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Diversidad y abundancia de plantas con flores y frutos entre octubre 2001 y septiembre 2002 en la Reserva Paucarillo, en el noroeste de la Amazonia Peruana.

Resumen

En el presente trabajo damos a conocer la diversidad de floracion y fructificacion observada durante un ano de estudio fenologico en la Reserva de Paucarillo (noroeste de la Amazonia Peruana 3[grados]41'S, 72[grados]24' W). Registramos un total de 270 especies en 59 familias, de las cuales el 57% son representadas solamente por 1 individuo. Las Arecaceae y Rubiaceae fueron las familias dominantes en este sitio.

Palabras clave: fructificacion de plantas, diversidad, bosque de tierra firme, noreste Peru, Amazonas.

Diversity and Abundance of Plants with Flowers and Fruits from October 2001 to September 2002 in Paucarillo Reserve, Northeastern Amazon, Peru

Abstract

We recorded the diversity of flowering and fruiting plants during one year of phenological study at Paucarillo Reserve located in the northeastern part of the Peruvian Amazon (3[degrees]41' S, 72[degrees]24'". A total of 270 species from 59 families were recorded, of which 57% were represented by only one individual plant. Arecaceae and Rubiaceae were the dominant families in this site.

keywords: fruiting plants, diversity, terra firma forest, north western Peru, Amazon

Introduction

This paper documents the species diversity of plants that were phenologically active (i.e. flowering and/or fruiting) during a one year period at a site in the Peruvian Amazon that is mostly unstudied. To date, most botanical studies in the Peruvian Amazon have been concentrated at a few established research sites in southern Peru, e.g. Manu (Foster 1990, Pitman et al. 2002). However, there has been detailed floristic surveys in northwestern Peruvian Amazon in two sites near Iquitos at Allpahuayo-Mishana (Gentry 1988, Malhi et al. 2002) and at the Explorama lodges (Vasquez Martinez 1997), which are located 122,7 km west and 77 km north-west of the study site described here. This project was part of a larger project to assess the productivity of vertebrate-dispersed fruit at Paucarillo. This paper adds to our growing pool of knowledge regarding the plant species diversity and distribution of Peru's lowland Amazonian plants.

Study site description

Our study was carried out in Paucarillo Reserve (3[degrees]41' S, 72[degrees]24'W), located in the Department of Loreto on the Rio Orosa (a southern tributary of the Amazon) (Fig. 1). This 500 hectare reserve encompasses primary igapo (black-water inundated forest) and terra firme forest and is owned by Project Amazonas (http://www.projectamazonas.com/), a non-profit organization based in Florida. Surrounding this reserve is primary forest that extends to the Brazilian border, so that the contiguous forest in this area exceeds 100000 hectares (D. Graham pers. comm.). Climate data from the nearest meteorological station in Pebas 4 [degrees]S, S, 73[degrees]W) managed by SENAMHI (Servicio Nacional de Meteorologia e Hirologia del Peru), 66,88 km northeast from the study site, recorded total precipitation of 3296,9 mm during the one year study period.

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

Materials and methods

The data presented here is part of a larger study of the birds and forest fruits in this area (Choo, 2005). Two study plots located in terra firme forest were established at the study site. In each plot, four parallel trails 90 m long and 50 m apart were established that served as mist-net lanes for capturing birds as part of another study, and were used for the phenological surveys described here. Each study plot consisted of 8 phenology lanes (each 90 x 10 m) flanking both sides of the net lanes. These phenology lanes covered an area of 7200 [m.sup.2] per study plot. The total area surveyed for 12 months at this site covered an area of 14400 [m.sup.2] or 1,44 ha.

Phenological data were collected from October 2001 to September 2002. Phenology surveys were conducted twice a month for 11 months and once for the month of December. During surveys, JC walked along net lanes to record the flowering and fruiting activity of all plants (herbs, shrubs, epiphytes, lianas and trees) found within the phenologybelts. Two field assistants walked in tandem with her within the phenology belts to detect flowering and fruiting plants in the understory and to help detect flowering and fruiting canopy plants that she may have missed. When flowers or fruits were discovered on the forest floor, attempts were made to locate the source(s). Surveys were conducted visually and if necessary with the aid of binoculars (10x40 and 10x50).

All plants found flowering or fruiting were uniquely numbered with an aluminum tag. Plant habits were recorded as herb, shrub, epiphyte, treelet (subcanopy small trees), liana, tree (large canopy and subcanopy trees). Plants with easily recognized vegetative, floral and fruit characteristics were grouped in the field by JC into morphospecies and a representative voucher for each morphospecies was collected from those plants that subsequently produced fruit. All other plants that were not easily grouped were collected for identification. This method of identification meant that she was able to identify plants that flowered but failed to produce fruits based on the identity of their fruiting conspecifics.

Angiosperms and a few palms were identified at the Missouri Botanical Garden mostly by RV with a few plants in Araceae, Menispermaceae and Rubiaceae identified by Thomas Croat, Rosa Ortiz-Gentry and Charlotte Taylor respectively. Most palms were identified at the New York Botanical Garden by Andrew Henderson. Vouchers were deposited in the institutions where they were identified, with duplicate vouchers deposited at AMAZ (Herbario Amazonense--Universidad Nacional de la Amazonia Peruana).

Results and discussion

Floristic description of study site

The canopy in this site is dense, with the majority of trees attaining heights of 15--40 m. The highest emergents consisted of trees and canopy palms approximately 50 m tall. The most diverse plant groups in this site were the Arecaceae and Rubiaceae, both with 11 genera and 19 species that flowered and/or produced fruits. Palms where the most abundant group of flowering and/or fruiting plants with 156 fruiting palms/ha. The second most abundant group was the Myristicaceae (second most speciose group) from which 50 fruiting plants/ha were phenologically active.

The canopy of this forest is dominated by large canopy palms (Attalea, Astrocaryum, Euterpe, Socratea and Iriartea), and tree species from the genus Eschweilera (Lecythidaceae). The subcanopy was dominated by the palm Astrocaryum murumuru and medium sized trees from the genus Iryanthera (Myristicaceae). The understory was dominated by palms in the genus Geonorm and shrubs in the genus Psychotria (Rubiaceae).

Species richness of flowering and fruiting plants

A summary of the diversity of flowering and fruiting plants in the study site is provided in Table 1, and a list of plants recorded flowering and fruiting in Paucarillo during the one year study period is shown in Table 2. The diversity of flowering and fruiting plants in this site is high, with 270 species from 59 families recorded during the 12 month study period over an area of 1,44 hectares or 188 species/ha.

Proportion of all species that flowered and fruited during the study period

To compare the species richness of flowering and fruiting plants with total plant species richness in our study site, we examined datacollected in a nearbysite Madre Selva. In Madre Selva (3[degrees]37'S, 72[degrees]14'W),19 km east of our study site, 304 species/ha (trees > 10 cm dbh excluding lianas, epiphytes and herbs) were recorded (Davila et al. unpublished data). Madre Selva has a higher diversity of trees > 10 cm dbh than Manu National Park in Peru's Madre de Dios region (174 species/ha) and Yasuni National Park in Ecuador (239 species/ha). To compare our results with the Madre Selva dataset, we excluded 61 species of lianas, epiphytes and herbs from our dataset, which reduced the number of flowering and fruiting tree species to 209 per 1,44 ha or approximately 145 species/ha. Assuming that our study site has the same total tree diversity as Madre Selva, this means that 48% of the total possible species richness (304 species) in this forest was recorded flowering and/or fruiting within our study site. Therefore 52% of plant species in our site were not flowering or fruiting because they were species (1) whose phenological activities were not recorded because they flowered and/or fruited between phenology surveys, (2) represented by non-flowering and non-fruiting immature individuals and / or (3) represented by mature individuals of rare species that did not flower and fruit during our study period due to supra-annual phenological cycles. However, it is also possible that our assumption is not correct and our study site may have lower species richness than Madre Selva.

Proportion of rare species

To compare the proportion of rare species between our site and Madre Selva, we arbitrarily defined rare species as those represented by 1--3 plants within 1-1,44 ha of forest. At Madre Selva, rare species accounted for 63% of all species in one hectare (Davila et al. unpublished data). Whereas, in our site rare species accounted for 57% of flowering and fruiting plants in 1,44 hectares. The high representation of rare species in both sites is consistent with the approximately 50% of species represented by one individual/ha at sites located within other parts of the Amazon (Faber-Langendoen and Gentry 1991, Valencia et al. 1994, Pitman et al. 2001). For detailed review of the distribution and rarity of Amazonian plants, we refer readers to Pitman et al. (1999 and 2001).

Acknowledgement

This paper is part of a dissertation project completed in partial fulfillment of JC's doctoral dissertation at Rutgers University. She would like to thank her Peruvian field assistants and hosts for fieldwork help and in-town housing respectively. JC thanks the Herbario Amazonense--Universidad Nacional de la Amazonia Peruana and Missouri Botanical Garden for access and use of their herbarium. D. Graham, R. Pezo and O. Gonzalez assisted with permits and provided in-country support. We thank INRENA for providing research and export permits. We are grateful for funding secured by J. Pearson from three Rutgers University benefactors.

Presentado: 17/04/2006

Aceptado: 23/04/2007

Literature cited

Choo, 7. E S. 2005. The avifauna and wild fruits of two equatorial rainforest sites: An intertropical comparison. Thesis Ph.D. Rutgers, The States University of New Jersey, New Brunswick.

Faber-Langendoen, D., and A. H. Gentry. 1991. The structure and diversity of rain forests at Bajo Calima, Choco Region, western Columbia. Biotropica 23:2-11.

Foster, R. B. 1990. The fioristic composition of the Rio Manu floodplain forest. In A. H. Gentry, editor. Four neotropical forests. Pages 99-111, Yale University Press, New Haven.

Gentry, A. H. 1988. Tree species richness of upper Amazonian forests. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 85:156-159.

Malhi, Y, O. L. Phillips, J. B. Lloyd, T, J. Wright, S. Almeida, L. Arroyo, T. Frederiksen, J. H. Grace, N., T Killeen, W F. Laurance, C. Leano, S. Lewis, P. Meir, A. Monteagudo, D. Neill, E Nunez Vargas, S. N. Panfil, S. Patino, N. Pitman, C. A. Quesada, A. Rudas-Ll, R. Salomao, S. Saleska, N. Silva, M. Silveira, W. G. Sombroek, R Valencia, R. Vasquez Martinez, I. C. G. Vieira, and B. Vinceti. 2002. An international network to monitor the structure, composition and dynamics of Amazonian forests (RAINFOR). Journal of Vegetation Science 13:439-450.

Pitman, N., J. W. Terborgh, M. R. Silman, P. V. Nunez, D. A. Neill, C. E. Ceron, W A. Palacios, and M. Aulestia. 2001. Dominance and distribution of tree species in upper Amazonian terra firme forests. Ecology 82:2101-2117.

Pitman, N. C. A., J. Terborgh, M. R. Silman, and P. V. Nunez. 1999. Tree species distributions in an upper Amazonian forest. Ecology 80:2651-2661.

Pitman, N. C. A., J. W. Terborgh, M. R Silman, P. Nunez V, D. A. Neill, C. E. Ceron, W A. Palacios, and M. Aulestia. 2002. A comparison of tree species diversity in two upper Amazonian forests. Ecology 83:3210-3224.

Valencia, R, H. Balslev, and G. P. Y. Mino-C. 1994. High tree alpha-diversity in Amazonian Ecuador. Biodiversity and Conservation 3:21-28.

Vasquez Martinez, R. 1997. Florula de las Reservas Biologicas de Iquitos, Peru. The Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.

Johanna P.S. Choo (1,3), Rodolfo Vasquez Martinez (2) and Edmund W. Stiles (1,4)

(1) Department of Ecology, Evolution and Natural Resources, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 14 College Farm Road, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08901, USA.

(2) Missouri Botanical Garden, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, Missouri, 63166-0299, U.S.A.

(3) Corresponding author's current address: Monito-ring and Assessment of Biodiversity Program/NZP Smithsonian Institution, 100 Jefferson Drive, SW, Quad 3123, MRC 705, Washington DC 20560, Email Johanna P.S. Choo: chooj@si.edu

(4) Deceased.
Table 1. Summary of plants that flowered and produced fruits
during the study period.

       Family          No. of   No. of    No. of
                       Genera   Species   Plants

1.  Annonaceae           9        12        16
2.  Apocynaceae          2         2        3
3.  Araceae              4         5        9
4.  Arecaceae            11       19       236
5.  Araliaceae           1         1        1
6.  Aristolochiaceae     1         1        2
7.  Asteraceae           1         1        1
8.  Bignoniaceae         2         2        2
9.  Bombacaceae          3         3        8
10. Boraginaceae         1         2        3
11. Burseraceae          2         3        11
12. Cecropiaceae         3        12        26
13. Celastraceae         3         4        7
14  Chrysobalanaceae     1         1        1
15. Clusiaceae           3         6        7
16. Combretaceae         1         1        2
17. Connaraceae          3         5        5
18. Convolvulaceae       2         3        17
19. Cyclanthaceae        1         1        8
20. Dichapetalaceae      1         2        3
21. Dilleniaceae         2         4        6
22. Elaeocarpaceae       1         5        7
23. Euphorbiaceae        12       15        42
24. Fabaceae             10       15        32
25. Flacourtiaceae       4         6        21
26. Gesneriaceae         1         1        11
27. Heliconiaceae        1         -        3
28. Icacinaceae          1         1        1
29. Lauraceae            3         4        6
30. Lecythidacea         1         9        40
31. Linaceae             1         1        1
32. Loranthaceae         1         1        1
33. Malpighiaceae        4         5        5
34. Malvaceae            1         2        7
35. Melastomaceae        2         3        12
36. Meliacea             2         4        5
37. Menispermaceae       3         4        5
38. Moraceae             6        14        18
39. Myristicaceae        4        17        76
40. Myrsinaceae          1         1        1
41. Myrtaceae            3         5        6
42. Nyctaginaceae        1         5        6
43. Ochnaceae            1         1        2
44. Piperaceae           1         2        3
45. Polygalaceae         1         1        2
46. Rhamnaceae           1         1        1
47. Rhizophoraceae       1         1        2
48. Rubiaceae            11       19        86
49. Sabiaceae            2         3        5
50. Sapindaceae          4         5        12
51. Sapotaceae           3        10        21
52. Simaroubaceae        1         1        1
53. Siparunaceae         1         1        11
54. Solanaceae           2         2        2
55. Sterculiaceae        1         3        3
56. Theophrastaceae      1         2        2
57. Verbenaceae          2         3        3
58. Violaceae            3         4        10
59. Vitaceae             1         1        1
Total                   157       270      847

Table 2. Checklist of plants that flowered and fruited during
the one year duration of the study.

Family Plants      Genus            Species                          No

Annonaceae         Cremastosperma   cauliflorum R.E. Fr. 1931        1
                   Duguetia         cauliflora R.E. Fr. 1939         1
                   Ephedranthus     guianensis R.E. Fr. 1931         1
                   Guatteria        calophylla R.E. Fr.              1
                                    recurvisepala R.E. Fr. 1939      2
                   Klarobelia       cauliflora Chatrou 1998          2
                   Oxandra          xylopioides Diels 1927           1
                   Tetrameranthus   umbellatus Westra 1985           1
                   Unonopsis        stipitata Diels 1905             3
                                    veneficiorum (Mart.) R.E.
                                      Fr. 1937                       1
                   Xylopia          cuspidata Diels 1927             1
                                    frutescens Aubl.1775             1
Apocynaceae        Lacmellea        speciosa Woodson 1949            1
                   Odontadenia      puncticulosa (Rich.)
                                      Pulle 1906                     2
Araceae            Anthurium        eminens Schott 1855              1
                   Dieffenbachia    parvifolia Engl. 1915            1
                   Monstera         obliqua Miq. 1844                1
                                    sp. nov.                         2
                   Philodendron     wittianum Engl. 1905             4
Araliaceae         Dendropanax      umbellatus (Ruiz & Pav.)
                                      Decne. & Planch. 1854          1
Aristolochiaceae   Aristolochia     ruziana (Klotzsch) Duch. 1864    2
Asteraceae         Mikania          hookeriana DC. 1836              1
Bignoniaceae       Jacaranda        glabra (A.DC.) Bureau & K.
                                      Schum. 1897                    1
                   Mussatia         hyacinthine (Standl.)
                                      Sandwith 1937                  1
Bombacaceae        Matisia          ochrocalyx K. Schum. 1886        1
                   Phragmotheca     mammosa W.S. Alverson 1991       1
                   Scleronema       praecox (Ducke) Ducke 1937       6
Boraginaceae       Cordia           nodosa Lam. 1791                 2
                                    ucayalensis (I.M Johnst.) I.M.
                                      Johnst. 1935                   1
Burseraceae        Protium          amazonicum (Cuatrec.)
                                      Daly 1997                      9
                                    opacum Swart 1942                1
                   Trattinnickia    aspera (Standl.) Swart 1942      1
Cecropiaceae       Cecropia         engleriana Snethl. 1923          3
                                    ficifolia Warb. ex Snethl.
                                      1923                           1
                                    sp.                              1
                   Coussapoa        asperifolia Trecul 1847          2
                                    trinervia Spruce ex
                                      Mildbr. 1928                   1
                                    villosa Poepp. & Endl. 1838      1
                   Pourouma         bicolor Mart. 1843               2
                                    cf. tomentosa subsp. persecta
                                      Standl. ex C. C. Berg &
                                      Heusden 1988                   2
                                    guianensis Aubl. 1775            1
                                    melinonii Benoist 1922           1
                                    minor Benoist 1924               1
                                    tomentosa Mart. Ex Miq. 1853     10
Celastraceae       Cheiloclinium    cognatum (Miers) A.C. Sm. 1940   4
                                    hippocrateoides (Peyr.)A.C.
                                      Sm. 1940                       1
                   Tontelea         coriacea A.C. Sm. 1940           1
                   Anthodon         decussatum Ruiz & Pav. 1798      1
Chrysobalanaceae   Hirtella         racemosa Lam. 1789               1
Clusiaceae         Clusia           amazonica Planch. &
                                      Triana 1860                    1
                                    nemorosa G. Mey 1818             1
                                    palmicida Rich. ex Planch. &
                                      Triana 1860                    2
                   Garcinia         macrophylla Mart. 1841           1
                   Tovomita         krukovii A.C. Sm. 1935           1
                                    sp.                              1
Combretaceae       Combretum        fruticosum (Loefl.)
                                      Stuntz 1914                    2
Connaraceae        Connarus         wurdackii Prance 1971            1
                                    sp.
                   Pseudoconnarus   macrophyllus (Poepp.)
                                      Radlk. 1901                    1
                   Rourea           cuspidata Benth. ex Baker 1871   1
                                    puberula Baker 1871              1
Convolvulaceae     Dicranostyles    amlpa Ducke 1953                 4
                                    holostyla Ducke 1925             1
                   Maripa           axilliflora Mart. ex
                                      Meisn. 1869                    12
Cyclanthaceae      Thoracocarpus    bissectus (Vell.) Harling 1958   8
Dichapetalaceae    Tapura           acreana (Ule) Rizzini 1952       2
                                    juruana (Ule) Rizzini 1952       1
Dilleniaceae       Davilla          nitida {Vahl} Kubitzki 1971      2
                   Doliocarpus      amazonicus Sleumer 1935          1
                                    major J.F. Gmel. 1791            1
                                    novogranatensis Kubitzki 1971    2
Elaeocarpaceae     Sloanea          brachytepala Ducke 1943          1
                                    guianensis (Aubl.) Benth. 1861   3
Elaeocarpaceae     Sloanea          terniflora (Moc. & Sesse ex
                                      DC.) Standl. 1944              1
                                    tuerckheimii Donn. Sm. 1914      1
                                    sp. nov. (aff. macrophylla
                                      Benth. ex Turcz 1858)          1
Euphorbiaceae      Caryodendron     grandifolium (Mull Arg.)
                                      Pax 1890                       1
                   Conceveiba       guianensis Aubl 1775             3
                   Croton           palanostigma Klotzsch 1843       1
                                    sp.                              1
                   Drypetes         gentryi Monach. 1948             1
                   Hevea            guianensis Aubl. 1775            1
                   Hyeronima        alchorneoides Allemao 1848       1
                   Mabea            klugii Steyerm 1938              5
                                    pulcherrima Mull. Arg. 1872      10
                                    standleyi Steyerm. 1938          3
                   Nealchornea      yapurensis Huber 1913            3
                   Pausandra        sp.                              2
                   Richeria         grandis Vahl 1796                2
                   Sagotia          racemosa Baill. 1860-61          7
                   Sapium           marmimeri Huber 1902             1
Fabaceae           Bauhinia         pterocalyx Ducke 1922            10
                   Dalbergia        ecastaphyllum (L.) Taub. 1894    1
                   Dialium          guianense (Aubl.) Steud. 1840    1
                   Dimorphandra     mollis Benth. 1840               1
                   Inga             brachyrachis Harms 1907          4
                                    cf. cinnamomea Spruce &
                                      Benth. 1875                    2
                                    semialata (Vell.) Mart. 1837     3
                                    tomentosa vel sp. aff.
                                      Benth. 1875                    1
                   Mimosa           rufescens Benth. 1875 var
                                      rufescens                      1
                   Parkia           nitida Miq. 1851                 2
                                    sp.                              2
                   Swartzia         cardiosperma Spruce ex
                                      Benth. 1870                    1
                                    obscura Huber 1909               1
                   Tachigali        bracteosa (Harms) Zarucchi &
                                      Pipoly 1995                    1
                   Vataireopsis     speciosum Ducke 1932             1
Flacourtiaceae     Carpotroche      longifolia (Poepp.)
                                      Benth. 1861                    9
                   Casearia         fasciculata Bojer 1837           1
                                    sylvestris Sw. 1798              2
                                    uleana Sleumer 1980              1
                   Lindackeria      paludosa (Benth.) Gilg 1925      7
                   Tetrathylacium   macrophyllum Poepp. 1843         1
Gesneriaceae       Drymonia         semicordata (Poepp.)
                                      Wiehler 1973                   11
Heliconiaceae      Heliconia        sp.                              1
                                    velutina L. Andersson 1985       2
Icacinaceae        Discophora       guianensis Miers 1852            1
Lauraceae          Chlorocardium    venenosum (Kosterm. &
                                      Pinkley) Rohwer, H.G. Richt.
                                      & van der Werff 1991           2
                   Endlicheria      tessmannii D. C. Schmidt 1928    1
                   Ocotea           cf. leucoxylon (Sw.) Mez 1889    1
                                    cf. longifolia Kunth 1817        2
Lecythidaceae      Eschweilera      albiflora (DC.) Miers 1874       2
                                    coriacea (DC.) S.A. Mori 1990    9
                                    gigantea (R. Kunth) J.F.
                                      Macbr 1940                     2
                                    grandiflora (Aubl.)
                                      Sandwith 1955                  1
                                    micrantha (O. Berg) Miers 1874   5
                                    ovalifolia (DC.) Nied. 1892      7
                                    parviflora (Aubl.) Miers 1874    3
                                    rufifolia S.A. Mori 1990         2
                                    sp.                              9
Linaceae           Hebepetalum      huminifolium (Planch.)
                                      Benth. 1862                    1
Loranthaceae       Psittacanthus    corynocephalus Eichler 1868      1
Malpighiaceae      Bunchosia        argentea (Jacq.) DC. 1824        1
                   Byrsonima        cowanii W.R. Anderson 1981       1
                   Mascagnia        anisopetala (A. Juss.)
                                      Griseb. 1858                   1
                                    psilophylla (A. Juss.)
                                      Griseb. 1858                   1
                   Mezia            includens (Benth.)
                                      Cuatrec. 1958                  1
Malvaceae          Matisia          bracteolosa Ducke 1945           1
                                    ochrocalyx K. Schum. 1886        6
Melastomaceae      Leandra          caquetana Sprague 1904           3
                                    longicoma Cogn. 1886             8
                   Miconia          biglandulosa Gleason 1932        1
Meliaceae          Guarea           kunthiana A. Juss. 1830          1
                                    pterorhachis Harms 1924          1
                   Trichilia        pallida Sw. 1788                 1
                                    poeppigii C. DC. 1878            2
Menispermaceae     Abuta            grandifolia (Mart.)
                                      Sandwith 1937                  1
Menispermaceae     Elephantomene    eburnea Barneby & Krukoff 1974   1
                   Odontocarya      tripetala Diels 1936             2
                                    Sp.                              1
Moraceae           Brosimum         acutifolium Huber 1910 subsp.
                                      oboratum                       1
                   Ficus            americana Aubl. 1775             3
                                    cf. hartwegii (Miq.) Miq. 1867   1
                                    gomelleira Kunth & Bouche 1847   1
                                    krukovii Standl. 1937            1
                                    paraensis (Miq.) Miq. 1867       1
                                    schippii Standl. 1930            2
                                    trigona L.f. 1781(1782)          1
                   Maquira          calophylla (Poepp. & Endl.)
                                      C.C. Berg 1969                 2
                   Naucleopsis      ulei (Warb.) Ducke 1922          1
                   Perebea          guianensis Aubl. 1775            1
                                    mollis (Poepp. & Endl.) Huber
                                      1909 subsp. Mollis             1
                                    xanthochyma H. Karst. 1862       1
                   Pseudolmedia     laevis (Ruiz & Pav.) J.F.
                                      Macbr. 1931                    1
Myristicaceae      Compsoneura      sprucei (A. DC.) Warb. 1897      1
                   Iryanthera       crassifolia A.C. Sm.
                                      1937(1938)                     3
                                    elliptica Ducke 1936             2
                                    juruensis Warb. 1905             11
                                    laevis Markgr. 1926              9
                                    lancifolia Ducke 1936            1
                                    macrophylla (Benth.)
                                      Warb. 1895                     1
                                    paraensis Huber 1909             27
                                    ulei Warb. 1905                  6
                                    Sp.                              2
                   Otoba            glycycarpa (Ducke) W.A.
                                      Rodrigues & T.S. Jaramillo
                                      2000 (2001)                    2
                   Virola           calophylla (Spruce) Warb. 1897   1
                                    duckei A.C. Sm. 1937(1938)       1
                                    elongata (Benth.) Warb. 1897     1
                                    mollissima (Poepp. ex A. DC.)
                                      Warb. 1897                     3
                                    multinervia Ducke 1936
                                    pavonis {A. DC.} A.C.
                                      Small. 1938                    1
Myrsinaceae        Cybianthus       sp.                              1
Myrtaceae          Calyptranthes    densiflora Poepp. ex 0. Berg
                                      1854(1855)                     1
                   Eugenia          egensis DC. 1828                 1
                                    feijoi 0. Berg 1857              1
                   Myrcia           fallax (Rich.) DC. 1828          1
                                    obumbrans (0. Berg)
                                      McVaugh 1956                   2
Nyctaginaceae      Neea             macrophylla Poepp. &
                                      Endl. 1838                     1
                                    parviflora Poepp. & Endl. 1838   1
                                    spruceana Heimerl 1914           2
                                    verticillata Ruiz & Pav. 1798    1
                                    virens Poepp. ex Heimerl 1897    1
Ochnaceae          Cespedesia       spathulata (Ruiz & Pav.)
                                      Planch. 1846                   2
Arecaceae          Astrocaryum      chambira Burret 1934             7
                                    murumuru Mart. 1824              35
                   Attalea          phalerata Mart. ex
                                      Spreng. 1816                   1
                                    tessmannii Burret 1929           3
                   Bactris          Sp.                              1
                   Chamaedorea      pauciflora Mart. 1823            2
                   Euterpe          precatoria Mart. 1842            19
                   Geonoma          cuneata H. Wendl. ex
                                      Spruce 1869                    2
                                    deversa (Poit.) Kunth 1841       11
                                    macrostachys Mart. 1823          28
                                    maxima (Poit.) Kunth 1841 var.
                                      chelidonura                    12
                                    poeppigiana Mart. 1847           15
                                    Sp.                              1
                                    stricta (Poit.) Kunth 1841       20
                   Hyospathe        elegans Mart. 1823               11
                   Iriartea         deltoidea Ruiz & Pav. 1798       52
                   Iriartella       stenocarpa Burret 1931           1
                   Oenocarpus       mapora H. Karst. 1823            1
                   Socratea         exorrhiza (Mart.) H.
                                      Wendl. 1860                    14
Piperaceae         Piper            asterotrichum C. DC. 1753        1
                                    augustum Rudge 1805              2
Polygalaceae       Moutabea         aculeate (Ruiz & Pav.) Poepp.
                                      & Engl. 1838                   2
Rhamnaceae         Ampelozizyphus   amazonicus Ducke 1935            1
Rhizophoraceae     Cassipourea      peruviana Alston 1925            2
Rubiaceae          Alibertia        hispida Ducke 1932               1
                                    verrucosa S. Moore 1895          2
                                    sp.                              1
Rubiaceae          Boroja           claviflora (K. Schum.)
                                      Cuatrec. 1953                  1
                   Duroia           hirsuta (Poepp.) K.
                                      Schum. 1889                    6
                   Faramea          axillaries Standl. 1930          2
                                    multiflora A. Rich. ex
                                      DC. 1830                       5
                   Geophila         cordifolia Miq. 1850             1
                   Ixora            peruviana (Spruce ex K.
                                      Schum.) Standl. 1931           1
                   Notopleura       cf. congesta C.M. Taylor 2001    5
                   Palicourea       subspicata Huber 1906            2
                   Posoqueria       latifolia (Lam.) Roem. &
                                      Schult 1819                    2
                   Psychotria       boliviana Standl. 1931           1
                                    deflexa DC. 1830                 8
                                    microbotrys Ruiz ex Standl.
                                      1930                           6
                                    poepigiana Mull Arg. 1881        18
                                    stenostachya Standl. 1930        2
                   Warszewiczia     coccinea (Vahl) Klotzsch 1853    20
                                    elata Ducke 1922                 2
Sabiaceae          Meliosma         hebertii Rolfe 1893              1
                                    vasquezii A.H. Gentry 1986       1
                   Ophiocaryon      heterophyllum (Benth.)
                                      Urb. 1895                      3
Sapindaceae        Matayba          arborescens (Aubl.)
                                      Radlk. 1879                    1
                   Paullinia        cf. anodonta Radlk. 1753         1
                                    pterocarpa Triana &              7
                                      Planch. 1862
                   Serjania         lethalis A. St.-Hil. 1824        2
                   Talisia          cerasina (Benth.) Radlk. 1878    1
Sapotaceae         Chrysophyllum    amazonicum T.D. Penn. 1990       1
                                    bombycinum T.D. Penn. 1990       1
                   Manilkara        bidentata Williams 1936          1
                   Pouteria         bilocularis (H. Winkl.)
                                      Baehni 1942                    3
                                    caimito (Ruiz & Pav.)
                                      Radlk. 1882                    1
                                    cuspidata (ADC.) Baehni 1944     2
                                    elegans (A.DC.) Baehni 1944      1
                                    procera (Mart.) T.D.
                                      Penn. 1990                     1
                                    rostrata (Huber) Baehni 1942     4
                                    torta (Mart.) Radlk. 1882        6
Simaroubaceae      Simarouba        amara Aubl. 1775                 1
Siparunaceae       Siparuna         bifida (Poepp. Endl.)
                                      A.DC. 1968                     11
Solanaceae         Brunfelsia       grandiflora D. Don 1829          1
                   Solanum          grandiflorum Ruiz & Pav. 1799    1
Sterculiaceae      Sterculia        apeibophylla Ducke 1945          1
                                    killipiana Standl. Ex. E.L.
                                      Taylor 1989                    1
                                    tessmannii Mildbr. 1927          1
Theophrastaceae    Clavija          elliptica Mez 1905               1
                                    venosa B. Stahl 1990             1
Verbenaceae        Aegiphila        elegans Moldenke 1932            1
                                    sp.                              1
                   Petrea           blanchetiana Schaner 1847        1
Violaceae          Gloeospermum     sphaerocarpum Triana &
                                      Planch. 1862                   1
                   Leonia           cymosa Mart. 1826                2
                                    glycycarpa Ruiz & Pav. 1799      2
                   Rinorea          flavescens (Aubl.) Kuntze 1891   5
Vitaceae           Cissus           biformifolia Standl. 1929        1
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Author:Choo, Johanna P.S.; Vasquez Martinez, Rodolfo; Stiles, Edmund W.
Publication:Revista peruana de biologia
Date:Aug 1, 2007
Words:4020
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