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Dirhinus texanus (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) from Utah.

Species of Dirhinus (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) most commonly are parasitoids of puparia of various Diptera (Boucek and Halstead, 1997), but sometimes attack primary parasitoid flies (Tachinidae) and wasps (Braconidae; J. S. Noyes, www.nhm.ac.uk/entomology/chalcidoids/index. html). Several species attack economically important flies, such as the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata; Tephritidae) and Tsetse fly (Glossina morsitans; Glossinidae; J. S. Noyes, www. nhm.ac.uk/entomology/chalcidoids/index.html).

Four species of Dirhinus (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) have been reported from the United States: D. giffardii in Florida and Hawaii, D. perideus in Illinois and Texas, D. schwarzi in Arizona, California, and Texas, and D. texanus in Alabama, Arizona, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Texas (Burks, 1947, 1979; J. S. Noyes, www.nhm.ac.uk/entomology/chalcidoids/index.html). In addition, Burks (1936) reported D. texanus from China and the Philippines; however, sources of these records are unclear. Roberts (1935) recorded D. texanus as a larval-pupal parasitoid of Blaesoxipha (Kellymyia) plinthopyga (as Sarcophaga plinthopyga; Diptera: Sarcophagidae). Details of the taxonomic history of D. texanus are recorded by J. S. Noyes (www. nhm.ac.uk/entomology/chalcidoids/index.html). Herein, we report the first collection of D. texanus from Utah.

Our study area was on the Colorado Plateau, Salt Creek Canyon, Canyonlands National Park, San Juan County, Utah. Evaluations of biotic inventories indicate a limited understanding of biodiversity of terrestrial arthropods in national parks in the United States (Stohlgren and Quinn, 1992; Stohlgren et al., 1995). To help improve our understanding of biodiversity and ecology of arthropods, we inventoried terrestrial arthropods in Salt Creek Canyon in Canyonlands National Park during 2000-2007. Elevation of the study area in Salt Creek Canyon was ca. 1,510-1,660 m. Temperatures ranged from an average low of --10.1[degrees]C in January to an average high of 34.9[degrees]C in July. Extremes of -26.7 and 41.7[degrees]C have been recorded (Ashcroft et al., 1992). Annual precipitation averages 216 mm. Maximum precipitation usually occurs in August, April, and October (Ashcroft et al., 1992). Characteristics of the site and trapping methods, which included pitfall, flight-interception, and colored-bowl traps, are described elsewhere (New, 1995; T. B. Graham, in litt.).

On 24 June 2004, we captured one D. texanus in a flight-interception trap consisting of a 0.5 by 0.4-m sheet of plexiglas suspended above a tub of soapy water (New, 1995; T. B. Graham, in litt.). The specimen was identified to genus using the key in Boucek and Halstead (1997) and then to species based on Burks (1947). Identification was confirmed by comparison with type material of D. texanus deposited in the United States National Museum of Natural History in Washington, DC.

The site was an incised alluvial deposit along a wet stretch of Salt Creek where some pools usually remain throughout summer, but the site can dry completely in some years. The trap was ca. 7 m from the creek and was suspended ca. 0.25 m above the ground under a shrubby tamarisk (Tamarix; Tamaricaceae) at the base of alluvium separating the annual floodplain from the upper alluvial bench. Vegetation near the trap was scattered small tamarisk, rabbitbrush (Chrysothamnus nauseosus; Asteraceae), virgin's bower (Clematis ligusticifolia; Ranunculaceae), saltgrass (Distichlis spicata; Poaceae), and other low-growing forbs.

Excluding ants, we recognized 58 morphospecies of Hymenoptera representing 24 families from Salt Creek Canyon. Specimens from the superfamily Chalcidoidea, especially Mymaridae and Encyrtidae, frequently were collected. In addition to the specimen of D. texanus reported here, we also collected two other specimens of the family Chalcididae.

We thank N. Hessert for translating the abstract into Spanish. We thank J. Brown, T. Henry (Systematic Entomology Laboratory, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Plant Sciences Institute), G. Evans (United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service), T. Griswold (United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service), and C. Drost (United States Geological Survey) for providing valuable comments on an early version of this paper.

Submitted 9 March 2010. Accepted 2 October 2010. Associate Editor was Jerry L. Cook.

LITERATURE CITED

ASHCROFT, G. L., D. T. JENSEN, AND J. L. BROWN. 1992. Utah climate. Utah Climate Center, Utah State University, Logan.

BOUCEK, Z., AND J. A. HALSTEAD. 1997. Chalcididae. Pages 151-164 in Annotated keys to the genera of Nearctic Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera) (G. A. P. Gibson, J. T. Huber, and J. B. Woolley, editors). NRC Research Press, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

BURKS, B. D. 1936. The Nearctic Dirhinini and Epitranini (Hymenoptera; Chalcididae). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 22:283-287.

BURKS, B. D. 1947. Nearctic species of the genus Dirhinus (Hymenoptera; Chalcidoidea). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 49:136-140.

BURKS, B. D. 1979. Family Chalcididae. Page 862 in Catalog of Hymenoptera in America north of Mexico (K. V. Krombein, P. D. Hurd, Jr., D. R. Smith, and B. D. Burks, editors). Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.

NEW, T. R. 1995. Invertebrate surveys for conservation. Oxford University Press, Oxford, United Kingdom.

ROBERTS, R. A. 1935. Some North American parasites of blowflies. Journal of Agricultural Research 50: 479-494.

STOHLGREN, T. J., AND J. F. QUINN. 1992. An assessment of biotic inventories in western US national parks. Natural Areas Journal 12:145-154.

STOHLGREN, T. J., J. F. QUINN, M. RUGGIERO, AND G. S. WAGGONER. 1995. Status of biotic inventories in US national parks. Biological Conservation 71:97-106.

LOUIS L. PECH, * MICHAEL W. GATES, AND TIM B. GRAHAM

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Marathon County, 518 South 7th Avenue, Wausau, WI54401 (LLP)

Systematic Entomology Laboratory, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Plant Science Institute, c/o National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC 20013-7012 (MWG) Biological Resource Division, United States Geological Survey, 2290 South West Resource Boulevard, Moab, UT 84532 (TBG)

Current address ofTBG: 1701 Murphy Lane, Moab, UT 84532

* Correspondent: lou.pech@uwc.edu
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Author:Pech, Louis L.; Gates, Michael W.; Graham, Tim B.
Publication:Southwestern Naturalist
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:1U8UT
Date:Jun 1, 2011
Words:985
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