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Disability, Performance, and Discrimination in the Service to Humanity.

Understanding of disability

In Nigeria, understanding of the word "disability" has been somewhat controversial. Some individuals feel more comfortable with the term "physically challenged." During a sensitization programme in Lagos in 2010, a mother of a girl with Down's syndrome insisted that her child is not "physically challenged," arguing that her child is physically normal but mentally challenged. In 2011, during an empowerment programme of a community of persons with disabilities, a woman with a spinal cord injury responded that she is not disabled but physically challenged. To many Nigerians the word "disability" is pejorative; it depreciates not only the persons directly affected but also those relating to the person. Disability is portrayed negatively, providing a bad image. Disability lowers one's status; hence, disability is abhorred.

It is said that the term "disability" did not exist in the African tradition or in the Western or Judeo-Christian tradition, but is rather a creation of modern society to group people with different impairments. (1) Disability is an umbrella term referring to impairment. It can refer to activity limitation, that is, participation restrictions. Disability is mainly an outcome of interaction between impairment and negative societal impact. The World Health Organization (WHO) states that most people at some point in their lives will experience one type of disability or another. (2)

Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary defines disability as a physical or mental condition that means that a person cannot use a part of their body completely or easily or that they cannot learn easily. (3) Defining disability as a health problem (medical model) gives room for continuous perpetuation of discrimination and marginalization simply because the person has difficulty being at par with a non-disabled person in doing everyday things. (4) This can be linked to the social model that emphasizes that disability arises from the attitudinal, physical, and institutional barriers which systematically exclude persons from fully participating in society. (5) In Article 1 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, disability is described as the condition in which physical and social barriers prevent a person with impairment from taking part in the normal life of their community on an equal level with others. (6)

In Nigeria an interplay of belief, experience, and culture influences how people understand and define disability. The definitions inform beliefs, which are most often rooted in culture. Different categories of people, including church communities, have defined disability based on their religious understanding, perceptions of persons with disabilities, and interests. The understanding and perception of disability, mainly expressed in definitions, are determined not only by a person's religious and cultural understanding but also by their interaction with persons with disabilities. According to Olasupo Ojo, more than 60 percent of the population lacks understanding of what disability is. (7) These persons lack understanding because they abhor, and hence avoid, close contact with persons living with disabilities. These individuals are likely to give different definitions of disability if asked.

In my personal experience, individuals in my ecumenical circle have often said they prefer using the term "differently abled." They argue that everyone created by God on earth has one disability or another. The end result of such arguments has often been the propagation and promotion of oppression and suppression, where the treatment of the person involved goes contrary to the assumed empathy or assumed inclusive definition.

In most Nigerian communities, disability is associated with deprivation, abandonment, and burden. (8) Disability invites complete ostracism from society. (9) In social, economic, and political activities, persons with disabilities are disregarded, stigmatized, and dehumanized. Because of these factors, disabled persons are viewed as tragic, afflicted, and suffering people. They are seen as objects to be pitied and as embarrassments to society. One common tool or strategy to help their situation is to bring them to church for religious deliverance, where they are at the mercy of religious leaders who use them to demonstrate their miracle healing powers. Nigeria is noted as one of the most religious countries of the world, with the highest number of churches that offer miracle healing. (10) Persons with disabilities who are taken for deliverance prayers are completely cut off from their immediate community and from services and other development opportunities.

Religious adherents always see disability in a negative light. It is said that the Christian community sees persons with disabilities as limited. (11) They see disability as misfortune. Some view disability as a curse from God (12) resulting from sin, or gross disobedience of God's commandments; others see persons with disabilities as people possessed by evil spirits or associated with witches and wizards. (13) Some see disability as sickness that requires casting and binding the evil surrounding the disability with "fire prayers" for instant miraculous healing. In situations where the healing miracles do not take place, the disabled person is regarded as a person without sufficient faith, especially when the preachers make a connection between faith and healing. This condemnation through teaching about faith and healing leads to more stigmatization and ostracizing of persons with disabilities in the churches.

State of persons with disabilities

The United Nations Development Programme states that 80 percent of persons with disabilities live in developing countries. (14) The UN also estimated that 10 percent of the world population comprises persons with disabilities; each nation, by virtue of this estimate, has 10 percent of its population living with disabilities. (15) According to the 2006 census, Nigeria has an estimated population of 150 million, of which 10 percent is 15 million persons. This information is yet to be ascertained, as various scholars, while critically reviewing the literature on poverty and disability in low and middle-income countries, have observed that "checking and verification of these statistics at their source is more problematic." (16)

The estimation of 15 million persons as the number of Nigerians living with disabilities is far from being the reality. 1 suggest this based on the evidence of the overwhelming categories and different networks of persons with disabilities in the country. There are physically challenged persons' associations, associations for the blind, associations for the deaf, amputees' associations, spinal cord injury associations, Down's syndrome associations, autistic associations, cerebral palsy groups, etc. For the first time, I was made to consider persons with albinism and people infected with leprosy (Hansen's disease) as disabled persons. Jake Epelle of the Albino Foundation states that about six million albinos live in Nigeria. (17) According to DermNet NZ, leprosy is most common in warm, wet areas in the tropics and subtropics and has a worldwide prevalence of 5.5 million, with 80 percent of the cases to be found in Nigeria and four other countries. (18) The International Federation of Anti-Leprosy Associations (ILEP) states that in the year 1996, approximately 30 percent of past or present people with leprosy in Nigeria were affected by a disability or impairment. In 2006, Nigeria was one of seven countries in Africa reporting more than 1,000 new cases of leprosy a year. (19) Again, cases of psycho-social disability are rampant in Nigeria, yet this category of persons is hardly considered when classifying disability groups. Moreover, with the Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria since 2011, the number of persons left disabled after each attack is unrecorded, and this is likely to increase the number of Nigerians living with disabilities.

The WHO in 2004 estimated that there are approximately 19 million disabled people living in Nigeria. (20) To date, there are no statistical data in the country that confirm or refute this estimate. The president of ASCEND (Association for Comprehensive Empowerment of Nigerians with Disabilities) states that Nigeria has close to 24 million physically challenged persons. (21) His source of information is unconfirmed. The Disability Rights Advocacy Centre estimated that 28 million persons have disability. (22) The varying figure is seen as confirmation of the absence of reliable statistics on disability in Nigeria - a confirmation that has been further strengthened by the National Bureau for Statistics. (23)

Employment opportunities

It is said that globally, "only one in ten persons with disabilities is able to find work in the open market." (24) Employers generally do not believe that persons with disabilities can work. Most persons with disability, especially women, lack the skills to gain employment. (25) Disabled persons are the most disadvantaged and most vulnerable in Nigeria, where only the strongest survive. Persons with disabilities in Nigeria live on the brink of society. (26) Their employment needs are barely met. Unemployment among persons with disabilities could be as high as 90 percent. (27)

Moreover, of the United Nations' 40 least-developed countries, 32 are in Sub-Saharan Africa. (28) Ayobami testifies that along with the difficulties of physical, mental, and intellectual impairments, persons with disabilities often face stigma, discrimination, violence, and poverty. (29) This is in addition to structural problems in the Nigerian economic and social sectors. In Nigeria, the high level of poverty drives many persons with disabilities to street begging. According to the United Nations, 20 percent of the world's poorest people are disabled. (30) In Ni geria, the majority of persons with disabilities are socialized into seeing street begging as their profession: for example, in the northern part of the country there exists the Beggars' Association of Nigeria. According to the Rev. Bulus Yahaya, this association has a well-established leadership structure. (31) Members in this association have been socialized to have the mindset that begging is an exclusive profession for persons living with disabilities. Religious communities, including Christians, are the leading malefactors in providing scriptural reasons for giving to beggars and the poor (Luke 12:33). Thus, religious individuals and organizations daily encourage persons with disabilities (for whom street begging is a sure source of income and who have been socialized to adopt it as their exclusive profession) to stick to it, viewing it as the only way to help a person with disability earn a living.

It can be said that nine out of ten employed persons with disabilities are not in gainful employment. People believe that persons with disabilities can only be hired on the grounds of sympathy, and not because of their qualifications. Again, research shows that workers with disabilities are more likely to be engaged in informal and part-time work, instead of full-time employment with its increased stability and benefits. Nigerian society sees employing a person with a disability as doing the person a favour, not thinking that they can be skilled (professionals) or deserve a decent living. Most times, this entails paying persons with disabilities less than other workers and subjecting the person to degrading and discriminatory treatment or abusive language, which amounts to psychological or emotional violence. For instance, some years ago, while I was working in an ecumenical organization, I was reminded that I was employed out of charity and therefore should not expect the job benefits given to other staff of the organization. Of course, I was severely suppressed and highly oppressed when I demanded improvement and better treatment by the organization. This oppression and treatment, which came in various forms, forced me out of the services of the organization in 2007.

Disability is widely seen as a great barrier to a person. Living with disability entails living with unique challenges, some of which are induced by society. Society-induced challenges revolve around negligence, stigmatization, and discrimination, whose impacts are poverty, poor health conditions resulting from violence/trauma, and a degrading lifestyle. Insecurity or unsafe living conditions and unfair working conditions can also create further disabilities that last the whole of a person's life. Discrimination, a major challenge of persons with disabilities, has been widely seen as one of the greatest factors imposing disadvantages on persons living with disabilities. (32) A key and recurring challenge of discrimination is the difficulty that persons with disabilities face around work: that is, finding gainful employment, staying employed even after finding a job, and dealing with issues encountered at work that are directly related to living with disability. In most countries, and also in Nigeria, the unemployment rates of people with disabilities are several times higher than those of the non-disabled population, and in keeping with this, the employment rates of people with disabilities are much lower.

There is no law prohibiting employment discrimination against qualified persons with disabilities in Nigeria. Other countries, such as the US, have in place Disability Acts that prohibit employment discrimination against qualified individuals with disabilities. The Israeli Equality at Work Law also forbids employers to discriminate between employees or those seeking employment on the basis of gender, sexual orientation, status, etc., or to infringe on the law in all applications for employment, working conditions, promotion, training or professional courses, compensation payment, or payment amounts to legal charges. Nigeria operates under a written constitution. In Nigeria, the National Assembly is responsible for making new laws through resolutions, which pass through a process of becoming a bill and then a law. (33) To this date, there is no national bill or law that specifically targets discrimination against or protection of persons with disabilities. As a result, there is no national legal instrument to lend support in addressing the numerous challenges facing millions of individuals with disabilities. In the churches, the situation is the same: there is no policy document either mandating inclusion or addressing exclusion of persons with disabilities.

At the global level, efforts are being made to create awareness around disability and to remove barriers holding down persons with disabilities. The United Nations in 2006 came up with the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) and that same year Nigeria became a state party to the convention. At the time of writing, the Nigerian government has not domesticated the convention. The International Labour Organization (ILO) states that persons with disabilities experience higher rates of unemployment and economic activity and are at greater risk of insufficient social protection that is key to reducing extreme poverty. The ILO promotes equality of opportunity and treatment for persons with disabilities in vocational rehabilitation, training, and employment. In its two policies--ILO Convention No. 159 (1983) concerning vocational rehabilitation of employment of disabled persons and the ILO code of practice (2001) on managing disability in the workplace--the organization promotes the equality of opportunity through a policy called the Disability Programme. Through the programme, the ILO increases knowledge on training and employing people with disabilities. (34) The World Council of Churches (WCC) has, since 1998, been calling the church and church-related communities to be inclusive by tearing down the walls of shame, prejudice, competition, fear, ignorance, cultural misunderstanding, and theological prejudice. The culmination of this call was the WCC's publication of a study document called "A Church of All and for All" in 2003.

Studies have shown that disabled persons who have good formal education and the mental ability to work are often denied employment opportunities because of their disabilities. (35) It is stated that disability restricts a person's capabilities in various ways. (36) In Nigeria, employers always propagate the myth that employees with disability will not be as productive as other employees, stating that these persons will be unable to meet performance standards and are therefore bad employment risks. Performance issues related to disability have widely been given as the reason employers, including ecumenical communities and churches, deny opportunities to persons with disabilities. Employers rarely think of making adjustments to address the environmental and structural barriers that prevent persons with disabilities having access to work environments and buildings and to enable workers to overcome challenges at work.

P. Renne Elisha has noted that it is a tradition in Nigeria for individuals with particular social identities and interests to organize themselves into societies and associations in order to provide social support and services to their members. (37) This can be seen as self-efficacy, which is described as the ability to produce results by oneself. This method has been greatly adopted by persons with disability around issues of employment, as well as on an individual level to help one another survive in their difficult living conditions. Again, in an environment where survival is only for the strongest, persons with disability form self-help or support groups through which they provide services and support for themselves, as well as encouraging development of their communities. These people engage in self-help projects that include forming singing ministries/groups and non-governmental organizations. Such achievements can be seen in Cobham Asuquo, a self-made servant of God who helps other Christians find solace through worship and belief in God. (38)

Participation of persons with disabilities in churches

There is a shortage of information concerning active participation of or active services by persons with disabilities in the Lord's vineyard. This could be why persons with disabilities have few encouraging or motivating opportunities such as ordained positions or other positions of leadership in churches and church-related organizations. The most widely known position occupied by persons with disabilities in the Lord's vineyard has so far been as benefactors of God's commandment on giving to the poor and the needy, as commanded in the Bible. The churches strongly believe in and propagate the status or position of persons with disability as charity objects. To this regard, any dealing with persons with disabilities is purely on the grounds of charity or sympathy. They are not viewed as equals before our Creator or in qualifications. In such circumstances, persons with disabilities are exposed to degrading and discriminatory treatment.

Following from the Ecumenical Disability Advocates Network/Christian Council of Nigeria's 2014 deep consultations, reflections, deliberations, and discussions with some theological colleges, leaders in the Nigerian ecumenical movement and participants from non-governmental organizations have re-emphasized that theological views on disability include that the challenges of persons with disability do not reduce the image of God in them. They also stated that whether or not physical or mental abilities of persons with disabilities are restored through prayers, the disability does not change the image of God, because these persons are in God's true image as they are. It was also testified that theological institutions owned and managed by these churches have over the years turned down admissions for persons with disabilities. (39) Further deliberations also observed that the institutions have turned down admissions for students with disabilities because of the lack of facilities for persons with disabilities in the institutions.

Exclusion of persons with disability in church and institutional activities is an all-round practice, and this continuously negates the purpose of "A Church of All and for All." Exclusion perpetuates discrimination and encourages the withdrawal of children of God living with disabilities from the body of Christ. In very strong terms, it supports a postulation that disabled people, irrespective of where they are, statistically have less access to developed support networks and social capital that would lead to the same level of development and security in their life endeavours as their non-disabled counterparts. (40)

Dr Samuel Kabue identified paternalistic and patronizing attitudes, exclusion from participation, and an unjustified emphasis on physical healing as three main cultural perceptions that hinder persons with disabilities from being included and participating in the church. This is true of my experience when rendering services within the ecumenical movement. I can testify that players publicly eulogize how inclusive their organization/church community is. They beat their chests in praise of how inclusive they are because a person with disability has struggled to get into the services of the establishment; but in actual fact the same people tend to ignore the fact or will not reveal publicly that the disabled employee is highly resourceful and often more productive than their non-disabled peers. The eulogy is to gain fame by magnifying the presence of a person with disability and emphasize the employer's magnanimity or inclusivity. Ignoring the worker's good professional attributes has ended up suppressing the growth of skills of persons with disabilities and marginalizes the person with disability from the benefits that accrue from good job performance. Persons with disability are thus continuously isolated from their own deeds, from their character and job output, to the credit of the employer.

In the pulpits and among the clergy, it is extremely difficult to find any mainline churches in Nigeria in which persons with disabilities are ordained priests. Persons with disabilities are rarely considered in the larger scheme of things even though these persons constitute a significant part of the population. The reason they are not ordained or included in church leadership is not in truth because of issues around their body or health problems, but because of prejudice. In Nigeria, a common prejudice is that persons with disabilities are "good for nothing" and are thus treated as objects of charity. This stereotypical behaviour not only institutionalizes discrimination but also promotes systemic oppression that is developed from assumptions and perpetuated in ecumenical society. These constitute structural barriers that promote discrimination and isolation of persons with disabilities.

At the Cathedral of Lutheran Church of Christ Nigeria in the Jimeta area of Adamawa in the northeastern part of Nigeria, there is a wing called the Church for the Deaf. This wing, consecrated in 2016, is specifically for a deaf congregation. In this Church for the Deaf, services are conducted for deaf persons only. It is headed by a deaf female clergy named Ruth Ulea, who is the only ordained deaf pastor in the entire LCCN and probably the only one in the entire nation. The Church for the Deaf is isolated from the main cathedral church building. While deaf persons may feel more comfortable and accepted among themselves because of their common language of communication and the discrimination they experience in the main church, the fact still remains that the separation depicts exclusion from other activities outside of worship. For instance, if I had not personally asked about such a category of persons in that church during our programme, I would not have known of the existence of the deaf persons or the Church for the Deaf in that cathedral. Why have a specific church when persons with disabilities are part of families and communities? Would it not have been better to incorporate them into the main service?

Discrimination of persons with disabilities

The word "discrimination" is often used as a broad and abstract term. In many environments, people are discriminated against on the basis of disability, gender, status, attitude, age, race, or religion. Given my experience and in the present context, I can define discrimination simply as treating unfairly and differently a person with disability solely because of their disability and without justifying such treatment. Discrimination occurs when unfair treatment is meted out to a person with disability that is directly or indirectly linked to the disability. The World Bank states that disabled people are among the poorest, the most discriminated against, the most stigmatized, and the most marginalized of the entire world's citizens. (41) Rachel Hurst argued in 1999 that discrimination, oppression, violence, and abuse of persons with disabilities know no boundaries, and they know neither institutions nor organizations; hence, there is no place where disabled persons do not face discrimination. (42) Discrimination is also present when a person with disability receives less favourable treatment, social respect and regard, work, and development opportunities compared to a non-disabled peer.

Social exclusion based on status indicates how attitudes, values, and prejudices transform into discrimination, which constitutes actions promoted by institutional powers. They give rise to systemic segregation and oppression developed from perception or ideologies that are perpetuated in societies. Disability segregation and subordination is one such culture developed out of a societal attitude that subjects a category of persons to discrimination, marginalization, suppression, and isolation. (43) Thus the challenges of living with disabilities are multiple for individuals, because socio-economic, ideological, and other structures that are widely acknowledged as promoting marginalization and oppression are operated in such ways that persons with disability are expressly shut out. Places for services to humanity are not exceptional.

The WCC-Ecumenical Disability Advocates Network (WCC-EDAN) was established to heighten awareness around disability issues among the churches. In the Bible, the book of Ephesians 2:14 states that Christ came to tear down the walls. It is an open secret that there are still some human walls in the church and its related institutions that are still shutting people out. These walls tend to contradict Christ's ministry of reconciliation. Those with some experience of discrimination, isolation, competition, and prejudice may wonder if the church is practically the most authentic institution to propagate the cause of forging an equal partnership with persons with disabilities. It is difficult to reconcile the actual treatment one receives--which mainly indicates encouraging erecting walls of rigid dogma and cultural misunderstanding--with the call for a church of all and for all.

Church stereotyping of persons with disabilities relates not only to the notion that these persons are unable to do certain tasks well or at all, but also to the nature of their characters, aptitudes, and abilities. The majority of Christians base the above thinking on minimal or one-off experiences with a single person with disability. Cases abound of such stereotyping. A colleague from the group ECWA/TEKAN informed me that I seem different from so many other persons with disability she has encountered through the course of her ecumenical work activities. I suspect that my being different is simply the result of her close interaction with me: she has assessed my performance and also seen that my character is different from others she has met. But I strongly believe that one's disabilities, or otherwise, do not determine one's individual character. It should not be forgotten that all individuals interact differently and would approach tasks differently. Our diversity should be viewed as reflecting God's creation in diversity and not as being a disadvantage to deal with--at work or in other services in his vineyard.

It should be noted that non-disabled persons put on a veneer of benevolence while interacting with persons with disabilities in patronizing or paternalistic ways. This enables non-disabled persons to treat disabled persons less than ideally, leading some of them to regard persons with disability as if they were less human--as if they were not also called by God or were incapable of making valuable inputs or achieving impressive results. The stereotype thus jeopardizes the disabled person's interest and belief that they are capable of performing.

One is still hopeful that the various moves initiated by WCC-EDAN to forge a stronger partnership with churches in Nigeria will one day yield expected results. It is strongly believed that someday the church will adhere to the call to tear down the walls of discrimination and be an inclusive community. Until our churches learn to work with us to create ways to allow persons with disability to serve the body of Christ, we, from our little corners, will continuously raise our tiny voices, reminding all of us of this commitment. We keep the hope for inclusion alive.

Celine Osukwu

Celine Osukwu is the coordinator of the Ecumenical Disability Advocates Network, Divine Foundation for Disabled Persons at the Christian Council of Nigeria, Lagos.

(1) Samuel Kabue, "Persons with Disabilities in Church and Society: A Historical and Sociological Perspective," Disability, Society and Theology Voices from Africa (Limuru, Kenya: Zapf Chancery, 2011).

(2) World Health Organization, World Health Report on Disability 2001 & 2002.

(3) Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary,

(4) World Health Organization, World Report on Disability 2011,

(5) A. Harris and S. Enfield, Disability, Equality, and Human Rights: A Training Manual for Development and Humanitarian Organisations (Oxford, UK: Oxfam, 2003).

(6) UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UN CRPD) 2006,

(7) Olasupo Ojo is a constitutional lawyer and former president of the Committee for the Defence of Human Rights.

(8) Mohammed Awaisu Haruna, "The Problems of Living with Disability in Nigeria," Journal of Law, Policy and Globalisation 65 (2017).

(9) C. D. Akhidenor, "Nigerians' Attitudes toward People with Disabilities," PhD dissertation, Capella University; Minneapolis, 2007,

(10) The Rev. Fr George Ehusani is the executive director of Lux Terra Leadership Foundation and a vice chancellor of a Catholic university in Nigeria.

(11) Clemence Makamure, "Religion and Disability: A Reflection on the Role of Pentecostal Churches in Curbing Marginalization of People with Disabilities in Zimbabwe," Boleswa 4:3 (2017), 106-16.

(12) Hebron L. Ndlovu, "African Beliefs Concerning People with Disabilities: Implications for Theological Education," Journal of Disability and Religion 20:1-2 (2006), 29-39.

(13) Mary Nyangweso, "Disability in Africa: A Cultural/Religious Perspective," (u.d.,2018).

(14) United Nations Development Program 2011.

(15) United Nations Organization, Factsheet on Persons with Disabilities (United Nations, n.d.),

(16) Nora Groce, Poverty and Disability: A Critical Review of the Literature in Low and Middle-Income Countries (London, UK: Leonard Cheshire Disability and Inclusive Development Centre, 2011), 6.

(17) Katherine Baffour, "Six Million Albinos Risk Skin Cancer In Nigeria," (2013),

(18) DermNet, "Who Is at Risk of Leprosy?" NZ(a.d.),

(19) International Federation of Anti-Leprosy Associations (ILEP), History of Leprosy in Nigeria, (n.d.),

(20) World Health Organization, World Report (Geneva: WHO, 2004).

(21) A. Egole, "ASCEND Begins the Fight to Win," Vanguard Media, 13 September 2013,

(22) Disability Rights Advocacy Center, A Basic Guide to Disability Inclusion (Nigeria: Disability Rights Advocacy Center, 2017).

(23) Raymond Lang and Lucy Upah, "Scoping Study: Disability Issues in Nigeria," (London: United Kingdom Department for International Development, 2008).

(24) "Easing Life Transitions for the Disabled," The Straits Times News, 5 January 2017,

(25) Celine Osukwu, Disability, HIV/AIDS and Gender in Nigeria: A CriticalAnalysis (Antigonish: Coady International Institute, 2013).

(26) Ibid.

(27) Michael Alfasi, Discrimination against People with Disabilities in the Workplace and Employers' Attitudes Regarding their Employment,

(28) T. Barnett and A. Whiteside, AIDS in the Twenty-First Century: Disease and Globalisation (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002).

(29) Ayobami is a young blind Nigerian.

(30) United Nations, 2011.

(31) The Rev. Bulus Yahaya is a clergy in the Baptist Convention, Kaduna, in northern Nigeria.

(32) Osukwu, Disability, HIV/AIDS and Gender in Nigeria.

(33) Josephine Dasel Nanjwan and Bassey Enya David, "Legislation and Adjustments for Persons with Disabilities in Southern Senatorial District in Cross River State, Nigeria," Public Policy and Administration Research 4:5 (2014).

(34) International Labour Organization, Disability and Work,

(35) Celine Osukwu, "The Place of Women with Disabilities" (2010).

(36) Sophia Mitra, "Disability and Social Safety Nets in Developing Countries," 2006,

(37) P. Renne Elisha, "Polio and Associations for the Disabled in Nigeria," The Journal of the International Insititute 13:2 (2006),;view=fulltext.

(38) Cobham Asuquo is a blind gospel singer. He has excelled in his career, but not within his church denomination, nor has he been ordained by his church.

(39) Christian Council of Nigeria/EDAN, "Communique at the End of Workshop and Disability and Theology," Ibadan, Nigeria, 2014.

(40) A. Ghai, "Marginalization and Disability: Experiences from the Third World," in Disability and the Life Course: Global Perspectives, ed. M. Priestley (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2001).

(41) WHO and World Bank, World Report on Disability (World Health Organization, 2011),

(42) Rachael Hurst, "Learning from Action and Research on Disability in the Majority World," in Disability and Development" ed. Kmma Stone (Leeds, UK: The Disability Press, 1999).

(43) Coady International Institute, St Francis Xavier University, "Power and Gender Course," Antigonish, Canada, 2003.

DOI: 10.1111/irom.12261
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Author:Osukwu, Celine
Publication:International Review of Mission
Geographic Code:6NIGR
Date:Jun 1, 2019
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