Distribucion y variacion morfometrica de Micronycteris schmidtorum (Sanborn, 1935) (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) en el norte de Sudamerica con el primer registro en el Ecuador.
Micronycteris schmidtorum is a poorly known, medium-sized bat known from Southern Mexico to Southwestern Brazil (Williams & Genoways 2008), it occupies a wide range of habitats including evergreen and deciduous forests, thorn forests, swamps, pastures, and orchards (Williams & Genoways 2008; Tavares & Taddei 2003; Sampaio 2016). In South America M. schmidtorum has been reported from Colombia, Venezuela, French Guiana, Brazil, Peru, and Bolivia (Ascorra et al. 1991; Simmons 1996; Simmons & Voss 1998; Porter et al. 2007; Williams & Genoways 2008; Da Rocha et al. 2017).
The species is recognized by the following set of characters: a grayish-white venter, a moderately notched band between ears, calcar longer than foot, zygomatic breadth greater than mastoid breadth, and second premolar (p3) smaller than first (p2) and third (p4) premolars (Sanborn 1949; Ascorra et al. 1991; Simmons 1996; Williams & Genoways 2008). Although confusion of Micronycteris schmidtorum with M. megalotis and M. minuta due to overlapping measurements is common, the morphological differentiation of species of Micronycteris has been well referenced in the literature (Sanborn 1949; Ascorra et al. 1991; Simmons 1996; Simmons & Voss 1998; Simmons et al. 2002; Williams & Genoways 2008; Feijo et al. 2015).
Six species have been reported for the neighboring countries of Ecuador and Colombia. Three of them: M. hirsuta (W. Peters, 1869), M. megalotis (Gray, 1842), and M. minuta (P. Gervais, 1856) happen to occur in both countries whereas M. giovanniae Baker and Fonseca, 2006 is endemic to Northwestern Ecuador, and M. microtis Miller, 1898 and M. schmidtorum (Sanborn, 1935) have been reported to Colombia (Solari et al. 2013) with no records in Ecuador to date (Tirira 2017). In Colombia, M. schmidtorum is only known from two localities: Maipures Rio Orinoco, Vichada department (Simmons 1996) and Puerto Nare, Antioquia department (Cuartas & Munoz 1999).
Ascorra and colleagues (1991) reported geographical size variation in M. schmidtorum with specimens from Peru and Brazil being smaller than individuals from northern Central and South America. However, morphological variation of the species is not clearly defined for two reasons: 1) evidence of specimens from Mexico analyzed by Escobedo-Cabrera and colleagues (2006) are inconsistent with Ascorra's hypothesis; and 2) specimens from Sitio Luanda, Ceara, Brazil, and from Jenaro Herrera, Loreto, Peru, reported by Ascorra and colleagues (1991) were later correctly identified by Simmons (1996) and Simmons & Voss (1998) as M. sanborni and M. brosseti, respectively (Williams & Genoways 2008).
Herein, we review the geographical distribution of Micronycteris schmidtorum in South America, including new locality records from Colombia and the first records of this species for Ecuador. Also, we propose some insights on morphometric variation of this species throughout its distribution.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
To evaluate distribution and geographical variation of M. schmidtorum we gathered locality records and measurements from the literature and reviewed Micronycteris specimens conserved in two Colombian collections: Coleccion de Mamiferos Alberto Cadena Garcia from Instituto de Ciencias Naturales de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia (ICN), and Coleccion Teriologica Universidad de Antioquia (CTUA); and two collections from Ecuador: Mammal collection of the Museo de Zoologia at Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Ecuador (QCAZ-M) and Museo de Historia Natural Gustavo Orces V. at Escuela Politecnica Nacional (EPN; Appendix 1).
We obtained 7 external and 8 craniodental measurements: total length (TL); tail length (TaL); hindfoot length (HF); ear length (Ear); forearm length (FA); tibia length (TiL); greatest length of the skull (GLS); condylobasal length (CBL); condyloincisive length (CIL); postorbital breadth (PB); braincase breadth (BB); mastoid breadth (MB); zygomatic breadth (ZB); maxillary toothrow length (MTRL); and breadth across molars (BAM). External measurements were taken for specimen's tag. Cranial measurements were taken according to Simmons & Voss (1998). We compared the mean and standard deviation of external and craniodental measurements of different populations from Central and South America to evaluate geographical variation in size throughout the distribution of this species. A total of 16 Micronycteris schmidtorum individuals were analyzed, 11 from Colombia and 5 from Ecuador.
We report the first records of M. schmidtorum from Ecuador, represented by five museum vouchers deposited at QCAZ-M and EPN (Fig. 1). One adult male specimen belongs to the eastern region of Ecuador from Yasuni Research Station, Yasuni National Park, canton Aguarico, Orellana Province (QCAZ 4556), corresponding to the Evergreen Forest of Napo-Curaray lowlands according to the Ecuadorian ecosystems classification (Ministerio del Ambiente del Ecuador 2013). Another adult male from the Eastern region of Ecuador from Domono Lundiji, Canton Morona, Morona Santiago province (EPN 11150), corresponding to an intervened area near the Evergreen Piedmont Evergreen Forest of the Southern Eastern Andes Cordillera (Ministerio del Ambiente del Ecuador 2013). These records fill the existing gap in Amazonia of 1300 km between the nearest record to the east reported from Territorio Federal Amazonas, Rio Mavaca, 108 km SSE Esmeralda, Venezuela (2-USNM 388713; Ascorra et al. 1991) and 1200 km for the nearest record to the south from Madre de Dios, Manu, Pakitza, Peru (MUSM 6803; Simmons 1996).
Also, we report two records from Western Ecuador, one adult female from Quingue, canton Muise, Esmeraldas Province (QCAZ 6096), corresponding to the Evergreen Forest of the Equatorial Choco lowlands according to the Ecuadorian ecosystems classification (Ministerio del Ambiente del Ecuador 2013), and one adult male from Hacienda El Cortijo, canton Santo Domingo, Santo Domingo de los Tsachilas Province (QCAZ 6057), corresponding to an agriculture intervened zone according to the Ecuadorian ecosystems classification (Ministerio del Ambiente del Ecuador 2013). Both northwestern specimens correspond to the first records of this species for the biogeographic Choco region.
Finally, we found one specimen from the Tarangaro Community, canton Arajuno, Pastaza Province (QCAZ 14801), corresponding to the Evergreen Forest of Tigre-Pastaza lowlands, but near an agriculture intervention zone according to the Ecuadorian ecosystems classification (Ministerio del Ambiente del Ecuador 2013); this specimen was reported by Tinoco & Camacho (2015) as M. megalotis and presumably correspond to M. schmidtorum based in size of lower premolars, although identification is difficult due to the fragmented skull.
Vouchers QCAZ 4556 and QCAZ 6096 are preserved as dried skins and skulls, QCAZ 14801 corresponds to a partial skeleton and QCAZ 6057 is preserved as a fluid specimen with skull removed.
For Colombia we report ten new localities for M. schmidtorum in two biogeographical provinces according Hernandez-Camacho et al. (1992). Pericaribbean Arid Belt: Barrancas, La Guajira department (ICN 14750, 14752; CTUA 1255) and PNN Tayrona, Santa Marta, Magdalena department (ICN-CCG 010); and Orinoco Llanos: Rio Casanare, Tame, Arauca department (ICN-RCFR 427); San Luis de Palenque, Casanare (ICN-MRP 889); Reserva Natural La Palmita, Cano Guajivo, Trinidad, Casanare department (ICN-D3M 290; ICNRCFR 253); Tamara, Casanare department (ICN-GEP 815) San Carlos de Guaroa, Meta department (ICN 21576); San Martin, Meta department (ICN-FSC 451) and Villavicencio, Meta department (ICN-EMG 095; Fig. 1).
All the specimens with exception of QCAZ 6057 show the diagnostic characters of M. schmidtorum including a white or grayishwhite venter, a moderate notched band between ears, calcar longer than foot, and second premolar (p3) smaller than first (p2) and third (p4) premolars (Sanborn 1949; Ascorra et al. 1991; Simmons 1996; Williams & Genoways 2008; Fig. 2). QCAZ 6057 was identified based on size of lower premolars, and measurements ranges. Almost 60% of M. schmidtorum specimens referenced here are misidentifications of M. megalotis (QCAZ 4556; QCAZ 14801; EPN11150; ICN-RCFR 427; ICN-D3M 290; ICN-RCFR 253; ICN-GEP 815; ICN 21576) or M. minuta (QCAZ 6096; QCAZ 6057). The evident contrast between dorsal and ventral fur coloration in the species is not distinctive in some specimens and could be the cause of the misidentifications with M. megalotis. Therefore, a comparison of lower premolars size is necessary to make a correct identification.
Morphometric variation of M. schmidtorum shows that specimens from Colombia are slightly larger than specimens from Central and South America. In Colombia and Ecuador, western specimens are larger than eastern ones suggesting that the Andean Cordillera could be a geographic barrier that promotes differentiation of isolated populations; although that variation should be confirmed with additional sampling from those populations. West of the Andes in Panama are the smallest individuals, and for populations east of the Andes specimens from French Guiana show the smallest sizes, being the smallest of all known from the geographic distribution of this species (Table 1). This pattern is different to the one found by Ascorra et al. (1991).
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS
Distributional records show that M. schmidtorum occupies a wide range of habitats and natural regions including the Amazon basin and the Choco, although rarity of the species could be related to small populations or low detectability using standard methods; Simmons & Voss (1998) reported two males in 3126 captures (>1% relative abundance), and in three localities reported here abundance did not reach 1% of the assemblage: Trinidad Casanare (0.002%; 2 of 818 individuals), Tamara, Casanare (0.003%; 1 of 398 individuals); and Tame, Arauca (0.002%; 1 of 574 individuals; unpublished data).
Described morphometric variation does not support the hypothesis of Ascorra and colleagues (1991). Size differences within the geographic distribution of M. schmidtorum could be related to two hypotheses: 1) Andes represents a considerable barrier that causes cisand trans-Andean size differences. These mountains are considered the principal biogeographic barrier in north South America for lowland bat species associated with a cis-trans Andean diversification (Artibeus, Dermanura; Larsen et al. 2007; Hoofer et al. 2008; Solari et al. 2009) and morphometric variation (Phyllostomus; Rodriguez-Posada & Sanchez-Palomino 2009), which is possibly associated with morphometric differences between cis- and trans-Andean size differences in M. schmidtorum. 2) Size differences are part of cryptic diversity of the species not assessed to date. According to Siles et al. (2013) M. schmidtorum has 3% genetic divergences among Peruvian and Panamanian specimens and could be related to the morphological variation found herein. It is necessary to verify Andean influence and cryptic diversity with further sampling, and to include a revision of discrete characters and molecular analyses of different populations to resolve taxonomic entities.
We give special thanks to Hugo Lopez Arevalo (ICN), Sergio Solari (CTUA) and Luis Albuja (EPN) for permitting us to study specimens under their care. Ruben D. Jarrin took photographs of the specimen QCAZ 6096 included in the paper. DMM thanks to Division de Investigacion de la sede Bogota (DIB), Universidad Nacional de Colombia for providing funding to review the collection of CTUA and QCAZ.
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COLOMBIA. Arauca, Tame (ICN-RCFR 427); Casanare: San Luis de Palenque (ICN-MRP 889 [female]); Tamara (ICN-GEP 815); Trinidad, Reserva Natural La Palmita, Cano Guajivo, (ICN-D3M 290 <$; ICN-RCFR 253 [female]); La Guajira: Barrancas (ICN 14750[female], 14752 [male]; CTUA 1255 [female]); Magdalena: Santa Marta, Parque Nacional Natural Tayrona, Bahia Concha (ICNCCG 010 [female]); Meta: San Carlos de Guaroa (ICN 21576 $); San Martin (ICN-FSC 451); Villavicencio (ICN-EMG 095 [female]).
ECUADOR. Esmeraldas: Muisne, Quinque, Cerca al poblado de Quinque (QCAZ 6096 [female]); Morona Santiago: Canton Morona, Parroquia San Isidro, Domono Lundiji (EPN 11150 Orellana: Parque Yasuni (QCAZ 4556 [male]); Pichincha: Santo Domingo (QCAZ 6057 [male]); Pastaza: Alrededores de Villano, Comunidad Tarangaro (QCAZ 14801)
Darwin M. Morales-Martinez (1), M. Alejandra Camacho (2) and Santiago F. Burneo (2)
(1) Grupo de Conservacion y Manejo de Vida Silvestre and Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota, Colombia. [Correspondence: Darwin M. Morales-Martinez <email@example.com>]
(2) Seccion Mastozoologia, Museo de Zoologia, Escuela de Ciencias Biologicas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Ecuador, Quito, Ecuador.
Caption: Fig. 1. Geographic distribution of Micronycteris schmidtorum. Solid circles: Localities from the literature including Ascorra et al. (1991), Simmons (1996) Escobedo-Cabrera et al. (2006) Williams and Genoways (2008) and Da Rocha et al. (2017). Solid triangles: First records of Micronycteris schmidtorum from Ecuador. Solid squares: New records of Micronycteris schmidtorum from Colombia.
Caption: Fig. 2. Dorsal, ventral and lateral view of skull and lateral view of mandible of M. schmidtorum (QCAZ 6096) from W Ecuador. A) Relation of length of zygomatic breadth compared to mastoid breadth. B) Size of second premolar (p3) that is smaller than first (p2) and third (p4) premolars. Scale bar 3 mm.
Table 1 Means and standard deviations of measurements of Micronycteris schmidtorum over its range of distribution. (1) Data from Escobedo-Cabrera et al. (2006); (2) Data from Ascorra et al. (1991); (3) Data from Tavares & Taddei (2003) and Da Rocha et al. (2017); (4) Data from Simmons and Voss (1998). Numbers in parenthesis show the sample size. Mexico (1) Guatemala (2) Costa Rica (2) TL - 65.50 [+ or -] 2.12 61 (2) TaL - 15.00 [+ or -] 2.82 9 (2) HF - 10 11 Ear - 17.00 [+ or -] 1.41 19 (2) FA - 35.30 [+ or -] 0.14 33 (2) TiL - 16.40 [+ or -] 0.14 15.15 (2) GLS 20.1 [+ or -] 0.26 20.55 [+ or -] 0.07 19.8 (5) (2) CBL 17.06 [+ or -] 0.49 17.90 [+ or -] 0.14 17.5 (3) (2) CIL PB 4.10 [+ or -] 0.09 4.3 4.2 (5) BB - - - MB 8.49 [+ or -] 0.17 9.05 [+ or -] 0.21 9.05 (5) (2) ZB 9.06 [+ or -] 0.05 9.10 [+ or -] 0.21 9 (3) (2) MTL 7.19 [+ or -] 0.16 7.85 [+ or -] 0.07 7.5 (5) (2) BAM - - - Panama (2) NW. Colombia TL 60.00 [+ or -] 3.74 62.00 [+ or -] 2.00 (4) (3) TaL 9.25 [+ or -] 0.96 12.00 [+ or -] 1.00 (4) (3) HF 9.25 [+ or -] 0.96 10.33 [+ or -] 1.15 (4) (3) Ear 19.13 [+ or -] 1.65 19.81 [+ or -] 1.73 (4) (3) FA 34.16 [+ or -] 0.45 37.76 [+ or -] 0.88 (5) (4) TiL 15.24 [+ or -] 0.84 19.31 [+ or -] 1.12 (5) (4) GLS 19.53 [+ or -] 0.20 20.77 [+ or -] 0.622 (5) (2) CBL 17.31 [+ or -] 0.13 - (4) CIL 18.50 [+ or -] 0.467 (2) PB 4.26 [+ or -] 0.09 4.47 [+ or -] 0.04 (6) (2) BB - 7.79 [+ or -] 0.26 (2) MB 8.75 [+ or -] 0.11 9.33 [+ or -] 0.269 (6) (2) ZB 9.06 [+ or -] 0.20 10.22 [+ or -] 0.20 (5) (2) MTL 7.44 [+ or -] 0.11 8.11 [+ or -] 0.19 (6) (2) BAM - 6.74 [+ or -] 0.15 (2) E. Colombia W. Ecuador TL 62.25 [+ or -] 5.91 - (4) TaL 13.5 [+ or -] 3.11 - (4) HF 8.68 [+ or -] 1.16 - (4) Ear 20.00 [+ or -] 1 - (3) FA 35.78 [+ or -] 0.66 33.91 [+ or -] 1.40 (4) (2) TiL 18.96 [+ or -] 0.49 16.5 [+ or -] 1.82 (4) (2) GLS 20.38 [+ or -] 0.37 19.91 [+ or -] 0.65 (8) (2) CBL - - CIL 18.00 [+ or -] 0.42 17.62 [+ or -] 0.44 (8) (2) PB 4.35 [+ or -] 0.17 4.33 [+ or -] 0.02 (8) (2) BB 7.95 [+ or -] 0.18 7.86 [+ or -] 0.13 (8) (2) MB 9.05 [+ or -] 0.24 8.77 [+ or -] 0.03 (8) (2) ZB 9.57 [+ or -] 0.28 9.19 [+ or -] 0.11 (8) (2) MTL 7.83 [+ or -] 0.15 7.79 [+ or -] 0.10 (8) (2) BAM 6.37 [+ or -] 0.12 6.38 (8) E. Ecuador Venezuela (2) TL 50 63.30 [+ or -] 2.07 (6) TaL 8 15.83 [+ or -] 1.84 (6) HF 7.6 10.83 [+ or -] 0.98 (6) Ear 14.69 21.50 [+ or -] 1.23 (6) FA 33.20 [+ or -] 1.0 35.14 [+ or -] 1.45 (2) (6) TiL 16.5 16.23 [+ or -] 0.46 (6) GLS 18.89 [+ or -] 1.66 19.50 [+ or -] 0.35 (2) (6) CBL - 17.47 [+ or -] 0.43 (6) CIL 17.08 [+ or -] 0.79 - (2) PB 4.08 [+ or -] 0.29 4.18 [+ or -] 0.15 (2) (6) BB 7.81 [+ or -] 0.41 - (2) MB 8.59 [+ or -] 5.44 8.71 [+ or -] 0.20 (2) (6) ZB 8.85 [+ or -] 0.66 9.01 [+ or -] 0.28 (2) (6) MTL 7.35 [+ or -] 0.71 7.56 [+ or -] 0.24 (2) (6) BAM 6.21 [+ or -] 0.21 - (2) Brazil (2) French Guiana (4) TL 55.1 [+ or -] 1.82 56.5 [+ or -] 0.70 (3) (2) TaL 10.6 [+ or -] 11.83 11 [+ or -] 0.00 (3) (2) HF 9.2 9.5 [+ or -] 0.70 (2) Ear 15.16 [+ or -] 7.97 19 [+ or -] 0.00 (3) (2) FA 33.95 [+ or -] 0.64 33.5 [+ or -] 0.70 (4) (2) TiL 16.6 15.55 [+ or -] 0.35 (2) GLS 19.07 [+ or -] 0.21 18.56 [+ or -] 0.11 (4) (2) CBL 16.73 [+ or -] 8.37 - (3) CIL 16.9 16.58 [+ or -] 0.35 (2) PB 4.17 [+ or -] 0.10 - (4) BB 7.83 [+ or -] 3.92 7.77 [+ or -] 0.08 (3) (2) MB 8.62 [+ or -] 0.05 8.54 [+ or -] 0.13 (4) (2) ZB 8.93 [+ or -] 4.47 - (30) MTL 7.27 [+ or -] 0.17 7.15 [+ or -] 0.02 (4) (2) BAM 5.95 [+ or -] 0.17 5.97 [+ or -] 0.02 (4) (2)