Distribution, management and diversity of the endangered Amerindian yam (Dioscorea trifida L.)/Distribuicao, manejo e diversidade da especie ameacada de inhame amerindio (Dioscorea trifida L.).
Dioscorea is the largest and most important genus of the family Dioscoreaceae, with 644 species approximately (Govaerts et al., 2007). Among these, only 10 are considered important in human nutrition (Lebot, 2009), and in Brazil only D. alata L., D. cayenensis Lam, D. rotundata Poir., D. bulbifera L. and D. trifida L. are grown and consumed (Pedralli, 1988; Bressan et al., 2005; Veasey et al., 2010; Siqueira et al., 2014).
Domesticated by pre-Columbian peoples and of Neotropical distribution, Dioscorea trifida was probably the first yam species cultivated by indigenous peoples and immigrants from Europe and Africa in the Amazon (Lebot, 2009; Bousalem et al., 2010). Although there is still controversy regarding the origin and domestication of this species and its evolutionary history is poorly documented, studies show that among the economically important yam species in Brazil, D. trifida originated in South America, specifically in areas located on the border between Brazil, Suriname, Guyana and French Guiana (Pedralli, 1992).
In Brazil, D. trifida occurs in areas of rain forests, savannas of the Planalto Central, rocky fields of the Cadeia do Espinhaco and seasonal forests adjacent to these fields (Pedralli, 2002), and has been maintained and propagated by traditional farmers in the Vale do Ribeira, Sao Paulo (Bressan et al., 2005), in the Baixada Cuiabana, Mato Grosso (Ferreira et al., 2010), in Manaus and its surroundings, in the channel of Rio Negro and in Belem (Lin Chau Ming, personal communication). Despite the problems related to agricultural production and lack of consumption diversification, this crop is an important food source, because its tubers have a high nutritional quality, and astringent, antimicrobial, diuretic and energizing properties, allowing its use in fighting malnutrition and for several diseases treatment such as diabetes, reducing cholesterol and convalescence (Ramos-Escudero et al., 2010).
Although the tubers are of high nutritive quality and are highly appreciated in the cuisine of several Brazilian communities, little has been observed on the cultivation of D. trifida on a commercial basis, with the crop being underutilized and most of the cultivation performed by traditional farmers for their own subsistence (Carmo, 2002). However, in some Brazilian states, such as Amazonas and Santa Catarina, the commercialization of this species seems to occur in an intensive way (Veasey et al., 2010).
Over the past decades traditional farmers have suffered strong socioeconomic pressures that have been leading towards a decrease of agricultural activities, with farmers abandoning the fields, and thus leading to a loss of genetic diversity of yam species and other crops such as cassava and sweet potato (Siqueira and Veasey, 2009; Siqueira, 2011). In this context, there is a need for studies to verify the damage caused by these pressures to the yam crop, to estimate the genetic diversity that is managed by these farmers and to develop strategies for conservation and maintenance of traditional varieties, which are an important source of genes for various desirable agronomic characteristics such as resistance to pests, pathogens and abiotic factors.
Studies related to the morphological characterization of D. trifida accessions are scarce, such as the study conducted by Bressan (2005), assessing 25 local varieties of D. trifida from the Vale do Ribeira, Sao Paulo. Therefore, any information on the morphology of the species is important to aid to their conservation and maintenance. Based on morphological characters, Melo Filho et al. (2000) classified 11 accessions of the yam germplasm collection of the Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Brazil, while Mignouna et al. (2002) characterized 45 yam accessions of D. cayenensis/D. rotundata collected in Cameroon, Africa, and Hasan et al. (2008) evaluated the morphological variation among 70 accessions of D. alata from Malaysia.
This study aimed to obtain information regarding the distribution, management and the morphological and nomenclature diversity of D. trifida local varieties held by small farmers in Brazil in order to assist in the development of more effective conservation strategies for the species.
2. Material and Methods
Between 2009 and 2010, 21 communities in nine municipalities were visited, distributed in the States of Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo and Mato Grosso, located between latitudes 14[degrees]43'S and 26[degrees]15'S and longitudes 44[degrees]05'W and 57[degrees]59'W (Table 1; Figure 1). During the visits interviews and previously standardized semi-structured questionnaires were made regarding the socioeconomic characteristics of the farmers, and the management and use of D. trifida varieties. Simultaneously, with the consent of the owners, yam tubers were collected, so that all the varieties grown and consumed in these locations could be sampled and maintained ex situ. Two accessions obtained in local markets of Manaus and Barcelos, in the State of Amazonas, were also used in this study for the morphological analysis.
The collected materials were planted in pots in the greenhouse, to allow a first step of multiplication and plant quarantine. Two months after planting, the plants were transplanted to the field with two replications. The spacing between rows and between plants was 2.5 m and 1.5 m, respectively.
We used 11 qualitative and one quantitative (number of leaf lobes) morphological traits to characterize the accessions (Table 2). These traits were selected from a list developed by the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI) and the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), located in Ibadan, Nigeria, which includes morphological descriptors for various economically important species of the genus Dioscorea, except D. trifida (IPGRI and IITA, 1997). The characterization was performed in two plants representing each accession. Information concerning the morphological and socioeconomic data as well as those related to the handling and consumption of D. trifida were evaluated by descriptive analysis and then compared between the different study sites.
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Distribution and socioeconomic aspects
A total of 53 accessions of D. trifida was collected, with 25 accessions from Sao Paulo State, 14 from Mato Grosso, 12 from Santa Catarina and two accessions collected in markets of Amazonas State (Table 1).
D. trifida is considered an underutilized species and is maintained mainly by small and medium size farmers. Thus, a socioeconomic characterization was necessary at the time of collection in order to acquire data to assist in the profile of these farmers. Of the interviewed farmers, responsible for the maintenance of agricultural activities related to the yam cultivation, 75% were men and 25% women. The mean age was 59.5 years old (40 [less than or equal to] n [less than or equal to] 79), with 62 years for the women, on average, and 59 years for the men, on average.
Unlike the early days of agriculture, where men were responsible for hunting and fishing, and women for planting and harvesting, currently it is observed that most of those responsible for agricultural activities are male, although all family members are involved. This is because activities related to agriculture are very laborious, with a low financial return, and therefore, the cultivation of yam is characterized by low involvement of women in field activities (Tamiru et al., 2008).
Similarly, there is a reduced number of young people and labor available for agricultural activities, with only an average of three individuals per farm the amount of people involved in activities related to the cultivation of yams. As yam is a subsistence agriculture crop maintained by the family, only family members, usually over the age of 50 years, are involved in these activities. According to Carneiro (2001), this condition becomes a problem because the maintenance of family farming occurs in an endogenously way, subsided by the community, with the successor of a productive unit traditionally being a family member. Therefore, the reduction in the number of young people and scarcity of labor may result in reducing this type of agriculture over the next generations.
The productive units, where D. trifida cultivation was observed, showed swidden fields with less than two hectares (92%), with its plantation intercropped with other species, especially vegetables, in most cases. According to Miller and Nair (2006), swidden fields are of fundamental importance for the conservation of yam varieties, as well as various other crops, since a high biodiversity, with multiple purposes for the farmers, is maintained at these sites (Smith, 1996).
In relation to the varieties grown by the visited farmers, 44% said they had acquired from predecessor family members living in the collection site, the planting being carried out with tubers derived from materials obtained some decades ago and which were passed down the generations; 40% stated they grow varieties provided by neighbors and 16% did not know the origin of the material. As there is no formal system for the supply of seed tubers, varieties of D. trifida grown in these areas are kept for decades and these are exchanged between local farmers, with a low incidence of introduction of new varieties from other areas. These data corroborate the studies reported by Tamiru et al. (2008), which also noted that in Ethiopia there was no formal system for the supply of yam tubers, as well as farmers specialized in producing materials for planting.
During the collection and subsequent identification of the material in the greenhouse, we observed that sprouted tubers sometimes belonged to other species of Dioscorea, particularly D. alata (Siqueira et al., 2014). It was also observed that 56% of the farmers cultivate only one variety of D. trifida, unlike other species of vegetative propagation, such as cassava (Manihot esculenta), potato (Solanum tuberosum), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) (Brush et al., 1981; Salick et al., 1997; Sambatti et al., 2001; Emperaire and Peroni, 2007; Amorozo, 2008; Veasey et al., 2008), where it is customary to keep two or more varieties in the same farm. This decrease in the number of yam varieties maintained by farmers is worrisome because it is directly related to the loss of genetic resources and the process of genetic erosion. However, in general, we found several varieties of D. trifida maintained by farmers located in the study areas, which characterizes the type of agriculture practiced in the tropics, where several crop species or varieties of the same species are kept in rural farms by small and medium farmers (Clawson, 1985; Brush, 1995), in response to economic, social, cultural and natural factors (Cox and Wood, 1999).
Moreover, it was also observed that 44% of farmers plant more than one variety of D. trifida. This procedure aims to give greater assurance of harvest, because if some biotic and abiotic stress may interfere with planting, all varieties are hardly affected in the same intensity, thus increasing the probability of obtaining a production that guarantees at least the family sustainability during adverse conditions.
The loss of genetic resources was also observed when 96% of the farmers claimed to have planted yam varieties that are no longer planted in the property. The main reasons listed by the farmers were abandoning the fields in order to obtain employment in urban areas, thus ensuring a source of income to support their family; changes in the physicochemical conditions of the soil, leading to the emergence of diseases in the crop, and consequently the total loss of the crop; preference of a variety over others; reduction of manpower available to carry out the activities of preparation, planting and harvesting; poor land distribution, heavily reducing the area available for agricultural activities; lack of information regarding the proper management of the crop such as diseases and pests management, allowing large losses of tubers at harvest time; as well as increased production costs, low returns and lack of financial incentive to encourage the practice of family agriculture.
When farmers continue their activities in the field and keep the varieties of D. trifida in successive cycles of planting and harvesting, they perform several agricultural practices in order to increase the production of tubers. Among these practices, we observed the use of herbicides and organic or chemical fertilizers. However, significant differences in the mode and frequency of application of these inputs among the visited areas were found, where only farmers in Santa Catarina reported using some type of agricultural implement. This fact is relevant because we noticed that farmers in Santa Catarina are better prepared in terms of management given to the yam cultivation, which justifies the production of up to 2,500 kg of yam obtained in some properties with an area above 2 ha, the highest production found among the areas visited. This production is also related to the fact that the tubers of D. trifida are greatly appreciated by producers and consumers in the region, rather than tubers of D. alata and D. cayenensis, species of greatest economic impact in Brazil. Also, tubers of D. trifida were found being sold in a local supermarket, as well as being served in a typical restaurant of the region (Veasey et al., 2010). This species also has a commercial interest in the Amazon, being the main species of the genus Dioscorea sold in local markets (Lin Chau Ming, personal communication), such as the two accessions of the Amazon evaluated in this study.
As yam is considered an underutilized and subsistence crop, it is quite remarkable the lack of information related to its management and potential use, as emphasized by the farmers themselves, as well as the delay in the processing of yams in Brazil. These factors are reflections of a malfunction of the activities related to agricultural production and also lack of consumption diversification (Chu and Figueiredo-Ribeiro, 1991).
In other parts of the world, such as Africa and Asia, although substantial consumption diversification occurs, especially through the use of significant industrial or homemade yams products, the technological level is low and the products produced do not exceed the boundaries due to poor quality, being used only for local consumption or at a regional level. Santos (1996) stated that for the yam cultivation to reach high yields, it requires favorable climate conditions during the vegetative and reproductive cycle, especially adequate availability of light and water. However, the most limiting factors for yam cultivation are associated with low natural fertility of the soil used and improper management directly related to the small family and traditional agriculture (Chu and Figueiredo-Ribeiro, 1991). Thus, the availability of yam for industrialization in Brazil is not very significant because there is no definition of the types of products most recommended to then select varieties appropriate for each situation or market requirement. Therefore, the local interest of the farmers themselves is the main factor of selection and the driving force for the maintenance of yam varieties, especially D. trifida, whose cultivation and maintenance are performed exclusively by Brazilian farmers and some other Latin American countries such as Suriname and French Guiana (Bousalem et al., 2010).
3.2. Folk names and morphological characterization
The yam varieties found under cultivation are given different names by the local communities, which consider a combination of morphological, sensory and ecological adaptation to classify them, and perhaps these are the main criteria used to select varieties that are maintained over time (Tamiru et al., 2008). Contrary to what Stephens (2009) claims, where cara doce (sweet yam) is the only name given to D. trifida in Brazil, in this study we found that, among the folk names attributed to the species, the most mentioned was cara roxo (purple yam) (43.4% of the sampled units), followed by cara (yam) (13.2%), cara branco (white yam) (9.4%), and cara mimoso (delicate yam) (7.6%). There was also a regionalization of these names, where cara roxo was assigned to the species by the farmers in Sao Paulo, Mato Grosso and Amazonas, cara in Santa Catarina and Amazonas, cara branco in Sao Paulo and Mato Grosso, and cara mimoso only in Santa Catarina. Besides these, several other names for the species were found, but in low frequencies (Table 3).
From the morphological characterization, we found that all accessions of D. trifida showed green petioles with brown pigment; polygonal winged stem, a specific feature of climbing plants, because the presence of membranous wings on the stem facilitates their attachment during growth; absence of spines, unlike D. cayenensis and D. rotundata, widely cultivated species, especially in the northeastern and southeastern Brazil (Veasey et al., 2010); counterclockwise twining direction, exclusive of the Dioscorea species of Macrogynodium section, in which D. trifida is the only economically important species (Lebot, 2009); and underground tubers, like most species of the genus Dioscorea.
All accessions showed lobed leaves and most accessions presented alternate leaves with five lobes, except for accessions 40 and 41 collected in Acorizal, Mato Grosso, who showed only three lobes (Figure 2a and 2b). These could belong to another Dioscorea species, however due to its high morphological similarity to the other accessions, most probably these two accessions are products of gene mutation related to number of lobes.
Most accessions showed green stems with purple pigments, except for accessions 01, 02, 03, 07, 09, 10 and 14, collected in Ubatuba, Sao Paulo, and accessions 48 and 50, collected in Rosario do Oeste, Mato Grosso, which showed green stems with a brown pigmentation. Bressan (2005) concluded that the cultural unit, which is the community, have a great influence over the morphological characters, since farmers grow varieties with similar morphological aspects.
The most important traits for the accessions differentiation were those related to the tuber, especially the skin and flesh colors (Figures 2c, 2d, 2e and 3). We found that 68% of the accessions had brown skin and 32% yellow skin. As to the flesh color, 42% of the accessions showed white flesh, 24% purple flesh and 34% showed flesh color of a mixture of several tonalities of white and purple, especially the accessions collected in Ubatuba, SP (Figure 2d). Characteristics related to the tubers are usually responsible for the names given to the different yam varieties by farmers, such as cara roxo (purple yam), cara branco (white yam), among others.
Because it is a vegetative propagation species and maintained primarily by family farms, some degree of homogeneity is expected among these varieties, as indicated by morphological characterization, although variations between them have been observed. However, the exchange of tubers among farmers is common practice in traditional communities. In many cases, there is an intense exchange of tubers from neighboring communities in an open and dynamic system, where local networks promote the planting of varieties in larger and more heterogeneous environments, often resulting in long-distance travelling, even among municipalities (Tesfaye and Ludders, 2003).
We conclude from this study that D. trifida is grown and consumed by traditional communities in the States of Sao Paulo, Santa Catarina and Mato Grosso, and is commercialized in the States of Amazonas. In most of these communities there is no formal system for the supply of seed tubers, with tubers exchange occurring among local farmers, and, consequently, a low rate of introduction of new varieties from other areas is observed.
Deficiency and lack of information related to management, potential uses and yam industrialization in Brazil are a reflection of inadequate functioning of the activities related to agricultural production and lack of consumption diversification, both caused by the lack of political and financial support for the maintenance of a production system, processing and marketing of tubers.
Given the importance of this crop and the socioeconomic context in which D. trifida cultivation is inserted, there is an urgent need to detect the genetic diversity of the species held by Brazilian farmers, to facilitate their preservation, as well as their use in breeding programs. Studies that relate the problems faced by the yam crop may enhance the role that this crop plays in food security and ensure the ongoing maintenance of yam diversity through an increased use of varieties available.
The authors would like to thank the researchers Jose Carlos Feltran from Instituto Agronomico and Antonio Henrique dos Santos from Epagri, Santa Catarina, as well as Danielle Muniz da Silva and Caroline Groppo Blumer, for their assistance in this research and the agriculturists for their contributions in the field collecting and interviews. The authors also wish to thank FAPESP (process no. 2007/04805-2) and CNPq for the financial support given to this study.
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Nascimento, WF. (a) *, Siqueira, MVBM. (b), Ferreira, AB. (c), Ming, LC. (c) Peroni, N. (d) and Veasey, EA. (e)
(a) Centro de Ciencias Agrarias e Ambientais, Universidade Federal do Maranhao--UFMA, BR-222, Km 04, s/n, Boa Vista, CEP 65500-000, Chapadinha, MA, Brazil
(b) Central de Laboratorios de Pesquisa, Ciencia e Tecnologia Ambiental, Universidade Sagrado Coracao--USC, Rua Irma Arminda, 10-50, Jardim Brasil, CEP 17011-160, Bauru, SP, Brazil
(c) Faculdade de Ciencias Agronomicas de Botucatu, Universidade Estadual Paulista "Julio de Mesquita Filho"--UNESP, Rua Jose Barbosa de Barros, 1780, Botucatu, CEP 18610-307, Botucatu, SP, Brazil
(d) Departamento de Ecologia e Zoologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina--UFSC, Campus Universitario, s/n, Corrego Grande, CEP 88037-000, Florianopolis, SC, Brazil
(e) Departamento de Genetica, Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz", Universidade de Sao Paulo--USP, Avenida Padua Dias, 11, Piracicaba, CEP 13418-900, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil
* e-mail: email@example.com
Received: May 22, 2013--Accepted: August 26, 2013--Distributed: March 31, 2015 (With figures 3)
Table 1. Dioscorea trifida accessions collected in Brazil. No ID Municipallity Community 01 180 Ubatuba-SP Sertao de Ubatumirim 02 181 Ubatuba-SP Sertao de Ubatumirim 03 182 Ubatuba-SP Sertao de Ubatumirim 04 183 Ubatuba-SP Sertao de Ubatumirim 05 184 Ubatuba-SP Sertao de Ubatumirim 06 185 Ubatuba-SP Sertao de Ubatumirim 07 187 Ubatuba-SP Sertao de Ubatumirim 08 191 Ubatuba-SP Sertao das Cutias 09 193 Ubatuba-SP Rio Escuro 10 195 Ubatuba-SP Sertao do Inga 11 196 Ubatuba-SP Sertao do Inga 12 197 Ubatuba-SP Sertao de Ubatumirim 13 198 Ubatuba-SP Sertao do Inga 14 201 Ubatuba-SP Sertao do Inga 15 203 Ubatuba-SP Sertao do Inga 16 204 Ubatuba-SP Rio Escuro 17 208 Ubatuba-SP Arariba 18 210 Ubatuba-SP Sertao de Ubatumirim 19 216 Ubatuba-SP Fazenda da Caixa 20 217 Ubatuba-SP Feira de Ubatuba 21 236 Manaus-AM Feira em Manaus 22 237 Barcelos-AM Feira em Barcelos 23 281 Joinville-SC Pirabeiraba 24 282 Joinville-SC Pirabeiraba 25 283 Joinville-SC Pirabeiraba 26 285 S. F. do Sul-SC Acarai 27 286 Joinville-SC Pirabeiraba 28 287 Joinville-SC Pirabeiraba 29 290 Joinville-SC Pirabeiraba 30 292 Joinville-SC Pirabeiraba 31 297 Joinville-SC Pirabeiraba 32 298 Joinville-SC Rio da Prata 33 301 Joinville-SC Rio da Prata 34 302 Joinville-SC Pirabeiraba 35 312 Iguape-SP Pontalzinho--Icapara 36 313 Iguape-SP Cavalcanti 37 323 Iguape-SP Pontalzinho--Icapara 38 328 Iguape-SP Momuna 39 329 Iguape-SP Momuna 40 335 Acorizal-MT Carumbe 41 336 Acorizal-MT Carumbe 42 340 Cuiaba-MT Rio dos Couros 43 343 Acorizal, MT Carumbe 44 344 Nobres-MT Sela Dourada 45 345 Jangada-MT Sto. Antonio do Barreiro 46 350 Nobres-MT Sela Dourada 47 351 Nobres-MT Sela Dourada 48 352 Rosario Oeste-MT Timbozal 49 355 Acorizal-MT Chapada Vacaria 50 361 Nobres-MT Sela Dourada 51 364 Rosario Oeste-MT Barranco Alto 52 366 Nobres-MT Sela Dourada 53 368 Rosario Oeste-MT Barranco Alto Stem No Folk name [color.sub.1] 01 Cara roxo Green Br 02 Cara branco Green Br 03 Cara roxo Green Br 04 Cara roxo Green Pur 05 Cara roxo Green Pur 06 Cara roxo Green Pur 07 Cara branco Green Br 08 Cara roxo Green Pur 09 Cara branco Green Br 10 Cara cobrinha Green Br 11 Cara branco Green Pur 12 Cara roxo Green Pur 13 Cara roxo Green Pur 14 Cara roxo Green Br 15 Cara roxo Green Pur 16 Cara roxo Green Pur 17 Cara roxo Green Pur 18 Cara roxo Green Pur 19 Cara roxo Green Pur 20 Cara roxo Green Pur 21 Cara roxo Green Pur 22 Cara Green Pur 23 Cara Green Pur 24 Cara mimoso Green Pur 25 Cara Green Pur 26 Cara pao Green Pur 27 Cara mimoso Green Pur 28 Carcanha de nego Green Pur 29 Cara mimoso Green Pur 30 Cara Green Pur 31 Cara Green Pur 32 Cara Green Pur 33 Cara mimoso Green Pur 34 Cara Green Pur 35 Cara S Joao branco Green Pur 36 Cara-pipa Green Pur 37 Cara S Joao roxo Green Pur 38 Cara Sao Joao roxo Green Pur 39 Cara S Joao branco Green Pur 40 Cara roxo Green Pur 41 Cara roxo Green Pur 42 Cara pe de anta Green Pur 43 Cara branco Green Pur 44 Cara do Joaquim Green Pur 45 Cara roxo Green Pur 46 Cara branco Green Pur 47 Cara mao de anta Green Pur 48 Cara mao de anta Green Br 49 Cara roxo Green Pur 50 Cara roxo Green Br 51 Pombinho branco Green Pur 52 Cara roxo cumprido Green Pur 53 Cara roxo Green Pur Number Tuber Tuber No of lobes skin color flesh color 01 5 Brown Pur white 02 5 Brown Pur white 03 5 Brown Pur white 04 5 Brown Pur white 05 5 Brown Pur white 06 5 Brown Pur white 07 5 Brown White 08 5 Brown Purple 09 5 Brown White 10 5 Brown White 11 5 Yellow White 12 5 Brown Pur white 13 5 Brown Pur white 14 5 Brown Pur white 15 5 Brown Pur white 16 5 Brown Pur white 17 5 Yellow Pur white 18 5 Brown White 19 5 Brown Purple 20 5 Yellow Pur white 21 5 Brown Purple 22 5 Yellow Purple 23 5 Brown White 24 5 Yellow White 25 5 Brown White 26 5 Brown White 27 5 Yellow White 28 5 Brown White 29 5 Yellow White 30 5 Yellow White 31 5 Yellow White 32 5 Brown White 33 5 Yellow White 34 5 Yellow White 35 5 Yellow Pur white 36 5 Brown Purple 37 5 Brown Pur white 38 5 Brown White 39 5 Yellow White 40 3 Yellow Purple 41 3 Yellow Purple 42 5 Brown Purple 43 5 Yellow White 44 5 Yellow White 45 5 Brown Pur white 46 5 Brown Pur white 47 5 Brown White 48 5 Brown Purple 49 5 Brown Purple 50 5 Brown Purple 51 5 Brown Purple 52 5 Brown Purple 53 5 Brown Pur white (1) Green brown (Green Br), Green purple (Green Pur). Table 2. Morphological traits used for characterization of the Dioscorea trifida accessions collected in Brazil. Descriptors 1. Petiole color 7. Position of leaves 2. Stem color 8. Leaf shape 3. Absence/presence of 9. Number of lobes wings in the stem 4. Absence/presence of 10. Absence/presence of spines in the stem underground tubers 5. Twining direction 11. Tuber skin color 6. Stem shape 12. Tuber flesh color Table 3. Folk names for Dioscorea trifida given by farmers in the States of Mato Grosso, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo and Amazonas, Brazil. Number of citations by State Folk name (%) MT SC SP AM Cara roxo 43.40 7 - 15 1 Cara 13.20 - 6 - 1 Cara branco 9.43 1 - 4 - Cara mimoso 7.55 - 4 - - Cara Sao Joao branco 3.77 - - 2 - Cara Sao Joao roxo 3.77 - - 2 - Cara mao de anta 3.77 2 - - - Cara pao 1.89 - 1 - - Calcanhar de negro 1.89 - 1 - - Cara pipa 1.89 - - 1 - Cara pe de anta 1.89 1 - - - Cara do Joaquim 1.89 1 - - - Pombinho branco 1.89 1 - - - Cara cobrinha 1.89 - - 1 -
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|Title Annotation:||Original Article|
|Author:||Nascimento, W.F.; Siqueira, M.V.B.M.; Ferreira, A.B.; Ming, L.C.; Peroni, N.; Veasey, E.A.|
|Publication:||Brazilian Journal of Biology|
|Date:||Jan 1, 2015|
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