Printer Friendly

Distribution of Pseudacteon curvatus and pseudacteon tricuspis (Diptera: Phoridae) in Arkansas.

Pseudacteon phorid flies parasitize and kill their fire ant host (Solenopsis invicta Buren, S. richteri Forel and their hybrid). Due to their high host specificity (Folgarait et al. 2002; Gilbert & Morrison 1997; Morrison & Gilbert 1999; Porter 1998a, 2000; Porter & Alonso 1999; Porter & Gilbert 2004; Vazquez et al. 2004), several Pseudacteon spp. have been introduced from South America as classical biological control agents against imported fire ants. While internal development of the fly larvae eventually decapitates and kills individual ants (Porter et al. 1995a; Consoli et al. 2001), perhaps the most important effect is the disruption of the foraging behavior of the ants (Feener & Brown 1992; Orr et al. 1995; Porter et al. 1995b; Mehdiabadi & Gilbert 2002), which leads to a decrease in food uptake and a decline in colony health (Folgarait & Gilbert 1999). Four Pseudacteon species were released in the U.S. from 1995 to 2009: P. curvatus Borgmeier, P. litoralis Borgmeier, P. obtusus Borgmeier, and P. tricuspis Borgmeier. Each species fills a different niche, in terms of diurnal activity (Pesquero et al. 1996), seasonal occurrence (Fowler et al. 1995; Folgarait et al. 2003) and preferred size of host (Campiolo et al. 1994); all complementing traits for control of S. invicta and S. richteri (Morrison et al. 1997; Porter 2000; Folgarait et al. 2002, 2005).

Pseudacteon flies use semiochemicals to locate their ant hosts (Orr et al. 1997; Vander Meer & Porter 2002; Morrison & King 2004; Chen & Fad amiro 2007) and then hover over the ants before a rapid aerial attack (Morrison & Porter 2005). Within a period of an hour a female fly can make up to 120 oviposition attempts (Morrison et al. 1997), before either tiring or being captured and killed by the ants (Porter 1998b). A single egg laid in the thorax develops through 3 instars before decapitating the ant's head, which is then used as a pupal case (Pesquero et al. 1995; Porter et al. 1995a).

The first release of P. tricuspis occurred in Texas in 1995 (Gilbert 1996), and was unsuccessful due to unfavorable conditions (Vazquez et al. 2006). The first successful release of P. tricuspis in northern Florida was in 1997 (Porter et al. 1999). Pseudacteon spp. have been released in 11 southern states: Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Texas (Porter et al. 1999; Graham et al. 2003; Williams & deShazo 2004; Parkman et al. 2005; Thead et al. 2005; Henne et al. 2007; Weeks & Callcott 2008). Pseudacteon curvatus, P. obtusus, and P. tricuspis have been released in Arkansas and in adjacent states except Missouri (Clemons et al. 2003; Weeks & Callcott 2008).

Dispersal rates for Pseudacteon spp. are variable and the majority of flies disperse only a few hundred meters (Morrison et al. 1999). However, some flies in each generation are known to travel 2 to 4 km or more (Porter et al. 2004) and populations of flies expanding on average 74 km over a period of 3.5 years (Porter 2010).

Monitoring of Pseudacteon spp. is achieved with a variety of methods: actively through direct collections of flies at disturbed ant colonies with either manual or electrical stimulation (Barr & Calixto 2005; Morrison & Porter 2005), or passively by trapping with a sticky trap (Puckett et al. 2007). Until the current study, monitoring of these species in Arkansas had been concentrated at and near release sites to determine Pseudacteon establishment. The objective of this study was to determine the distribution of Pseudacteon spp. in Arkansas through wider-scale monitoring.


Trap Design

To determine presence or absence, passive trapping was used based on a modified version of a PTS (pizza tri-stand) sticky trap (Puckett et al. 2007). The modified Puckett trap (Fig. 1) consisted of a pizza tri-stand (Polyking[R] No. 20431) covered in Tanglefoot[R], glued to the flat side of an inverted portion cup (Dart[R] No. 100PC), which was hot glued to the underside of a plastic cup lid (Dart[R] No. 8JL). This device was placed in the center of the bottom half of a plastic Petri dish (150 by 15 mm). The surfaces of the portion cup and the inner lip of the Petri dish were coated with Fluon[R], to prevent ants from climbing up the trap or out of the Petri dish.


One trap was placed per location by first locating a mound of substantial size and activity. The mound was then disturbed, by kicking it over creating a flat surface on which the Petri dish was placed. As ants climbed into the Petri dish, a few ants were crushed by hand to induce alarm pheromone release and the trap was placed in the center of the Petri dish. A brightly colored pin flag (91 cm long) was positioned alongside the trap. Global positioning system (GPS) coordinates were recorded for each location, and a corresponding number written on the lid of the trap.

Traps were retrieved 20 to 24 h after placement. At time of retrieval, an 8 oz expanded polystyrene foam cup (Dart(r) No. 8J8) was placed over the trap, and the lid was snapped in place. The cup prevented damage and contamination to the sticky portion of the trap.

Sampling at Release Locations

Fourteen releases of Pseudacteon spp. were made in Arkansas from 1998 to 2009 (Table 1). Sampling along transects in the cardinal directions from the release sites began in 2002 (Pike Co.) and 2004 (Miller Co.). In 2009, the Miller, Perry, Pike, and Sevier County release sites were revaluated for this study to confirm establishment of Pseudacteon spp. A 1.6-km interval was used between traps along each transect placed in Pike, Miller, and Sevier Counties, and at 0.8-km intervals in Perry County. Transects were determined by locating roads and highways on aerial maps that radiated out from the release site in north, south, east, and west directions. One modified Puckett trap was placed at each sampling location.

Sampling Bordering Counties

Sampling was intended to monitor spread of established populations of Pseudacteon spp. in bordering counties/parishes of neighboring states of Louisiana (Henne et al. 2007), Mississippi (Thead et al. 2005), and Tennessee (Graham et al. 2003; Parkman et al. 2005; Weeks & Callcott 2008), and sampling packages were sent to University of Arkansas Cooperative Extension Service County Agents in imported fire ant infested counties in eastern and southern Arkansas in the early summer of 2009. Each package contained four modified Puckett traps, latex gloves, and an information sheet. Instructions were to place the traps during the summer months, as previously described, at 4 locations within the county. Deployed traps were returned from 4 bordering counties: Columbia, Lafayette, Phillips, and St. Francis. Geographic coordinates were recorded on the instruction sheet with the number of the corresponding trap.

Sampling Along Regional Transects

Due to possible expansion of Pseudacteon spp. from neighboring states, sampling transects were identified and mapped in 3 regions: western, southeastern, and southwestern Arkansas (Fig. 2). Transects began at the state line of the adjacent state and traveled inward, with modified Puckett traps placed at 3-mile intervals and GPS coordinates recorded for each trap. Sampling was conducted for 36 h along transects from each region between 19 Sep and 3 Oct 2009.


Phorid Fly Identifications

Upon retrieval, modified Puckett traps were taken to the University of Arkansas laboratory (Fayetteville, AR) and GPS coordinates logged into Google Earth[TM]. Traps were examined under a dissecting microscope for presence of Pseudacteon spp. The sticky portion of the trap was sprayed with liquid degreaser (Goo Gone[TM]) if fly removal was necessary. Species were identified based on the morphology of the female ovipositor (Porter & Pesquero 2001). Voucher specimens of P. curvatus, P. tricuspis, and P. obtusus were obtained from laboratory specimens and the phorid fly rearing facility in Gainesville, FL for identification of male and female flies. Male Pseudacteon spp. are currently difficult to identify through use of keys (Morrison et al. 1997; Porter & Pesquero 2001).


Release Locations

Traps placed along transects radiating from the phorid fly release sites yielded surprising results. Of the 20 traps retrieved from Sevier County, no Pseudacteon spp. were caught. Traps from Miller, Perry, and Pike Counties captured Pseudacteon spp. Along the Miller County release site transects, P. curvatus was captured at 3 locations north of Texarkana, in the southeastern part of Little River County (Fig. 3). However, this was unexpected because the phorid fly species released in Miller County in 2004 was P. tricuspis (Fig. 3, I on map). While possible, it is unlikely that these captures resulted from cross contamination of the 2 species at the rearing facility. Several factors are in place to prevent cross contamination including parasitization of the ants in separate rooms and lack of available ants of preferred host size. Furthermore, voucher sampling is conducted to insure parasitization by the correct species (Amy Croft, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, personal communication). A plausible explanation could be the expansion of P. curvatus from released and established populations in the bordering states of Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas (Weeks & Callcott 2008; Anne-Marie Callcott, USDA APHIS, personal communication). Similar results were observed along the northeast transect of the Pike County release site; capture of a Pseudacteon fly (P. curvatus) different from the species originally released (P. tricuspis). Due to the proximity (5 km) with the Clark County release site (Fig. 3A), it is possible that this capture was from movement of P. curvatus from Clark County, although revaluation of Clark County was not conducted in 2009. In Perry County, capture of P. curvatus was recovered at the initial release site and at locations to the south (0.5 km) and east (2.2 km).


Bordering Counties

Puckett traps from Columbia, Lafayette, and St. Francis Counties were devoid of Pseudacteon flies, although all traps returned from Phillips County on the Mississippi border captured P. curvatus. Phillips County is the one of 2 counties in Arkansas (Crittenden Co. the other) currently known to have only S. richteri and no record of S. invicta (Robert Vander Meer, USDA-ARS, personal communication). Sampling locations in Phillips Co. were located on the western levee of the Mississippi River, northwest of Friars Point, MS (Fig. 3D), adjacent to counties in Mississippi and Tennessee with known S. richteri populations (Streett et al. 2006; Oliver et al. 2009). The high number of P. curvatus found on 1 trap (~172) implies sufficient colonies of S. richteri to support P. curvatus populations.

Regional Transects

A total of 176 modified Puckett traps were placed along transects in western, southeastern, and southwestern Arkansas (Fig. 2). In the western region of transects, 28 traps contained P. curvatus, and 2 contained P. tricuspis (Fig. 3). Of the traps that captured P. tricuspis, one was located 29.5 km west of the P. tricuspis release in Pike County, and the other was 46 km northwest of the release site. All 4 transects in this region included captures of P. curvatus. On the 2 northerly routes (W1 and W2), traps with P. curvatus were found at regular intervals with the most easterly capture 54 km from the Arkansas/Oklahoma state line. The remaining 2 transects (W3 and W4) also had captures. Transect (W3) picked up P. curvatus 13 km from the Arkansas/Oklahoma border. The 3 traps from the most southerly transect (W4) that contained P. curvatus were located near the northern section of the Miller County release site transect. This directional pattern of recoveries supports the hypothesis of immigration from confirmed P. curvatus populations in Le Flore County, Oklahoma (Weeks & Callcott 2008) approximately 24 km northwest of Mena, Arkansas. Prevailing winds generally do not correlate with dispersion patterns (Morrison et al. 2000), as flies move close to the ground where wind is reduced.

Pseudacteon curvatus but not P. tricuspis was trapped along the southeastern region transects. P. curvatus was found at 1 location in Union County, north of El Dorado, and on 12 traps along each of the other transects (SE2 and SE3) to the east (Fig. 3). From the 2 easterly transects (SE2, SE3), traps with P. curvatus were found 91 km north of the Arkansas/Louisiana border and 65 km west of the Arkansas/Mississippi border. This distribution in Arkansas is expected based on collections of P. curvatus in bordering counties along the western side of Mississippi (Adams, Bolivar, Claiborne, Coahoma, Desoto, Jefferson, Tunica, Warren, Washington, Wilkinson), and along Louisiana's northern side (Claiborne, East Carroll, Morehouse, Union, West Carroll) (Anne-Marie Callcott, USDA-APHIS, personal communication).

Pseudacteon tricuspis was captured at 2 locations along a transect (SW3) of the southwestern region of Arkansas (Fig. 3). One of the traps was located in the northern part of Nevada County, in the city of Prescott, and the other was 18 km to the southeast. Their proximity to the Pike County release site (Fig. 3K), 20 km northwest, may suggest their origin, although P. curvatus appeared in no samples taken from the Pike County release site transect. Weather conditions may have played a role in the lack of Pseudacteon spp. present on the remaining 55 traps in this region. Temperatures for the region on 3 Oct 2009 ranged from a low of 8[degrees]C to a high of 26[degrees]C. Temperatures below 20[degrees]C inhibit activity of Pseudacteon flies (Morrison et al. 1999; Wuellner et al. 2002). On 3 Oct 2009 temperatures were above 20[degrees]C for a 7-h period midday (11:00 am to 6:00 pm CST) and below 20[degrees]C for the entire day of 4 Oct 2009, when the traps were retrieved. However, 2 traps located on the transect southeast of Prescott, AR collected P. tricuspis. Weather data suggests similar conditions for the Prescott, AR area, although slightly warmer temperatures (17[degrees]C) were recorded for an additional 3.5 h on the morning of 4 Oct 2009.

Of the traps that collected Pseudacteon spp., no traps contained both species. Perhaps because P. tricuspis is reliant on larger ants, P. curvatus is able to establish more readily where P. curvatus and P. tricuspis overlap, and thus were not detected if present in low densities (Gilbert et al. 2008). Another factor for the lack of both species in the trap may be due to the modification of the Puckett trap. The 2 differences in the traps design were the attractant used and the placement of the trap. Traps were placed on a disturbed mound with live ants whereas Puckett traps were placed in an open area with midden (Puckett et al. 2007). The Puckett trap as originally designed captured more P. tricuspis than P. curvatus, although seasonal fluctuations could be a variable (Puckett et al. 2007).


Passive Pseudacteon trapping with the modified Puckett trap provided advantages over direct collection from disturbed mounds. Because it is deployed quickly, multiple traps can be placed over a large area which allows continuous and simultaneous sampling (Puckett et al. 2007). The manpower needed to achieve similar coverage using observational sampling is cost prohibitive. The addition of the protective cup to the original design allowed longer storage time between collection and examination of the trap, protection of the sticky portion, and reduced contamination. The modification based on disturbed mounds and fluon-coated petri dishes rather than fire ant midden was advantageous in that maintenance of a fire ant colony for collection of midden is no longer necessary. With this modification, trapped fire ants rather than fire ant midden serve as the Pseudacteon fly attractant.

The results suggest establishment and expansion of P. curvatus from the release site in Perry County, and P. tricuspis from the release site in Pike County. While limited, the current range of P. tricuspis in Arkansas appeared to be along a narrow 86-km band stretching from northwest Pike County to south central Nevada County, and 25 km west of the release site. The current distribution of P. curvatus in Arkansas suggested natural movement from surrounding states. Despite extensive sampling across southern Arkansas, many areas remained unsampled. Additional trapping would provide a better understanding of the distribution of Pseudacteon spp. in Arkansas.


We thank Anne-Marie Callcott of the USDA APHIS lab in Gulfport, MS for approving Pseudacteon spp. for release, Amy Bass, Amy Croft, and Deborah Roberts of the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services for assistance in supplying phorid flies, Ed Brown, Jerry Clemons, Randy Forst, Rex Herring, Mike McCarter, Shawn Payne, Doug Petty, Amy Simpson, Rebecca Thomas, Shaun Rhodes, Carla Vaught, Joe Vestal, and Danny Walker of the University of Arkansas Cooperative Extension Service for assistance placing phorid fly traps, Michael Hamilton and Robert Goodson for collecting imported fire ants for identification, and Ricky Corder of the University of Arkansas Cooperative Extension Service for assistance.


Barr, C. L., And Calixto, A. 2005. Electrical stimulation of Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) to enhance phorid fly, Pseudacteon tricuspis (Diptera: Phoridae), detection. Southwest. Entomol. 3: 165-168.

Campiolo, S., Pesquero, M. A., and Fowler, H. G. 1994. Size selective oviposition by phorid (Diptera: Phoridae) parasitoids on workers of the fire ant, Solenopsis saevissima (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Etiologia. 4: 85-86.

Chen, L., and Fadamiro, H. Y. 2007. Behavioral and electroantennogram responses of phorid fly Pseudacteon tricuspis (Diptera: Phoridae) to red imported fire ant Solenopsis invicta odor and trail pheromone. J. Insect Behav. 20: 267-287.

Clemons, J., McCarter, M., Gavin, J., Petty, D., Loftin, K., Shanklin, D., and Hopkins, J. 2003. Phorid fly releases in Arkansas: county agents perspective, pp. 40-41 In L. Greenberg, and C. Lerner [eds.], Proc. Imported Fire Ant Conference, Palm Springs, CA.

Consoli, F. L., Wuellner, C. T., Vinson, S. B., and Gilbert, L. E. 2001. Immature development of Pseudacteon tricuspis (Diptera: Phoridae), an endoparasitoid of the red Imported fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. America 94: 97-109.

ESRI, Inc. 2009. ArcGIS 9.3.1. ESRI, Inc., Redlands, CA.

Feener, D. H., and Brown, B. V. 1992. Reduced foraging of Solenopsis geminata (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the presence of parasitic Pseudacteon spp. (Diptera: Phoridae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. America 85: 80-84.

Folgarait, P. J., and Gilbert, L. E. 1999. Phorid parasitoids affect foraging under different availability of food in Argentina. Ecol. Entomol. 24: 1-11.

Folgarait, P. J., Bruzzone, O. A., Patrock, R. J. W., and Gilbert, L. E. 2002. Developmental rates and host specificity for Pseudacteon parasitoids (Diptera: Phoridae) of fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Argentina. J. Econ. Entomol. 95: 1151-1158.

Folgarait, P. J., Bruzzone, O. A., and Gilbert, L. E. 2003. Seasonal patterns of activity among species of black fire ant parasitoid flies (Diptera: Phoridae) in Argentina explained by analysis of climatic variables. Biol. Control. 28: 368-378.

Folgarait, P. J., Chirno, M. G., Patrock, R. J. W., and Gilbert, L. E. 2005. Development of Pseudacteon obtusus (Diptera: Phoridae) on Solenopsis invicta and Solenopsis richteri fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Environ. Entomol. 34: 308-316.

Fowler, H. G., Pesquero, M. A., Campiolo, S., and Porter, S. D. 1995. Seasonal activity of species of fire ants in Brazil. Cientifica. 23: 367-371.

Gilbert, L. E. 1996. Prospects of controlling fire ants with parasitoid flies the perspective from research based at Brackenridge Field Laboratory, pp. 77-92 In W. E. Cohen [ed.], Texas Quail Short Course II, Texas Agricultural Extension Service, Texas A&M University, Kingsville, TX.

Gilbert, L. E., and Morrison, L. W. 1997. Patterns of host specificity in Pseudacteon parasitoid flies (Diptera: Phoridae) that attack Solenopsis fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Environ. Entomol 26: 1149-1154.

Gilbert, L. E., Barr, C. L., Calixto, A. A., Cook, J. L., Drees, B. M., Lebrun, E. G., Patrock, R. J. W., Plowes, R. M., Porter, S. D., and Puckett, R. T. 2008. Introducing phorid fly parasitoids of red imported fire ant workers from South America to Texas: outcomes vary by region and by Pseudacteon species released. Southwest. Entomol. 33: 15-29.

Graham, L. C., Porter, S. D., Pereira, R. M., Dorough, H. D., and Kelley, A. T. 2003. Field releases of the decapitating phorid fly Pseudacteon curvatus (Diptera: Phoridae) for control of imported fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Alabama, Florida, and Tennessee. Florida Entomol. 86: 334-339.

Henne, D. C., Johnson, S. J., and Porter, S. D. 2007. Status of the fire ant decapitating fly Pseudacteon tricuspis (Diptera: Phoridae) in Louisiana. Florida Entomol. 90: 565-569.

Mehdiabadi, N. J., and Gilbert, L. E. 2002. Colony level impacts of parasitoid flies on fire ants. Proc. Bi ol. Sci. 269: 1695-1699.

Morrison, L. W., and Gilbert, L. E. 1999. Host specificity in two additional Pseudacteon spp. (Diptera: Phoridae), parasitoids of Solenopsis fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Florida Entomol. 82: 404-409.

Morrison, L. W., and King, J. R. 2004. Host location behavior in a parasitoid of imported fire ants. J. Insect Behav. 17: 367-383.

Morrison, L. W., and Porter, S. D. 2005. Phenology and parasitism rates in introduced populations of Pseudacteon tricuspis, a parasitoid of Solenopsis invicta. Biocontrol. 50: 127-141.

Morrison, L. W., Dallaglio-Holvorcem, C. G., and Gilbert, L. E. 1997. Oviposition behavior and development of Pseudacteon flies (Diptera: Phoridae), parasitoids of Solenopsis fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Environ. Entomol. 26: 716-724.

Morrison, L. W., Kawazoe, E. A., Guerra, R., and Gilbert, L. E. 1999. Phenology and dispersal in Pseudacteon flies (Diptera: Phoridae), parasitoids of Solenopsis fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. America 92: 198-207.

Morrison, L. W., Kawazoe, E. A., Guerra, R. and Gilbert, L. E. 2000. Ecological interactions of Pseudacteon parasitoids and Solenopsis ant hosts: environmental correlates of activity and effects on competitive hierarchies. Ecol. Entomol. 25: 433-444.

Oliver, J. B., Vander Meer, R. K., Ochieng, S. A., Youssef, N. N., Pantaleoni, E., Mrema, F. A., VAIL, K. M., Parkman, J. P., Valles, S. M., Haun, W. G., and Powell, S. 2009. Statewide survey of imported fire ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) populations in Tennessee. J. Entomol. Sci. 44: 149-157. Orr, M. R., Seike, S. H., Benson, W. W., and Gilbert, L. E. 1995. Flies suppress fire ants. Nature. 373: 292-293.

Orr, M. R., Seike, S. H., and Gilbert, L. E. 1997. Foraging ecology and patterns of diversification in dipteran parasitoids of fire ants in South Brazil, genus Pseudacteon (Phoridae). Ecol. Entomol. 22: 305-314.

Parkman, P., Vail, K., Rashid, T., Oliver, J., Pereira, R., Porter, S. D., Shires, M., Haun, G., Powell, S., Thead, L., and Vogt, J. T. 2005. Establishment and spread of Pseudacteon curvatus in Tennessee, pp. 111-112 In D. J. Meloche [ed.], Proc. Imported Fire Ant Conference, Gulfport, MS.

Pesquero, M. A., Porter, S. D., Fowler, H. G., and Campiolo, S. 1995. Rearing of Pseudacteon spp. (Diptera: Phoridae), parasitoids of fire ants (Solenopsis spp.) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). J. Appl.

Entomol. 119: 677-678.

Pesquero, M. A., Campiolo, S., Fowler, H. G., and Porter, S. D. 1996. Diurnal patterns of ovipositional activity in two Pseudacteon fly parasitoids of fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Florida Entomol. 79: 455-456.

Porter S. D. 1998a. Host specific attraction of Pseudacteon flies (Diptera: Phoridae) to fire ant colonies in Brazil. Florida Entomol. 81: 423-429.

Porter S. D. 1998b. Biology and behavior of Pseudacteon decapitating flies (Diptera: Phoridae) that parasitize Solenopsis fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Florida Entomol. 81: 292-309.

Porter S. D. 2000. Host specificity and risk assessment of releasing the decapitating phorid fly Pseudacteon curvatus as a classical biocontrol agent for imported fire ants. Biol. Control. 19: 35-47.

Porter, S. D. 2010. Distribution of the Formosa strain of the fire ant decapitating fly Pseudacteon curvatus (Diptera: Phoridae) three and a half years after releases in North Florida. Florida Entomol. 93: 107-112.

Porter, S. D., and Alonso, L. E. 1999. Host specificity of fire ant decapitating flies (Diptera: Phoridae) in laboratory oviposition tests. J. Econ. Entomol. 92: 110-114.

Porter, S. D., and Gilbert, L. E. 2004. Assessing host specificity and field release potential of fire ant decapitating flies (Phoridae: Pseudacteon), pp. 152-176 In R. G. Van Driesche and R. Reardon [eds.], Assessing Host Ranges for Parasitoids and Predators Used for Classical Biological Control: A Guide to Best Practice. FHTET-2004-03, USDA Forest Service, Morgantown, WV.

Porter, S. D., and Pesquero, M. A. 2001. Illustrated key to Pseudacteon decapitating flies (Diptera: Phoridae) that attack Solenopsis saevissima complex fire ants in South America. Florida Entomol. 84: 691-699.

Porter, S. D., Pesquero, M. A., Campiolo, S., and Fowler, H. G. 1995a. Growth and development of Pseudacteon phorid fly maggots (Diptera: Phoridae) in the heads of Solenopsis fire ant workers (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Environ. Entomol. 24: 475479.

Porter, S. D., Vander Meer, R. K., Pesquero, M. A., Campiolo, S., and fowler, H. G. 1995b. Solenopsis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) fire ant reactions to attacks of Pseudacteon flies (Diptera: Phoridae) in southeastern Brazil. Ann. Entomol. Soc. America 88: 570-575.

Porter, S. D., Nogueira De SA, L. A., Flanders, K., and Thompson, L. 1999. Field releases of the decapitating fly, Pseudacteon tricuspis, p. 102 In L. Reeves [ed.], Proc. Imported Fire Ant Conference, Charleston, SC.

Porter, S. D., Nogueira De SA, L. A., AND MORRISON, L. W. 2004. Establishment and dispersal of the fire ant decapitating fly Pseudacteon tricuspis in North Florida. Biol. Control. 29: 179-188.

Puckett, R. T., Calixto, A., Barr, C. L., and Harris, M. 2007. Sticky traps for monitoring Pseudacteon parasitoids of Solenopsis fire ants. Environ. Ento mol. 36: 584-588.

Streett, D. A., Freeland, T. B., and Vander Meer, R. K. 2006. Survey of imported fire ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) populations in Mississippi. Florida Entomol. 89: 91-92.

Thead, L. G., Vogt, J. T., and Streett, D. A. 2005. Dispersal of the fire ant decapitating fly, Pseudacteon curvatus (Diptera: Phoridae) in Northeast Mississippi. Florida Entomol. 88: 214-216.

Vander Meer, R. K. and Porter, S. D. 2002. Fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, worker alarm pheromones attract Pseudacteon phorid flies, pp. 77-80 In Proc. Imported Fire Ant Conference, Athens, GA.

Vazquez, R. J., Porter, S. D, And Briano, J. A. 2004. Host specificity of a biotype of the fire ant decapitating fly Pseudacteon curvatus (Diptera: Phoridae) from northern Argentina. Environ. Entomol. 33: 1436-1441.

Vazquez, R. J., Porter, S. D., and Briano, J. A. 2006. Field release and establishment of the decapitating fly Pseudacteon curvatus on red imported fire ants in Florida. Biocontrol. 51: 207-216.

Weeks, R. D., and Callcott, A.-M. A. 2008. USDAAPHIS and consortium efforts to establish phorid flies (Pseudacteon spp.) in imported fire ant (Solenopsis spp.) populations in the U.S. and Puerto Rico, pp. 87-89 In Proc. Imported Fire Ant Conference, Charleston, SC.

Williams, D. F., and de Shazo, R. D. 2004. Biological control of fire ants: an update on new techniques. Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol. 93: 15-22.

Wuellner, C. T., Dall'Aglio-Holverocem, C. G., Benson, W. W., and Gilbert, L. E. 2002. Phorid fly (Diptera: Phoridae) oviposition behavior and fire ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) reaction to attack differs according to phorid species. Ann. Entomol. Soc. America 93: 257-266.

Jake M. Farnum and Kelly M. Loftin

Department of Entomology, University of Arkansas, 319 Agriculture Bldg., Fayetteville, AR 72701
Table 1. History of Pseudacteon spp. releases in Arkansas, 1998-2009.

Date                 County       Species            Released

1998, Jul-Aug (1)    Drew         P. tricuspis        1,350
2002, May (2)        Pike         P. tricuspis        3,000
2002, Oct (2)        Bradley      P. tricuspis        1,200
2003, Sep (2)        Bradley      P. tricuspis        1,500
2004, May (2)        Miller       P. tricuspis        2,580
2005, May (2)        Sevier       P. tricuspis        4,300
2005, Oct (2)        Clark        P. curvatus         8,500 (3)
2006, Sep (2)        Perry        P. curvatus        15,816 (4)
2007, Sep (2)        Perry        P. tricuspis        1,900
2008, Jun (2)        Jefferson    P. tricuspis       120
2008, Oct (2)        Polk         P. obtusus          3,200 (5)
2009, May (2)        Grant        P. curvatus        25,296 (6)
2009, Jun (2)        Jefferson    P. tricuspis       120
2009, Sep (2)        Garland      P. tricuspis       360

(1) Release made by Lynne Thompson, University of Arkansas Monticello.

(2) Release made by Kelly Loftin, University of Arkansas Cooperative
Extension Service.

(3) Number released based on 35.3 g S. invicta workers, 800/gram and
30% parasitism.

(4) Number released based on 65.9 g S. invicta workers, 800/gram and
30% parasitism.

(5) Number released based on 23.7 g S. invicta workers, 450/gram and
30% parasitism.

(6) Number released based on 105.4 g S. invicta workers, 800/gram and
30% parasitism.
COPYRIGHT 2011 Florida Entomological Society
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2011 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Farnum, Jake M.; Loftin, Kelly M.
Publication:Florida Entomologist
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:1U7AR
Date:Mar 1, 2011
Previous Article:Comparative mating strategies of male and female Ectropis oblique (Lepidoptera: Geometridae).
Next Article:Mini-aspirator: a new device for collection and transfer of small arthropods to plants.

Terms of use | Copyright © 2018 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters