Printer Friendly

Distribution records of Southern Indiana vascular plants.

ABSTRACT. Collections in the Indiana University Southeast Herbarium were reexamined and entered into a database. New and old collections yielded over 100 new vascular plant county records for Clark, Crawford, Floyd, and Harrison Counties in southern Indiana. Indiana vascular species listed as extirpated (SX), endangered (SE), threatened (ST), or rare (SR) are noted. Others species which may become listed, or are otherwise noteworthy, are briefly discussed.

Keywords: Vascular plants, Indiana, distribution records

The Indiana University Southeast Herbarium serves as an educational and community resource as well as a research exchange facility. The herbarium contains vascular plant collections primarily from Clark, Crawford, Floyd, Harrison, and Jefferson Counties, with occasional collections from Washington, Scott, and Perry Counties. This area of southern Indiana includes the lowermost parts of the following regions: the Mitchell Karst Plain and Knobstone Escarpment Sections of the Highland Rim Natural Region, the Scottsburg Lowland and Muscatatuck Flats and Canyon Sections of the Bluegrass Natural Region, and the Shawnee Hills Natural Region (Homoya et al. 1985). The Indiana University Southeast Herbarium is in the process of creating an online database of its vascular plant collection at biology/herbarium/homepage.stm.

Ongoing collecting and review of existing collections in the herbarium have yielded over 100 new vascular plant county records since the publication of the last distribution list from the Indiana University Southeast Herbarium (Maxwell & Emmert 1995). Possible state records and noteworthy collections are listed alphabetically by their scientific names and briefly discussed, followed by a listing of state endangered, threatened, and rare species. Table 1 includes distribution records for Clark, Crawford, Floyd, and Harrison Counties with their collection vouchers. Nomenclature conforms primarily to the Field Guide to Indiana Wildflowers (Yatskievych 2000), with authors of plant names, following Brummitt & Powell (1992). Some nomenclature, primarily ferns, grasses, and common names cited, is from Mohlenbrock (1986), Gleason & Cronquist (1991), Homoya (1993) and Yatskievych (2000).

Determination of species status follows the Indiana Natural Heritage Data Center Endangered, Threatened and Rare Vascular Plants list, Indiana, from the Department of Natural Resources (DNR), Nature Preserves (27 January 1998). County status was also determined from the DNR, Nature Preserves web site, (16 November 1999).

Former and present collectors include Indiana University Southeast students, the authors, several volunteers, Ray Weatherholt and several of his biology students from Floyd Central High School.


Sites of listed species are reported to Indiana DNR, Nature Preserves. Vouchers are currently held at the Indiana University Southeast Herbarium. Some collections are sent to the DNR, Nature Preserves for confirmation by Michael A. Homoya, DNR Botanist, as well as by George and Kay Yatskievych at the Missouri Botanical Garden. Methods and criteria for listing Indiana's extirpated, endangered, threatened, and rare vascular plant species have been discussed by Aldrich et al. (1986).


Achyranthes japonica (Miq.) Nakai (Amaranthaceae). Japanese Chaff Flower. A native of Asia which was introduced into Kentucky (Gleason & Cronquist 1991). Small, shrubby plants, common along the upper floodplain slopes and banks of the Ohio River in the Indiana counties across from Louisville, Kentucky. Colonies extend back from the river and down river to the west. We consider "W.E. Thomas 470" from Crawford County the state record voucher.

Egeria densa Planch. (Hydrocharitaceae). Brazilian Water-weed. The state record, "W.E. Thomas 294," was collected in shallow water from Wyandotte Lake in the Harrison-Crawford State forest. An aquarium plant "that has become naturalized in various localities in the United States, primarily in the southeast" (Beal & Thieret 1986).

Clematis terniflora DC. (= C. dioscoreifolia Levi. & Vaniot) (Ranunculaceae). A native of Japan which appears occasionally with other vines along the Ohio River.

Fatoua villosa (Thunb.) Nakai (Moraceae). Hairy Crabweed, Mulberry Weed. Reported in Flora of North America (3):390.1997, but neither the voucher nor the author of the Indiana report was identified (K. Yatskievych pers. commun.). The Floyd County record, "Maxwell s.n., 9/20/1995" validates the FNA report and can be listed as the state record voucher. A native of tropical Asia, two plants were collected in a New Albany yard in 1995. We know of no other reports in Indiana.

Humulus japonicus Siebold & Zucc. (Moraceae). Japanese Hops. An introduced native of East Asia. The vine is fairly common along roadsides next to the Ohio River.

Lespedeza bicolor Turcz. (Fabaceae). Bicolor Lezpedeza. Two small shrubs were found in the open field northeast of the old black powder plant at Charlestown State Park. Reported for Indiana in the Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science, 1953. The state record voucher collected by "Buser & Ahles s.n." in Fountain County is probably in the University of Illinois Herbarium at UrbanaChampaign.

Liparis loeselii (L.) Rich. (Orchidaceae). Loesel's Twayblade. Found by Homoya in Jackson County on the Muscatatuck National Wildlife Refuge (1990). Thomas discovered a population of about 14 plants distributed in the lower end of a seep in Charlestown State Park off Trail 1. This Clark County population represents a further southern extension as suggested by Homoya (1993).

Melothria pendula L. (Cucurbitaceae). Creeping Cucumber. This vine was considered state extirpated (SX) until three sites were discovered by Thomas in Charlestown State Park in 2000. The vines seemed to be thriving in spite of being in competitive habitats: a roadside ditch, an open disturbed area, and the edge of the escarpment over Fourteen Mile Creek. Since 2000 the Creeping Cucumber has been found in numerous sites throughout Charlestown State Park. It has also been found in roadside ditches in Floyd County along the lower edges of the knobs beside the Ohio River floodplain.

Mentha x rotundifolia (L.) Huds. (Lamiaceae). Apple Mint. A possible hybrid for southern Indiana. Several other collections have been made of this mint (Yatskievych 2000). Its occurrence in the state may be more common than the current reports indicate.

Orthodon dianthera (Buch.-Ham.) Hand. Mazz. (= Mosla dianthera (Buch.-Ham. ex Roxb.) Maxim) (Lamiaceae). A native of East Asia, established in moist places in the southeast (Gleason & Cronquist 1991). Recorded for Indiana in Kartesz & Meachan's 1999 Synthesis without a reference (K. Yatskievych pers. commun.). Homoya was aware of a site in the Harrison-Crawford State Forest and made a collection 26 September 1997 in Harrison County. The Homoya collection is the state record and "W.E. Thomas 36," a second collection. Thomas reports the population expanding in open areas left by logging at two different sites in Harrison-Crawford State Forest. This may be another species moving up from Kentucky and becoming common in southern Indiana.

Packera anonyma (A.W. Wood) W.A. Weber & A. Love (= Senecio anonymous A. Wood, S. smallii Britt.) (Asteraceae). Occasional on thin soil over a limestone ledge in Charlestown State Park. Perhaps a recent range expansion phenomenon (Homoya & Hedge 1990). Indiana Watch List (Yatskievych 2000).

Papaver dubium L. (Papaveraceae). Garden Poppy. The collection "Maxwell 3166," is the second report of the Garden Poppy along a different railroad track in Clark County. About 15 plants were noted along the tracks about 2 1/2 km. north of highway I-265 along State Road 62 in 1998, but this second colony did not persist probably because of herbicide spraying along the right-of-way. The collection "W.E. Thomas 271," along State Road 31 north of Speed, indicates the initial Clark County colony is persisting and perhaps expanding in the much wider strip between State Road 31 and the railroad track. Its occurrence in the state may be more common than reports indicate.

Platanthera lacera (Michx.) G. Don. (Orchidaceae). Green Fringed Orchid. This orchid is the most common Platanthera in Indiana (Homoya 1993), but is primarily found in the northern part of the state. A single plant was discovered by Thomas in the edge of a wet depression off Jersey Avenue east of the current Charlestown State Park boundary in an area expected to become annexed to the park. A photo voucher was taken 6 July 2002. This report indicates a range extension to the south as predicted by Homoya (1993). Indiana Watch List (Yatskievych 2000).

Pycnanthemum muticum (Michx.) Pers. (Lamiaceae). Mountain Mint. The state record collector, K.F. Duffy, reports colonies in full sun, in poor clay soil next to a pond in a Harrison County hardwood forest. Deam (1940) excludes the species, citing reports, but no specimens. Schneck's report (Deam 1940) for the Lower Wabash Valley is probably correct. Mohlenbrock & Ladd (1978) show distribution in Wabash County, Illinois, next to the Wabash River.

Duffy sent a collection, "K.F. Duffy s.n., 21 September 2002," to Kay Yatskievych at the Missouri Botanical Garden for verification; and this becomes the Indiana voucher specimen for the species and the county record. Our specimen, "K.F. Duffy 1," is a later collection from the same population.

Selaginella eclipes Buck (Sellaginellaceae). Small Spikemoss. First thought to be S. apoda (L.) Fern.(SE), later determined by Homoya as S. eclipes, and also confirmed by G. Yatskievych. Occasional to locally common in Charlestown State Park.

Solanum sarachoides Sendter (Solanaceae). Hairy Nightshade. A Gastony collection, "Gastony s.n., 17 July 1985, Fee Lane and Highway 46 Bypass, Monroe County, Bloomington, was discovered in the Indiana University Herbarium. This may be the state record. The Gastony collection ... "was apparently an escape to a roadside that was some distance from the experimental field" (K. Yatskievych pers. commun.). The experimental field refers to where Dr. Charles B. Heiser, Jr., of Indiana University carried out some of his well-known hybridization work with sunflowers, nightshades and domestic plants. Heiser (1969) refers to using Solanum sarachoides in his crosses to rediscover the "wonderberry."

The "Maxwell 3367, 25 August 2000," collection from Charlestown State Park would be a second report. This introduced weed was found in a disturbed area of the park and is persisting. However, it does not show the invasive capacity of other introduced species in the park.


Asplenium bradleyi D.C. Eaton (Aspleniaceae). Bradley's Spleenwort. Noted in Dubois County, 23 October 1984, by Homoya & Abrell (1986). "W.E. Thomas 159" was collected from a population of 13-15 plants scattered on several sandstone boulders in an open area near Wyandotte Cave in the Harrison-Crawford State Forest.

Gentiana villosa L. (Gentianaceae). Striped Gentian. Deam (1940) reports two collections from southeast Harrison County in black and white oak woods. A Harrison County site was located during a DNR conducted survey for the Indiana Natural Heritage Program. A fragment, "W.E. Thomas 37," was collected in the Harrison County part of the Harrison-Crawford State Forest in a cedar woods along Cold Friday Road. Thomas reports a scattered population of about 30 40 plants in the woods. These sites are in Harrison County, but we cannot be sure they are the same.


Acalypha deamii (Weath.) Ahles. (= A. virginica L. var. deamii Weath.) (Euphorbiaceae). Mercury. Michael Homoya identified this species in October 1994, in the Jenny Lind Run area of the Indiana Army Ammunition Plant. A few plants were also found on the south bank of Fourteen Mile Creek near the Ohio River. Over the last few years sizable populations were found by Thomas in Floyd County, along the Ohio River in New Albany, and Harrison and Crawford Counties. Maxwell ("Maxwell 3409, 10/19/2000") found a population of about 100 plants on a Fourteen Mile Creek sand bank near the north bridge in what is now Charlestown State Park. Additional plants have turned up in the park along Trails 1, 2 and 3. It now appears so common in our area new sites are not reported to DNR, Nature Preserves.

Diodia virginiana L. (Rubiaceae). Buttonweed. Collected from large colonies along the Ohio River in Floyd and Crawford Counties, and also found along the wet perimeter of Deam Lake in Clark County. See Homoya et al. (1995) for additional locations. Now believed common along the Ohio River.


Gentiana flavida A. Gray (G. alba Muhl.) (Gentianaceae). Yellowish Gentian, Pale Gentian. An Indiana University Southeast Herbarium collection, "C.W. Henson 43, 19 Sept. 1975," from the Harrison-Crawford State Forest in a dry, oak woods clearing, was determined Gentiana villosa. Reexamination, as suggested by Homoya, showed it to be Gentiana flavida. The exact county distribution is unknown.

Northoscordum bivalve (L.) Britton (Liliaceae). Crow Poison. A colony of perhaps 60 plants was found on a low rock bluff along State Road 62 within Harrison-Crawford State Forest, west of Wyandotte Lake.

Oxalis illinoensis Schwegman (Oxalidaceae). Illinois Woodsorrel. Two large Clark County populations were pointed out by Homoya about 1994 on the wooded floor of Lick Creek Ravine, in what is now Charlestown State Park. At that time, one population contained about 100 individuals and the other 500-1000. Since then several additional clusters have been found in the park along with a population of about 2000 individuals spreading down from the upper bluff on the east side of Lick Creek towards Fourteen Mile Creek. Two colonies, one with perhaps 100 plants, the other smaller with perhaps 20 plants, were found by Thomas in Crawford County. Both these sites were within the Harrison-Crawford State Forest along the upper tributaries of Dry Run Creek.

The Illinois Woodsorrel has leaflets shallowly lobed with green margins; the Big Yellow Woodsorrel (Oxalis grandis Small) has leaflets deeply lobed with purplish-brown margins (Yatskievych 2000). Other characteristics are similar except the Illinois Woodsorrel has a small tuberous root (Homoya pers. commun.). We believe the Illinois Woodsorrel is more common than the Big Yellow Woodsorrel in our south central Indiana area.

Spiranthes vernalis Engelm. & A. Gray (Orchidaceae). Spring Ladies' Tresses, Grassleaved Ladies' tresses. Observed by Thomas & Howell Curtis, Charlestown State Park in a disturbed area north of Trail 1 parking. "W.E. Thomas 332" serves as a Clark County voucher.

Tragia cordata Michx. (Euphorbiaceae). Heart-leaved Noseburn. Homoya identified this vine in the rocky woods, north of the west little bluestem glade in Charlestown State Park.
Table 1.--State and county records. Abbreviations for species status
are: SE = State Endangered, ST
= State Threatened, SR = State Rare. Plant records without a number
are indicated by s.n. = (sine numero)
without a number, followed by the collection date.

Species Family County, collector and number

Acalypha gracilens A. Euphorbiaceae Clark, Maxwell 3351

Acalypha deamii (Weath.) Euphorbiaceae Harrison, W.E. Thomas 38
Ahles, (ST)

Achyrantes japonica Amaranthaceae Clark, W.E. Thomas 511;
(Miq.) Nakai Crawford W.E. Thomas 470;
 Floyd, W.E. Thomas 536

Aesculus Pavia L. Hippocastanaceae Floyd, Maxwell 3075

Albizia julibrissin Mimosaceae Floyd, Boha & Chanley 8

Alisma subcordatum Raf. Alismaceae Harrison, R. Schoen s.n.,
 21 July 1972

Amaranthus retroflexus L. Amaranthaceae Floyd, Weatherholt 1526

Ambrosia trifida L. Asteraceae Harrison, R. Schoen 59

Ammania robusta Heer & Lythraceae Floyd, W.E. Thomas 28

Amorpha fruticosa L. Fabaceae Floyd, Schoen s.n.,
 2 June 1972

Amsonia tabernaemontana Apocynaceae Harrison, R. Schoen s.n.,
Walter 11 May 1972

Aquilegia canadensis L. Ranunculaceae Floyd, Weatherholt 880

Artmisia annua L. Asteraceae Clark, W.E. Thomas 30;
 Thomas 635

Artemisia ludoviciana Asteraceae Harrison, R. Schoen s.n.,
Nutt. August

Artemisia vulgaris L. Asteraceae Floyd, Maxwell 1280

Asclepias purpurascens L. Asclepiadaceae Floyd, S. Newman 113

Asplenium bradleyi D.C. Aspleniaceae Crawford, W.E. Thomas 159
Eaton (SE)

Avena Sativa L. Poaceae Floyd, Weatherholt 1561

Buglossoides arvense Boraginaceae Floyd, Maxwell 3484
(L.) I.M. Johnst.
(= Lithospermum arvense

Capsella bursa-pastoris Brassicaceae Floyd, J.A. Kruer Jr. 90
(L.) Medik.

Cardamine hirsuta L. Brassicaceae Floyd, Maxwell 2543

Cardamine angustata O.E. Brassicaceae Harrison, W.E. Thomas 157
Schultz (=
Dentaria heterophylaa

Clematis terniflora D.C. Ranunculaceae Floyd, W.E. Thomas 17

Diodia virginiana L. Rubiaceae Floyd, W.E. Thomas 1; Clark
(ST) W.E.
 Thomas 335; Crawford, W.E.
 Thomas 435

Draba brachycarpa Nutt. Brassicaceae Clark, W.E. Thomas 156

Egeria densa Planch. Hydrocharitaceae Crawford, W.E. Thomas 294

Enemion biternatum Raf. Ranunculaceae Floyd, Weatherholt 799
(= Isopyrum
biternatum (Raf.) Torr.
& Gray)

Equisetum arvense L. Equisetaceae Floyd, Weatherhold 845

Erianthus alopecuroides Poaceae Harrison, R. Schoen 47
(L.) Ell.

Erythronium albidum Nutt. Liliaceae Floyd, Weatherholt 794

Erythronium americanum Liliaceae Floyd, Gohmann &
Ker Gawl. 32

Fatoua villosa (Thunb.) Moraceae Floyd, Maxwell s.n.,
Nakai 9/20/1995

Gymnocladus dioica (L.) Caesalpiniaceae Floyd, N.A. Myers 11
K. Koch.

Holosteum umbellatum L. Caryophyllaceae Clark, Maxwell & Thomas

Houstonia pusilla Rubiaceae Clark, W.E. Thomas 62;
Schoepf Floyd, Maxwell
 3483; Harrison, W.E. Thomas

Humulus japonicus Moraceae Clark, Reported by the Adams
Siebold & Zucc. (1993);
 Crawford, W.E. Thomas 23;
 W.E. Thomas 285

Hypochaeris radicata L. Asteraceae Clark, W.E. Thomas 340

Iva annua L. (= I. Asteraceae Clark, W.E. Thomas 18;
ciliata Willd. in Crawford,
Deam (1940) W.E. Thomas 125; Harrison,
 Thomas 495

Kickxia elatine (L.) Scropulariaceae Clark, Gilbert 105

Koelreuteria paniculata Sapindaceae Floyd, F. Bierman 119

Table 1.--Continued.

Species Family County, collector and

Lespedeza bicolor Turcz. Fabaceae Clark, Maxwell 3373

Linaria vulgaris Mill. Scropulariaceae Clark, K.D. Bledsoe 80

Lindernia dubia (L.) Scropulariaceae Floyd, W. E. Thomas 291;
Pennell var. Harrison,
anagallidea (Michx.) W. E. Thomas 295

Lindernia dubia (L.) Scropulariaceae Crawford, W. E. Thomas
Pennell var. dubia 24; Harrison,
 W.E. Thomas 131

Linum usitatissimum L. Linaceae Floyd, Maxwell 3183

Liparis loeselii (L.) Orchidaceae Clark, Maxwell & Thomas
Rich. 3498

Melothria pendula L. Cucurbitaceae Clark, Maxwell 3355; Floyd,
 Maxwell 3347

Mentha x rotundifoia (L.) Lamiaceae Crawford, W.E. Thomas 112;
Huds. Floyd,
 W.E. Thomas 371

Muscari botryoides (L.) Liliaceae Harrison, R. Schoen s.n.,
Mill. 28 April 1972

Nasturtium officinale R. Brasiccaceae Harrison, R. Schoen s.n.,
Br. 11 June 1972

Nothoscordum bivale (L.) Liliaceae Crawford, W.E. Thomas 182
Britton (SR)

Oenothera biennis L. Onagraceae Harrison, R. Schoen 36
(= O. pycnocarpa
Atkinson & Bartlett

Oenothera laciniata Hill Onagraceae Floyd, J.A.M.(? Illegible) 8

Oenothera pillosella Raf. Onagraceae Floyd, K. Heavrin 103

Osmorhiza longistylis Apiaceae Harrison, R. Schoen s.n.,
(Torr.) D.C. 15 May 1972

Oxalis illinoensis Oxalidaceae Clark, Maxwell 3432
Schwegman (SR)

Packera anonyma (A.W. Asteraceae Clark, Maxwell & Thomas
Wood) W.A. 3492
Weber &
A. Love

Panicum nitidum Lam. Poaceae Floyd, R. Schoen 14

Pellaea glabella Mett. Adiantaceae Crawford, W.E. Thomas 185
ex Kuhn

Penstemon digitalis Scropulariaceae Floyd, Hobson 96
Nutt. ex Sims

Phleum pratense L. Poaceae Floyd, Barger & Weatherholt

Phlox divaricata L. Polemoniaceae Floyd, F. Gohmann 23

Platanthera lacera G. Orchidaceae Clark, Maxwell & Thomas
Don observed

Platanus occidentalis L. Platanaceae Clark, Maxwell 1706

Polygonum arenastrum Polygonaceae Harrison, W.E. Thomas 42
Jord. ex Boreau

Polygonum lapathifolium Polygonaceae Floyd, G. Doyle 7

Pyrrhoppapus carolinianus Asteraceae Clark, W.E. Thomas 5;
(Walter) Harrison, W.E. Thomas
D.C. 272

Rananculus repens L. Ranunculaceae Floyd, Weatherholt 1012

Ratibida columnifera Asteraceae Floyd, Maxwell 3337
(Nutt.) Woot. &

Robinia hispida L. Fabaceae Clark, S. Newman 61

Rubus occidentalis L. Rosaceae Harrison, Conrad 71

Rumex obtusifolius L. Polygonaceae Clark, Megraw 40

Salix babylonica L. Salicaceae Floyd, Chambers 51

Salix exigua Nutt. Salicaceae Floyd, Bennett 2
(= S. interior

Selaginella eclipes Buck Selaginellaceae Clark, Maxwell 3420;
 Floyd, Maxwell

Sibara virginica (L.) Brassicaceae Clark, Maxwell 3478

Sida spinosa L. Malvaceae Harrison, S. Lawton 88

Solanum sarachoides Solanaceae Clark, Maxwell 3367

Spermacoce glabra Michx. Rubiaceae Floyd, W.E. Thomas 3

Spiranthes vernalis Orchidaceae Clark, W.E. Thomas 332
Engelm. & A. Gray

Thlaspi arvense L. Brassicaceae Harrison, W. E. Thomas 160

Tragia cordata Michx. Euphorbiaceae Clark, observed by Homoya

Typha angustifolia L. Typhaceae Floyd, Weatherholt 1573

Viola lanceolata L. Violaceae Harrison, R. Schoen s.n.,
 19 May, 1972

Woodsia obtusa (Spreng.) Aspleniaceae Clark, Maxwell 1534


We wish to thank Dr. David W. Taylor, Curator of the Indiana University Southeast Herbarium, for his cooperation, use of the facilities, and continuing encouragement that collections and natural history have a place in current academia. We thank Michael A. Homoya and others in the Indiana DNR for their continual encouragement and assistance in the search for listed species in southern Indiana, and their concern for the preservation of our natural heritage. Thanks also to Mr. Gerald J. Pagac, Director of the Division of State Parks and Reservoirs, for providing a collection permit to Maxwell for Charlestown State Park. We also greatly appreciate the cooperation of Larry Gray, property .manager of Charlestown Park. We also thank Pete Thorn, property manager of Harrison-Crawford State Forest, for providing a collection permit to William E. Thomas to extend our survey. We also thank Kay and George Yatskievych of the Missouri Botanical Garden for their help in determining and confirming identifications of Indiana flora and sorting out the vouchers. We also thank our many former students for their collections as well as current collectors, students and volunteers. Although many student collections were mandatory and such collecting may now be considered an obsolete teaching method, they form an important segment of the Indiana University Southeast Herbarium. Once again, we thank Ray Weatherholt, long-time biology teacher at Floyd Central High School, now retired, for donating his collection to the herbarium. Thanks also to the reviewers and the editor for their helpful comments in revising our original manuscript.


Adams, W.R. & M.R. Adams. 1993. Flora of the Falls of the Ohio State Park and National Wildlife Conservation Area (A preliminary report). Unpublished.

Aldrich, J.R., J.A. Bacone & M.A. Homoya. 1986. List of extirpated, endangered, threatened and rare vascular plants in Indiana: An update. Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science 95: 413-419.

Beal, E.O. & J.W. Thieret. 1986. Aquatic and Wetland Plants of Kentucky. Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission, Scientific and Technical Series Number 5. Frankfort, Kentucky. 315 pp.

Brummitt, R.K. & C.E. Powell. 1992. Authors of Plant Names. Royal Botanic Gardens. Kew.

Deam, C.C. 1940. Flora of Indiana. Department of Conservation, Indianapolis, Indiana. 1236 pp.

Gleason, H.A. & A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of the Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. 2nd ed. New York Botanic Gardens. Bronx, New York. 910 pp.

Heiser, C.B. Jr. 1969. Nightshades, The Paradoxical Plants. W.H. Freeman & Company. San Francisco, California. 200 pp.

Homoya, M.A., D.B. Abrell, J.R. Aldrich & T.W. Post. 1985. The natural regions of Indiana. Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science 94: 245-268.

Homoya, M.A. & D.B. Abrell. 1986. Recent additions to the flora of southern Indiana. Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science 95:429-432.

Homoya, M.A. & C.L. Hedge. 1990. Additions to the flora of southern Indiana, IV. Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science 99:67-71.

Homoya, M.A. 1993. Orchids of Indiana. Indiana Academy of Science. Distributed by Indiana University Press, Bloomington and Indianapolis. 276 pp.

Homoya, M.A., D.B. Abrell, C.L. Hedge & R.L. Hedge. 1995. Additions to the flora of southern Indiana, V and VI. Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science 104:213-221.

Kartesz, J.T. & C.A. Meachan. 1999. Synthesis of the North American Flora. Version 1.0 CD. North Carolina Botanical Garden. Chapel Hill.

Maxwell, R.H. & Gall A. Emmert. 1995. Southern Indiana plant distribution records and notes on the endangered, threatened, and rare vascular plant species in the proposed state park areas of the Indiana Army Ammunition Plant. Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science 104(34):223-232.

Mohlenbrock, R.H. 1986. Guide to the Vascular Flora of Illinois. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale & Edwardsville, Illinois. 507 pp.

Mohlenbrock, R.H. & D.M. Ladd. 1978. Distribution of Illinois Vascular Plants. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale & Edwardsville, Illinois. 282 pp.

Yatskievych, K. 2000. Field Guide to Indiana Wildflowers, Indiana University Press, Bloomington and Indianapolis. 357 pp.

Manuscript received 3 December 2002, revised 16 March 2003.

Richard H. Maxwell and William E. Thomas: Herbarium, Indiana University Southeast, New Albany, Indiana 47150 USA
COPYRIGHT 2003 Indiana Academy of Science
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2003, Gale Group. All rights reserved. Gale Group is a Thomson Corporation Company.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Thomas, William E.
Publication:Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science
Geographic Code:1U3IN
Date:Jul 29, 2003
Previous Article:Twenty-five years of forest succession in Happy Valley, Jefferson County, Indiana.
Next Article:Distribution of freshwater sponges and bryozoans in northwest Indiana.

Related Articles
Plants in peril.
The structure and composition of vegetation in the lake-fill Peatlands of Indiana.
Wetland flora of the Grand Calumet River in Northwest Indiana: potential impacts of sediment removal and recommendations for restoration.
Additions to the flora of Ginn Woods, Delaware County, Indiana.
An evaluation of Indiana's Floristic Quality Assessment.
Distribution records of Southern Indiana vascular plants II.
A vascular plant inventory of Howell Wetlands, a nature preserve within the City of Evansville, Indiana.
A brief survey of the rare terrestrial natural communities and associated vascular flora of the Wabash River corridor in Indiana.
The history and aquatic flora of Silver Lake, Porter County, Indiana, with comments on the adequacy of floristic quality assessment for lakes.

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2021 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters