R
                Wasmania sp.             .          .
                Formicidae sp.1          ND         R
Vespidae        Vespidae sp.1            ND         R
Isoptera
Termitidae      Termitidae sp.1          ND         R
Lepidoptera
Hesperiidae     Hesperiidae sp.1         ND         R
                Hesperiidae sp.2         ND         R
Noctuidae       Noctuidae sp.1           ND         R
Pieridae        Pieridae sp.1            ND         R
                Lepidoptera sp.1.        .          .
                Lepidoptera sp.2.        ND         R
                Lepidoptera sp.3
                (immature)               ND         R
Neuroptera
Chrysopidae     Chrysoperla externa      ND         R
Hemerobiidae    Hemerobiidae sp.1        ND         R
Orthoptera
Acrididae       Acrididae sp.1           ND         C
                Acrididae sp.2           ND         C
Gryllidae       Gryllus assimilis        D          VA
Thysanoptera
                Thysanoptera sp.1        ND         R
Araneae
Araneidae       Araneidae sp.1           ND         R
Corinnidae      Corinna sp.              ND         C
                Corinnidae sp.1          .          .
                Castianeirinae sp.1      ND         R
Ctenidae        Ctenidae sp.1            .          .
Gnaphosidae     Gnaphosidae sp.1         ND         R
                Gnaphosidae sp.2         ND         R
Hahniidae                                ND         R
                Hahniidae sp.2           ND         R
                Hahniidae sp.3           .          .
Linyphiidae     Lepthyphantes sp.        ND         R
                Meioneta sp.1            ND         R
                Meioneta sp.2            .          .
                Linyphiidae sp.1         .          .
Lycosidae       Lycosa sp.               ND         R
                Lycosidae sp.1           ND         R
                Lycosidae sp.2           .          .
Miturgidae      Teminius insularis       ND         R
                Miturgidae sp.1          ND         R
Oonopidae       Onopinae sp.1            .          .
Philodromidae   Berlandiella sp.1        .          .
                Berlandiella sp.2        .          .
                Philodromidae sp.1       .          .
Salticidae      Salticidae sp.1          ND         R
                Salticidae sp.2          ND         R
                Salticidae sp.3          ND         R
                Salticidae sp.4          .          .
                Salticidae sp.5          .          .
                Salticidae sp.6          ND         R
Scytodidae      Scytodes sp.             ND         R
                Scytodes ytu             ND         R
                Scytodidae sp.1          ND         R
Tetragnathidae  Tetragnathidae sp.1      ND         R
Theridiidae     Coleosoma sp.1           ND         R
                Coleosoma sp.2           ND         R
                Dipoena sp.1             ND         D
                Dipoena sp.2             ND         R
                Dipoena sp.3             ND         R
                Theridiidae sp.1         .          .
Titanoecidae    Goeldia sp.1             ND         R
                Goeldia sp.2             .          .
Opiliones       Opiliones sp.1           ND         R
Diplopoda       Diplopoda sp.1           D          C
Chilopode       Chilopode sp.1           ND         C
                Chilopode sp.2           .          .

Taxon           Morphospecies          Frequency  Constancy

Blattodea
Blatellidae     Blatellidae sp.1          F         Y
                Blatellidae sp.2          .         .
Coleoptera
Carabidae       Loxandrus sp.1            .         .
                Loxandrus sp.2            .         .
                Loxandrus sp.3            LF        Z
                Pseudabarys sp.1          .         .
                Pseudabarys sp.2          .         .
                Pseudabarys sp.3          LF        Z
                Carabidae sp.1            .         .
                Carabidae sp.2            .         .
                Carabidae sp.3            .         .
                Carabidae sp.4            .         .
                Carabidae sp.5            LF        Z
Cincidelinae    Megacephala sp.1          LF        Z
                Cincidelinae sp.l         LF        Z
                Cincidelinae sp.2         LF        Z
Chrysomelidae   Bruchinae sp.1            VF        Z
Curculionidae   Metamasius hemipterus     LF        Z
                Curculionidae sp.1        LF        Z
Elateridae      Conoderus Scalaris        LF        Z
                Conoderus sp.1            .         .
                Conoderus sp.2            .         .
Passalidae      Passalidae sp.1           LF        Z
Rhizophagidae   Rhizophagidae sp.1        VF        Z
Scarabaeidae    Ataenius sp.1             LF        Z
                Ataenius sp.2             LF        Z
                Canthon sp.1              F         Y
                Canthon sp.2              .         .
                Canthon sp.3              .         .
                Canthon sp.4              .         .
                Canthon sp.5              LF        Z
                Cyclocephala sp.1         .         .
                Cyclocephala sp.2         .         .
                Cyclocephala sp.3         F         Y
Staphylinidae   Staphylinidae sp.1        LF        Z
                Staphylinidae sp.2        VF        Z
                Staphylinidae sp.3        .         .
                Staphylinidae sp.4        F         Y
                Staphylinidae sp.5        LF        Z
                Staphylinidae sp.6        .         .
                Staphylinidae sp.7        LF        Z
Dermaptera
Forficulidae    Doru sp.                  LF        z
                Forficulidae sp.1         F         Y
                Forficulidae sp.2         .         .
Labiduridae     Labidura sp.              F         Y
Diptera
Agromyzidae     Agromyzidae sp.1          .         .
Asilidae        Asilidae sp.              LF        Z
Culicidae       Culicidae sp.1            .         .
                Culicidae sp.2            LF        Z
Dolichopodidae  Condylostylus sp.         LF        Z
                Dolichopodidae sp.1       LF        z
Drosophilidae   Drosophilidae sp.1        LF        z
                Drosophilidae sp.2        .         .
                Drosophilidae sp.3        LF        z
                Drosophilidae sp.4        .         .
                Drosophilidae sp.5        .         .
Muscidae        Muscidae sp.1             LF        z
                Muscidae sp.2             .         .
Mycetophilidae  Mycetophilidae sp.1       .         .
                Mycetophilidae sp.2       .         .
Phoridae        Phoridae sp.1             F         Y
                Phoridae sp.2             F         Y
                Phoridae sp.3             LF        Y
                Phoridae sp.4             LF        Z
                Phoridae sp.5             .         .
                Phoridae sp.6             .         .
                Phoridae sp.7             .         .
                Phoridae sp.8             LF        Z
Piophilidae     Piophilidae sp.1          .         .
Psychodidae     Psychodidae sp.1          .         .
Sciaridae       Sciaridae sp.1            .         .
                Sciaridae sp.2            LF        Z
                Sciaridae sp.3            LF        Z
                Sciaridae sp.4            .         .
                Sciaridae sp.5            LF        Z
                Sciaridae sp.6            LF        Z
                Sciaridae sp.7            .         .
                Sciaridae sp.8            .         .
                Sciaridae sp.9            LF        Z
                Sciaridae sp.10           LF        Z
                Sciaridae sp.11           LF        z
                Sciaridae sp.12           LF        z
Sphaeroceridae  Sphaeroceridae sp.1       .         .
                Sphaeroceridae sp.2       .         .
                Sphaeroceridae sp.3       .         .
                Sphaeroceridae sp.4       .         .
                Sphaeroceridae sp.5       LF        z
Tachinidae      Tachinidae sp.1           F         Y
Ulidiidae       Ulidiidae sp.1            LF        Z
                Diptera sp.1              .         .
                Diptera sp.2              .         .
                Diptera sp.3              LF        Z
                Diptera sp.4              .         .
                Diptera sp.5              .         .
                Diptera sp.6              .         .
                Diptera sp.7              .         .
                Diptera sp.8              LF        Z
Hemiptera
Aphididae       Aphididae sp.1            F         Z
Aetalionidae    Aetalionidae sp.1         .         .
Cercopidae      Mahanarva fimbriolato     LF        Z
Coreidae        Coreidae sp.              LF        Z
Cydnidae        Scaptocoris castanea      LF        Z
                Cyrtomenus mirabilis      LF        z
Reduviidae      Rasahus sp.               LF        Z
                Reduviidae sp.            LF        Z
                Hemiptera species
                (nymph)                   .         .
Hymenoptera
Apidae          Apis mellifera            LF        Z
Formicidae      Acanthognathus sp.        LF        Z
                Acromyrmex sp.            F         w
                Anochetus sp.             LF        z
                Atta sp.1                 .         .
                Atta spp.                 VF        w
                Brachymyrmex spp.         VF        w
                Camponotus spp.           VF        w
                Crematogaster spp.        VF        w
                Dolichoderus spp.         VF        Z
                Dorymyrmex spp.           SF        w
                Ectatomma spp.            VF        w
                Gnamptogenys spp.         VF        Y
                Hypoponera sp.            LF        Z
                Odontomachus sp.          VF        Y
                Pachycondyla sp.          LF        Z
                Paratrechina sp.          .         .
                Pheidole spp.             SF        W
                Pseudomyrmex sp.          LF        Z
                Solenopsis sp.            .         .
                Tapinona sp.              VF        Z
                Trachymyrmex sp.          LF        Z
                Wasmania sp.              .         .
                Formicidae sp.1           LF        Z
Vespidae        Vespidae sp.1             LF        Z
Isoptera
Termitidae      Termitidae sp.1           LF        Z
Lepidoptera
Hesperiidae     Hesperiidae sp.1          LF        Z
                Hesperiidae sp.2          LF        Z
Noctuidae       Noctuidae sp.1            LF        Z
Pieridae        Pieridae sp.1             LF        Z
                Lepidoptera sp.1.         .         .
                Lepidoptera sp.2.         LF        z
                Lepidoptera sp.3
                (immature)                LF        z
Neuroptera
Chrysopidae     Chrysoperla externa       LF        z
Hemerobiidae    Hemerobiidae sp.1         LF        z
Orthoptera
Acrididae       Acrididae sp.1            F         Y
                Acrididae sp.2            F         z
Gryllidae       Gryllus assimilis         VF        w
Thysanoptera
                Thysanoptera sp.1         LF        z
Araneae
Araneidae       Araneidae sp.1            LF        z
Corinnidae      Corinna sp.               F         Y
                Corinnidae sp.1           .         .
                Castianeirinae sp.1       LF        z
Ctenidae        Ctenidae sp.1             .         .
Gnaphosidae     Gnaphosidae sp.1          LF        z
                Gnaphosidae sp.2          LF        z
Hahniidae                                 LF        z
                Hahniidae sp.2            LF        z
                Hahniidae sp.3            .         .
Linyphiidae     Lepthyphantes sp.         LF        z
                Meioneta sp.1             LF        z
                Meioneta sp.2             .         .
                Linyphiidae sp.1          .         .
Lycosidae       Lycosa sp.                LF        z
                Lycosidae sp.1            LF        Y
                Lycosidae sp.2            .         .
Miturgidae      Teminius insularis        LF        z
                Miturgidae sp.1           LF        z
Oonopidae       Onopinae sp.1             .         .
Philodromidae   Berlandiella sp.1         .         .
                Berlandiella sp.2         .         .
                Philodromidae sp.1        .         .
Salticidae      Salticidae sp.1           LF        Z
                Salticidae sp.2           LF        Z
                Salticidae sp.3           LF        Z
                Salticidae sp.4           .         .
                Salticidae sp.5           .         .
                Salticidae sp.6           LF        Z
Scytodidae      Scytodes sp.              LF        Z
                Scytodes ytu              LF        Z
                Scytodidae sp.1           LF        Z
Tetragnathidae  Tetragnathidae sp.1       LF        z
Theridiidae     Coleosoma sp.1            LF        z
                Coleosoma sp.2            LF        z
                Dipoena sp.1              LF        Y
                Dipoena sp.2              LF        Z
                Dipoena sp.3              LF        Z
                Theridiidae sp.1          .         .
Titanoecidae    Goeldia sp.1              LF        Z
                Goeldia sp.2              .         .
Opiliones       Opiliones sp.1            LF        Z
Diplopoda       Diplopoda sp.1            F         W
Chilopode       Chilopode sp.1            F         w
                Chilopode sp.2            .         .
Ecological Indices    Conventional
Shannon--Wiener (H')        2.343
Margalef ([alpha])         14.101
Equitability                0.488
Similarity                  0.687
                                                   rganic
Taxon           Morphospecies              No.           No.
                                           Individuals   Collections
                                           Captured
Blattodea
Blatellidae     Blatellidae sp.1             3               3
                Blatellidae sp.2            44              11
Coleoptera
Carabidae       Loxandrus sp.1               5               2
                Loxandrus sp.2               4               2
                Loxandrus sp.3               .               .
                Pseudabarys sp.1             2               2
                Pseudabarys sp.2             1               1
                Pseudabarys sp.3             .               .
                Carabidae sp.1               1               1
                Carabidae sp.2               1               1
                Carabidae sp.3               1               1
                Carabidae sp.4               1               1
                Carabidae sp.5               .               .
Cincidelinae    Megacephala sp.1             1               1
                Cincidelinae sp.l           20               7
                Cincidelinae sp.2            .               .
Chrysomelidae   Bruchinae sp.1               .               .
Curculionidae   Metamasius hemipterus        4               2
                Curculionidae sp.1           .               .
Elateridae      Conoderus Scalaris           .               .
                Conoderus sp.1               2               2
                Conoderus sp.2               1               1
Passalidae      Passalidae sp.1              .               .
Rhizophagidae   Rhizophagidae sp.1           .               .
Scarabaeidae    Ataenius sp.1                .               .
                Ataenius sp.2                .               .
                Canthon sp.1                 .               .
                Canthon sp.2                 3               1
                Canthon sp.3                 1               1
                Canthon sp.4                 1               1
                Canthon sp.5                 .               .
                Cyclocephala sp.1           22               7
                Cyclocephala sp.2            2               2
                Cyclocephala sp.3            .               .
Staphylinidae   Staphylinidae sp.1           1               1
                Staphylinidae sp.2           1               1
                Staphylinidae sp.3           1               1
                Staphylinidae sp.4          81               6
                Staphylinidae sp.5           1               1
                Staphylinidae sp.6           3               2
                Staphylinidae sp.7           .               .
Dermaptera
Forficulidae    Doru sp.                     .               .
                Forficulidae sp.1          115               3
                Forficulidae sp.2            1               1
Labiduridae     Labidura sp.                 1               1
Diptera
Agromyzidae     Agromyzidae sp.1            24               3
Asilidae        Asilidae sp.                 .               .
Culicidae       Culicidae sp.1               2               2
                Culicidae sp.2               .               .
Dolichopodidae  Condylostylus sp.            .               .
                Dolichopodidae sp.1          7               4
Drosophilidae   Drosophilidae sp.1           1               1
                Drosophilidae sp.2          21               6
                Drosophilidae sp.3           1               1
                Drosophilidae sp.4           1               1
                Drosophilidae sp.5           1               1
Muscidae        Muscidae sp.1                2               1
                Muscidae sp.2                1               1
Mycetophilidae  Mycetophilidae sp.1          2               2
                Mycetophilidae sp.2          2               1
Phoridae        Phoridae sp.1               60              11
                Phoridae sp.2               53              12
                Phoridae sp.3               40               7
                Phoridae sp.4                8               2
                Phoridae sp.5               15               6
                Phoridae sp.6                1               1
                Phoridae sp.7                1               1
                Phoridae sp.8                1               1
Piophilidae     Piophilidae sp.1             6               4
Psychodidae     Psychodidae sp.1             1               1
Sciaridae       Sciaridae sp.1               3               2
                Sciaridae sp.2               6               3
                Sciaridae sp.3              20               6
                Sciaridae sp.4               1               1
                Sciaridae sp.5              43               4
                Sciaridae sp.6              32               3
                Sciaridae sp.7               1               1
                Sciaridae sp.8               1               1
                Sciaridae sp.9               1               1
                Sciaridae sp.10              1               1
                Sciaridae sp.11              1               1
                Sciaridae sp.12              .               .
Sphaeroceridae  Sphaeroceridae sp.1         23               3
                Sphaeroceridae sp.2          7               2
                Sphaeroceridae sp.3          3               1
                Sphaeroceridae sp.4          1               1
                Sphaeroceridae sp.5          1               1
Tachinidae      Tachinidae sp.1              6               1
Ulidiidae       Ulidiidae sp.1               .               .
                Diptera sp.1                 2               1
                Diptera sp.2                 1               1
                Diptera sp.3                 1               1
                Diptera sp.4                 9               1
                Diptera sp.5                 1               1
                Diptera sp.6                 1               1
                Diptera sp.7                 1               1
                Diptera sp.8                 2               1
Hemiptera
Aphididae       Aphididae sp.1              11               3
Aetalionidae    Aetalionidae sp.1            4               3
Cercopidae      Mahanarva fimbriolato       11               5
Coreidae        Coreidae sp.                 .               .
Cydnidae        Scaptocoris castanea        90              11
                Cyrtomenus mirabilis         .               .
Reduviidae      Rasahus sp.                  .               .
                Reduviidae sp.               .               .
                Hemiptera species
                (nymph)                     25               3
Hymenoptera
Apidae          Apis mellifera               .               .
Formicidae      Acanthognathus sp.           1               1
                Acromyrmex sp.              10               5
                Anochetus sp.                .               .
                Atta sp.1                    2               2
                Atta spp.                   22               8
                Brachymyrmex spp.          498              15
                Camponotus spp.            622              15
                Crematogaster spp.       1,749              15
                Dolichoderus spp.            8               2
                Dorymyrmex spp.          1,026              15
                Ectatomma spp.              62              10
                Gnamptogenys spp.           17               5
                Hypoponera sp.               9               2
                Odontomachus sp.             8               5
                Pachycondyla sp.             4               2
                Paratrechina sp.             3               2
                Pheidole spp.            2,716              15
                Pseudomyrmex sp.             3               3
                Solenopsis sp.               1               1
                Tapinona sp.                 7               1
                Trachymyrmex sp.             .               .
                Wasmania sp.                10               1
                Formicidae sp.1              2               2
Vespidae        Vespidae sp.1                1               1
Isoptera
Termitidae      Termitidae sp.1             26               5
Lepidoptera
Hesperiidae     Hesperiidae sp.1             4               2
                Hesperiidae sp.2             1               1
Noctuidae       Noctuidae sp.1               2               1
Pieridae        Pieridae sp.1                .               .
                Lepidoptera sp.1.            7               4
                Lepidoptera sp.2.           80               2
                Lepidoptera sp.3
                (immature)                   .               .
Neuroptera
Chrysopidae     Chrysoperla externa          .               .
Hemerobiidae    Hemerobiidae sp.1            .               .
Orthoptera
Acrididae       Acrididae sp.1             107              11
                Acrididae sp.2               .               .
Gryllidae       Gryllus assimilis            3               2
Thysanoptera
                Thysanoptera sp.1            .               .
Araneae
Araneidae       Araneidae sp.1               .               .
Corinnidae      Corinna sp.                 81               9
                Corinnidae sp.1             58               5
                Castianeirinae sp.1          3               3
Ctenidae        Ctenidae sp.1                1               1
Gnaphosidae     Gnaphosidae sp.1             .               .
                Gnaphosidae sp.2             .               .
Hahniidae                                    .               .
                Hahniidae sp.2               .               .
                Hahniidae sp.3               4               3
Linyphiidae     Lepthyphantes sp.            3               3
                Meioneta sp.1                2               2
                Meioneta sp.2                1               1
                Linyphiidae sp.1             1               1
Lycosidae       Lycosa sp.                   1               1
                Lycosidae sp.1              11               7
                Lycosidae sp.2               2               1
Miturgidae      Teminius insularis          23               8
                Miturgidae sp.1              7               4
Oonopidae       Onopinae sp.1                2               1
Philodromidae   Berlandiella sp.1            1               1
                Berlandiella sp.2            1               1
                Philodromidae sp.1           1               1
Salticidae      Salticidae sp.1              .               .
                Salticidae sp.2              .               .
                Salticidae sp.3              .               .
                Salticidae sp.4              1               1
                Salticidae sp.5              2               1
                Salticidae sp.6              8               4
Scytodidae      Scytodes sp.                 3               3
                Scytodes ytu                 .               .
                Scytodidae sp.1              .               .
Tetragnathidae  Tetragnathidae sp.1          .               .
Theridiidae     Coleosoma sp.1               5               4
                Coleosoma sp.2               .               .
                Dipoena sp.1                 5               5
                Dipoena sp.2                29               8
                Dipoena sp.3                 .               .
                Theridiidae sp.1             2               2
Titanoecidae    Goeldia sp.1                 9               4
                Goeldia sp.2                 7               2
Opiliones       Opiliones sp.1              20               2
Diplopoda       Diplopoda sp.1              74              10
Chilopode       Chilopode sp.1               .               .
                Chilopode sp.2              13               3

Taxon           Morphospecies         Dominance  Abundance  Frequency

Blattodea
Blatellidae     Blatellidae sp.1          ND        R          LF
                Blatellidae sp.2          D         VA         VF
Coleoptera
Carabidae       Loxandrus sp.1            ND        R          LF
                Loxandrus sp.2            ND        R          LF
                Loxandrus sp.3            .         .          .
                Pseudabarys sp.1          ND        R          LF
                Pseudabarys sp.2          ND        R          LF
                Pseudabarys sp.3          .         .          .
                Carabidae sp.1            ND        R          LF
                Carabidae sp.2            ND        R          LF
                Carabidae sp.3            ND        R          LF
                Carabidae sp.4            ND        R          LF
                Carabidae sp.5            .         .          .
Cincidelinae    Megacephala sp.1          ND        R          LF
                Cincidelinae sp.l         D         C          F
                Cincidelinae sp.2         .         .          .
Chrysomelidae   Bruchinae sp.1            .         .          .
Curculionidae   Metamasius hemipterus     ND        R          LF
                Curculionidae sp.1        .         .          .
Elateridae      Conoderus Scalaris        .         .          .
                Conoderus sp.1            ND        R          LF
                Conoderus sp.2            ND        R          LF
Passalidae      Passalidae sp.1           .         .          .
Rhizophagidae   Rhizophagidae sp.1        .         .          .
Scarabaeidae    Ataenius sp.1             .         .          .
                Ataenius sp.2             .         .          .
                Canthon sp.1              .         .          .
                Canthon sp.2              ND        R          LF
                Canthon sp.3              ND        R          LF
                Canthon sp.4              ND        R          LF
                Canthon sp.5              .         .          .
                Cyclocephala sp.1         D         A          VF
                Cyclocephala sp.2         ND        R          LF
                Cyclocephala sp.3         .         .          .
Staphylinidae   Staphylinidae sp.1        ND        R          LF
                Staphylinidae sp.2        ND        R          LF
                Staphylinidae sp.3        ND        R          LF
                Staphylinidae sp.4        D         VA         VF
                Staphylinidae sp.5        ND        R          LF
                Staphylinidae sp.6        ND        R          LF
                Staphylinidae sp.7        .         .          .
Dermaptera
Forficulidae    Doru sp.                  .         .          .
                Forficulidae sp.1         D         VA         VF
                Forficulidae sp.2         ND        R          LF
Labiduridae     Labidura sp.              ND        R          LF
Diptera
Agromyzidae     Agromyzidae sp.1          D         A          VF
Asilidae        Asilidae sp.              .         .          .
Culicidae       Culicidae sp.1            ND        R          LF
                Culicidae sp.2            .         .          .
Dolichopodidae  Condylostylus sp.         .         .          .
                Dolichopodidae sp.1       ND        D          LF
Drosophilidae   Drosophilidae sp.1        ND        R          LF
                Drosophilidae sp.2        D         C          F
                Drosophilidae sp.3        ND        R          LF
                Drosophilidae sp.4        ND        R          LF
                Drosophilidae sp.5        ND        R          LF
Muscidae        Muscidae sp.1             ND        R          LF
                Muscidae sp.2             ND        R          LF
Mycetophilidae  Mycetophilidae sp.1       ND        R          LF
                Mycetophilidae sp.2       ND        R          LF
Phoridae        Phoridae sp.1             D         VA         VF
                Phoridae sp.2             D         VA         VF
                Phoridae sp.3             D         VA         VF
                Phoridae sp.4             ND        C          F
                Phoridae sp.5             D         C          F
                Phoridae sp.6             ND        R          LF
                Phoridae sp.7             ND        R          LF
                Phoridae sp.8             ND        R          LF
Piophilidae     Piophilidae sp.1          ND        D          LF
Psychodidae     Psychodidae sp.1          ND        R          LF
Sciaridae       Sciaridae sp.1            ND        R          LF
                Sciaridae sp.2            ND        D          LF
                Sciaridae sp.3            D         C          F
                Sciaridae sp.4            ND        R          LF
                Sciaridae sp.5            D         VA         VF
                Sciaridae sp.6            D         VA         VF
                Sciaridae sp.7            ND        R          LF
                Sciaridae sp.8            ND        R          LF
                Sciaridae sp.9            ND        R          LF
                Sciaridae sp.10           ND        R          LF
                Sciaridae sp.11           ND        R          LF
                Sciaridae sp.12           .         .          .
Sphaeroceridae  Sphaeroceridae sp.1       D          A          VF
                Sphaeroceridae sp.2       ND        D          LF
                Sphaeroceridae sp.3       ND        R          LF
                Sphaeroceridae sp.4       ND        R          LF
                Sphaeroceridae sp.5       ND        R          LF
Tachinidae      Tachinidae sp.1           ND        D          LF
Ulidiidae       Ulidiidae sp.1            .         .          .
                Diptera sp.1              ND        R          LF
                Diptera sp.2              ND        R          LF
                Diptera sp.3              ND        R          LF
                Diptera sp.4              ND        C          F
                Diptera sp.5              ND        R          LF
                Diptera sp.6              ND        R          LF
                Diptera sp.7              ND        R          LF
                Diptera sp.8              ND        R          LF
Hemiptera
Aphididae       Aphididae sp.1            ND        C          F
Aetalionidae    Aetalionidae sp.1         ND        R          LF
Cercopidae      Mahanarva fimbriolato     ND        C          F
Coreidae        Coreidae sp.              .         .          .
Cydnidae        Scaptocoris castanea      D         VA         VF
                Cyrtomenus mirabilis      .         .          .
Reduviidae      Rasahus sp.               .         .          .
                Reduviidae sp.            .         .          .
                Hemiptera species
                (nymph)                   D         VA         VF
Hymenoptera
Apidae          Apis mellifera            .         .          .
Formicidae      Acanthognathus sp.        ND        R          LF
                Acromyrmex sp.            ND        C          F
                Anochetus sp.             .         .          .
                Atta sp.1                 ND        R          LF
                Atta spp.                 D         A          VF
                Brachymyrmex spp.         D         VA         VF
                Camponotus spp.           SD        SA         SF
                Crematogaster spp.        SD        SA         SF
                Dolichoderus spp.         ND        C          F
                Dorymyrmex spp.           SD        SA         SF
                Ectatomma spp.            D         VA         VF
                Gnamptogenys spp.         D         C          F
                Hypoponera sp.            ND        C          F
                Odontomachus sp.          ND        C          F
                Pachycondyla sp.          ND        R          LF
                Paratrechina sp.          ND        R          LF
                Pheidole spp.             SD        SA         SF
                Pseudomyrmex sp.          ND        R          LF
                Solenopsis sp.            ND        R          LF
                Tapinona sp.              ND        D          LF
                Trachymyrmex sp.          .         .          .
                Wasmania sp.              ND        C          F
                Formicidae sp.1           ND        R          LF
Vespidae        Vespidae sp.1             ND        R          LF
Isoptera
Termitidae      Termitidae sp.1           D         VA         VF
Lepidoptera
Hesperiidae     Hesperiidae sp.1          ND        R          LF
                Hesperiidae sp.2          ND        R          LF
Noctuidae       Noctuidae sp.1            ND        R          LF
Pieridae        Pieridae sp.1             .         .          .
                Lepidoptera sp.1.         ND        D          LF
                Lepidoptera sp.2.         D         VA         VF
                Lepidoptera sp.3
                (immature)                .         .          .
Neuroptera
Chrysopidae     Chrysoperla externa       .         .          .
Hemerobiidae    Hemerobiidae sp.1         .         .          .
Orthoptera
Acrididae       Acrididae sp.1            D         VA         VF
                Acrididae sp.2            .         .          .
Gryllidae       Gryllus assimilis         ND        R          LF
Thysanoptera
                Thysanoptera sp.1         .         .          .
Araneae
Araneidae       Araneidae sp.1            .         .          .
Corinnidae      Corinna sp.               D         VA         VF
                Corinnidae sp.1           D         VA         VF
                Castianeirinae sp.1       ND        R          LF
Ctenidae        Ctenidae sp.1             ND        R          LF
Gnaphosidae     Gnaphosidae sp.1          .         .          .
                Gnaphosidae sp.2          .         .          .
Hahniidae                                 .         .          .
                Hahniidae sp.2            .         .          .
                Hahniidae sp.3            ND        R          LF
Linyphiidae     Lepthyphantes sp.         ND        R          LF
                Meioneta sp.1             ND        R          LF
                Meioneta sp.2             ND        R          LF
                Linyphiidae sp.1          ND        R          LF
Lycosidae       Lycosa sp.                ND        R          LF
                Lycosidae sp.1            ND        C          F
                Lycosidae sp.2            ND        R          LF
Miturgidae      Teminius insularis        D         A          VF
                Miturgidae sp.1           ND        D          LF
Oonopidae       Onopinae sp.1             ND        R
Philodromidae   Berlandiella sp.1         ND        R          LF
                Berlandiella sp.2         ND        R          LF
                Philodromidae sp.1        ND        R          LF
Salticidae      Salticidae sp.1           .         .          .
                Salticidae sp.2           .         .          .
                Salticidae sp.3           .         .          .
                Salticidae sp.4           ND        R          LF
                Salticidae sp.5           ND        R          LF
                Salticidae sp.6           ND        C          F
Scytodidae      Scytodes sp.              ND        R          LF
                Scytodes ytu              .         .          .
                Scytodidae sp.1           .         .          .
Tetragnathidae  Tetragnathidae sp.1       .         .          .
Theridiidae     Coleosoma sp.1            ND        R          LF
                Coleosoma sp.2            .         .          .
                Dipoena sp.1              ND        R          LF
                Dipoena sp.2              D         VA         VF
                Dipoena sp.3              .         .          .
                Theridiidae sp.1          ND        R          LF
Titanoecidae    Goeldia sp.1              ND        C          F
                Goeldia sp.2              ND        D          LF
Opiliones       Opiliones sp.1            D         C          F
Diplopoda       Diplopoda sp.1            D         VA         VF
Chilopode       Chilopode sp.1            .         .          .
                Chilopode sp.2            ND        C          F

Taxon           Morphospecies           Constancy  Functional Group

Blattodea
Blatellidae     Blatellidae sp.1           Z         Omnivore
                Blatellidae sp.2           W         Omnivore
Coleoptera
Carabidae       Loxandrus sp.1             Z         Predator
                Loxandrus sp.2             Z         Predator
                Loxandrus sp.3             .         Predator
                Pseudabarys sp.1           Z         Predator
                Pseudabarys sp.2           Z         Predator
                Pseudabarys sp.3           .         Predator
                Carabidae sp.1             Z         Predator
                Carabidae sp.2             Z         Predator
                Carabidae sp.3             Z         Predator
                Carabidae sp.4             Z         Predator
                Carabidae sp.5             .         Predator
Cincidelinae    Megacephala sp.1           Z         Predator
                Cincidelinae sp.l          Y         Predator
                Cincidelinae sp.2          .         Predator
Chrysomelidae   Bruchinae sp.1             .         Detritivore
Curculionidae   Metamasius hemipterus      Z         Herbivore
                Curculionidae sp.1         .         Herbivore
Elateridae      Conoderus Scalaris         .         Herbivore
                Conoderus sp.1             Z         Herbivore
                Conoderus sp.2             Z         Herbivore
Passalidae      Passalidae sp.1            .         Herbivore
Rhizophagidae   Rhizophagidae sp.1         .         Herbivore
Scarabaeidae    Ataenius sp.1              .         Detritivore
                Ataenius sp.2              .         Detritivore
                Canthon sp.1               .         Detritivore
                Canthon sp.2               Z         Detritivore
                Canthon sp.3               Z         Detritivore
                Canthon sp.4               Z         Detritivore
                Canthon sp.5               .         Detritivore
                Cyclocephala sp.1          Y         Herbivore
                Cyclocephala sp.2          Z         Herbivore
                Cyclocephala sp.3          .         Herbivore
Staphylinidae   Staphylinidae sp.1         Z         Predator
                Staphylinidae sp.2         Z         Predator
                Staphylinidae sp.3         Z         Predator
                Staphylinidae sp.4         Y         Predator
                Staphylinidae sp.5         Z         Predator
                Staphylinidae sp.6         Z         Predator
                Staphylinidae sp.7         .         Predator
Dermaptera
Forficulidae    Doru sp.                   .         Predator
                Forficulidae sp.1          Z         Predator
                Forficulidae sp.2          Z         Predator
Labiduridae     Labidura sp.               Z         Predator
Diptera
Agromyzidae     Agromyzidae sp.1           Z         Herbivore
Asilidae        Asilidae sp.               .         Predator
Culicidae       Culicidae sp.1             Z         Omnivore
                Culicidae sp.2             .         Omnivore
Dolichopodidae  Condylostylus sp.          .         Predator
                Dolichopodidae sp.1        Y         Predator
Drosophilidae   Drosophilidae sp.1         Z         Detritivore
                Drosophilidae sp.2         Y         Omnivore
                Drosophilidae sp.3         Z         Omnivore
                Drosophilidae sp.4         Z         Omnivore
                Drosophilidae sp.5         Z         Omnivore
Muscidae        Muscidae sp.1              Z         Omnivore
                Muscidae sp.2              Z         Omnivore
Mycetophilidae  Mycetophilidae sp.1        Z         Omnivore
                Mycetophilidae sp.2        Z         Omnivore
Phoridae        Phoridae sp.1              W         Detritivore
                Phoridae sp.2              W         Detritivore
                Phoridae sp.3              Y         Detritivore
                Phoridae sp.4              Z         Detritivore
                Phoridae sp.5              Y         Detritivore
                Phoridae sp.6              Z         Detritivore
                Phoridae sp.7              Z         Detritivore
                Phoridae sp.8              Z         Detritivore
Piophilidae     Piophilidae sp.1           Y         Omnivore
Psychodidae     Psychodidae sp.1           Z         Omnivore
Sciaridae       Sciaridae sp.1             Z         Omnivore
                Sciaridae sp.2             Z         Omnivore
                Sciaridae sp.3             Y         Omnivore
                Sciaridae sp.4             Z         Omnivore
                Sciaridae sp.5             Y         Omnivore
                Sciaridae sp.6             Z         Omnivore
                Sciaridae sp.7             Z         Omnivore
                Sciaridae sp.8             Z         Omnivore
                Sciaridae sp.9             Z         Omnivore
                Sciaridae sp.10            Z         Omnivore
                Sciaridae sp.11            Z         Omnivore
                Sciaridae sp.12            .         Omnivore
Sphaeroceridae  Sphaeroceridae sp.1        Z         Omnivore
                Sphaeroceridae sp.2        Z         Omnivore
                Sphaeroceridae sp.3        Z         Omnivore
                Sphaeroceridae sp.4        Z         Omnivore
                Sphaeroceridae sp.5        Z         Omnivore
Tachinidae      Tachinidae sp.1            Z         Omnivore
Ulidiidae       Ulidiidae sp.1             .         Omnivore
                Diptera sp.1               Z         Omnivore
                Diptera sp.2               Z         Omnivore
                Diptera sp.3               Z         Omnivore
                Diptera sp.4               Z         Omnivore
                Diptera sp.5               Z         Omnivore
                Diptera sp.6               Z         Omnivore
                Diptera sp.7               Z         Omnivore
                Diptera sp.8               Z         Omnivore
Hemiptera
Aphididae       Aphididae sp.1             z         Herbivore
Aetalionidae    Aetalionidae sp.1          z         Herbivore
Cercopidae      Mahanarva fimbriolato      Y         Herbivore
Coreidae        Coreidae sp.               .         Herbivore
Cydnidae        Scaptocoris castanea       W         Herbivore
                Cyrtomenus mirabilis       .         Herbivore
Reduviidae      Rasahus sp.                .         Predator
                Reduviidae sp.             .         Predator
                Hemiptera species
                (nymph)                    Z         Herbivore
Hymenoptera
Apidae          Apis mellifera             .         Pollinator
Formicidae      Acanthognathus sp.         Z         Predator
                Acromyrmex sp.             Y         Herbivore
                Anochetus sp.              .         Predator
                Atta sp.1                  Z         Herbivore
                Atta spp.                  W         Herbivore
                Brachymyrmex spp.          W         Omnivore
                Camponotus spp.            W         Omnivore
                Crematogaster spp.         W         Predator
                Dolichoderus spp.          Z         Predator
                Dorymyrmex spp.            W         Predator
                Ectatomma spp.             W         Predator
                Gnamptogenys spp.          Y         Predator
                Hypoponera sp.             Z         Predator
                Odontomachus sp.           Y         Predator
                Pachycondyla sp.           Z         Predator
                Paratrechina sp.           Z         Predator
                Pheidole spp.              W         Omnivore
                Pseudomyrmex sp.           Z         Predator
                Solenopsis sp.             Z         Omnivore
                Tapinona sp.               Z         Predator
                Trachymyrmex sp.           .         Herbivore
                Wasmania sp.               Z         Predator
                Formicidae sp.1            Z         Predator
Vespidae        Vespidae sp.1              Z         Predator
Isoptera
Termitidae      Termitidae sp.1            Y         Detritivore
Lepidoptera
Hesperiidae     Hesperiidae sp.1           Z         Herbivore
                Hesperiidae sp.2           Z         Herbivore
Noctuidae       Noctuidae sp.1             Z         Herbivore
Pieridae        Pieridae sp.1              .         Herbivore
                Lepidoptera sp.1.          Y         Herbivore
                Lepidoptera sp.2.          Z         Herbivore
                Lepidoptera sp.3
                (immature)                 .         Herbivore
Neuroptera
Chrysopidae     Chrysoperla externa        .         Herbivore
Hemerobiidae    Hemerobiidae sp.1          .         Omnivore
Orthoptera
Acrididae       Acrididae sp.1             W         Herbivore
                Acrididae sp.2             .         Herbivore
Gryllidae       Gryllus assimilis          Z         Herbivore
Thysanoptera
                Thysanoptera sp.1          .         Herbivore
Araneae
Araneidae       Araneidae sp.1             .         Predator
Corinnidae      Corinna sp.                W         Predator
                Corinnidae sp.1            Y         Predator
                Castianeirinae sp.1        Z         Predator
Ctenidae        Ctenidae sp.1              Z         Predator
Gnaphosidae     Gnaphosidae sp.1           .         Predator
                Gnaphosidae sp.2           .         Predator
Hahniidae                                  .         Predator
                Hahniidae sp.2             .         Predator
                Hahniidae sp.3             Z         Predator
Linyphiidae     Lepthyphantes sp.          Z         Predator
                Meioneta sp.1              Z         Predator
                Meioneta sp.2              Z         Predator
                Linyphiidae sp.1           Z         Predator
Lycosidae       Lycosa sp.                 Z         Predator
                Lycosidae sp.1             Y         Predator
                Lycosidae sp.2             Z         Predator
Miturgidae      Teminius insularis         W         Predator
                Miturgidae sp.1            Y         Predator
Oonopidae       Onopinae sp.1              Z         Predator
Philodromidae   Berlandiella sp.1          Z         Predator
                Berlandiella sp.2          Z         Predator
                Philodromidae sp.1         Z         Predator
Salticidae      Salticidae sp.1            .         Predator
                Salticidae sp.2            .         Predator
                Salticidae sp.3            .         Predator
                Salticidae sp.4            Z         Predator
                Salticidae sp.5            Z         Predator
                Salticidae sp.6            Y         Predator
Scytodidae      Scytodes sp.               Z         Predator
                Scytodes ytu               .         Predator
                Scytodidae sp.1            .         Predator
Tetragnathidae  Tetragnathidae sp.1        .         Predator
Theridiidae     Coleosoma sp.1             Y         Predator
                Coleosoma sp.2             .         Predator
                Dipoena sp.1               Y         Predator
                Dipoena sp.2               W         Predator
                Dipoena sp.3               .         Predator
                Theridiidae sp.1           Z         Predator
Titanoecidae    Goeldia sp.1               Y         Predator
                Goeldia sp.2               Z         Predator
Opiliones       Opiliones sp.1             Z         Predator
Diplopoda       Diplopoda sp.1             W         Detritivore
Chilopode       Chilopode sp.1             .         Detritivore
                Chilopode sp.2             Z         Detritivore
Ecological Indices    Organic
Shannon--Wiener (H')   2.455
Margalef ([alpha])    17.063
Equitability           0.487
Similarity             0.687

SD = super-dominant; D = dominant; ND = non-dominant;
SA = super-abundant; VA = very abundant; A = abundant;
C = common; D = dispersed; R = rare; SF = super-frequent;
VF = very frequent; F = frequent; LS = less frequent; W = constant;
Y = accessory; Z = accidental.

Table 2. Distribution of morphospecies in relation to faunistic
indices of dominance, abundance, frequency, and constancy captured
in pitfall traps in conventional and organic sugarcane systems
in Brazil (2011/12 and 2012/13 growing seasons).

                                 No. of morphospecies (%)
Faunistic index  Classification  Conventional  Organic

Dominance              SD            2(1.6)      4(2.8)
                       D            17(14)      30(21.2)
                       ND          103(84.4)   108(76)
Abundance              SA            2(1.65)     4(2.8)
                       VA           11(9.1)     19(13.4)
                       A             2(1.6)      5(3.5)
                       C            16(13.2)    19(13.4)
                       D             7(5.7)      9(6.3)
                       R            84(68.8)    86(60.6)
Frequency              SF            2(1.6)      4(2.8)
                       VF           13(10.6)    24(16.9)
                       F            16(13.2)    19(13.4)
                       LF           91(74.6)    95(66.9)
Constancy              W            11(9)       16(11.3)
                       Y            16(13.2)    23(16.2)
                       Z            95(77.8)   103(72.5)

                 Total no. of individuals (%)
Faunistic index    Conventional    Organic

Dominance          3,020(60.84)  6,110(73.8)
                   1,577(31.76)  1,825(22.04)
                     367(7.4)      345(4.16)
Abundance          3,020(60.84)  6,110(73.8)
                   1,450(29.21)  1,598(19.3)
                      51(1.03)     114(1.38)
                     218(4.39)     238(2.87)
                      53(1.07)      60(0.72)
                     172(3.46)     160(1.93)
Frequency          3,020(60.84)  6,110(73.8)
                   1,501(30.24)  1,712(20.68)
                     218(4.4)      238(2.87)
                     225(4.52)     220(2.65)
Constancy          3,832(77.2)   7,253(87.6)
                     193(3. 89)    457(5.52)
                     939(18.91)    570(6.88)

SD = super-dominant; D = dominant; ND = non-dominant; SA =
super-abundant; VA = very abundant; A = abundant; C = common;
D = dispersed; R = rare; SF = super frequent; VF = very frequent;
F = frequent; LS = less frequent; W = constant; Y = accessory;
Z = accidental.
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Author:dos Santos, Luan Alberto Odorizzi; Naranjo-Guevara, Natalia; Fernandes, Odair Aparecido
Publication:Florida Entomologist
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:3BRAZ
Date:Mar 1, 2017
Words:9909
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