Dirk Hartog lands on Beach, the gold-bearing province.
In October 1616, Dirk Hartog, master of the Dutch East India ship Eendracht bound on a voyage from Cape Town to Macassar, landed on the coast of what was subsequently called Eendracht Land after his ship, so becoming the first European known to have visited the west coast of Australia. It is doubtful that he would have been surprised to perceive that it was evidently part of a land of continental extent, as maps of the time showed a land forming part of the great southern continent, Terra Australis, projecting northward beyond the Tropic of Capricorn in more or less that location. That land was the Province of Locach, also known as Beach. (1)
Beach appeared on maps of the time, notably those of Petrus Plancius of 1590 and 1594 and that of Jan Huygen van Linschoten of 1596, as the northernmost part of the southern continent, the Terra Australis, along with Locach (Figs. 1 & 2.). According to Marco Polo, Locach was a kingdom where gold was "so plentiful that none who did not see it could believe it". (2) Beach was a mis-transcription of Locach: in the German cursive script, "Locach" and "Beach" look similar:
and in the 1532 edition of Marco Polo's Travels published by Simon Grynaeus and Johann Huttich, his Locach was changed to Boeach, later shortened to Beach (pronounced " Be-ak"). In this edition, the province of Boeach is described as amplissima & ditissima (very great and rich) and producing aurum copiosum (plenty of gold). (3) Abraham Ortelius, in his world map of 1564, called this part of the Terra Australis Locach. Ortelius also identified the name Beach as erroneous, explaining: "A Latin version has Boeach, but wrongly; in general, we have preferred to use the Italian [Locach]". (4)
Where was Locach?
The location of Marco Polo's Locach has been called by the historian of the early cartography of Southeast Asia, Thomas Suarez, "one of the great riddles of Polo's text". (5) Book III of Marco Polo's Travels described his journey in 1292 by sea from China to India by way of Champa, Locach and Sumatra (which he called Java Minor). His ship probably sailed in company, as far as Champa, with the fleet sent that year by Khubilai Khan in what proved to be an unsuccessful attempt to subdue Java. (6) Champa was then occupied by a Mongol army trying to subdue it and the neighbouring kingdom of Dai Viet. After a chapter describing the kingdom of Champa there follows a chapter describing Java, which he called Java Major but which he did not himself visit. (7) The narrative then resumes, describing the route southward from Champa toward Sumatra, but in most manuscripts by a slip of the pen the name "Java Major" was substituted for "Champa" as the point of departure, locating Sumatra 1,300 miles to the south of Java instead of Champa. Due to Marco's point of departure being erroneously given in the Travels as being from Java rather than, as was actually the case, from Champa, the locations of the places subsequently mentioned, Sondur and Condur (Pulo Condore, the Con Son Islands), Locach/Beach (Cambodia), Peutan (Bintan, at the mouth of the Straits of Singapore), Maletur (a province of Sumatra) and Java Minor (Sumatra), were mistakenly displaced far to the south. (8) As William Marsden noted in his 1818 edition of The Travels of Marco Polo:
Such errors appear to have arisen from a misconception of the itinerary, into which our author, avowedly, introduces places of which he had only hearsay information, along with those which he actually visited. That his voyage did not lead him to the island of Java (as distinguished from that which he afterwards terms Java Minor) is apparent from his own words; but upon leaving China and reaching Tsiamba [Champa], which he either touched at, or saw in passing, he digresses in his narrative, in order to mention the distance and some particulars of that celebrated island, and having so done, returns to the point he had left; from whence he proceeds (in his desultory manner) with the sequel of his proper route, which naturally leads him to the small island of Condore. The early transcribers of his manuscript, not adverting to so material a distinction, have attempted to render the journal more regular, according to their idea, by forcing these excursive notices, however inconsistent with geography, into one uniform track, and for that purpose assigning imaginary bearings. (9)
Locach in particular was displaced, probably because Marco used the name as a synonym for Cambodia in accordance with contemporary Chinese usage.
Locach, Lavo and the Kingdom of Angkor
The name Locach appears in the different texts of Marco Polo's Travels, manuscript and printed, in many variants, Boeach, subsequently shortened to Beach, being one of them. Other variants were Locach, Locac, Loath, Iocath, Laach, Loebat, Lorach and Joncade. The name Lochac in Marco Polo's text derives from the Chinese [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], pronounced at that time similarly to the modern Cantonese "Lohuk" (the modern Chinese pronunciation inpinyin is "Luohu"). (10) The name was the Chinese pronunciation of Lavo or Lvo, the first syllable of Lavopura, the "city of Lavo", now Lopburi in southern Thailand, named after Lavo, the son of Rama in Hindu mythology. (11) The Vietnamese pronunciation of the Chinese characters for Luohu is "La hoc" or, alternatively, Lo hac, closer to the Chinese pronunciation of Marco's time, "Lohuk". The city and province of Lavopura, or Lavapura was in Marco's day part of Kamboja, the Khmer empire, as was the whole of the Mekong delta region--the Khmer town of Nakor Prey then occupied the site of the later Saigon. (12) The people of Lavapura are referred to as Khmer in an inscription on a stele from Lopburi dated 1022. (13) In the 12th century Lavo (Lavopura), which then stood on the sea coast, became the most prominent trading state in Southeast Asia. (14) Lavo/Lavopura was incorporated into the empire of Kamboja in 1022, during the reign of Suryavarman I (1011-1150) and from then on the merchants of Lavopura figured prominently in the Khmer inscriptions. (15)
The Chinese records of that time usually referred to Cambodia as Zhenla (also written "Chenla"), the name of an ancient state that ceased to exist in the seventh century, which occupied the eastern part of the later Cambodia. The names Luohu and Zhenla also seem to have been used interchangeably or jointly for the Khmer kingdom, as in the Yuhai encyclopedia, which records the presentation as tribute in 1155, during the reign of the Khmer ruler Dharanindravarman II, of two elephants from Zhenla-Luohu: "25th year of Shao-xing (AD 1155) eleventh month, 19th day: Zhenla-Luohu [Cambodia-Lopbhuri] presented two elephants". (16) Another compilation of the period, the Song hui-yao ji-gao (Institutes of the Song Empire) also records the presentation of a trained elephant from "Zhenla-Luohu". (17) The Zhu-fan-zhi (Records of Foreign Countries) written in 1225 by Zhao Rukuo, the superintendent of merchant shipping for the Chinese coastal province of Fukien, records that Luo-hu was a dependency of Zhenla. (18) It also records that the capital of Zhenla was Luwu (Lvo, or Lavo). The Dai Viet SuKy Toan Th u(Complete History of Dai Viet), the oldest Vietnamese dynastic history, records that in the year 1149 merchant ships from the three countries Java, Lo Hac ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] i.e. Locach) and Siam entered the Gulf of Tonking and requested permission to trade on the Van Don islands, which are about 50 kilometres from Haiphong. (19)
A Chinese work published in 1621, the Wubei Zhi (Treatise on Military Matters) contains a chapter describing the Kingdom of Xianluo. It explains that Xianluo was originally the two states of Xian and Luohu, in the upper and lower parts respectively of the Chao Phraya (Menam) valley, but that during the Zhi Zheng era (1341-1368) of the Yuan Dynasty, Luohu was conquered by Xian (Siam), the two countries being then united to form the new kingdom of Xianluo (the Siamese kingdom of Ayutthia). (20) A map included in the Wubei Zhi identifies Jiaowa (Java), Xianluo (Siam) and Zhenla (Kamboja) (Fig. 3.). The Siamese chronicles record that Lavopura was incorporated into the Kingdom of Ayudhya in 1350 during the reign of King Rama Thibodi (Ramadhipati). The city was thenceforward known by its Thai name, Lopburi. (21)
William Marsden noted that Lochac, "appeared from the circumstances to be intended for some part of the country of Kamboja, the capital of which was named Loech". Loech or, more strictly, Lovek, did not become the capital of Cambodia until the sixteenth century, but although Marsden was apparently not aware that Marco's Lochac was etymologically derived from Lavo/Lavapura, he seems to have realized that Marco's description of Lochac most closely matched Cambodia. Marco's description of Locach is as follows:
Leaving the island of Java, he went south by west seven hundred miles and came to the two islands which they call Sandur and Candur [the Pulo Condor islands], six hundred miles beyond which is the province of Laach [Locach] which is great and very wealthy; it has its own king and own language; to none does it render tribute save to its own king. It is also very strong and no one can invade it. The inhabitants of the province are idolaters.... And there are many elephants there. To this province few from other countries come, for it is not a country of civilized people. (22)
The golden spires of Angkor, the capital of the Khmer empire, would have been a more likely inspiration of Marco's comment on the gold of Locach than the Lavapura of his time. As Zhou Daguan, the ambassador sent by the Yuan court to Kamboja in 1296 commented: "These [golden towers] are the monuments that have caused merchant mariners to speak freely in praise of Fagui Zhenla [Zhenla the rich and noble]". (23)
Khubilai Khan and Cambodia
Marco Polo remarked on the inhumanity of the people of Locach. He said that it was "was such a savage place that few people ever go there", and that "the king himself does not want anyone to go there or to spy out his treasure or the state of his realm". Marco also noted the abundance of elephants in Locach, a thing for which the country was known in China from the elephants sent as tribute. At his accession in 1260 as Emperor of China, Khubilai Khan invited all the bordering states that had been tributary to the Song Empire to make their submission to him. In 1267 he declared to the King of Annam (Dai Viet) his expectation that Zhenla (Kamboja) would make its submission to him: "If they resist my orders, it will be necessary to punish them; for that I have troops in Yunnan". (24) In 1268 the Mongol governor of Yunnan, Hugechi, was ordered to conquer "Zhan" (Champa) and "Zhenla" (Kamboja) in concert with the King of Annam. (25) Zhou Daguan records that in 1283, Sogetu, the commander of the Mongol army then in Champa, sent an emissary to the Khmer ruler Jayavarman VIII, demanding his acknowledgement of the Great Khan, Khubilai Khan, as his overlord. Jayavarman refused submission and imprisoned the Mongol envoy. (26) This would have been ample justification for the comment by Marco, who was himself a servant of the Great Khan. (27)
Locach and Cattigara
Henricus Martellus, in his world map of c.1490, and Martin Behaim on his 1492 globe, incorporated the information from Marco Polo's voyage from China to India into the oecumene described in the Geography of Claudius Ptolemy (c. AD 90-168). (28) Martellus and Behaim relied on the faulty text of Marco Polo to wrongly locate Peutan (Bintan), Locach (Lopburi/Cambodia) and Java Minor (Sumatra) far to the south of Java Major (Java). Marco's voyage had demonstrated that beyond Ptolemy's furthest known city, Cattigara, there was an open seaway to the east coast of China, that is, that the Indian Ocean was not a closed sea as described in Ptolemy's Geography. The Cape or Peninsula of Cattigara therefore had an east coast, described cursorily and inaccurately in Marco's Travels. Locach was located by Martellus and Behaim on the eastern side of the Cattigara peninsula, displaced both by Ptolemy's and Marco's faulty texts to a location far to the south of the Tropic of Capricorn.
Cattigara was located by Martellus and Behaim on latitude eight and a half degrees south of the Equator. (29) In the earliest version of Ptolemy's Canon of Famous Cities, the position of Cattigara was 8[degrees]30' North, but a corruption in the text of the Latin translation of Ptolemy's Geography, made by Jacobo Angeli in c.1409 and used by Martellus and Behaim, located it erroneously on latitude 8[degrees]30' South. (30) Cattigara was probably the seaport of the pre-Angkor kingdom of Funan (Suvannabhumi, the Land of Gold) in the delta of the Mekong River, (31) but Cattigara had long ceased to exist by the time of Martellus and Behaim, or even of Marco Polo, so its actual location was unrecoverable to those voyagers, like Amerigo Vespucci, Christopher Columbus and Ferdinand Magellan who, guided by Martellus and Behaim, sought it in the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries. That the peninsula or cape of Cattigara did not extend south of the Equator was demonstrated by Antonio de Abreu and Francisco Serrao in 1511-1512 when they were able to make the voyage from Malacca to Amboina and the Moluccas by sailing across open sea--the South China Sea and Java Sea--in the area where it was shown to be by Martellus and Behaim. The Portuguese historian of the Indies, Joao de Barros, expressed the conclusion reached by his countrymen regarding "the land in which Ptolemy situates the City of Cattigara in his maps" that it was "rather something imagined as a celestial point for mathematical computation than truly for its situation on the terrestrial globe, since we see that our ships sail beyond this Cattigara and the coast of Asia, which he imagines or believes to be there". (32)
Magellan and Cattigara
Magellan had been at Malacca during 1511-1515, when the Portuguese ships had sailed eastward beyond Java to the Moluccas, demonstrating that the Cape of Cattigara did not project to the south of the Equator. This evidently caused him to suspect that Ptolemy had in fact located Cattigara to the north of the Equator and that its location in the Geography at 8E2 half degrees South was due to a fault in the text that substituted "South" for "North". In his voyage from Spain to the Moluccas in 15191521, Magellan sought Cattigara north of the Equator. Antonio Pigafetta, recorded in his journal of the voyage that, having crossed the Pacific, Magellan continued to sail north and west until he reached "thirteen degrees toward the arctic pole" for, as he explained, the "cap de Caticara is not found where the cosmographers say, as they think, but to the north at more or less xii degrees". (33) Maximilianus Transylvanus, secretary of the Emperor Charles V, was present at the interview of the survivors of Magellan's expedition with the Emperor in 1522, and afterwards related what they had said in De Moluccis Insulis. He recorded that, although Magellan's ships "went as far as twelve degrees this side [citra, i.e., to the north] of the equinoctial line, they did not find the promontory of Cattigara". (34)
The failure of Magellan's expedition to find the peninsula of Cattigara/India Superior in the vicinity of the Moluccas led the Nuremberg cosmographer Johannes Schoner to the conclusion that America was that peninsula. In the Opusculum Geographicum that he wrote in 1533, Schoner explained:
After Ptolemy, many regions to the east beyond 180 degrees were in fact revealed by Marco Polo the Venetian, and others, but now having been discovered by the Genoese Columbus and Americo Vespucci reaching only the coastal parts of those lands from Spain across the Western Ocean, were considered by them to be an island which they called America, the fourth part of the globe. But by the most recent voyages made in the year 1519 after Christ by Magellan leading ships of the Invincible Caesar the Divine Charles etc. to the Moluccas Islands, which others call Maluquas, situated in the Far East, they have found that land to be the continent of India Superior, which is a part of Asia. (35)
On his 1523 globe, therefore, Schoner stretched the India Superior peninsula (the actual Indochina) to include Mexico and South America, and enlarged the Sinus Magnus (the actual Gulf of Thailand (36)) to become the Pacific Ocean, labelling the enlarged gulf SINUS MAGNUS EOVS MARE DE SUR. (37) Cattigara was accordingly moved from where he had placed it in 1515 in its Ptolemaic co-ordinates far eastward to the west coast of America. (38) On Schoner's 1533, globe Cattigara was also shown in this location on a land inscribed, America, Indiae superioris et Asiae continentispars (America, a part of India Superior and of the Asian continent). (39) That is, Schoner believed that America was a huge, southern extension of the Asian continent--the peninsula of Cattigara (40) (Fig. 4.).
The places on or near the peninsula of Cattigara that had wrongly been located in the southern hemisphere--Locach/Beach, Maletur (Jambi on Sumatra), Peutan and Cattigara, which could no longer be related to their original names and locations--remained on sixteenth century maps and globes in their erroneous southern hemisphere locations, but now separated by the Ocean from the Asian continent and attached to the southern continents, America and Terra Australis. (41) In contrast to Schoner's solution to the post-Magellanic location of Cattigara, the French poet and cosmographer Jean Mallard kept it, on his map of the world of c.1540, at the latitude of 8 1/2[degrees] South but made it the notional tip of a peninsula of the southern continent instead of part of a southward projecting peninsula of South East Asia (42) (Fig. 5.). The Venetian cartographer Battista Agnese did the same on the map of the world in his atlas of 1544 (43) (Fig. 6.).
The Regio Patalis
Similarly displaced was the Regio Patalis (Region of Patala). Patala had been an ancient city at the mouth of the Indus River, conquered by Alexander the Great and mentioned in the writings of Pliny the Elder and Strabo. By medieval times its actual location had been lost and it appeared on most late 15th and early 16th century maps and globes in locations ever eastward and southward of India. The YmagoMundi, written by Pierre d'Ailly between 1410 and 1419 and printed in 1483, served as the standard text book on cosmography during the fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries. Concerning the Regio Patalis, D'Ailly wrote:
"according to Pliny we find there to be habitation under the Tropic of Capricorn and beyond. For the island called the Regio Pathalis has a well-known port where the Sun's shadow falls southward, therefore the inhabitants always have the Sun to their North ... I say therefore that the southern side of India extends to the Tropic of Capricorn near the region of Pathalis". (44)
The Region of Patala appeared in this location on the map of the world in Antoine de La Salle's La Salade, 1444, as Patalie regia (Fig. 7.), and on Martin Behaim's globe of 1492, where the southern extension of India patalis, the Region of Patala, is the peninsula of Hoch India (India Superior) that forms the eastern side of the Sinus Magnus (Great Gulf, the actual Gulf of Thailand) (45) (Fig. 8.). Although Patala appeared in its correct location at the mouth of the Indus river on the 1507 world map of Martin Waldseemuller, (Fig. 9.) almost all other cartographers of his time were misled by d'Ailly into locating it to the south of the Tropic of Capricorn. (46)
Magellan's discovery of Tierra del Fuego in 1520 was taken by Schoner as confirmation of the existence of the circum-antarctic continent, which he called the TERRA AVSTRALIS recenter inventa sed nondumplene cognita (Terra Australis, recently discovered but not yet fully known). Magellan's voyage having demonstrated that the Regio Patalis was not a southern extension of the Asian continent (as depicted on Martin Behaim's 1492 globe), Schoner perhaps took the phrase used by d'Ailly, regio Pathalis insula dicitur (the island called the Regio Pathalis) as a justification to treat it as a peninsula of the antipodean continent. (47) On his 1523 globe, he transferred the Regio Patalis across the ocean so that it remained situated south of the Tropic of Capricorn and made it into a promontory of the Terra Australis (Fig. 10.). Oronce Fine followed him in this on his 1531 world map, Nova et Integra Universi Orbis Descriptio (48) (Fig. 11.). It is thus shown on the Paris Gilt Globe of c.1524-1528 which is also titled, NOVA ET INTEGRA UNIVERSI ORBS DESCRIPTIO (A New and Complete Description of the Whole World) (49) (Fig. 12.).
Magellan and Java Major
Following Magellan's expedition, Johannes Schoner had to decide on the location of Java, for after Magellan's death at Mactan, near Cebu in the Philippines, Juan Sebastian de Elcano had brought the Vitoria home to Spain by sailing from Timor on a course by the south of Java. On his globes of 1515 and 1520 Schoner had, like Martin Behaim, located Java Major on the Tropic of Capricorn and Java Minor far to the south of it at latitude 38[degrees] South (Figs. 13 & 14.). Antonio Pigafetta, the diarist of Magellan's expedition, recorded that when they were at Timor, he and his companions had been told by local informants of whom they had enquired as to the whereabouts of the Lesser Java that, "Java Minor is the island of Madura, and is located near Java Major, one-half league away". (50) On his 1523 and 1533 globes therefore, Schoner moved IAVA (that is, Java Major) northward to between 12[degrees] and 4[degrees] South; identifying Java Minor with Madura, he moved it even further northward to lie, unnamed, just south of the Equator and separated by a narrow strait from IAVA. Elcano's homeward course from the Moluccas is shown by the line on the 1523 globe tracing the expedition's voyage round the world as passing through this strait (51) (Fig. 15.). This configuration of the two Javas is copied exactly on the Paris Gilt Globe of c.1528, which is a replica of Schoner's 1523 globe, and on Fine's 1531 world map (52) (Figs. 16 & 17 .). The same configuration is shown in the adaptation of Fine's map on the 1642 globe of Caspar Vopell, NOVA & INTEGRA VNIVERSI ORBIS DESCRIPTIO, where the northern island is named Iava minor and its southern neighbour IAUA (53) (Fig. 18.). That is, Java Minor was now located to the north of Java Major. The southern extent of IAVA was left undetermined, though a hypothetical southern coastline was indicated.
Ludovico di Varthema and Gerard Mercator
Schoner's uncertainty concerning the southward extent of IAVA probably stemmed from the account of Ludovico di Varthema, a citizen of Bologna in the Papal States who made a voyage in 1505 to Java. Ludovico said that Java extended, "almost beyond measure". He also referred to the land beyond Java as the Antipodes, for he had been told that, "lying under the other side of the said island [Java] there were certain people who ... were the Antipodes of European Sarmatia [Poland], and lived in a most frigid zone around the antarctic pole, as was proved by the day there having only four hours". (54) Schoner accordingly inscribed the Terra Australis with the name of those people, the Periscii who, he said were: "settled under the poles of the world; so called for the reason that their shadows roll around them like millstones through the course of the year. (55)
Gerard Mercator took Ludovico's account as proof that a huge promontory of the Austral Continent reached northward almost to Java. His world map of 1569 bears a note, On the approach from the Southern Continent to Java Major, reading:
Ludovico di Varthema, in Bk.3, on India, Chapt.27, reports that on the southern side of Java Major, to the southward, there are peoples who sail with their backs to our stars of the north until they find a day of but 4 hours, i.e. to the 63rd. degree of latitude ... As for Marco Polo, the Venetian, he saw opposite this continent some provinces and several islands and he noted the distances to Java Minor ... he says that it runs so far to the southward that neither the Arctic Pole nor its stars, i.e. the Little Bear, may be seen therefrom; therefore, considering the circumference of the island, which he states to be 2000 miles, it is certain that its northern extremity goes beyond at least the 20th. degree of southern latitude. Thus we conclude, therefrom, that the Southern Continent extends far to the northward, and effects with Java Major a strait. (Fig. 19.)
Mercator had produced a map of the world in 1538 which, though modelled on that of Fine of 1531, departed from it by showing Fine's southern continent much smaller, unnamed and bearing the inscription, Terra hic esse certum est sed quatus quibusque limitibus finitas incertum ("It is certain that there is a land here, but its size and the limits of its boundaries are uncertain"). The outline of Fine's Regio Patalis, though shown as a promontory of this smaller antarctic continent, was likewise unnamed. Unlike on Fine's map, Java Major and Java Minor were located side by side straddling the parallel of 10[degrees] South, with Java Minor to the east of Java Major. (56) On this map, Locat (Locach) is situated on the Indo-China peninsula to the south of Ciamba (Champa) (Fig. 20.). On his 1541 globe, Mercator apparently identified the promontory of REGIO PATALIS on Oronce Fine's 1531 world map with Lochac/Beach. He transformed Regio Patalis into the promontory of Beach, with the inscription, Beach provincial aurifera (Beach the gold-bearing province) (Figs. 21a & b.). The change apparently came from the credence Mercator placed in Marco Polo, as he said: "How deceived we were in our conception of the Far East will be clear enough to anyone who reads through M. Polo the Venetian". On this globe he inscribed over Terra Australis: "The great extent of these regions will easily be believed by whoever reads chapters 11 & 12 of book 3 of Marco Polo the Venetian together with chapter 27 of the book of Ludovico the Roman patrician". He located Java maior to the north of Beach, separated from it by a narrow strait, while Iava minor is located to the east of Beach straddling the Tropic of Capricorn.
Beach remained on Mercator's world map of 1569 with Lucach regnum shown somewhat to its south west, and with the amplified description, quoting Marco Polo, Beach provincia aurifera quam pauci ex alienis regionibus adeuntpropter gentis inhumanitatem ("Beach the gold-bearing province, wither few go from other countries because of the incivility of its people") (57) (Fig. 22.).
Johannes Schoner, Oronce Fine and the Dieppe mapmakers
Jave la Grande (Java Major) or la terre de Lucac (the Land of Locach) on the Dieppe maps originates from REGIO PATALIS (the Region of Patala), part of the Terra Australis on Schoner's 1523 globe. On this globe the southern continent is inscribed, TERRA AUSTRALIS RECENTER INVENTA AT NONDUM PLENE COGNITA (Terra Australis, recently discovered but not yet fully known). Recently discovered, that is, by Magellan, and perhaps, he may have thought, by Amerigo Vespucci when he voyaged to the latitude of 52 degrees South in 1497. The Paris Wooden Globe of c.1535, which bears the legend: Terra australis recenter inventa anno 1499, sed nondvm plene cognita (Terra Australis, newly discovered in the year 1499, but not yet fully known), apparently identifies the land discovered by Vespucci on his third voyage as the Terra Australis. This view was also expressed in the commentary by a Portuguese pilot on the voyage of the Carthaginian Hanno published in Ramusio's collection of voyages: "in the opinion of almost all the Portuguese pilots there is a very great continental land running east to west under the Antarctic Pole; and they say that at one time an excellent Florentine man called Amerigo Vespucci discovered and explored it for a great distance in some ships of the King [of Portugal]". (58)
Schoner's concepts were transmitted to the Dieppe mapmakers through his friend and fellow cosmographer, Oronce Fine, Premier Professeur du Roy des Mathematiques--the King of France's First Professor of Mathematics (more properly translated as "Cosmographer"). Fine made a world map, Nova et Integra Universi Orbis Descriptio (A New and Complete Description of the Whole World), which was completed in 1531 and published in 1532 in the compendium of travel literature compiled by Simon Grynaeus and Johann Huttich, Novus Orbis Regionum ac Insularum Veteribus Incognitarum (The New World of Regions and Islands unknown to the Ancients). The Region of Patalis is part of the southern continent, which bears the same inscription as on Schoner's map: Terra australis recenter inventa sed nondum cognita (the Terra Australis recently discovered but not yet known) (59) (Fig. 11.).
Locach or Jave la Grande?
Regio Patalis is also shown on Fine's world map of 1534, as a huge peninsula of the southern continent, which bears the inscription, TERRA AUSTRALIS NVPER INVENTA SED NON DVM PLENE EXAMINATA (Terra Australia recently discovered but not yet fully examined). (60) Fine's REGIO PATALIS promontory was identified by the Dieppe cartographers either with Locach, as did Mercator on his 1541 globe, or with Java Major--Jave la Grande. And on the c.1555 map attributed to Pierre Desceliers, the promontory extending northward from the southern continent is left unnamed, separated from Iaua La grade by a narrow channel or strait.
Apparently Mercator's Dieppe contemporaries, like him, were influenced in their conclusion regarding the identity of the Regio Patalis by the accounts of Marco Polo and Ludovico di Varthema. Ludovico said that Java, "prope in inmensumpatet' (extends almost beyond measure). Although the word patet (extends) has no connection with Patala, the superficial resemblance may have misled the mapmaker into assuming that patalis was Latin for "wide-spreading" (the adjective from patere, "to extend"). Ludovico's Java patalis could then easily have been identified with the Regio patalis.
Jean Rotz, one of the Dieppe cartographers, apparently accepted Ludovico's description, and on the world map in the Boke of Idrography he presented to Henry VIII in 1542 a vast Londe of Java extends as far as 60[degrees] South, the latitude of Tierra del Fuego as shown on his map. As on Fine's map, Lytil Java (Java Minor) is shown lying to its north, separated from it by a narrow strait: Pigafetta's strait between Java and Madura. Rotz believed that he drew only the discovered coasts of the world and did not venture into speculative cosmography. He said in his dedicatory letter to Henry VIII at the introduction to the Boke: "All this I have set down as exactly and truly as possible, drawing as much from my own experience as from certain experiences of my friends and fellow navigators". For this reason he did not depict the Southern Continent on his map, but apparently he saw Ludovico di Varthema as one of those fellow navigators upon whose experience as a discoverer he could rely. (61) Tierra del Fuego is unnamed on his map: it is separated from South America (also unnamed) by the distraict of magallane (Strait of Magellan). The southern coastlines of both Tierra del Fuego and the Londe of Java remain undefined, the former, at least, notionally a northern projection of the Southern Continent which, unlike Fine, Rotz made no attempt to depict (Figs. 23 & 24.).
Most of the Dieppe cartographers identified Fine's REGIO PATALIS promontory with Marco Polo's Java Major--Jave la Grande, but Guillaume Brouscon identified the Regio Patalis with Locach: his world map of 1543 calls the northward extension of Terre Australle (Terra Australis), terre de Lucac (land of Locach). As with Locach on Mercator's 1541 globe, it is separated from La Iave grande (Java Major) by a narrow strait or channel (62) (Fig. 25.).
Another of the Dieppe maps, by Pierre Desceliers, of 1546, shows Java la Grande as part of LA TERRE AVSTRALLE NON DV TOVT DESCOVVERTE (Terra Australis not wholly discovered). (63) This description of the southern continent is essentially the same as that used by Fine and Schoner (Terra australis recenter inventa sed nondum plene cognita), but Fine's Regio Patalis has become Java la Grande (Figs. 26a & b.).
The Harleian map, dated to the mid-1540s, shows IAVELA GRANDE separated from Java proper, IAVE, by a channel or strait similarly to that on Fine's map and Schoner's 1523 globe, but as with Desceliers, it has become apparently a peninsula of the southern continent, replacing Regio Patalis. The only part of the southern continent shown is Tierra del Fuego, called LA TERRE AVSTRALLE (the rest of the southern continent is beyond the borders of the map). On this map, as on Fine's, CATIGARA is shown on the west coast of America (64) (Figs. 27a & b.).
On the c.1547 Vallard Atlas chart of what is called Terra Java, patallis (Patalis) is inscribed on the southwest part of the continent, which indicates that the mapmaker was conscious that his notional Terra Java was derived from the Regio Patalis (65) (Fig. 28.).
On the map from around 1555 attributed to Desceliers, the promontory extending northward from the southern continent is unnamed: the name Iava La grade is confined to Java proper and separated from the unnamed promontory of Terra Australis by a narrow channel or strait (66) (Fig. 29.).
The world map in the atlas, Cosmographie Universelle, of Guillaume Le Testu (1556) shows Grande Jave (Java Major) as part of the Terre Australle. As on Fine's map and Schoner's 1523 globe, it is separated from Petite Jave (Java Minor) to its north by a channel or strait. An accompanying note says of Jave la Grande: "this land is part of the so called Terra Australis, to us unknown, so that that which is marked herein is only from imagination and uncertain opinion. Some say that la Grande Jave [Java Major is the eastern coast of the same land of which its western coast forms the Strait of Magellan and that all this land is joined together". (67) As Le Testu was not the first of the Dieppe map makers, he may be considered to speak for his predecessors as well as himself. Locach, under the name La Joncade, is shown as an island lying just off another peninsula of the continent of terre australle. As on Fine's map, CATIGARA is shown on the west coast of America (Figs. 30a-c.).
On the 1566 world map by Nicolas Desliens, IAVA LA GRANDE is shown as a promontory of the Terra Australis (68) (Fig. 31.).
The 1564 world map by the Fleming, Abraham Ortelius, reveals how the Regio Patalis was transformed into Jave la Grande. On this map, the northward-extending promontory of the Terra Australis bears three inscriptions. The northern tip of the promontory is New Guinea: NOVA GUINEA nuper inventa ("New Guinea, recently discovered). New Guinea was discovered and named by the Spanish explorer, Inigo Ortiz de Retes in 1545. The eastern side of the promontory is labelled Patalis and its western side Locach. The inscriptions read: PATALIS hic tractus a nonullis nuncupatur ("This tract called by some [Regio] Patalis"); and LOCACH REGIO videtur hic poni a M. Paulo Veneto (the Region of Locach, apparently placed here by Marco Polo the Venetian). That is, Fine's peninsula of Regio Patalis has become identified with the Locach Regio as a huge promontory extending to New Guinea. (69) On this map, Java maior and Java minor are off its northwest coast (Figs. 32a-c.).
The 1570 world map of Jean Cossin, Carte cosmographique ou Universelle description du monde, displays the same arrangement of the southern continents but, like Brouscon, Cossin called the northward-extending promontory the "land of Locach" (Terre de lucac). The southern continent is inscribed, in a slight variation of the Fine formula: Terre incongnue merionalle decouuerte nouvellemen (the unknown South Land discovered recently) (70) (Fig. 33.).
The last of the Dieppois mapmakers, Jacques de Vaulx de Claye, produced a globe in 1584 which showed a huge Terre Australe, with two great promontories, one bearing the names, Terre de Beac and Locac, reaching northward almost to Java but separated from it by a strait, the other, inscribed Maletur (a Sumatran kingdom describe by Marco Polo), extending almost to Nouvelle Guinee. As on Mercator's 1541 globe, the island of Petite Jave lies in the gulf between the two promontories, off the east coast of Beac, while Grande Jave lies across the strait to its north. (71) Like Brouscon in 1543 and Ortelius in 1564, Cossin and Claye identified the extensive land said by Ludovico to lie to the south of Java as Locach, while their Dieppe colleagues called it Jave la Grande (Java Major) (Fig. 34.).
Beach provincia aurifera on late 16th century maps
On his world map of 1570, Abraham Ortelius, disregarding his earlier recognition that Beach was simply an erroneous mistranscription of Locach, showed both BEACH and LVCACH as if, instead of being synonyms for a single province or region, they were two different regions. The depiction of BEACH by Ortelius fascinated the British cosmographer, John Dee, and in 1577 in the context of preparations for Francis Drake's expedition to the South Sea, Dee wrote Famous and Rich Discoveries to urge his countrymen to make the voyage to the golden province. (72) If this indeed formed one of the objectives of Drake's expedition, he made no attempt to achieve it.
Jan Huygen van Linschoten's popular 1596 map of the East Indies showed BEACH provincia aurifera projecting from the map's southern border. This map was based on the maps published by Petrus Plancius in Amsterdam in 1592: his map of the world, Nova et exacta Terrarum Tabula geographica et hydrographica, and insular Southeast Asia, Insulae Moluccae (73) (Figs. 2 & 35.). In his book, the Itinerario, Linschoten said of "Beach esteemed to be rich of golde", that it was a province of the southern continent, Magellanica, which he called the sixth part of the world. Magellanica "stretcheth farre and wide", from Terra de Fuego to Iava maior [Java]. And of Java he said: "Some thinke it to be firme land, and parcell of the countrie called Terra incognita, which being so, shoulde reach from that place to the Cape de Bona sperance [Cape of Good Hope], but as yet it is not certainly known, and therefore it is accounted for an Island". (74)
Cornelius Wytfliet said in Descriptionis Ptolemaicae Augmentum, published in Louvain in 1597: "The terra Australis begins at two or three degrees below the equator and it is said by some to be of such magnitude that if at any time it is fully discovered they think it will be the fifth part of the world". (75) His map showed Beach, Locach regnum and Maletur regnum on the northward extending peninsula of the TERRA AUSTRALIS, with Iava maior just across a narrow strait to the north (76) (Fig. 36.).
Beach and Eendracht Land on the same map
The Dutch East India Company (VOC) merchant Frederick de Houtman reported in a letter to Prince Maurice that in July 1619 on a voyage from the Cape of Good Hope to Batavia in the ship Dordrecht, he and his companion ship the Amsterdam under Jacob Dedel had reached "the South land, Beach " in latitudes 32[degrees]20' and 27[degrees]40', which was "the land discovered by the Eentract". (77) Eendracht Land was first revealed to the world as 't Land Eendracht in 1626 on a small map of the world published on the title page of the Iournael vande Nassausche Vloot (Journal of the Nassau Fleet) (78) (Fig. 37). It appears outlined definitely in a black line, as part of the larger Beach/Lucach which is unnamed and outlined more faintly with a dotted line. (79) The map was authorized by Hessel Gerritszoon, chief hydrographer of the VOC, and its publication alerted the world that part of the fabulous land of Beach had at last been discovered.
Abel Tasman and Beach
In 1642, the Council of Batavia, no doubt encouraged by Hartog's and Houtman's confirmation of the existence of this land, despatched Abel Tasman and Franchoijs Visscher on a voyage of which one of the objects was to obtain knowledge of "all the totally unknown provinces of Beach". (80) The Tasman-Fischer voyage circumnavigated the continent upon which Dirk Hartog had landed from the Eendracht and so proved that it was not in fact part of the circum-antarctic Terra Australis. The voyage also established that the golden province of Beach was nowhere to be found. Joan Blaeu's world map of 1648, Nova et Accuratissima Terrarum Orbis Tabula, showed the land revealed by the Tasman-Fischer voyage as Hollandia Nova (81) (Fig. 38.). Nowhere on this map does the province of Beach appear. Blaeu's map was copied for the map of the world set into the pavement of the Groote Burger-Zaal of the new Amsterdam Town Hall in 1655, (82) and by Melchisedech Thevenot to produce his map, Hollandia Nova--Terre Australe (83) (Fig. 39.). Thevenot said, "I would also note that Marco Polo had had some knowledge of these Terres Australes several centuries before the Dutch navigated to the East Indies", (84) but this was not correct, Locach/Beach being essentially a cosmographic construct based on a misunderstanding of Marco Polo's itinerary.
With the Dutch discoveries, beginning with Willem Janszoon's charting of the Gulf of Carpentaria, the true delineations of Australia began to be unveiled, a transition from cosmographic theory to geographic knowledge obtained from actual surveys and landings. There was initially some reluctance by geographers, especially in Italy, to discard Marco Polo's place names entirely. One who continued to champion the identity of Locach with Eendracht Land, and therefore of Marco Polo as the first discoverer of the Terra Australis, was Vitale Terra-Rossa in Riflessioni Geographiche cerci le Terre Incognite (Padua, 1686). Giacomo Cantelli da Vignola produced a map in Rome in 1689, Isole dell' Indie, on which BEACH PROV[INCIA], REGNO DI LVCACH and REGNODIMALETVR appeared jointly with PAESEDI CONCORDIA and PAESE DI DIEMENES (Fig. 40.). A final appearance was in the 1696 map by the Venetian cartographer Vincenzo Coronelli titled, in acknowledgement of the Dutch discoveries, Het Niew Hollandt (Fig. 41.). Faithful to the memory of Coronelli's revered compatriot, it bore the inscription: "Some believe that in this place Marco Polo discovered the Land of Lochac, and that 500 miles further on is found the Island of Pentan, and the Kingdom of Malaiur"; it was also inscribed, in Italian, Terra di Concordia scoperta l'anno 1618 (Land of Concordia discovered in the year 1618) and in Dutch, Het Landt van Endracht. (85) But this identification of New Holland with Locach was an anachronism, as Tasman's voyage had demonstrated.
(1.) Zandvliet 1988, 91.
(2.) "Il ont or en grant abondance, si grant que nulz le peust croir qui ne le veist"; Benedetto 1928, 169; Yule 1921, 2:276-280.
(3.) Grynaeus & Huttich 1532, 400, Marco Polo cap.xi, "De provincia Boeach"; "producit haec provincia aurum copiosum"; cited in Suarez 1999, 160.
(4.) LOCACH REGIO videtur hicponi a M. Paulo Veneto. Latinum exemplar habet Boeach sedmale utfere omnium: Nos italico usi fuimus. Abraham Ortelius, Nova Totius Terrarum Orbis juxta Neotericorum Traditiones Descriptio, Antwerp, 1564, in Schilder 1986, v.2. State Library of NSW, Mitchell Map Collection, M2 100/1564/1. Fig. 40 in the present paper.
(5.) Suarez 1999, 106.
(6.) Clements 2010, 216; Man 2009, 243.
(7.) Ponchi 1982, 540: cap. clxiii, "La grant isle de Java".
(8.) Pelliot 1963, 2:769.
(9.) Marsden 1818, 362.
(10.) Pelliot 1963, 2:768-9, n.2. See also Chou Fa-Kao, et al. 1973, 129 & 259.
(11.) Gerini 1909, 180. Pelliot 1904, 236.
(12.) Lopburi is written maui in Khmer, and nwnl in Thai.
(13.) Coedes 1925, 15-18; Aymonier 1901, 2:81-83.
(14.) Dhida Saraya 1985, 11(2):33-51; Damrong Rajanubhab 1962, 88.
(15.) Chandler 2008, 50-51. See also Coedes 1968, 136-137.
(16) [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]--. Wang 1964, v.6, cap.154, 33. The Yuhai [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] "Jade Sea" is an encyclopedia written by late Song period [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (960-1279) scholar Wang Yinglin (1223-1296).
(17.) [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (Zhenlaguo -Luohuguo [Cambodia-Lopburi] presented a tame elephant) Song hui-yao ji-gao, Fan Yi, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], 7, 47a; quoted in O.W. Wolters 1958, 21:605; repr. in Braginsky 2002, 102.
(18.) [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Zhao & Li 1914; Hirth & Rockhill 1911/1967, p.53.
(19.) Ngo Si Lien 1697/1983, 1:337-338. See also Nguyen 1996, 3(1):122.
(20.) [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Mao 1621, ch. 236, "Examination of All Countries Beyond the Seas: Kingdom of Xianluo", pp. 10256-8. See also Zhang et al, ch.324, "Foreign Kingdoms, 5, Siam".
(21.) Wyatt 2000, 10; Charnvit Kasetsiri 1976, 52 & 108.
(22.) "Dimissa insula Iava itur inter meridiem et garbinum per miliaria viic et pervenit ad insulas duas quem dicunt sandur et candur ultra quas ad cccccc miliaria est provincia laach que grandis est et ditissima valde. regem propriam & linguam propriam habet; nulli tributum reddens nisi soli proprio regi. Est enim fortis valde et nemine potet invadi. Incole provincie ydolatre sunt. In hac provincia crescunt birci quae domestici sunt et magni ut limones qui valde boni sunt. Et sunt ibi elephantes multi. Et ibi porcellana que per moneta expenditur de qua dicemus est supra. Ad hanc prouinciam pauci de aliis regionibus confluunt qua regio non est hominem domestica"; Polo 1485/1949, cap. 10, Liber III, cap. x-xi "De insula magna iaua; De provincia laach".
(23.) [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. Chen 1969, 43. Zhou 1993, 2. Marco's mention of the gold, spices and elephants of Locach, things for which Cambodia was notable in his time, led Armand Rainaud (1893/1965, 175) to identify Locach with Cambodia.
(24.) Edict of Khubilai Khan, 1267, in Camille Sainson, Memoires sur l' Annam, 1896, pp.101-103.
(25.) Sainson 1904, 114.
(26) Zhou 1993, xviii-xix. Also Zhou 2006, 71. Golzio 2011, 121; Coedes 1962, 123 & 181 & Coedes 1968, 192 & 347 (n. 16). It must be noted that an alternative construction has been put by Harris in his recent translation of Zhou's memoir. He has argued that the country referred to by Zhou, which he simply called "this country", was not Cambodia but Champa, which the Yuan Shi (History of the Yuan or Mongol dynasty) records as having captured two commanders just as Zhou describes them (Zhou 2007, 92). But the order to Hugechi cited in the previous endnote reinforces the construction put on Zhou Daguan's statement by translators and commentators that he was referring to Cambodia, and that a demand for submission to the Great Khan was sent in 1283.
(27.) Pelliot 1963, 2:554, n.2. Wheatley 1969, 16:85-110.
(28.) Henricus Martellus, Map of the World of Christopher Columbus, Beinecke Rare Book & Manuscript Library, Yale University; image at: http://beinecke.library.yale.edu/dl_crosscollex/brbldl_getrec.asp?fld=img&id=1040214 and at: http://beinecke.library.yale.edu/dl_crosscollex/brbldl/oneITEM.asp?pid=2007580&iid=1040214&srchtype=ITEM
(29.) Ravenstein 1908.
(30.) Schnabel 1930, 14:239-243. See also Bagrow 1945, 27:322-323; and Polaschek 1959, 14:17-37.
(31.) "Le Fou-nan etait peut-etre meme le terminus de la navigation en provenance de l'Orient mediterraneen, s'il est vrai que le Kattigara de Ptolemee ait ete situe sur la cote occidentale de la Cochinchine"; Coedes 1962, 62. Archaeologist Malleret and his colleagues established that Ptolemy's Kattigara was most probably the principal port of the ancient pre-Angkor kingdom referred to by its Chinese name of Fu Nan in the delta of the Mekong (Ptolemy's River Cottiaris), located at or near a site now called Oc Eo (Malleret 1962, 421-54).
(32.) Barros, 1563/1777, lib.X, cap.i, Em que se descreve a costa maritime de Oriente ..., f.126v.
(33.) "Lequel comme parlent les cosmographes ne trouverent pas comme pensoient mais au septentrion xii. Degrez plus ou moins", Pigafetta 1969, 5-27 & 1984, 128.
(34.) Transylvanus 1523, cap.4.
(35.) "Post Ptolomaeum vero ultra 180 gradum versus orientem multae regiones repertae per quendam Marcum Polum Venetium, ac allios, sed nunc a Columbo Genuensi et Americo Vesputio solum loca littoralia ex Hispaniis per Oceanum occidentalem illuc applicantes, lustratae sunt, eam partem terrae insulam existimantes vocarunt Americam, quartam orbis partem. Modo vero per novissimas navigationes, factas anno post Christum 1519 per Magellanum ducem navium invictissimi Caesaris divi Caroli etc. versus Moluccas insulas, quas alii Moluquas vocant, in supremo oriente positas, eam terram invenerunt esse continentem superioris Indiae, quae pars est Asiae." Schoner , Pars II, cap.xx, online at: https://books.google.com.au/books?id=EYMEAAAAQAAJ
(36.) Herrmann 1913, 782-787 & 1939, 5(2):123.
(37.) Wieder 1925, 1:1-4 & pl.1-3. EovusMare was a Graeco-Roman term meaning the "Eastern Sea".
(38.) In the Luculentissima (II, f.59v), Schoner located the city of Cattigara at 177[degrees]E 8[degrees]30'S.
(39.) Schoner Globe, 1533, in Wieser 1881.
(40.) Schoner Globe, 1523 (gores). The concept of America as the Cattigara peninsula and therefore an extension of Asia had earlier been shown on the 1507 three-sheet sketch map of the world by Bartholemew Columbus and Allessandro Zorzi; Nunn 1928, 8-9 & 1952, 9:12-22.
(41.) King 2011, 82:8-17.
(42.) The British Library, Royal 20 B XII f. 4v. Image at: http://www.bl.uk/catalogues/illummatedmanuscripts/ILLUMINBig.ASP?size=big&IlnD=46639
(43.) Agnese's atlas is online at the Biblioteca Digital Hispanica Web site at http://bibliotecadigitalhispanica.bne.es
(44.) "secundum Plinium habitationem esse sub Capricorni tropico & ultra. Nam regio Pathalis insula dicitur habens portum celeberrimum ubi umbre solum in meridie cadunt, ergo habitatores ei habent semper Solem ad Aquilonem.... Dico igitur frons Indie meridianus pellitur ad tropicum Capricorni propter regionem Pathalis" (D'Ailly 1483, cap.xi, xv).
(45.) Orpotalis, as Ravenstein transcribed it. It is "India patalis" in the reproduction of Behaim's globe by Doppelmayer 1730; A.E. Nordenskiold said that in 1730, when Doppelmayer made his drawing, the inscriptions on the globe were more legible than they were later, when it was read as "potalis" by Ghillany (1853), and by Ravenstein (1908). "It is, therefore", Nordenskiold (1889, 72) said, "necessary that, in the study of this important geographical document, regard should always be paid to the versions on this first complete copy".
(46.) King 2011, 82:8-17.
(47.) Oakeshott 1961-62, 44:394.
(48.) Oakeshott 1961-62, 44:394; King 2011, 82:8-17.
(49.) Bibliotheque nationale de France, Paris, GE A 333 (RES). The Gilt Globe is a copy of Schoner's globe, except for the title, which is the same as that of Fine's 1531 world map, and was probably made under his supervision if not for him.
(50.) "Jave la Grande. Ces peuples ne l'appellent pas Java mais Jaoa ... ils nous dirent comme Java la Petite etait l'lle de Madura, et aupres de Java la Grande a une demi-lieue". Castro & Thomaz 2010, 251; Quirino 1969, 94; Peillard 1984, 233. No doubt due to a misunderstanding on the part of the Indonesian informants who, having no knowledge of "little Java" as a synonym for Sumatra, apparently thought that when they were asked about a "Jawa kecil" could only think of Madura as "a small island like Java".
(51.) The line is inscribed: Ille linea ex Sibilla ducta hispanorum navigationem ostendit (This line drawn from Seville shows the voyage of the Spanish); the line is also traced on the Globe Dore, or Gilt Globe, Paris, c. 1530.
(52.) NOVA ETINTEGRA UNIVERSI ORBSDESCRIPTIO, Globe Dore, or Gilt Globe, Paris, c. 1530.
(53.) Michow 1892, 1(4). Also on the globe by Johannes Oterschaden, Nova etIntegra Universi Orbis Descriptio. The Oterschaden Globe, though made c. 1600, is a copy of one made in France c. 1542, probably by Nicolas de Nicolay, Geographer Royal to Henry II (Wawrik 1978, 25-27:155-167).
(54.) "Subdidit etiam ab altero dictae insulae latere gentem esse quandam, quae Septentrionibus obversis syderibus aequora sulcans, utebatur quasi Europae Sarmatiae essent antipodes"; Ludouici Patritii Romani Nouum Itinerarium Aethiopiae, Aegipti, vtriusque Arabiae, Persidis, Siriae, ac Indiae, Intra et Extra Gangem, Roma, 1511, liber iv, cap.xxvii, De observationibus navigationum, quibus utuntur nautae ad insulam Gyaua contendentes, fol.xlviii; repr. Grynaeus & Huttich 1532, p.295.
(55.) Schoner , Pt.I, cap.xi. PERISCII is also to be seen on the c. 1524-1528 Gilt Globe.
(56.) Gerard Mercator's 1538 map of the world is downloadable at: www.wdl.org/en/item/6766/
(57.) De Smet 1968; Van der Krogt 1993, 64 & pl.2.14. Image of Mercator's 1541 globe in the Harvard Map Collection at: http://hcl.harvard.edu/libraries/maps/exhibits/mercator/main.html
(58.) Ramusio 1550, fol.124v.
(59.) Oronce Fine, Nova, et Integra Universi Orbis Descriptio, Paris, 1531; image at: http://acms.sl.nsw.gov.au/album/albumView.aspx?itemID=853568&acmsid=0
(60.) Oronce Fine, Recens et Integra Orbis Descriptio, Paris, 1531; image at: http://nla.gov.au/nla.map-rm2538
(61.) Jean Rotz, the Boke of Idrography, 1542; Wallis 1981.
(62.) Online at the Univ. California, Digital Scriptorium Huntington Catalog Database: http://dpg.lib.berkeley.edu/webdb/dsheh/heh_brf?Description=&CallNumber=HM+46
(63.) Desceliers, 1546.
(64.) Harleian Mappemonde, mid-1540s. Online at: www.nla.gov.au/media/mapping-our-world
(65.) Terra Java in the VallardAtlas (1547). Huntington Library, Digital Scriptorium Database, Huntington Catalog Images, HM 29, f.3. Image at: http://dpg.lib.berkeley.edu/webdb/dsheh/heh_brf?CallNumber=HM+29
(66.) Pierre Desceliers(?), world map, 1555(?), Pierpont Morgan Library, MS M.506.
(67.) "Ceste Terre estpartie de la dicte Terre Australle a Nous Incongnue, car ce qui en este merche nest que par Imagination et oppinion incertaine: pour ce que plusieurs disent que La grant Jave qui este du Coste dorient est la mesme terre qui faict le destroit de Magellan, du Coste doccident: et que toute ceste terre est tenante ensemble", Le Testu 1556; Lestringant 2012; Hofmann & Richard 2012.
(68.) Nicolas Desliens, mappemonde, 1566.
(69.) Abraham Ortelius, Nova Totius Terrarum Orbis juxta Neotericorum Traditiones Descriptio, Antwerp, 1564. Barber 2013, 95.
(70.) Carte Cosmographique ou Universelle Description du Monde. Jean Cossin, Dieppe, 1570. Bibliotheque nationale de France; image at: http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b5901087w/f1.item
(71.) La Figure de l 'autre moitie du globe terrestre avant le Pole antarticqe, Jacques de Vaulx, Les premieres Oeuvres de Jacques de Vaulx Pilote pour le Roy en la Marine ... En la ville francoise de Grace, l 'an M.D.L.XXXIIII, Le Havre, 1584, f.26v. Image at: http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b55002476g/f66.image
(72.) Taylor 1930, 115 & 279; Taylor 1955, 12:103-106.
(73.) Bagrow, 1964, 265.
(74.) Linschoten 1596, 25 & 174; Linschoten 1598, 34 & 264.
(75.) Wytfliet 1597, 20.
(76.) Cornelius Wytfliet, Chica sive Patagonica etAustralis Terra, Louvain, 1597. Image at: http://nla.gov.au/nla.maprm114
(77.) "op den 8en Juny met de schepen Dordrecht en Amsterdam wt de tafel bay met een goede wint sijn tsijl gegaen ende de 19e July is ons onverwacht het suytland Beach op 32 graden 20 minuten gemoet". Letter of Commander Frederik de Houtman to the Chamber Amsterdam, Jacatra, 7 Oct. 1620, Algemeen Rijksarchief, The Hague, 982, 1620 II, fol. 147151, fol.148r; quoted in Stapel 1937, 11 & 28.
(78.) 'tLandtvan d'Eendracht (Chart of Eendracht Land), in Walbeeck & Decker 1626, title page; repr. in Heeres 1899 & Van Mourik 2013, 119.
(79.) Meyjes 1919, xx.
(80.) Franchoijs Jacobsen Visscher, "Beschryvinge noopende het entdecken van't Zuijtlant" [Memoir touching on the discovery of the South-land], 22 Jan. 1642; repr. in Heeres 1965, 137 & 141-2 ; & Leupe 1856, 4:139.
(81.) Zandvliet 1988, 80. Image of Joan Blaeu's world map of 1648, Nova etAccuratissima Terrarum Orbis Tabula, held by the Henry E. Huntington Library & Art Gallery at: http://cdm16003.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/singleitem/collection/p15150coll4/id/3288/rec/14
(82.) Blaeu's Hollandia Nova was also depicted in his Archipelagus Orientalis sive Asiaticus published in 1659 in the Kurfursten Atlas (Atlas of the Great Elector); O'Connor et al. 2007, 32; map repr. Schilder 1976, 402 & Eisler & Smith 1988, 81.
(83.) Thevenot 1664. Image at : http://nla.gov.au/nla.map-rm689a
(84.) Thevenot 1664, pt.2, "Relation de l'Estat Present du Commerce des Hollandres & des Portugais dans les Indes Orientales", (n.p.).
(85.) Coronelli 1696, 148. Concordia, is Italian for Eendracht. Image at: http://nla.gov.au/nla.map-rm1735
AYMONIER, ETIENNE. Le Cambodge, Paris, Leroux, v.2, Les Provinces Siamoises, 1901.
BAGROW, LEO. History of Cartography, rev. & enl. R. A. Skelton, London, Watts, 1964.
--. "The Origin of Ptolemy's Geographia", Geografiska Annaler, 1945, 27:318-387.
BARBER, PETER "Ortelius' great world map", Mapping our World: Terra Incognita to Australia, Canberra, National Library of Australia, 2013, p.95.
BARROS, JOAO DE. Decada I da Asia, Lisbon, 1563 (1777 ed.), lib.X, cap.i, Em que se descreve a costa maritime de Oriente, com as distancias que ha entre as mais notaveis Cidades, e Povoacoes per modo de roteiro, Segundo os navegantes.
BENEDETTO, LUIGI FOSCOLO (ed.). Marco Polo: Il Milione, Firenze, Leo S. Olschki, 1928.
BRAGINSKY, VLADIMIR (ed). Classical Civilisations of South East Asia: An Anthology of Articles Published in The Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, London, Routledge, 2002.
CASTRO, XAVIER DE JOCELYNE HAMON & LUIS FILIPE THOMAZ. Le Voyage de Magellan (1519-1522): la Relation d'Antonio Pigafetta& autres temoignages Paris, Chandeigne, 2010.
CHANDLER, DAVID, A History of Cambodia, Boulder, Westview Press, 2008.
CHARNVIT KASETSIRI. The Rise of Ayudhya: A History of Siam in the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries, Kuala Lumpur, OUP, 1976.
CHEN CHENG-SIANG [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. A Study of Chin la feng t'u chi [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Hong Kong, Chinese University of HK Geographical Research Centre [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Research Report, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Issue 22, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 22 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], 1969.
CHOU FA-KAO et al. (editors) [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. A Pronouncing Dictionary of Chinese Characters in Archaic & Ancient Chinese, Mandarin & Cantonese [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Hong Kong, Chinese University of Hong Kong [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], 1973.
CLEMENTS, JONATHAN. A Brief History of Khubilai Khan, London, Running Press, 2010.
COEDES, GEORGE. "Documents sur l'Histoire politique et religieuse du Laos occidental," Bulletin de l 'Ecole francaise d'Extreme-Orient (BEFEO), 1925,25 :1-200.
--. Les Peuples de la Peninsule Indochinoise; Histoire--Civilisations, Paris, Dunod, 1962.
--. The Indianized States of Southeast Asia; translated by Susan Brown Cowing, Canberra, Australian National University Press, 1968.
CORONELLI, VINCENZO. Isolario, Descrittione di tutte l'Isole. Tomo II, dell' Atlante Veneto, 1696.
D'AILLY, PIERRE. Ymago Mundi, Louvain, 1483.
DAMRONG RAJANUBHAB. "History of Siam in the Period Antecedent to the Founding of Ayuddhya by King Phra Chao U Thong", Miscellaneous Articles: Written for the Journal of the Siam Society by His late Royal Highness Prince Damrong, Bangkok, 1962, pp.49-88.
DE SMET, ANTOINE. Les Spheres terrestre e celeste de Gerard Mercator, 1541 et 1551, Bruxelles, Editions Culture et Civilisation, 1968.
DHIDA SARAYA, "Lavo--a Coastal State in the 11th Century" [Thai & English], Muang Boran, 11(2, Apr-Jun 1985): 33-51;
DOPPELMAYER, JOHAN GABRIEL. Historische Nachricht von den nurnbergischen Mathematicis und Kunstlern, Nurnberg, 1730.
EREDIA, EMANUEL GODINHO DE. Declaracam de Malaca e India Meridional com o Cathay, manuscript, 1613; Leon Janssen (ed.), Bruxelles, Sevelink, 1881.
EISLER, WILLIAM & BERNARD SMITH. Terra Australis: The Furthest Shore, Sydney, International Cultural Corporation of Australia, 1988.
GERINI, G. E. Researches on Ptolemy's Geography of Eastern Asia (further India and Indo-Malay Archipelago), London, Royal Asiatic Society, Asiatic Society Monographs, v. 1, 1909.
GHILLANY, FRIEDRICH WILHLEM. Geschichte des Seefahrers Ritter Martin Behaim, Nurnberg, Bauer und Raspe, J. Merz, 1853.
GOLZIO, KARL-HEINZ. Geschichte Kambodscha: von Funan bis Angkor und von Angkor bis zur Modern, Berlin, EB-Verlag, 2011.
GRYNAEUS, SIMON & JOHANN HUTTICH. Novus Orbis Regionum ac Insularum, Basel & Paris, 1532.
HARRISSE, HENRY. The Discovery of North America, London, 1892 (reprinted Amsterdam, N. Israel, 1961),
HEERES, J.E. The Part Borne by the Dutch in the Discovery of Australia 1606-1765, London, 1899
--. "Abel Janszoon Tasman, His Life and Labours", Abel Tasman's Journal, Los Angeles, 1965.
HERRMANN, ALBERT. "Die alten Verkehrswege zwischen Indien und Sud-China nach Ptolemaeus", Zeitschrift der Gesellschaft fur Erdkunde, Berlin 1913.
--. "South-Eastern Asia on Ptolemy's Map", Research and Progress: Quarterly Review of German Science, 1939, 5(2, Mar-Apr):121-127.
HIRTH, FRIEDRICH & W.W. ROCKHILL. Chau Ju-kua [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]: His Work on the Chinese and Arab Trade in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries, entitled Chu-fan-chi, St. Petersburg, Imperial Academy of Sciences, 1911; repr. Taipei, Ch'eng-wen Publishing Company, 1967, p.53.
HOFMANN, CATHERINE & HELENE RICHARD, L 'age d 'Or des Cartes Marines quand l'Europe decouvrait le Monde, Paris, Bibliotheque nationale de France 2012.
KING, ROBERT J. "Regio Patalis: Australia on the map in 1531?", The Portolan, 82, Winter 2011.
LANGLOIS, LT.-COL. "Etude sur Deux Cartes d'Oronce Fine de 1531 et 1536", Journal de la Societe des Americanistes de Paris, 1923, 25:83-92.
LE TESTU, GUILLAUME, Cosmographie Universelle, 1556, fol.34;
LESTRINGANT, FRANK, Cosmographie Universelle: selon les Navigateurs tant Anciens que Modernes, par Guillaume Le Testu, Pillotte en la Mer du Ponent, de la Ville Francoyse de Grace, Paris, Arthaud; Direction de la Memoire, du Patrimoine et des Archives; Carnets des Tropiques, 2012.
LEUPE, P. A. "Abel Jansz. Tasman en Franchoys Jacobsz. Visscher", Bijdragen tot de Taal- Land- en Folkenkunde van Nederlandsch-Indie, 1856, 4:123-140.
LINSCHOTEN, JAN HUYGEN VAN Itinerario: Voyage of the Schipvaert van Jan Huygen van Linschoten naer Dost ofte portugaels Indien, Amsterdam, Cornelis Claesz, 1596.
--. Iohn Huighen van Linschoten, His Discours of Voyages into ye Easte & West Indies, London, Iohn Wolfe, 1598.
MCCLYMONT, JAMES R. "The Theory of an Antipodal Southern Continent during the Sixteenth Century", Report of the Fourth Meeting of the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science, Hobart, January 1892, Hobart, the Association, 1893, pp.442-462.
MALLERET, LOUIS. L 'Archeologie du delta du Mekong, Tome Troisieme, La culture du Fu-nan, Paris, 1962, ch.25, "Oc-Eo et Kattigara".
MAN, JOHN. Xanadu: Marco Polo and Europe's Discovery of the East, London, Bantam Press, 2009.
MAO YUAN-YI [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII](ed.). Wubei Zhi [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII](Military Records), Beijing, 1621, reprint, with new introduction, Beijing, Zhongguo bing shu ji cheng bian wei hui [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], 1989.
MARSDEN, WILLIAM. The Travels of Marco Polo, London, 1818.
MERCATOR, GERHARD & ANTOINE DE SMET. Les Spheres terrestre e celeste de Gerard Mercator, 1541 et 1551, Bruxelles, Editions Culture et Civilisation, 1968.
MEYJES, R. POSTHUMUS. De Reizen van Abel Janszoon Tasman en Franchoys Jacobszoon Visscher ter nadere Ontdekking van het Zuidland in 1642/3 en 1644, s'Gravenhage, Martinus Nijhoff, 1919.
MICHOW, H., "Caspar Vopell, ein Kolner Kartnzeichner des 16 Jahrhunderts", Wissenschaftlichen Ausschuss des Komites fur die Amerika-Feier, Hamburgische Festschrift zur Erinnerung an die Entdeckung Amerika's, Hamburg, L. Friederichsen, 1892, 1(4).
MILLS, J.V. (trans.). Eredia 's Description of Malaca, Meridional India, and Cathay, 1997.
NGO SI LIEN [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Dai Viet Su Ky Ban Ky Toan Thu (The Complete History of Dai Viet), 1697, Ban Ky (Primary Chronicle), Quyen IV (v.4) Anh Tong Hoang De: "Primary Chronicle of the Emperor Anh Tong [1136-1175]"; Dai Viet Su Ky Toan Th u: ach theo ban khac nam Chinh H oa thi 18 (1697) [translated from the 1697 edition], edited by Ha Van Tan, transl. & annot. Ngo Buc Tho, Tap 1, Ha Noi, Nha xuat ban Khoa hoc Xa hoi, (Hanoi, Social Sciences Publishing House), 1983. Page 6 online at: http://findit.library.yale.edu/bookreader/BookReaderDemo/index.html?oid=10868090#page/189/mode/1up
NGUYEN, THE ANH. "Indochina and the Malay World: a Glimpse on Malay-Vietnamese Relations to the mid-Nineteenth Century", Asia Journal, 1996, 3(1): 105-131.
NORDENSKIOLD, A.E. Atlas till kartografiens aldsta historia; Eng. trans. Johan Adolf Ekelof & Clement R. Markham, Facsimile Atlas to the Early History of Cartography, Stockholm, 1889.
NUNN, George E. The World Map of Francesco Roselli, Philadelphia, Beans, 1928.
--. 'The Three Maplets attributed to Bartholomew Columbus', Imago Mundi, 1952, 9:12-22.
OAKESHOTT, WALTER. "Renaissance Maps of the World and their Presuppositions", Bulletin of the John Rylands Library, 1961-62, 44:381-394.
O'CONNOR, MAURA, TERRY BIRTLES, MARTIN WOODS & JOHN CLARK. Australia in Maps: Great Maps in Australia's History from the National Library's Collection, Canberra, National Library of Australia, 2007.
PEILLARD, LEONCE. Antonio Pigafetta: Relation du Premier Voyage autour du Monde par Magellan (1519-1522), Paris, Tallandier, 1984.
PELLIOT, PAUL. "Deux Itineraires de Chine en Inde", Bulletin de l 'Ecole Francaise d'Extreme Orient (BEFEO), v.4, 1904.
--. Notes on Marco Polo, Paris, Imprimerie Nationale, 1963.
PHILLIPS, GEORGE. "The Seaports of India and Ceylon, Described by Chinese Voyagers of the Fifteenth Century, together with an Account of Chinese Navigation", Journal of the China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1885, v.20, art. IX, Shanghai, 1886.
PIGAFETTA, ANTONIO. Relation du Premier Voyage autour du Monde par Magellan, intro. Leonce Peillard, Paris, Tallandier, 1984.
--. The Voyage of Magellan; the Journal of Antonio Pigafetta. A Translation by Paula Spurlin Paige from the edition in the William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice-Hall, 1969.
POLASCHEK, ERICH. "Ptolemy's 'Geography' in a New Light", Imago Mundi, v.14, 1959.
POLO, MARCO. Itinerarium, Antwerp, 1485, Shinobu Iwamura (ed.), Tokyo, National Diet Library, 1949.
PONCHI, GABRIELLA (ed). Milione: ilMilione nelle redazioni toscana e franco-italiana, Le Divisament dou Monde, Milano, Arnoldo Mondadori Editore, 1982.
QUIRINO, CARLOS. First Voyage Around the World, by Antonio Pigafetta, and De Moluccis Insulis, by Maximilianus Transylvanus. intro. Carlos Quirino, Manila, Filipiniana Book Guild, 1969.
RAINAUD, ARMAND, Le Continent Austral: Hypotheses et Decouvertes, Paris, Colin, 1893 (repr. Amsterdam, Meridian Pub. Co., 1965).
RAMUSIO, GIOVANNI BATTISTA (ed.). "Discorso sopra la navigatione di Hannone Carthaginese fatto per un pilotto Portoghese", in Primo Volume delle Nauigationi et Viaggi, Venetia, 1550,
RAVENSTEIN, E.G. Martin Behaim: His Life and His Globe, London, George Philip, 1908.
RICHARDSON, W.A.R. "A Cartographical Nightmare: Manuel Godinho De Eredia's Search for India Meridional", in Francis A. Dutra & Joao Camilo dos Santos (eds), The Portuguese and the Pacific, Santa Barbara, University of California Center for Portuguese Studies, 1995, pp.314-348.
SAINSON, CAMILLE. Memoires sur l 'Annam, Peking, 1896.
--. Histoire Particuliere du Nan-Tchao: Traduction d'une Histoire de l 'ancien Yun-Nan, Paris, Ernest Leroux, 1904.
SCHILDER, GUNTER. Australia Unveiled, Amsterdam, Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, 1976.
--. Monumenta Cartographica Neerlandica, Alphen aan den Rijn, Uitgevermaatschappij Canaletto, 1986, v.2.
SCHNABEL, PAUL. "Die Entstehungsgeschichte des kartographischen Erdbildes Klaudios Ptolemaios", Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften: Philosophisch-Historische Klasse, Verlag der Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1930, 14:214-250.
SCHONER, JOHANNES. Opusculum Geographicum, Norimberga, .
STALLARD, AVAN JUDD. Antipodes to Terra Australis, PhD thesis, University of Queensland, 2010.
STAPEL, FREDERIK WILLEM. De Oostindische Compagnie en Australie, Amsterdam, P.N. van Kampen, 1937.
SUAREZ, THOMAS. Early Mapping of Southeast Asia, Hong Kong, Periplus, 1999.
TAYLOR, E.G.R. Tudor Geography, 1485-1583, London, Methuen, 1930, pp.115, 279.
--. "John Dee and the Map of North-East Asia", Imago Mundi, 1955, 12:103-106.
THEVENOT, MELCHISEDECH, Relations de divers Voyages curieux qui n 'ontpoint este publiees, Paris, Thomas Moette, 4, 1664.
TRANSYLVANUS, MAXIMILIANUS. De Moluccis Insulis, Colonia (Cologne), 1523.
VAN DER KROGT, PETER. Globi Neerlandici: The Production of Globes in the Low Countries, Utrecht, HES Publishers, 1993.
VAN MOURIK, JUSTINE. "Hartog's Discovery", Mapping Our World: Terra Incognita to Australia, Canberra, National Library of Australia, 2013, p.118-119.
WALBEECK, JOHANNES VAN AND ADOLF DECKER. Iournael vande Nassausche Vloot onder 't beleydt van den Admirael Jaques l'Heremite, ende Vice-Admirael Gheen Huygen Schapenham, in de Iaren 1623, 1624, 1625, en 1626, Amsterdam, Hessel Gerritsz ende Iacob Pietersz Wachter 1626.
WALLIS, HELEN. "John Rotz: His Life and Times", The Maps and Text of the Boke of Idrography presented by Jean Rotz to Henry VIII, Oxford, Roxburghe Club, 1981.
WALTERS ART GALLERY TRUSTEES & BALTIMORE MUSEUM OF ART. The World Encompassed: An Exhibition of the History of Maps held at the Baltimore Museum of Art, October 7 to November 23, 1952, Baltimore, 1952.
WANG YINGLIN, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. Yu Hai, Taipei, Hua-wen Shu-ju, Minguo 53, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 53, 1964; repr. of 1343 ed.
WAWRIK, FRANZ, "Der Erdglobus des Johannes Oterschaden", Der Globusfreund, 1978, 25-27:155-167.
WHEATLEY, PAUL. "Lochac Revisited", Oriens Extremus, 1969, 16:85- 110.
WIEDER, FREDERIK CASPAR (ed.). Monumenta Cartographica, The Hague, Martinus Nijhoff, vv. 1 & 3, 1925 & 1933.
WIESER, FRANZ VON. Magalhaes-Strasse und Austral-Continent auf den Globen Johannes Schoner. Innsbruck, 1881 (repr. Amsterdam, Meridian, 1967).
WOLTERS, O.W. "Tambralinga", The Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 1958, 21:587-607.
WYATT DAVID K. (ed.). The Royal Chronicles of Ayutthaya, translated by Richard D. Cushman, Bangkok, The Siam Society, 2000.
WYTFLIET, CORNELIUS. Descriptionis Ptolemaicae Augmentum, Louvain, 1597.
YULE, SIR HENRY (ed.). The Book of Ser Marco Polo, London, Murray, 1921.
ZANDVLIET, KEES. "Golden Opportunities in Geopolitics: Cartography and the Dutch East India Company during the Lifetime of Abel Tasman", in Eisler & Smith, 1988, pp.67-84.
ZHANG TINGYU et al. (eds). [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Ming History, ch.324, Foreign Kingdoms, 5, Siam [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 324, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Beijing, Zhonghua shu ju, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], 1974, p.8396.
ZHAO RUKUO & LI TIAOYUAN. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Zhu fan zhi, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], postface in Eng. W.W. Rockhill, Tokyo [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Minyu Sha, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], 1914.
ZHOU DAGUAN [CHOU TA-KUAN] [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (fl.1297), Customs of Cambodia [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], transl. Paul Pelliot & J. Gilman d'Arcy Paul, Bangkok, Siam Society, 1993.
--. Aufzeichnungen uber die Gebrauche Kambodschas, transl. Walter Aschmonei, Berlin/Osnabruck, 2006.
--. A Record of Cambodia: the Land and its People, trans. with an intro. & notes Peter Harris, Chiang Mai, Silkworm Books, 2007.
--. Chrestomathie Chinoise, Paris, Cassin et Dondey-Dupre, 1833.
Robert J. King (1)
(1) Robert J. King is an independent scholar in Canberra. Contact: email@example.com
|Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback|
|Author:||King, Robert J.|
|Date:||Jun 1, 2015|
|Previous Article:||The inflation of Java: how an island briefly became a continent.|
|Next Article:||A response to "weighing two sources of information that a Portuguese ship might have entered the Clarence river in the early 16th century".|