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Dimensional Characteristics of Knitted Fabrics Made from 100% Cotton and Cotton/Elastane Yarns.

1. Introduction

Knitted fabrics are produced by interlooping of yarns and showed increasing demand for their shape fitting, smoothness, flexibility, elasticity, and good elastic recovery. But, all knitted fabrics may not have these properties equally. These properties are determined by raw material types and characteristics, knitting machine parameters, and type of knit structures. The knitted fabrics are textile structures made of elastic interconnected stitches and characterized by two perpendicular directions, the direction of stitches courses on the direction of stitches courses in vertical direction [1].

Knitted goods of all kinds are generally popular because of their flexibility and ability to adapt as well as stretch them to a particular shape when worn and because of their general comfortable wear. The dimensional stability of knitted structures from mostly conventional yarns together with other physical properties has been one of the most extensively discussed subjects in research [2-4]. The dimensional stability of the knitted fabrics is reflected in the capability of the products made from spandex, of maintaining the shape and dimensions in the predetermined limits, after several cycles of washing-wearing process [5].

The generic name "spandex" as defined by FTC is "A manufactured fiber in which fiber forming substance is a long chain synthetic polymer comprised of at least 85% of a segmented polyurethane" [6]. The name "spandex" is the anagram of the word expands [7]. Chemically, spandex is synthetic linear macromolecule with a long chain containing alternating hard and soft segments linked by [--NH--CO--O--] urethane bonds. The soft structure is of polyurethane block copolymer which delivers elasticity to fiber, while hard chain segment contributes molecular interaction force to fiber which confirms fiber strength and long term stability [8]. Elastane is used in all areas where a high degree of permanent elasticity is required, for example, in tights, sportswear, swimwear, corsetry, and woven and knitted fabrics. Elastane is a prerequisite for fashionable or functional apparel, intended to cling to the body making it remain comfortable. Worldwide spandex consumption and growth is 30-40% per year and is expected to grow high. Asian countries have a share of nearly 60% of world consumption and contribute 25% of worldwide spandex growth per year [9]. The important loop dimensions are loop length, loop width (wale spacing), and loop height (course spacing). Besides the loop dimensions, which have a great effect on fabric quality and the physical, mechanical, and dimensional properties of the cotton single jersey knitted fabric, there are the machine gauge, needle type, cam type, yarn feeding system, number of feeders, take down system, cloth rolling or spreading, monitoring and control systems, etc. [10-12].

Reference [13] investigated the dimensional and physical properties of cotton/spandex single jersey fabrics and compared the results with fabrics knitted from cotton alone. It was apparent that as the amount of spandex increased the loop length value remained nearly the same and the course and wale spacing decreased.

As the Lycra extension percent reached 232% in the case of the half plating fabrics, the course density increased by 40% and the wale density increased by 6% [14-16]. The results obtained in the present work indicated that the amount of elastane has a significant effect on dimensional and elastic properties of cotton/elastane plated plain knitted fabric [17].

Textured threads increase thickness and area density of knits. Higher course and wale densities have knits plated with elastane thread under the same machine set stitch lengths (due to yarn relaxation) than knits from pure yarns. Loop length becomes shorter and density of knit increases so knit is more tightened and heavier [2,14].

As reviewed in different literatures, the researchers study the effect of elastane yarn on single jersey knitted fabrics only. These may not help conclude effect of elastane on other knitted fabrics, those produced on two sets of needles and others produced as derivatives of single jersey. In this research single jersey, single pique, two-thread fleece, 1x1rib, and 1x1interlock knitted fabrics made from 100% cotton and cotton/elastane yarns are investigated for their some of dimensional properties.

2. Material and Experiments

2.1. Materials. 100% cotton and cotton/elastane blend yarns are used for this study. An elastane accounts for about 5% contents (40denier = 133Ne) while cotton accounts for 95% content (35Ne) in the 28Ne combed cotton/elastane blended yarn (cotton/elastane = 95/5%) and an elastane yarn is fed to the needles as naked filament with the cotton yarn in the same yarn feeder (carrier) but is neither plied nor core spun with cotton. Cotton fiber harvested from Upper Awash-Ethiopia has 28 mm staple lengths, 12.8 short fiber index, 300 neps, 4.06 trash percent, and 4.2 micronaire fineness. The yarns used for this study are 100% cotton and cotton/elastane blended. The cotton yarn has 750[m.sup.-1] twist, 28 Ne count, 9.21% U%, 11.70 CVM, 0 thin-50%, 33.6 thick+50%, 29.8 Neps+200%, and 63.4 total imperfection percent. The single jersey, single pique, and two-thread fleece are produced by the single-bed circular knitting machine with 30 rpm, 34" diameter, 2976 needles, 4 cam tracks, and 108 feeders. 1x1Rib/interlock is produced by double-bed circular knitting machine with 20/14 rpm, 30" diameter, 2630 needles, 94/112 feeders, and 1/2 cam tracks, respectively. The study was carried out by keeping these materials and their parameters constant except for the yarn's (raw material type).

In the single jersey, 1x1rib, interlock, single pique, and fleece knitted fabrics, the loop lengths were set equal in the knitting machine. But, during the knitting process the fabrics will have different loop lengths due to transferring of the loop and staying idle in the rib and interlock knitting machines and the floats at the technical back of fleece knitted fabrics. There are 28 needles per inch in a cylinder in single jersey, single pique, and fleece. In 1x1rib knitting machines there are 18 needles per inch in cylinder and 18 needles per inch in dial. In interlock knitting machines there are 24 needles per inch in cylinder and 24 needles per inch in dial. The working principle and arrangement of needles in 1x1rib and interlock knitting machines are different in gaiting [18].

2.2. Experiments. Single jersey, 1x1rib, interlock, single pique, and fleece knitted fabrics were produced for this study. Loop length, wales per centimeter (wpc) and courses per centimeter (cpc) of single jersey, 1x1rib, interlock, single pique, and two-thread fleece knitted fabrics made from 100% cotton and cotton/elastane yarns have been measured using crimp tester (loop length) and pick glass (wpc and cpc). Other properties such as stitch density, tightness factor, loop shape factor, and take-up rate of knitted fabrics are calculated from measured properties of knitted fabrics.

(i) The yarn properties such as U% (irregularity), CVM (coefficient of variation in mass), thin and thick places, and the amount of Neps in cotton yarn are tested using Uster tester 5 machine and Uster testing standards.

(ii) The loop length, wpc and cpc of single jersey, 1x1rib, interlock, single pique, and fleece knitted fabrics have been measured using crimp tester and pick glass, respectively.

(iii) The stitch density of these fabrics is calculated from the measured results of wpc and cpc. So, Stitch density (S) = wpc * cpc.

(iv) The tightness factors of knitted fabrics are calculated from the measured results of yarn count (Tex) and loop length (l). So, Tightness factor (k) = [square root of Tex]/1.

(v) The loop shape factors of single jersey, 1x1rib, interlock, single pique, and two-thread fleece knitted fabrics are calculated from the measured result of course per unit length (cpc) and wales per unit length (wpc). So, Loop shape factor (R) = cpc/wpc.

(vi) Take-up rates of knitted fabrics are calculated from the measured and calculated results of loop length (l) and loop pitch. So,

Take--up rate (T) = 1/loop pitch (1)

loop pitch = 1/cpc * wpc, cpc * wpc = s (stitch density) (2)

T = 1/s (3)

s

3. Result and Discussion

3.1. Knitted Fabric Loop Length. Loop length of single jersey, lxlrib, interlock, single pique, and fleece knitted fabrics has been studied and the results are shown in Figure 1.

As shown in Figure 1, the loop length of single jersey, 1x1rib, interlock, single pique, and fleece knitted fabrics made from 100% cotton and cotton/elastane (95/5%) blended yarns is different. Single jersey, 1x1rib, and interlock knitted fabrics made from 100% cotton have lower loop length as compared to the same fabrics made from cotton/elastane blended yarn while single pique and fleece knitted fabrics made from 100% cotton have higher loop length as compared to the same fabrics made from cotton/elastane blended yarns. The loop length of 1x1rib knitted fabric made from cotton/elastane yarn is the highest as compared to other knitted fabrics made from the same yarns while fleece made from 100% cotton has the highest loop length as compared to other fabrics made from the same yarns. This is because in 1x1rib knitted fabrics the yarn is pulled by two needles in opposite directions. Though the pulling forces applied to the yarn are equal the two yarns are not pulled equally with the same amount of force. With this regard cotton/elastane yarn gives high loop length in 1x1rib knitted fabrics as compared to the other knitted fabrics made from the same yarns, but this is not working for interlock because interlock is made when two 1x1rib loops are locked together to form a four-loop interlock. The lowest loop length is observed in two-thread fleece knitted fabrics made from cotton/elastane blended yarn. This is because in two-thread fleece knitted fabrics two threads are floating at the technical back of the fabrics which limits the loop length from the main thread (ground thread).

In Table 1, the mean, standard deviation, standard error, and minimum and maximum values of the test specimens are shown. The standard deviations of all sampled fabrics made from 100% cotton and cotton/elastane are similar with slight deviations from their mean. This shows that the values in a statistical data set are closest to the mean of the data set, on average.

The loop length of single jersey, 1x1rib, interlock, single pique, and fleece knitted fabrics mean differences are significant at 0.05 levels. As shown in Table 2, the loop length of single jersey is significantly influenced by the presence of 5% elastane in the Upper Awash combed cotton yarn (F = 6.309; Sig. = 0.022000). 1x1Rib (F = 9.026; Sig. = 0.008000), interlock (F = 442.312; Sig. = 0.000000), single pique (F = 7.649; Sig. = 0.013000), and fleece (F = 30704.168; Sig. = 0.000000) knitted fabrics are significantly influenced by elastane yarns. Fleece has the greatest F-value as compared to other knitted fabrics, and this shows that fleece has a high dispersion rate as compared to other knitted fabrics.

3.2. Wales and Courses Per Unit Length. The wales and courses per unit length of single jersey, 1x1rib, interlock, single pique, and fleece knitted fabrics have been studied and the results are shown in Figures 2 and 3. The wales and courses per unit length of these fabrics were measured using pick glass to count the course per centimeter and wales per centimeter and abbreviated as cpc and wpc, respectively.

As shown in Figures 2 and 3, the wpc and cpc of single jersey, 1x1rib, interlock, single pique, and fleece knitted fabrics made from 100% cotton and cotton/elastane (95/5%) blended yarns are different. Single jersey, 1x1rib, interlock, single pique, and fleece knitted fabrics made from 100% cotton have lower wpc as compared to the same fabrics made from cotton/elastane blended yarn. The wpc of interlock knitted fabric made from cotton/elastane yarn is the highest as compared to other knitted fabrics made from the same yarn while two-thread fleece made from cotton/elastane has the lowest wpc as compared to other knitted fabrics made from the same yarns. Similarly, the cpc of single jersey made from both 100% cotton and cotton/elastane yarns is the highest as compared to the other fabrics made from the same materials. Interlock knitted fabric has the lowest cpc as compared to other knitted fabrics because the interlock knitted fabric is made when two 1x1rib structures locked together.

The wpc of single jersey, 1x1rib, interlock, single pique, and fleece knitted fabrics is increased due to the presence of 5% elastane in 95% cotton yarns as compared to the same fabrics made from 100% cotton. But, cpc of some of the fabrics such as interlock and 1x1rib is reduced and cpc of some of the fabrics such as single jersey, single pique, and fleece is increased due to the presence of 5% elastane yarn in 95% cotton yarn. This is due to the high shrinkage rate differences of these fabrics due to the presence of elastane yarns in the structures.

The ascending order of wpc of the five knit structures made from cotton/elastane blended yarns is two-thread fleece, single pique, single jersey, 1x1rib, and interlock knitted fabrics (see Figure 2) while fleece, 1x1rib, single pique, interlock, and single jersey is an ascending order wpc of knitted fabrics made from 100% yarn. An ascending order of cpc of knitted fabrics made from 100% cotton and cotton/elastane blended yarns is interlock, 1x1rib, single pique, fleece, and single jersey. In Tables 3 and 4, the mean, standard deviation, standard error, and minimum and maximum values of test specimens are shown. The standard deviations of all sampled fabrics made from 100% cotton and cotton/elastane are similar with slight deviations from their mean. This shows that the values in a statistical data set are closest to the mean of the data set, on average.

The wpc and cpc of single jersey, 1x1rib, interlock, single pique, and fleece knitted fabrics mean differences are significant at 0.05 levels. As shown in Table 5, the wpc of single j ersey is significantly influenced by the presence of 5% elastane in the Upper Awash combed cotton yarn (F = 222.618; Sig. = 0.000000). 1x1Rib (F = 874.975; Sig. = 0.000000), interlock (F = 611.861; Sig. = 0.000000), single pique (F = 859.260; Sig. = 0.000000), and fleece (F = 674.165; Sig. = 0.000000) knitted fabrics are significantly influenced by elastane yarns. Fleece has greater F-value as compared to other knitted fabrics which shows that fleece has a high dispersion rate as compared to other knitted fabrics.

As shown in Table 6, the cpc of single jersey is significantly influenced by the presence of 5% elastane in the Upper Awash combed cotton yarn (F = 1026.939; Sig. = 0.000000). 1x1Rib (F = 765.224; Sig. = 0.000000), interlock (F = 334.884; Sig. = 0.000000), single pique (F = 421.299; Sig. = 0.000000), and fleece (F = 414.720; Sig. = 0.000000) knitted fabrics are significantly influenced by elastane yarns. Single jersey has the highest F-value as compared to other knitted fabrics which shows that single jersey has a high dispersion rate as compared to other knitted fabrics.

3.3. Stitch Density. The stitch density per unit area of single jersey, 1x1rib, interlock, single pique, and fleece knitted fabrics has been studied and the results are shown in Figure 4.

As shown in Figure 4, the stitch density of single jersey, 1x1rib, interlock, single pique, and fleece knitted fabrics made from 100% cotton and cotton/elastane (95/5%) blended yarns is different. Single jersey, 1x1rib, interlock, single pique, and fleece knitted fabrics made from 100% cotton have the lowest stitch density as compared to the single jersey, single pique, and fleece made from cotton/elastane blended yarn. 1x1Rib and interlock knitted fabrics made from cotton/elastane yarn have the lowest stitch density as compared to other fabrics made from the same materials. This is because cpc of 1x1rib and interlock are lower than other fabrics made from cotton/elastane yarns.

The presence of 5% elastane yarn in 95% cotton yarn influences the stitch density of knitted fabrics. The stitch density single jersey, single pique, and fleece knitted fabrics increased due to the presence of 5% elastane in 95% cotton yarns whereas the stitch density of 1x1rib and interlock knitted fabrics decreased. An ascending order of stitch density of knitted fabrics made from cotton/elastane blended yarns is 1x1rib, interlock, single pique, fleece, and single jersey.

3.4. Tightness Factor. The tightness factor of single jersey, 1x1rib, interlock, single pique, and fleece knitted fabrics has been studied and the results are shown in Figure 5.

The tightness factor of single jersey, 1x1rib, interlock, single pique, and fleece knitted fabrics made from 100% cotton and cotton/elastane (95/5%) blended yarns is different. The two-thread fleece and 1x1rib knitted fabrics made from 100% cotton and cotton/elastane blended yarns have the lowest stitch density as compared to other fabrics made from the same yarns. Interlock knitted fabric made from 100% cotton is the tightest as compared to other fabrics made from 100% cotton and cotton/elastane yarns. The tightness factor of knitted fabrics had a different influence due to the presence of 5% elastane yarns in the 95% cotton yarns. The tightness of interlock, single jersey, and 1x1rib knitted fabrics decreased with cotton/elastane yarns while single pique and two-thread fleece knitted fabrics increased with the same yarn.

3.5. Loop Shape Factor. The loop shape factor of single jersey, 1x1rib, interlock, single pique, and fleece knitted fabrics has been studied and the results are shown in Figure 6.

The loop shape factor of single jersey, 1x1rib, interlock, single pique, and fleece knitted fabrics made from 100% cotton and cotton/elastane (95/5%) blended yarns is different. The loop shape factor of fleece knitted fabric is not changed due to elastane yarn. Interlock and 1x1rib knitted fabric's loop shape factor reduced due to elastane content in cotton yarn. Only single jersey knitted fabric has significant change in increasing due to 5% elastane yarn in 95% cotton while 1x1rib and interlock are decreasing. Single pique shows a slight change in the reduction of loop shape factor because of the presence of 5% elastane yarn in 95% cotton. So, the loop shape of knitted fabrics made from 100% cotton and cotton/elastane yarns had a different influence due to structural stability, needle working, and idle time in each structure.

3.6. Take-Up Rate. The take-up rate of single jersey, 1x1rib, interlock, single pique, and fleece knitted fabrics has been studied and the results are shown in Figure 7.

The take-up rate of single jersey, 1x1rib, interlock, single pique, and fleece knitted fabrics made from 100% cotton and cotton/elastane (95/5%) blended yarns is different. The take-up rate of single jersey, 1x1rib, single pique, interlock, and two-thread fleece knitted fabrics made from 100% cotton is lower as compared to the same fabrics made from cotton/elastane blended yarns. Take-up rate of knitted fabrics is inversely proportional to stitch density and directly to loop length. Low take-up rate of knitted fabrics means that knitted fabric is with low loop length and high stitch density and vice versa. An ascending order of take-up rate of knitted fabrics made from cotton/elastane blended yarn is interlock, 1x1rib, single pique, two-thread fleece, and single jersey knitted fabrics.

4. Conclusion

The dimensional characteristics of five knitted structures made from 100% cotton and 95% cotton/5% elastane blended yarns were studied. As investigated in the results and discussion, the loop lengths of the primary knitted fabrics such as single jersey, 1x1rib, and 1x1interlock knitted fabrics made from cotton/elastane yarn have been increased for the needles were able to frequently receive new loop and release an old loop during knitting. The other fabric properties such as wales per centimeter (wpc), courses per centimeter (cpc), stitch density (s), tightness factor (K), take-up rate (T), and loop shape factor (R) are significantly influenced by the presence of elastane yarns in the knitted fabrics.

The dimensional properties are interrelated to each other. Once the loop length is influenced by the presence of elastane yarns it is obvious that other characteristics are influenced. From this research, it is observed that the other dimensional properties (except take-up rate) are inversely proportional to loop length. wpc and cpc of the knitted fabrics depend on loop length, shrinkage, and action of sets of the needles. On the other hand, stitch density, loop shape factor, and take-up rate of knitted fabrics depend on wpc and cpc in addition to loop length, as shown in the results of this research.

https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/8784692

Data Availability

The data used to support the findings of this study are cited in the article.

Conflicts of Interest

The author declares that he has no conflicts of interest.

Acknowledgments

This research is completed with the help of MAA Garment and Textile Factory (located in Mekelle, Ethiopia) and the Ethiopian Institute of Textile and Fashion Technology (EiTEX, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia). The staff of these organizations have been the core investigators for this fruitful work. The author would like to thank them for their effort and cooperation.

References

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Dereje Berihun Sitotaw

Textile Engineering, Bahir Dar University, Ethiopian Institute of Textile and Fashion Technology (EiTEX), BahirDar, Ethiopia

Correspondence should be addressed to Dereje Berihun Sitotaw; dere96@yahoo.com

Received 5 April 2018; Revised 8 May 2018; Accepted 17 May 2018; Published 29 May 2018

Academic Editor: Yuezhong Meng

Caption: Figure 1: Loop lengths of knitted fabrics made from 100% cotton and cotton/elastane yarns.

Caption: Figure 2: Wales per centimeter of knitted fabrics made from 100% cotton and cotton/elastane yarns.

Caption: Figure 3: Courses per centimeter (cpc) of knitted fabrics made from 100% cotton and cotton/elastane yarns.

Caption: Figure 4: Stitch density of knitted fabrics made from 100% cotton and cotton/elastane yarns.

Caption: Figure 5: Tightness factor of knitted fabrics made from 100% cotton and cotton/elastane yarns.

Caption: Figure 6: Loop shape factor of knitted fabrics made from 100% cotton and cotton/elastane yarns.

Caption: Figure 7: Take-up rate of knitted fabrics made from 100% cotton and cotton/elastane yarns.
Table 1: Description for loop lengths of knitted fabrics

made from 100% cotton and cotton/elastane yarns.

                                        Std.      Std.

                        N     Mean    Deviation   Error    Minimum

Loop length    95.00    10   2.9820    .05712     .01806    2.86

of single      100.00   10   3.0360    .03688     .01166    3.00

jersey         Total    20   3.0090    .05438     .01216    2.86

Loop           95.00    10   4.1270    .97313     .30773    3.49

length of      100.00   10   3.1710    .25614     .08100    3.09

1x1rib         Total    20   3.6490    .84862     .18976    3.09

Loop           95.00    10   2.9880    .02251     .00712    2.95

length of      100.00   10   2.1910    .11770     .03722    2.04

interlock      Total    20   2.5895    .41709     .09326    2.04

Loop           95.00    10   2.4350    .63458     .20067     .63

length         100.00   10   2.9900    .00000     .00000    2.99

of pique       Total    20   2.7125    .52135     .11658     .63

Loop           95.00    10   3.6130    .01059     .00335    3.60

length         100.00   10   4.2000    .00000     .00000    4.20

of fleece      Total    20   3.9065    .30121     .06735    3.60

                        Maximum

Loop length    95.00     3.05

of single      100.00    3.09

jersey         Total     3.09

Loop           95.00     5.55

length of      100.00    3.90

1x1rib         Total     5.55

Loop           95.00     3.03

length of      100.00    2.33

interlock      Total     3.03

Loop           95.00     2.66

length         100.00    2.99

of pique       Total     2.99

Loop           95.00     3.63

length         100.00    4.20

of fleece      Total     4.20

Table 2: Analysis of variances of knitted fabrics loop

length made from 100% cotton and cotton/elastane.

                                Sum of         Mean

                                Squares   Df   Square       F

Loop length    Between Groups    .015     1     .015      6.309

of single      Within Groups     .042     18    .002

jersey             Total         .056     19

Loop           Between Groups    4.570    1    4.570      9.026

length of      Within Groups     9.113    18    .506

1x1rib             Total        13.683    19

Loop           Between Groups    3.176    1    3.176     442.312

length of      Within Groups     .129     18    .007

interlock          Total         3.305    19

Loop           Between Groups    1.540    1    1.540      7.649

length of      Within Groups     3.624    18    .201

pique              Total         5.164    19

Loop           Between Groups    1.723    1    1.723    30704.168

length of      Within Groups     .001     18    .000

fleece             Total         1.724    19

                                Sig.

Loop length    Between Groups   .022

of single      Within Groups

jersey             Total

Loop           Between Groups   .008

length of      Within Groups

1x1rib             Total

Loop           Between Groups   .000

length of      Within Groups

interlock          Total

Loop           Between Groups   .013

length of      Within Groups

pique              Total

Loop           Between Groups   .000

length of      Within Groups

fleece             Total

Table 3: Description for wpc of knitted fabrics made from

100% cotton and cotton/elastane yarns.

                                          Std.      Std.

                         N     Mean     Deviation   Error    Minimum

Wales per       95.00    10   16.9000    .39441     .12472    16.50

centimeter      100.00   10   14.0000    .47140     .14907    13.50

of single       Total    20   15.4500    1.54664    .34584    13.50

jersey

Wales per       95.00    10   17.5000    .52705     .16667    17.00

centimeter      100.00   10   12.0600    .24585     .07775    11.80

of 1x1rib       Total    20   14.7800    2.81922    .63040    11.80

Wales per       95.00    10   20.9400    1.00687    .31840    20.00

centimeter      100.00   10   12.9800    .14757     .04667    12.80

of interlock    Total    20   16.9600    4.14302    .92641    12.80

Wales per       95.00    10   15.3700    .30569     .09667    15.00

centimeter      100.00   10   12.1500    .16499     .05217    12.00

of pique        Total    20   13.7600    1.66904    .37321    12.00

Wales per       95.00    10   14.4300    .31640     .10006    14.00

centimeter      100.00   10   11.1400    .24585     .07775    10.90

of fleece       Total    20   12.7850    1.71012    .38239    10.90

                         Maximum

Wales per       95.00     17.50

centimeter      100.00    14.50

of single       Total     17.50

jersey

Wales per       95.00     18.00

centimeter      100.00    12.50

of 1x1rib       Total     18.00

Wales per       95.00     23.00

centimeter      100.00    13.20

of interlock    Total     23.00

Wales per       95.00     15.80

centimeter      100.00    12.40

of pique        Total     15.80

Wales per       95.00     14.90

centimeter      100.00    11.60

of fleece       Total     14.90

Table 4: Description for the cpc of knitted fabrics made

from 100% cotton and cotton/elastane yarns.

                                           Std.      Std.

                          N     Mean     Deviation   Error    Minimum

Courses per      95.00    10   29.4500    .43780     .13844    29.00

centimeter of    100.00   10   21.3500    .66875     .21148    20.00

single jersey    Total    20   25.4000    4.19147    .93724    20.00

Courses per      95.00    10    75000     .47140     .14907    7.00

centimeter       100.00   10   13.3500    .47434     .15000    13.00

of 1x1rib        Total    20   10.4250    3.03608    .67889    7.00

Courses per      95.00    10    76000     .51640     .16330    7.00

centimeter       100.00   10   11.6000    .45947     .14530    11.00

of interlock     Total    20   9.6000     2.10638    .47100    7.00

Courses per      95.00    10   20.3500    .57975     .18333    20.00

centimeter       100.00   10   15.5000    .47140     .14907    15.00

of pique         Total    20   179250     2.54059    .56809    15.00

Courses per      95.00    10   21.6000    .45947     .14530    21.00

centimeter       100.00   10   16.8000    .58689     .18559    16.00

of fleece        Total    20   19.2000    2.51522    .56242    16.00

                          Maximum

Courses per      95.00     30.00

centimeter of    100.00    22.00

single jersey    Total     30.00

Courses per      95.00     8.00

centimeter       100.00    14.00

of 1x1rib        Total     14.00

Courses per      95.00     8.00

centimeter       100.00    12.00

of interlock     Total     12.00

Courses per      95.00     21.50

centimeter       100.00    16.00

of pique         Total     21.50

Courses per      95.00     22.00

centimeter       100.00    17.50

of fleece        Total     22.00

Table 5: Analysis of variances of knitted fabrics wpc made

from 100% cotton and cotton/elastane yarns.

                                  Sum of          Mean

                                  Squares   Df   Square       F

Wales per        Between Groups   42.050    1    42.050    222.618

centimeter of    Within Groups     3.400    18    .189

single jersey        Total        45.450    19

Wales per        Between Groups   147.968   1    147.968   874.975

centimeter       Within Groups     3.044    18    .169

of 1x1rib            Total        151.012   19

Wales per        Between Groups   316.808   1    316.808   611.861

centimeter       Within Groups     9.320    18    .518

of interlock         Total        326.128   19

Wales per        Between Groups   51.842    1    51.842    859.260

centimeter       Within Groups     1.086    18    .060

of pique             Total        52.928    19

Wales per        Between Groups   54.120    1    54.120    674.165

centimeter       Within Groups     1.445    18    .080

of fleece            Total        55.565    19

                                  Sig.

Wales per        Between Groups   .000

centimeter of    Within Groups

single jersey        Total

Wales per        Between Groups   .000

centimeter       Within Groups

of 1x1rib            Total

Wales per        Between Groups   .000

centimeter       Within Groups

of interlock         Total

Wales per        Between Groups   .000

centimeter       Within Groups

of pique             Total

Wales per        Between Groups   .000

centimeter       Within Groups

of fleece            Total

Table 6: Analysis of variances of knitted fabrics cpc made
from 100% cotton and cotton/elastane yarns.

                                  Sum of          Mean

                                  Squares   df   Square       F

Courses per      Between Groups   328.050   1    328.050   1026.939

centimeter of    Within Groups     5.750    18    .319

single jersey        Total        333.800   19

Courses per      Between Groups   171.113   1    171.113   765.224

centimeter       Within Groups     4.025    18    .224

of 1x1rib            Total        175.138   19

Courses per      Between Groups   80.000    1    80.000    334.884

centimeter       Within Groups     4.300    18    .239

of interlock         Total        84.300    19

Courses per      Between Groups   117613    1    117.613   421.299

centimeter       Within Groups     5.025    18    .279

of pique             Total        122.638   19

Courses per      Between Groups   115.200   1    115.200   414.720

centimeter       Within Groups     5.000    18    .278

of fleece            Total        120.200   19

                                   Sig.

Courses per      Between Groups   .000000

centimeter of    Within Groups

single jersey        Total

Courses per      Between Groups   .000000

centimeter       Within Groups

of 1x1rib            Total

Courses per      Between Groups   .000000

centimeter       Within Groups

of interlock         Total

Courses per      Between Groups   .000000

centimeter       Within Groups

of pique             Total

Courses per      Between Groups   .000000

centimeter       Within Groups

of fleece            Total
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Title Annotation:Research Article
Author:Sitotaw, Dereje Berihun
Publication:Journal of Engineering
Geographic Code:4EUUK
Date:Jan 1, 2018
Words:5549
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