Printer Friendly

Discovery of the first Aximopsis (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae) parasitoid of Lepidoptera in Brazil and notes on its biology.

Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae) is cultivated in urban and forest areas to supply raw material for blacksmithing, props, structures, sleepers, and, especially, poles (Dall'Oglio et al. 2013). However, this plant does not thrive in regions with frost, soils with low fertility, altitudes above 1,600 m, fires, and severe water deficits, and it has reduced sprouting (Marques et al. 1996; Okino et al. 2004). Eucalyptus cloeziana can be infested by Ctenarytaina spatulata Taylor (Hemiptera: Aphalaridae), although other species of eucalyptus and other Myrtaceae are preferred by this aphalarid for feeding and oviposition (Queiroz et al. 2010). Furthermore, E. cloeziana is susceptible to defoliation by Hylesia paulex Dognin (Pereira et al. 2009) and Dirphia moderata Bouvier (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) (Zanuncio et al. 1998; Pereira et al. 2008a) and suffers extensive damage from Thyrinteina arnobia arnobia Stoll and Thyrinteina leucoceraea Rindge (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) (Lemos et al. 1999; Pereira et al. 2008b).

Lepidopteran defoliators of Eucalyptus species can be controlled with chemical insecticides (Elek et al. 2003; Mansfield et al. 2006), but biological control with pupal parasitoids can reduce applications of these expensive and sometimes problematic products (Tavares et al. 2014a). The identification of natural enemies is the first step to develop biological control techniques in integrated management of a forest pest (Dall'Oglio et al. 2013). Thus, it is significant that Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle and Trichospilus diatraeae Cherian & Margabandhu (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) were found to parasitize T. arnobia arnobia pupae on E. cloeziana plants (Pereira et al. 2008b,c), and the development and reproduction of P. elaeisis in T. arnobia arnobia pupae were studied in the laboratory (Pereira et al. 2010).

The number of natural enemies associated with T. arnobia arnobia may be great than currently is known, because Paropsis atomaria Olivier (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), the main pest of E. cloeziana in Australia, has a large number of egg and larval parasitoids and hyperparasitoids (Nahrung et al. 2008). The main natural enemy of this pest is Neopolycystus sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), which was found to parasitize 45% of this beetle's eggs (Duffy et al. 2008). The aim of this study was to identify parasitoids of T. arnobia arnobia pupae on E. cloeziana plants in an urban area of Brazil and determine their parasitism rate on alternative hosts in order to develop mass production methods for use in biological control programs.

Materials and Methods

EXPERIMENTAL SITE

Thyrinteina arnobia arnobia pupae of various ages were collected on E. cloeziana plants at the campus of the Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV) in Vicosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil (20[degrees]44'S, 42[degrees]50'W; 650 m asl) in 2007. In 2011, Thagona tibialis Walker (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) pupae of various ages were obtained from larvae defoliating Terminalia catappa L. (Myrtales: Combretaceae) trees, which are cultivated in urban areas and on the campus of UFV (20[degrees]45'S, 42[degrees]51'W, 651 m asl). These pupae were brought to the Laboratory of Biological Control of Insects (LCBI) of UFV and kept in a room at 25 [+ or -] 1 [degrees]C, a 12:12 h L:D photoperiod, and 70 [+ or -] 10% RH. Each pupa was placed in a test tube (14.0 cm long x 2.2 cm diameter), which was sealed with a cotton swab until emergence of the lepidopteran or parasitoids. The collec tion areas were subjected to human impact and presented a flat terrain near a fragment of secondary forest with a diversified flora and fauna (Pereira et al. 2009; Tavares et al. 2011b, 2012c).

IDENTIFICATION OF INSECTS

Seventy-three individuals of an undescribed gregarious endoparasitoid species belonging to the genus Aximopsis (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae), emerged from 1 T. arnobia arnobia pupa collected in Nov 2007 on E. cloeziana plants. In addition, 73 and 79 Aximopsis individuals emerged from 2 T. tibialis pupae sampled on a T. catappa tree in May and Jun 2011, respectively. This parasitoid was identified by Gerard Delvare of the Centre de Cooperation Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Developpement (CIRAD), France, from initial comparison with the types of Neotropical Eurytomidae housed in the U.S. National Museum of Natural History, Washington D.C., USA, and the Natural History Museum, London, United Kingdom. Individuals of this species were deposited in the CIRAD and in the Regional Museum of Entomology of the Department of Entomology at UFV.

BIOLOGICAL PROCEDURES

Twenty recent Anticarsia gemmatalis Hubner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) (271.7 [+ or -] 6.8 mg) and Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) (118.0 [+ or -] 5.6 mg) pupae were obtained from cultures of these species reared at UFV (Zanuncio et al. 2008; Pereira et al. 2010). Larvae of A. gemmatalis had been fed with a solid artificial diet composed of 125.0 g bean grains, 62.4 g yeast, 100.0 g wheat germs, 100.0 g soy protein, 50.0 g casein, 35.0 g agar, 5.0 g Nipagin[R], 6.0 g ascorbic acid, 3.0 g sorbic acid, 6.0 mL formaldehyde at 40.0%, and 10.0 mL vitamin solution (Pereira et al. 2010). Larvae of T. molitor had been fed ad libitum with wheat bran (12% protein, 2% lipids, 75% carbohydrates, and 11% minerals/sugar) and pieces of Saccharum officinarum L. (Poales: Poaceae) and Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz (Cucurbitales: Cucurbitaceae). Sheets of paper were placed on top of the substrate to reduce the intensity of the light on the insects (Zanuncio et al. 2008).

Each pupa was individualized in a test tube with a drop of honey and 3 mated Aximopsis sp. females that had emerged from T. tibialis pupae. These insects remained in the test tubes for 2 d according to the method proposed for parasitism of A. gemmatalis and T. molitor pupae by P. elaeisis in the laboratory (Zanuncio et al. 2008; Pereira et al. 2010). Parasitism and emergence rates of parasitoids emerged from A. gemmatalis and T. molitor pupae were evaluated according to the number of parasitized pupae presenting caramel color. Unviable pupae became black, hollow, and died, whereas adult lepidopterans or coleopterans emerged from the non-parasitized ones (Zanuncio et al. 2008; Pereira et al. 2010).

EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN

The design was completely randomized with 2 treatments represented by A. gemmatalis and T. molitor pupae. Each treatment had 20 replications (1 pupa each). The duration of the life cycle (egg to adult, in d), parasitism and emergence rates (%), number of emerged individuals from each pupa, sex ratio, length of the body and width of the head capsule, and the longevity of Aximopsis sp. females and males that emerged from host pupae were determined according to the method proposed for parasitism of Heraclides anchisiades capys Hubner (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) pupae by P. elaeisis in the laboratory (Tavares et al. 2013c).

Results

Aximopsis sp. did not parasitize A. gemmatalis pupae, but it parasitized T. molitor pupae, which resulted in parasitism and emergence rates of 20% and 62 [+ or -] 5 individuals per pupa of this latter host (Table 1). The duration of the life cycle (egg to adult) of Aximopsis sp. was 14 [+ or -] 2 d. The sex ratio was 0.96 [+ or -] 0.02. The total number of parasitoids that emerged was 248 individuals. The longevity of Aximopsis sp. females was 6 [+ or -] 1 d and that of males was 4 [+ or -] 1 d. The body length and the width of the head capsule of Aximopsis sp. progeny were 3.50 mm (2.40-3.80 mm) and 0.63 mm (0.58-0.72 mm), respectively, in females (n = 10) and 1.99 mm (1.97-2.02 mm) and 0.48 mm (0.46-0.51 mm), respectively, in males (n = 5).

This is the first report of an Aximopsis sp. parasitizing lepidopteran pupae, i.e., T. arnobia arnobia and T. tibialis. Individuals of Aximopsis sp. that emerged from pupae of these 2 hosts in Brazil differed in their morphology from other species of this genus. Prior to this report, Aximopsis was known to parasitize only hymenopteran hosts. Thus, Aximopsis sp. that emerged from T. arnobia arnobia and T. tibialis pupae appear to be representatives of a new group that specializes on lepidopteran host species.

Discussion

The identification of Aximopsis sp. parasitizing T. arnobia arnobia pupae is important, because the pupal stage has no defense, whereas the larvae can reduce the impact of natural enemies by camouflage, by attacking natural enemies with their jaws, and by hanging from silk threads (Soares et al. 2009).

The number of individuals of Aximopsis sp. that emerged per T. molitor pupa (62 [+ or -] 5) was smaller than the numbers of P. elaeisis obtained in the following cases: (i) 4 P. elaeisis females per T. molitor pupae resulted in 100% parasitism, 90.8% emergence, and 70 [+ or -] 3 individuals per pupa (Zanuncio et al. 2008), (ii) 6 P. elaeisis females per A. gemmatalis pupa resulted in 100% parasitism, 100% emergence, and 110 [+ or -] 19 individuals per pupa (Pereira et al. 2010), (iii) 10 P elaeisis females per H. anchisiades capys pupa resulted in 40% parasitism, 40% emergence, and 323 [+ or -] 38 individuals per pupa (Tavares et al. 2013c), and (iv) 10 Trichospilus pupivorus Ferriere (Hy menoptera: Eulophidae) females per A. gemmatalis pupa resulted in 35% parasitism, 35% emergence, and 242 [+ or -] 12 individuals per pupa (Tavares et al. 2011a).

This lower number of individuals of Aximopsis sp. that emerged per T. molitor pupa compared with other cases may be because of the greater body length and the greater width of the head capsule of Aximopsis sp. female and male progeny than those of P. elaeisis (2.00 [+ or -] 0.03 mm and 0.58 [+ or -] 0.01 mm, respectively, in females and 1.34 [+ or -] 0.02 mm and 0.45 [+ or -] 0.01 mm, respectively, in males) that emerged from T. molitor pupae (Zanuncio et al. 2008) and the width of the head capsule of female and male T. diatraeae (0.71 [+ or -] 0.01 mm and 0.55 [+ or -] 0.02 mm, respectively) that emerged from T. arnobia arnobia pupae (Pastori et al. 2012).

This first report of Aximopsis sp. parasitizing pupae of T. arnobia arnobia and T. tibialis in Brazil opens possibilities for biological control of these pests in Eucalyptus plantations and on T. catappa plants in urban and forest areas by producing and releasing this natural enemy. The initial infestation of T. tibialis (population peak in May) on T. catappa plants (Tavares et al. 2013b, 2014b) near E. cloeziana plantations may have contributed to the dispersion, parasitism, and occurrence of Aximopsis sp. in Nov in T. arnobia arnobia pupae. Terminalia catappa is cultivated along the Atlantic coast of Brazil and in municipalities of Amapa, Para, and Roraima States, which border French Guiana, Guyana, and Suriname (Tavares et al. 2011a, 2012a). This area may be the region of entrance and distribution of Aximopsis sp. to central Brazil. Terminalia catappa plants are grown near Eucalyptus crops, and those plants can be a refuge for natural enemies of forest pests, just as has been reported for agricultural crops where Crotalaria juncea L. (Fabales: Fabaceae) shelters natural enemies of pests of Zea mays L. (Poales: Poaceae) (Tavares et al. 2011c). Thagona tibialis pupae are also hosts of the eulophid parasitoids P. elaeisis and T. pupivorus, which are promising biological control agents of agricultural pests such as A. gemmatalis, a major defoliator of Glycine max (L.) Merr. (Fabales: Fabaceae) (Tavares et al. 2011a, 2012a,b, 2013a).

This newly discovered Brazilian species of Aximopsis is most similar to one that parasitizes Sibine sp. (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae) pupae in the Neotropical region, and which is deposited in the collection of CIRAD (G. Delvare, pers. com.). Probably, the Brazilian species is native to South America, although the Australasia fauna of this genus is largely unknown. The phylogenetic position of the genus Aximopsis Ashmead in the Eurytominae has been redefined (Gates et al. 2006). Additional phylogenetic studies of the species of this genus are needed, because it is extremely diverse in the Neotropical region. The DNA of some Eurytominae species was sequenced in order to verify a phylogenetic analysis based on morphological characters (Lotfalizadeh et al. 2007).

The Aximopsis sp. that emerged from T. arnobia arnobia and T. tibialis pupae appears to be representative of a new group of Aximopsis that specializes on host species differing from those parasitized by Aximopsis masneri Gates (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae). The latter species parasitizes Euglossa variabilis Friese and Euglossa cybelia Moure (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in nests of these wasps in the Neotropical region (Gates 2009).

This is the first report of a species of the genus Aximopsis in Brazil. In addition, Aximopsis sp. parasitized Lepidoptera pupae of forest pests of the families Geometridae and Lymantriidae, which constitute a host group not previously known to be parasitized by species of Aximopsis. Tenebrio molitor, an adequate alternative host for some forest parasitoids in Brazil, has the potential to be used for mass rearing Aximopsis sp. in the laboratory. This study opens prospects for programs of biological control of pests with this natural enemy in urban and forest plantation areas of E. cloeziana and T. catappa.

Acknowledgments

We extend heartfelt thanks to Olaf Hermann Hendrik Mielke (Universidade Federal do Parana, Departamento de Zoologia in Curitiba, Parana, Brazil) for confirming the scientific name of Thyrinteina arnobia arnobia Stoll (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). We acknowledge Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico (CNPq), Coordenacao de Aperfeicoamento de Pessoal de Nivel Superior (CAPES), and Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais (FAPEMIG) for financial support. Global Edico Services of India rewrote and edited the English of the submitted version of this manuscript.

References Cited

Dall'Oglio OT, Zanuncio TV, Tavares WS, Serrao JE, Wilcken CF, Zanuncio JC. 2013. Atlantic Rainforest remnant harbors greater biotic diversity but reduced lepidopteran populations compared to a Eucalyptus plantation. Florida Entomologist 96: 887-896.

Duffy MP, Nahrung HF, Lawson SA, Clarke AR. 2008. Direct and indirect effects of egg parasitism by Neopolycystus sp. Girault (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) on Paropsis atomaria Olivier (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Australian Journal of Entomology 47: 195-202.

Elek JA, Steinbauer MJ, Beveridge N, Ebner P. 2003. The efficacy of high and low volume spray applications of Mimic[R] (tebufenozide) for managing autumn gum moth larvae Mnesampela privata (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) in eucalypt plantations. Agricultural and Forest Entomology 5: 325-332.

Gates MW. 2009. A new species of Aximopsis sensu lato Ashmead (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Eurytomidae) parasitic on Euglossa spp. (Hymenoptera, Apidae). ZooKeys 20: 165-174.

Gates MW, Metz MA, Schauff ME. 2006. The circumscription of the generic concept of Aximopsis Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Eurytomidae) with the description of seven new species. Zootaxa 1273: 9-54.

Lemos RNS, Crocomo WB, Forti LC, Wilcken CF. 1999. Feeding selectivity and influence of leaf age of Eucalyptus spp. for Thyrinteina arnobia (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira 34: 7-10.

Lotfalizadeh H, Delvare G, Rasplus JY 2007. Phylogenetic analysis of Eurytominae (Chalcidoidea: Eurytomidae) based on morphological characters. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 151: 441-510.

Mansfield S, Withers TM, Gous SF, Potter KJB, Kriticos DJ, Watson MC, Kimberley MO. 2006. Potential of selective insecticides for managing Uraba lugens (Lepidoptera: Nolidae) on eucalypts. Journal of Economic Entomology 99: 780-789.

Marques OG, Andrade HB, Ramalho MAP. 1996. Assessment of the early selection efficiency in Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell. in the northwest of Minas Gerais State (Brazil). Silvae Genetica 45: 359-361.

Nahrung HF, Duffy MP, Lawson SA, Clarke AR. 2008. Natural enemies of Paropsis atomaria Olivier (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in south-eastern Queensland eucalypt plantations. Australian Journal of Entomology 47: 188-194.

Okino EYA, Souza MR, Santana MAE, Alves MVD, Sousa ME, Teixeira DE. 2004. Cement-bonded wood particleboard with a mixture of eucalypt and rubberwood. Cement and Concrete Composites Journal 26: 729-734.

Pastori PL, Pereira FF, Andrade GS, Silva RO, Zanuncio JC, Pereira AIA. 2012. Reproduction of Trichospilus diatraeae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in pupae of two lepidopterans defoliators of eucalypt. Revista Colombiana de Entomologia 38: 90-93.

Pereira FF, Zanuncio AJV, Felipe JPD, Lorenzon AS, Canevari GD. 2008a. Development and reproduction of Dirphia moderata (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) on Eucalyptus cloeziana or Psidium guajava leaves under laboratory conditions. Revista Arvore 32: 1119-1124.

Pereira FF, Zanuncio TV, Zanuncio JC, Pratissoli D, Tavares MT. 2008b. Species of Lepidoptera defoliators of Eucalyptus as new host for the parasitoid Palmistichus elaeisis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology 51: 259-262.

Pereira FF, Zanuncio JC, Tavares MT, Pastori PL, Jacques GC, Vilela EF. 2008c. New record of Trichospilus diatraeae as a parasitoid of the eucalypt defoliator Thyrinteina arnobia in Brazil. Phytoparasitica 36: 304-306.

Pereira AIA, Curvelo CRD, Guerra AMNM, Andrade GS, Zanuncio JC. 2009. Eucalyptus cloeziana as a new host to Hylesia paulex (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) in southeast Brazil. Revista Caatinga 22: 1-5.

Pereira FF, Zanuncio JC, Pastori PL, Chichera RA, Andrade GS, Serrao JE. 2010. Reproductive biology of Palmistichus elaeisis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) with alternative and natural hosts. Zoologia 27: 887-891.

Queiroz DL, Zanol KMR, Oliveira EB, Anjos N, Majer J. 2010. Feeding and oviposition preferences of Ctenarytaina spatulata Taylor (Hemiptera, Psyllidae) for Eucalyptus spp. and other Myrtaceae in Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 54: 149-153.

Soares MA, Zanuncio JC, Leite GLD, Wermelinger ED, Serrao JE. 2009. Does Thyrinteina arnobia (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) use different defense behaviours against predators? Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection 116: 33-33.

Tavares WS, Hansson C, Serrao JE, Zanuncio JC. 2011a. First report of Trichospilus pupivorus (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) parasitizing pupae of Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Entomologia Generalis 33: 281-282.

Tavares WS, Serrao JE, Barbosa RA, Zanuncio JC. 2011b. Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers. (Lythraceae), a new host for the defoliator Oiketicus kirbyi Guilding, [1827] (Lepidoptera: Psychidae). Tropical Lepidoptera Research 21: 100-104.

Tavares WS, Cruz I, Silva RB, Figueiredo MLC, Ramalho FS, Serrao JE, Zanuncio JC. 2011c. Soil organisms associated to the weed suppressant Crotalaria juncea (Fabaceae) and its importance as a refuge for natural enemies. Planta Daninha 29: 473-479.

Tavares WS, Zanuncio TV, Hansson C, Serrao JE, Zanuncio JC. 2012a. Emergence of Palmistichus elaeisis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) from pupae of Thagona tibialis (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) collected in the medicinal plant Terminalia catappa (Combretaceae). Entomological News 122: 250-256.

Tavares WS, Mielke OHH, Wilcken CF, Simon L, Serrao JE, Zanuncio JC. 2012b. Palmistichus elaeisis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) parasitizing pupae of Citioica anthonilis (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) collected on Piptadenia gonoacantha (Fabaceae). Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 66: 216-220.

Tavares WS, Salgado-Neto G, Legaspi JC, Ramalho FS, Serrao JE, Zanuncio JC. 2012c. Biological and ecological consequences of Diolcogaster sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitizing Agaraea minuta (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) and the effects on two Costus (Costaceae) plant species in Brazil. Florida Entomologist 95: 966-970.

Tavares WS, Hansson C, Mielke OHH, Serrao JE, Zanuncio JC. 2013a. Parasitism of Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle, 1993 on pupae of Methona themisto (Hubner, [1818]) reared on two hosts (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae; Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). Shilap-Revista de Lepidopterologia 41(161): 43-48.

Tavares WS, Legaspi JC, Tavares MT, Nunez E, Pinto R, Zanuncio JC. 2013b. Brachymeria koehleri (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) as a hyperparasitoid of Lespesia melloi (Diptera: Tachinidae) pupae in Thagona tibialis (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) caterpillars in Brazil. Florida Entomologist 96: 1635-1638.

Tavares WS, Soares MA, Mielke OHH, Poderoso JCM, Serrao JE, Zanuncio JC. 2013c. Emergence of Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle, 1993 (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) from pupae of Heraclides anchisiades capys (Hubner, [1809]) (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) in the laboratory. Folia Biologica (Krakow) 61: 233-237.

Tavares WS, Nunez E, Serrao JE, Soares MA, Wilcken CF, Zanuncio JC. 2014a. Belvosia sp. (Diptera: Tachinidae) parasitizing Halysidota sp. (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) caterpillars on Ficus benjamina (Moraceae) in Brazil. Florida Entomologist 97: 272-276.

Tavares WS, Wilcken CF, Ramalho FS, Leite GLD, Serrao JE, Zanuncio JC. 2014b. Defoliation of Terminalia catappa by larvae of Thagona tibialis (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) in Vicosa, Brazil. Journal of Agricultural and Urban Entomology 30: 1-11.

Zanuncio JC, Mezzomo JA, Guedes RNC, Oliveira AC. 1998. Influence of strips of native vegetation on Lepidoptera associated with Eucalyptus cloeziana in Brazil. Forest Ecology and Management 108: 85-90.

Zanuncio JC, Pereira FF, Jacques GC, Tavares MT, Serrao JE. 2008. Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), a new alternative host to rear the pupae parasitoid Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). Coleopterists Bulletin 62: 64-66.

Wagner de Souza Tavares (1), Carlos Frederico Wilcken (2), Francisco de Sousa Ramalho (3), Marcus Alvarenga Soares (4), Flavio Lemes Fernandes (5), Jose Eduardo Serrao (6), and Jose Cola Zanuncio (7) *

(1) Departamento de Fitotecnia, Universidade Federal de Vicosa, 36570-900, Vicosa, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Current address: Bahia Specialty Cellulose/Copener Florestal Ltda., rua Dr. Jose Tiago Correa, s/n, bairro Alagoinhas Velha, 48030-480, Alagoinhas, Bahia, Brasil

(2) Departamento de Producao Vegetal, Universidade Estadual Paulista "Julio de Mesquita Filho", 18603-970, Botucatu, Sao Paulo, Brasil

(3) Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria, Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Algodao, Unidade de Controle Biologico, rua Oswaldo Cruz, n[degrees] 1143, bairro Centenario, 58107-720, Campina Grande, Paraiba, Brasil

(4) Departamento de Agronomia, Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri, 39100-000, Diamantina, Minas Gerais, Brasil

(5) Campus de Rio Paranaiba, Universidade Federal de Vicosa, 38810-000, Vicosa, Minas Gerais, Brasil

(6) Departamento de Biologia Geral, Universidade Federal de Vicosa, 36570-900, Vicosa, Minas Gerais, Brasil

(7) Departamento de Entomologia, Universidade Federal de Vicosa, 36570-900, Vicosa, Minas Gerais, Brasil

* Corresponding author; E-mail: zanuncio@ufv.br
Table 1. Parameters (mean [+ or -] SD, or range) of Aximopsis sp. that
parasitized pupae of Tenebrio molitor in the laboratory.

Parameter                                                  Value

Duration of the life cycle (egg to adult) (d)       14 [+ or -] 2
Parasitism rate (%)                                 20
Emergence rate (%)                                  20
Number of emerged individuals from each pupa        62 [+ or -] 5
Total number of parasitoids that emerged           248
Sex ratio                                            0.96 [+ or -] 0.02
Length of the body (female) (mm) (n = 10)            3.50 (2.40-3.80)
Length of the body (male) (mm) (n = 5)               1.99 (1.97-2.02)
Width of the head capsule (female) (mm) (n = 10)     0.63 (0.58-0.72)
Width of the head capsule (male) (mm) (n = 5)        0.48 (0.46-0.51)
Longevity (female) (d)                               6 [+ or -] 1
Longevity (male) (d)                                 4 [+ or -] 1
COPYRIGHT 2015 Florida Entomological Society
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2015 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Title Annotation:Research Papers
Author:Tavares, Wagner de Souza; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; Ramalho, Francisco de Sousa; Soares, Marcus Alv
Publication:Florida Entomologist
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:3BRAZ
Date:Dec 1, 2015
Words:3600
Previous Article:Rice leaf folder Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on wheat (Triticum aestivum; Poales: Poaceae) in India.
Next Article:Reducing mowing frequency increases floral resource and butterfly (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea and Papilionoidea) abundance in managed roadside margins.
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2019 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters