Diffusion of competing media frames in social movement: a case of "Anti-Retirement Package Bill Event" in Macau.
The study conducts a comparative analysis of different types of media, and provides an insight into the overall picture of news media in the network opinion event. Frame analysis is applied to explore the media's competing media frames strategies across the whole process of the event.
This study employs a 4*3*3 design to detect how the competing media frames are diffused from the political actors to the public. The design includes 4 stages about the "Anti-Retirement Package Bill" event, 3 types of competing media and 3 kinds of frames.
The comparison among 4 stages gives us a clear idea about how the different media types change the media frames strategies in the process of the event. The controversial sides, the "Pro-bill" side and "Anti-bill" side, choose the media channels which they can affect mostly to transmit the information, and gain supports from the public. Besides, the media locate their political stances based on their organization structural difference and interest relationship with the issue, and different types of media employ changing frame weight across stages along with the development situation of the events. These two kinds of effect interplay to show us the overall picture of news media in the network opinion event.
2. Research Background
The "Anti-Retirement Package Bill" event was considered to be the largest anti-government protest since the handover of Macau. The event was caused by the public controversy, which focused on the social justice, and then it evolved into an extremely sensitive social topic referring to high-ranking officials.
The Retirement Package Bill was seen as awarding generous retirement packages to the Chief Executive and the principal high-ranking officials. The key points of the bill are as follows:
i. The Chief Executive can get official salary equivalent to seventy percent of a monthly salary when he retires.
ii. The Principal officials can get extra one-time retirement package, which is equivalent to the number of tenure month multiplied by 14% and 30% of the monthly salary.
iii. Criminal immunity for the Chief Executive during his tenure.
The Macau government submitted the "Retirement Package Bill" to the Legislative Assembly on December 16th, 2013. The bill passed as "general discussions and voting". In the hot period, the government suggested the Legislative Assembly to increase the one-time retirement package's proportion of monthly salary for the principal officials from the original 14% to 30%, which would be voted on May 27, 2014. Before the vote, it caused the strong controversy of the public, then the social movement organization which held a negative position on "The Retirement Package Bill" motivated about 20000 Macau residents (the number was estimated by the organizers) to participate the protest which happened on May 25 and May 27. Finally, under the strong pressure of resistant voice, the government was compelled to withdraw the bill, which marks the win of the public opinion against "Retirement Package Bill".
In Macau, there was no party existing in the society. Legislative campaign committee (nominee candidate) is just of a temporary nature, and its activities are usually in the form of community, which is called political community (Wen, 2011). Pan-Establishment ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]) tends to support the Macao government and Chinese Communist Party. It has dominated the mainstream society (Lou, 2009). Even though being in an inferior position in the political arena, Pan-democracy Camp ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]) is also an important political force. Pandemocracy Camp has fewer resources which include financial support from the government and connection with traditional media channels, but it usually establishes a good image among the public (Wen, 2011).
In the "Anti-Retirement Package Bill" event, a Non-Governmental Organization, Macau conscience ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] H^') which is a part of Pan-democracy Camp ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] M) played an important role in organizing the protest and called for the residents to support on the withdrawal of the bill. Facebook is a main platform for them to interact with the residents and launched the activities in the event (Cao, Cheong, & Li, 2014). Unlike Pan-Establishment ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]) which depends on activities organized by traditional community to gain support from the resident, Macau conscience interacted with the public through new media channel including Facebook, what's app (Jiang & Zhu, 2014).
During the process of the event, the two controversial political actors, the government and the social movement organizer Macau conscience ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ), have the propaganda media by which they can maximize the effect to win the supports from the public. The traditional media such as newspaper and TV news, and the new media such as the social network, website and the social forum, all have concerns and discussions about the event. Besides, the newspapers from different areas have a large number of converges on this social topic, such as the Macau local newspaper, and the Hong Kong media. The difference of each media frames is significant and even opposite to each other. Macau society is open to all media portals, thus forming a typical competing media frame. The protests against the "Retirement Package Bill" in Macau provide us a good opportunity to study how media functions in the network opinion event.
3. Research Significance
Few studies paid attention to looking for how the frames are transmitted from political actors and finally to the public (Matthes, 2012). With the development of new media, the public can get information from more channels, which makes this problem more sophisticated. Our study tried to solve it from the media frames competing perspective.
The competing media often employ different news frames to elaborate on the controversial issues (Sparrow, 2006). Based on this point of view, we can link the media frames with different media. Besides, the competing media can be classified into three types based on the organization structural difference and interest relationship with the issue, which are pro-government media, commercial media and social movement organization media. Then our research can model the way through which the frames are diffused to the public.
The study also considers the time effects to reveal the evolution of media frames for the media. Time effect is a new research direction, which has been considered by some scholars recently (Chen, 2010a; Gottlieb & Julian, 2015). The study further explores how the different types of media that are affected by different interest groups behave completely differently across time with respect to their frames. It can be a breakthrough for the social movement study. Meanwhile, it provides a comprehensive understanding for the framing process, which includes both offline and online system in the social movement.
Except for the theoretic exploration, we tried to develop a new methodology to make the frame analysis more scientific. This is another main contribution. As we know, the identification of frames is an essential part of text analysis (Pan, 2006), which will be challenged about the abstraction of the frame. We follow the former studies to abstract issue-specific frames according to the functions of frames (Entman, 1993b) from different perspectives of media. Then according to their weights, the study integrated the Main frames and their Subframes into "Frame factor" with different natures by abstracting the common part of the factors based on the PCA technology. With this measurement tool, the frames can reflect the characteristics in the same dimension. This is a new attempt to abstract the common factor of the frames and make the frames more comparable with each other.
4. Literature Review
4.1 Frame analysis
4.1.1 Framing theory
Framing theory, the most widely cited definition, which is given by Entman (1993a), referred to framing as "a scattered conceptualization". A more similar and detailed definition is that framing refers to "the process by which people develop a particular conceptualization of an issue or reorient their thinking about an issue" (Chong & N.Druckman, 2007). The term "frame" here can be referred as "schemata of interpretation", which enables individuals "to locate, perceive, identify, and label" occurrences or information (Goffman, 1974).
The concept has become especially prominent in social movement research where the promotion of pertinent frames is viewed as an important condition for successful protest mobilization (D.A Snow, Soule, & Kriesi, 2004). To some extent, the journalist endows the media frame. The news coverage on an event is "journalists simply holding a mirror to them and reflecting their image to audience" (Gans, 1979). The media content can be influenced by external sources like political actors, authorities, interest groups, and other elites will influence the content. Therefore, political actors may suggest journalists' coverage on an issue. (Scheufele, 1999).
4.1.2 Frame function
In 2001, Reese (2007) published the bridging idea, "Frames are organizing principles that are socially shared and persistent over time, that work symbolically to meaningfully structure the social world". (Entman, 1993b) stated the function of the frame, "to frame is to select some aspects of a perceived reality and make them more salient in a communicating context, in such a way as to promote a particular problem definition, casual interpretation, moral evaluation, and/or treatment recommendation for the item described". (Entman, 1993b) defined the four ways in which frames operate as the following:
i. Define Problems: define the nature of a particular issue, which caused controversy.
ii. Casual interpretation: identify the causes of the issue and attribute responsibilities.
iii. Make moral judgment: evaluate the social consequences.
iv. Suggest remedies: Propose the possible solution or remedy for the current problem.
The news media may transmit the symbol that communicates the political actors' perception of the controversial issue, ideology and emotional appeals to the public. News coverage can promote changes in public opinion by propagandizing particular definitions and interpretations of political issues (V. Price, Tewksbury, & Powers, 1997). The information processed by individuals is from the news, so the individual frame is affected by the media frame, which has been tested by many scholars (Bayulgen & Arbatli, 2013; Bell & Entman, 2011; de Vreese, Boomgaarden, & Semetko, 2011; Nelson & Oxley, 1999; Schuck & de Vreese, 2006). Thus it can be showed that when the social issue causes a large of controversy and government meets the challengers, news coverage plays an important role on shaping public opinion, which makes political actors put emphasis on competing to gain media-related resources to frame the issue and affect the public.
4.1.3 The identifications of news frames
The aim of study is to extract frames from text material with high reliability and validity, so the method to get the news frames is necessary in the current study. The text-analysis is considered as one of core parts in frame study (Pan & Kosicki, 1993). Furthermore, the identification of frames is essential in text-analysis (Pan, 2006).
The empirical approach to identify frames, which shows precise conceptualization and careful empirical measurement of framing, is necessary for frame study. The empirical approach which goes beyond description and objective, can systematically define frames as "the set of possible frames is exhaustive, or that the frame categories are mutually exclusive" (Tankard, 2001). Apparently, it is a better approach to conduct the study. As Tankard (2001) argued that, an empirical approach has many standard advantages in social science research:
i. The reliability of measurement can be determined.
ii. Achieving an acceptable level of reliability means the subjectivity has been taken out of the identification of frames.
iii. The results are replicable. Other researchers should be able to identify the same frames in the same way.
iv. The power of theory building and theory testing is brought to research on framing.
Issue-specific and generic frame are all considered as reliable methods when doing empirical research. Issue-specified frame is used more than generic frame when it is "used to compare the forming process of different frames" (Chen, 2010b). The current study focuses on the media frames through the process of social movement, as Pan (2006) pointed out that issue-specific frame focuses on the speakers who express their political opinion, which includes policy-maker and spokesman of a social group. In conclusion, the issue-specific approach fits the target of the current study.
4.2 The Frame Study in Social Movement
4.2.1 Social movement in Macau
In political debates over a sensitive social issue, which interferes with the public's own interests, the local populations aspire to experiment a social movement towards democratization. Once successful, they are more likely to regard it as a part of political struggle (Tilly, 2004).
According to Giddens (1985)'s four areas in which social movements operate, two protests happen in the "Anti-Retirement Package Bill" event belonging to the "democratic movements that work for political right". Macau residents were concerned about bill, objected to the corruption of the high-ranking official and struggled for democracy. Unlike traditional social movement, the "Anti-Retirement Package Bill" event is the largest antigovernment protest, and the collective action is not limited to the traditional interpersonal communication. They gathered via social media, online channel. Besides, the main opposite participates in the event, the government and its challenger social movement organizer, both have their own media channels to maximize the effect on public and win support. The media frames which are conveyed by different media channels through public discourse can be used to define and differentiate the interest group (Elder & Cobb, 1983).
4.2.2 Structure of media systems
As we know, when movements succeed at obtaining the attention from mass media outlets, media reports describe protests in many ways that may undermine social movement agendas (Smith, McCarthy, McPhail, & Augustyn, 2001). There must be some structural factors affecting the media's content, which will affect the information diffusion process.
As media "organizations" exist in an uncertain political and economic environment, in which they have to stabilize their position in order to flourish, so the traditional news media always need to react to three kinds of uncertainty: whether or how they will make a profit, establish their legitimacy, and find timely information (Sparrow, 2006), which was demonstrated in the new institutionalism theory. Among the three goals, some researchers suggested that the main dependence on economic factors is the structural factor which affects the news content (Kenny.k, 1993; Tang & Chan, 1990). Then it's reasonable to observe that the ideologies of people who finance the media decide the news content (Shoemaker & Mayfield, 1987). Based on this point of view, we can classify the media by the sponsorship into three types, commercial media which is sponsored by the merchant, pro-government media which, to some extent, is sponsored by the government and social movement organization media which serve for the social movement organization in the protests, and is free of influencing by the government or corporate interests.
In the protest, both the government and the movement organizer try to utilize the effects of media. For the government, they regulate and provide part of financial support for media, which have closely connected with them. Thus, the media content may be determined by rules, regulations and decrees required by the state (Altschull, 1984). At the same time, the movement organizer, which is neither the government nor the corporate, will utilize the independent media to broadcast its information. The form of independent media varies in Internet era, such as the Facebook, the organization website, the e-newspaper and so on. It is on a smaller scale, but more accessible and participatory, and less constrained by bureaucracy or commercial interests than the mainstream media (Dowmunt & Coyer, 2007). Unlike the pro-government media or the independent media used by the social movement organizer, commercial media locates its position based on the profit, which is one of the goals mentioned above. As the commercial media needs to cater for the needs of the readers, which is stimulated by the economic interests, its frame may be in consistence with the frame of the public (Altschull, 1984).
4.2.3 The role of media frames in social movement
Frame is a tool used for political strategy and an organizational process (Bell & Entman, 2011). When referring to social movement, the component of conflict becomes more obvious (Kuypers, 2002), and frames help to form the dominant point of view.
In the "Anti-Retirement Package Bill" event, the government and social movement organizers use symbols to influence public opinion, which may be visual but are more often verbal--"a set of rhetoric developed to enhance emotional appeals" (Andsager, 2000). The main function of rhetoric is that the manipulation of the public vocabulary causes social change (M. Condit, 1990). The rhetoric symbols from both sides of controversy enter public discourse through their press releases, interviews, speeches and slogans during the protest. The symbol of pro-bill side focused on maintaining the economic prosperity of Macau, such as "Cherish Macau's harmony ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII])", "Reasonable Package, Without Worries Behind [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII])", "I am fat, but I will not feather myself ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII])". The anti-bill side put emphasis on moral criticism on the bill, the exemplars of anti-bill side's symbol, including "Retirement package for High-ranking officials, too outrageous ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII])", "tailor-made fat chicken meal ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII])", "corrupt official feather their own nest ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII])". The news media transmit the messages to the public, but they are not merely the "common carriers" of the information (Vincent Price, 1992). Instead, news coverage often plays a critical role in shaping public opinion through the frames that affect the way journalists report the news (Pan & Kosicki, 1993).
When social issues cause controversy, news media is a source of information for the public to construct their picture of reality. As Entman (1993b) points out, " the frame in the news is really the imprint of power, it registers the identity of actors or interests that competed to dominate the text." The political actors' position in social movement can become pervasive through influencing journalist's frame issues.
4.2.4 Competing news frames
As discussed above, the news media framing is an influential tool for political actors to shape public opinion in the social movement, and in turn, it will affect the policy change.
The study on competing news frame strategies is the focus of scholars around the world (Andsager, 2000; Eilders & Albrecht, 2000). As Chen (2010a)'s definition, competing news frames are the two or more essential different frames which should be adopted by different media, and in the same event at the same time. Besides, these news frames should be presented to the general audience from the same area. In the social movement research, pertinent frames are viewed as an important condition for protests mobilization (D.A Snow et al., 2004).
The competing news frames strategies used by the two controversial sides in the event are not directed to activation or protest mobilization, but to the mobilization of consensus in public opinion. The frames have the persuasive power in achieving consensus of the public, and the competition of particular frames can obtain the absolute advantage position in the controversy of the "Retirement Package bill" and gain the support from the residents.
4.3 The Gap of Previous Study
Though political communication area has evolved into a mature field of study, there exist some problems unexplored. Scholars tried to explain the political communication based on the framing theory, but few studies can bridge the various stages of frame and do not know how the frame finds its way to media and finally to the public, after it was constructed by the policy makers (Matthes, 2012). The roles of media institutions playing on the frame approach in the protest are necessary for political communication study. The diverse application and comprehension of the previous frame study on the protest or social movement are not integrated. Considering theory building in this field of research, it is necessary for us to conduct a summary and bridge the gap of the current study.
Goffman (1974) primarily applied the concept of frame into the study of social movement, in which frame is seen as "schemata of interpretation" that enables individuals "to locate, perceive, identify, and label", and frames take functions to organize experiences and guide action. Snow and his colleagues (1986) started to empirically understand adherent mobilization by analyzing frame alignment as a bridging linking mobilization view on movement participation. Most previous researchers conduct on the function of frames on movement mobilization, which "organize experience and guide action, whether individual or collective" (D.A Snow et al., 2004), but few studies notice how and in what context frames can be effected, and give no answer to whether the frames can be sustained in the process of protest (E, Oliver, & Maney, 2000; Mcleod & H.Detenber, 1999; STROMBERG, 2004). It has been ignored by the previous researchers on this field that there exist competing media affected by the controversial sides in the protest, and the competing media often employ different news frames to elaborate on the controversial issue, which plays a vital role on shaping the interpretation of information receiver on the events (Sparrow, 2006).
The new study which was conducted by DOGU (2015) challenged the dominance of mainstream media. It questioned the role of alternative news media (such as community media, citizens ' media and social movement media) based on a quantity content analysis with a focus on the protest in Turkey. It noticed the position of alternative media, which can be seen as a "part of civil society" in the social movement, and the study explored the competition between the alternative media and mainstream media in the social movement. DOGU (2015) used frame as an instrument to explore how different media present a particular issue. Even though the study makes the frame study of protest more integrated, it still lacks the perspective of time frame. A recent study conducted by Gottlieb and Julian (2015) adopted a longitudinal analysis which takes the stage difference of news attention cycle into consideration. It identifies that the conflict in protest has an impact on the number of news coverage about the protest, in which dynamic frame changing exists over time. His study explored the time frame effect on the relation between media frame cycle and protest, but ignored the media system difference.
Except for this, with the development of the Internet, people can get more information from the online world. Some scholars try to find out the opinion diffusion process with the kernel density estimation technology in the online world in the latest research (Liu, Yan, Liu, & Wu, 2014). There is no doubt that the Internet will speed up the information diffusion process as it neglects the regional interval. But what we are concerned with is during the diffusion process, whether the information essence, the frame, has been mediated.
In the research field of study on social movement, due to the benefits and popularity of the internet, many social movement organizers can get more capacity to distribute information to the public in online system, such as the Arab spring, 15M movement in Spain (Eltantawy & Wiest, 2011; Mico & Casero-Ripolles, 2013). This important role of Internet playing in the political communication area has attracted some scholars to explore (Dubois & Gaffney, 2014; Gil de Zuniga, Molyneux, & Zheng, 2014; Kruikemeier, van Noort, Vliegenthart, & de Vreese, 2014; Robles, De Marco, & Antino, 2013). But the same problem in the traditional media context has arisen in the digital era, and few scholars paid their attention to explore the framing process through several levels from offline to online. While only Yuqiong and Moy (2007) tried to take online system into consideration, and studied the interplay between the online public and the media coverage, which still lacks the role of the political actors. To gap the bridge of the previous study and combine the strength of recent research, the current study will explore the diffusion of competing media frame in the process of the "Anti-Retirement Package Bill" Event, and put emphasis on the difference of media systems. We also take time frame into consideration, which can reflect the media change in different stages with the development of the event situation. Besides, the study on the media frame strategies adopted by the both controversial sides, which constitute an integrated picture in the protest, can be a breakthrough for the social movement study.
Meanwhile, it will provide a comprehensive understanding for the framing process, which includes both offline and online systems in the social movement.
5. Research Questions
Grounded on the literature discussed above, accompanied with the quantity and quality method, the study focuses on the investigation of the following questions.
R1: Whether the systematic and logical differences of the news frame in three different types of media (Pro-government media, Commercial media, and Social movement organization media) exist during the process of the event?
R2: According to the development of the event's situation, do the three different media (Pro-government media, Commercial media, and Social movement organization media) report the "Anti-Retirement Package Bill" event differently across different stages respectively? If they do, how to explain the change?
R3: How much influence does the social movement organizer have on the online audience?
6.1 Research Method
In the current research, frames are coded as variables. We adopt the empirical approach which uses "list of frames" to quantitatively analyze the data. Entman (1993a) proposed the functions of the frame, and made the frame from the definition to an operational method. The functions of the frame are problem definition, causal interpretation, moral judgments, and treatment recommendation. Investigating in both deductive and inductive approaches to extract frames from news coverage during the event, this study follows these frame functions to analyze and compare the frames of the online public, the Pro-government media, the Independent media used by the social movement organizer and the Commercial media.
6.2 Research Subjects
After being examined carefully, 337 news reports that belong to 11 print media agencies are selected to be valid research objectives with the criteria. Each media agency must have equal to or more than 18 news coverages on the event. Besides, on the new media platform, the posts collected from social movement organizer during the protest opinion is 48 are 36; the online public opinion is 486.
6.2.1 Sample collection
Data collection has been done through the traditional media and the new media used by the social movement organizer. After the data collection, two coders are employed to code the material to ensure the quality of the data.
Through the "Wise-news Database" and relevant keywords "Retirement Package Bill", the study collects all the news coverage from Hong Kong and Macau during the event period from December 2013 to August 2014.
In "Anti-Retirement Package Bill" event, Facebook plays an important role in calling for supports from residents by the main force of social movement organizer, Macau Conscious ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]). To get the data of social movement organizer media, the new media platforms, which are used by Macau Conscious, are examined. The platforms include the posts on Macau Conscious' Facebook Fan page, the news published on the Facebook Homepage of the "Macau Concealers"([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]). To verify the interaction between the social movement organizer and its online audience, we also collect the online public's comments on organizer's each posts and news.
Each comments text and post text is seen as the unit of analysis.
6.2.2 Sample description
Based on "The Wise" database, all the news coverage of printed media, which meets sample collection requirement, is collected. As showed in Figure 1 below, the original data of printed media is as follows. 421 news reports about "Anti-Retirement Package Bill" had been retrieved; the news reports belong to 39 different print media agencies.
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
6.2.3 Media Classification
In the current study, we regard the media system difference as an independent variable, and the dependent variable is media frame in the media texts. How news frames are influenced by different news media under different media system is what the study aims to explore. For our research subjects, data from online systems which include the post of social movement organizer has obvious political stance on the "Retirement Package Bill'. However, for the offline printed media part, as discussed above, we collected all the news coverage of printed media on the issue during the event period, then the original data of offline system is filtered by the number of news (N [greater than or equal to] 18), so making certain of the political stance of each 11 media agencies is the following problem to be solved. The ideologies of people who finance the media determine the news content (Shoemaker & Mayfield, 1987). So taking the identity of the owners of each media agency into consideration, we make judgment on their political stance towards the "Retirement Package Bill". Besides, the design of the Page and their usual reporting style are also factors to be measured. Then combined with the present literature, the basic organization structure situation of each media agency is introduced as follows.
6.3 Identification of frames
The function of frames defined by Entman (1993b) provides a direction for the study to find appropriate multiple frames used by different research subjects, so the study extracts issue defining frames, causal frames, moral judgment frames and remedy frames based on Entman's four functions of frames. Issue-specific frame and media functions are the theoretical foundations of identification of frames. The current study investigates the frames that define the issue of "Retirement Package Bill" from three media types' perspective.
Besides, as discussed above, the government and social movement organizers use symbols to influence public opinion by the manipulation of the public vocabulary, and then the rhetoric symbols from both controversial sides enter public discourse through the media channel during the protest. The media frames originate from the symbols, cite the symbols and present them. We also pay attention to the symbols, which emerge in press releases, interviews, speeches, and slogans, when doing the process of extracting frames. Therefore, Sub-frames under the four lists of frames will be identified after adequate investigations of the news converge about the event. Taking symbols into consideration, the current research specifies the three different issues defining frames among the news reporting of the three media types. The three news frame patterns and citation of symbols are as follow:
1) Reasonable policy ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]): Emphasize the reasonability of the Retirement Package Bill, and highlight the significance of government's policy, which can be seen a positive judgment on the bill.
2) Flaw of the Legislative procedure ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]): Condemn the problem of the Legislative procedure, with no focus on the reasonability of the bill or the government's work. It holds a neutral attitude towards the bill.
3) Privilege feather their own nest ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]): Point out that the officer uses the privilege to feather themselves, and emphasize the harmful effect the bill has on the public.
Based on the three issue defining frames, the current study further identifies causal frames, moral judgment frames, and remedy frames under each issue defining frame as table 5 shows.
6.4 Research measurement
To quantify the frame measurement accurately, the current study categorizes the news text based on the frame definitions. According to the degree and the frequency of the keywords and catchphrases used in the news reporting, the study grades the existence of the news frames into three levels.
6.4.1 Coding sheet
As showed in Table 6, in the coding sheet, mark 0 means "not identified"; mark 1 equals to "partially identified", the secondary frame or implicit frame; mark 2 means "obviously or completely identified", the mainframe or explicit frame. Meanwhile, only if the title of the news includes the keywords of some frames, or the lead of the news contains the emphasized keywords, the mainframe or explicit frame were identified. The secondary frame or implicit frame was recognized when the main body of the news has the keywords of some frames.
To keep the reliability and validity of the measurement of the frame, based on the result of the data after finishing the coding process, we will do the reliability test and conduct factor analysis for each frame extracted from the sample, and then frame factor will be formed to be the measurement for the media. It is what we will discuss in the following part.
6.4.2 Inter-coder reliability
Two master students who have received professional training on research methods are invited to do the coding. By adopting Wang (1989)'s "Ir measure", the current study randomly selects 30 news text samples for inter-coder reliability test. r=agreement between judges, M=observed number of agreement, M1=the number of agreement of the first coder, M2=the number of agreement of the second coder, and the inter-coder reliability where n=the number of coders
r = 2 x [M/M1 + M2] 1 (1)
Inter-coder reliability = n * [r/1 + (n-1) * r (2)
In the current research, the agreement between two coders is 2*310/ (360+360) =0.861, and the Inter-coder reliability is 2*0.861/ (1+1*0.861) =0.93. So as the result showed, the inter-coder reliability of the current study is beyond 85%, which are within the acceptable range (Kassarjian, 1977).
The study takes the media's structural differences into consideration. The report stance on the "Retirement Package Bill" may differ between different media in the event. The pro-government media holds a positive position towards the bill, which is "inclined to support the government's policy and collaborate with the government" (Chen, 2010a). On the contrary, the social movement organization media's standpoint towards the bill is obviously opposite to the government. Moreover, the commercial media, which is market-driven, should face the reader. As (Chen, 2010a) pointed out, the commercial media "upholds the attitude of criticism for the government", so its position on the issue should be similar to the "Anti-bill" party.
Based on the understanding of stance and characteristics of three different media, the study makes the following research hypothesis:
Hypothesis1: Different media system will adopt different media frame strategies, which are characterized by different orientated stance (positive, neutral and negative) on the bill.
Hypothesis1a: Pro-government media is more likely to adopt the Main Frame of "Reasonable policy" and its Sub Frames, which have positive nature to define the "Retirement Package Bill" than commercial media and social movement organization media.
Hypothesis1b: Commercial media and Social Movement Organization media are more likely to adopt the Main Frame of "Privilege feather their own nest" and its Sub Frames which have negative nature to define the "Retirement Package Bill" than Pro-government media.
As most Pro-government newspapers in Macau are Semi-Commercial papers, which also need to rely on personal subscribers, it is different from government's public relation bureaus. During the "Hot" period of the event, the public's resistant voice against the government became stronger and stronger, and the Pro-government newspapers stepped forward to maintain the social situation's stability and relieve the pressure from public opinion (Chen, 2010a). However, when the outcome is a foregone conclusion, which is ended with the government's withdrawing the bill, Pro-government's news frame should be similar to the commercial newspapers, which put emphasis on the value of the news (Chen, 2010a). Moreover, when the "Anti-Bill" side wins finally, the social movement organization media will adjust the frame strategies to decrease the criticism on the government and focus more on the flaw of the Legislative procedure. Here comes to the next hypotheses.
Hypothesis2: The news frames of different media system will change respectively across different stages, and the change will differ between different types of media.
Hypothesis2a: The news frame of Pro-government media will show a significant difference during and after the event, and the difference is larger than commercial media.
Hypothesis2b: To meet the needs of the public, the commercial media will behave steadily all along and show more neutral position in media frame than Pro-government media and social movement organization media.
Hypothesis2c: The social movement organizer media will adjust the media frame from absolutely negative nature during the event to more neutral after the event.
As mentioned above, the social movement organization tries to utilize the online media to transmit their media frame, so the social movement organizers can get more capacity to distribute information to the public in online system, which makes them get the ability to be connected with specific online public.
Hypothesis 3: The frame of the online public, which is attracted by the online platform, will show significant correlation with the media frame of social movement organization.
[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]
8. Findings and Result
8.1 Descriptive analysis
8.1.1 Time frame
The development of social movement goes through different stages, which have been described by Blumer and G (1969) "Emerge, Coalesce, Bureaucratize, Change and Decline". It certifies that the event shows distinctive characteristics in different time period. The amount of news attention to the issue of public importance can fluctuate immensely over time (Cammaerts, 2013). Besides, the fluctuation of the online public attention is showed in accordance with that of the media. Overall, these changes of different media are consistent, which can be seen in the figure 2. Taking the situation change of the protests into consideration, the study characterizes the event into four stages.
1) Latent Period (stage I)
The Macau government submitted the "Retirement package bill" to the Legislative Assembly on December 16th, 2013. The bill passed as "general discussions and voting". So the period from December 2013 to January 2014 can be seen as the first period.
2) Warm-up Period (stage II)
Second Standing Committee of the Legislative Assembly voted five to one to deny public consultation of the bill on 5 May. The data shows that the second data centralized period is from April 2014 to May 20th 2014. The "Retirement package bill" event causes the public's attention gradually. Besides, between Jan 14th and May 5th, no news coverage about this bill was published.
3) Hot Period (stage III)
The Government suggested the Legislative Assembly to increase the one-time retirement package's proportion of monthly salary for the principal officials from the original 14% to 30%.
On May 20th, 2014, the Social Movement organizer, Macau conscious started to call for the protest on Facebook homepage. Some netizens launched a photo campaign to ask for support from Macau residents to withdraw the bill. Then on May 25th, 2014, there were over 20,000 participants in the protest, while there were only 500 residents, who were representatives for Jiangmen Association supporting the bill. On that evening, the Macau government agreed to withdraw the bill, and the Legislative Assembly decided to take the bill into reconsideration. On May 27th, 2014, there were more than 7000 residents surrounding the legislative assembly building to restate the "Withdraw" demand. So the third stage is from May 20th, 2014 to May 27th, 2014.
4) Fire-off period (stage IV)
As the protest finally ended on May 27th, 2014, Chief Executive Chui Sai On announced that he would submit the demand to the Legislative Assembly to withdraw the draft bill. So the last stage is from May 27th, 2014 to August 2014.
8.1.2 Frame factor
To further test the reliability and validity of the measurement of frame, we extracted in the methodology part. The reliability test and the factor analysis are conducted based on the data, and the result is showed as table 7. The three frame factors are formed, that is "Probill" Frame Factor (consisting of F1/F4/F7/F10), "Neutral position" Frame Factor (consisting of F2/F5/F8/F11), and "Anti-bill" Frame Factor (consisting of F3/F6/F9). In light of the different perspectives of the media, the frame factors in table 7 are with different nature as table 8, which reflects the stance on the "Retirement Package Bill". So we call the three-frame factor items "Positive frame", "Neutral frame" and "Negative frame" for short respectively in the following part.
Rotated Component Matrix
For the reliability test, as shown in table 8, the Cronbach's alpha values of positive frame, neutral frame and negative frame are 0.669, 0.718 and 0.686 respectively, which are above 0.6 and meet the lower degree. The reason why the study uses only three items for the negative frame factor is that the value of negative frame with four items is 0.445, which is unacceptable.
To figure out this problem, the study conducts the factor analysis. The result is shown in table 9, which verifies the reasonability of the negative factor, which should keep only three items.
As each frame factor has three to four items, to make the frame more comparable, the study computes the weight matrix for each item in each frame based on the factor analysis. After normalization, the weights are shown in table 10.
Frame Factor = [n.summation over (l=1)] [Factor.sub.i] x [Weight.sub.i] (3)
With the weight and value in each factor, the research uses the formula (3) to compute the value for each frame. Then we get a comparable index for each media, which we can call "frame factor". As discussed above, we call the three frame factor items "Positive frame", "Neutral frame" and "Negative frame" for short based on their different perspectives towards the "Retirement Package ill".
8.2 Hypothesis test
8.2.1 The General Media Frame Difference
[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]
As shown in Table 11, 12 and Figure 3 above, the distributions of frame factor are different among different media types, which are characterized by different orientated stance (positive, neutral and negative) on the bill. It is consistent with our Hypothesis 1. For pro-government media, the positive frame is in the dominant situation, which accounts for 45.75%. Meanwhile, the proportion of the mean of neutral frame is 39.65%. As predicted by the hypothesis 1a, pro-government media is more likely to adopt the Main Frame of "Reasonable policy" and its Sub frames. As hypothesis 1b predicts, the commercial media prefers to use negative frame (accounts for 51.31%) that is similar to the social movement organizer media, but behaves more neutrally. When referring to social movement organization media, the mean of the negative frame factor accounts for the maximum value (67.53%) as hypothesis 1b expected, so the commercial media and social movement organizer media are more likely to adopt the Main frame "Privilege feather their own nest " and its Sub frames.
8.2.2 Media Frame Difference across Stages
Taking the time effect on the frame into consideration, it could make us know the change of media frame for each type of media. Furthermore, the study normalizes the frame factor into the form of percentage, and then compares the frame change of each media based on the four stages as discussed above.
Throughout the time panel, in accordance with hypothesis 2, the news frames of different media systems change respectively across from Latent period to Fire-off period, and the changes differ between different types of media. When compared with the other two types of media, pro-government media has more closed connection with the government and keeps relatively positive stance on the bill, but behaves more neutrally in stage II and stage IV. The commercial media keeps steady all along, behaves more negatively than pro-government media. The frame of social movement organization media keeps completely negative when the contradiction becomes more acute. While the situation is appeased finally, the social movement organization media shows more neutrally than the former stages.
8.2.3 Frame Comparison for each media in different stages
To better study the media frame strategies adopted by different types of media, we compared the frame change of each type of media across different stages. Based on the result of frame comparison among different types of media above, we concentrated on the two stages, which is the "Hot" stage and the "Fire-off' stage. In the "Hot" stage, the controversy between the "pro-bill" side and "Anti-bill" side researched the peak, which can show us how the three types of media used the media frame to achieve the consensus of the public and obtained the advantage position. Finally, the game was set with the end of the government's withdrawal. In the "Fire-off' stage, we may find how the three types of media react to the end of the controversy and adjust their frame strategies. Therefore, we made the comparison between "during event" (Stage IV) stage and "after event" stage (Stage III).
Table 14 presents the media difference of each media during and after the event. When compared with other two types of media, the media frame of the commercial media shows steady in the two stages, which is in accordance with hypothesis 2b. Besides, as hypothesis 2a and 2c expect, the pro-government media and social movement organization media show a significant change during and after the event. Then we will discuss the media change of these three types of media respectively as follows.
Figure 4 shows the frame difference of pro-government media across the two stages. The adjustment of media frame strategies mainly concentrates on the positive frame factor and the neutral one. During the event, the Pro-government media put emphasis on the positive frame, which accounts for 59.92%, but when the government withdrew the bill, it changed the highlight from the positive frame to the neutral frame, and the proportion of the positive frame factor decreased by more than 24%. However, in the contrary, the neutral one increased by nearly 27%. It shows that when the government crisis emerges, the pro-government media will adjust the frame strategies, contributing to establish government's positive image. However, it also needs to maintain justice valuable as a local newspaper when "the type has been set".
As Figure 5 presents, all the frame factors of the commercial media stay steady throughout the event. There only occurs a slight change of news frame. As shown in Figure 6, the social movement organization media shows a significant difference in neutral frame and negative frame, but positive frame stays zero level all along. The component of negative frame plummets from 100% to 30.4%, while the proportion of neutral frame ascends from zero level to 69.6%. So it shows that when "Anti-bill" side won in the controversy of the bill, the strategies from completely criticizing the flaw of the government to more neutral judgment on the issue. We can find that the position of the commercial media was steady, which didn't change its position so much throughout the event, while pro-government media became more active according to the public opinion. That is to say, commercial media tends to be steady. This finding justifies our hypothesis 2 and 3.
8.2.4 Correlation between social movement organization and specific online public opinion
Lastly, we analyzed the relation between social movement organization media and specific online public opinion, as Macau is a small city which hasn't formed its own concentrated social movement communication platform, like Facebook in America or Weibo in China. The Macau netizens are faced with too many social media platforms to express their opinion on the issue. The wide-range online system results in that we cannot get the online public opinion entirely and the result we collected from the specific online audience of the social movement organizer must be biased. But still we can find some interesting results. From the correlation matrix, significant correlation can be found between social movement organization and the online public opinion for the negative frame, which is consistent with hypothesis 4. At least, we can say that, people in the social movement organization website will possess the frame which is in accordance with the frame of the social movement organization in the aspect of negative frame.
9. Conclusion and Limitation
The study applied frame analysis to explore the diffusion of the competing media frames adopted by three types of media in the "Retirement Package Bill" event in Macau, 2014. Based on the social attributes, we divided the media in Macau into three types, pro-government media, commercial media and social movement organization media. The pro-government media, and the commercial media are derived from printed media in Hong Kong and Macau, and the social movement organization media emerges with the development of new media. By using the Principal Component Analysis technology to extract the measurement of the frames, we explored the media frame difference between these three types of media by comparing across different stages, and then investigated the frame strategies adopted by each type of media in the process of social movement. All the six hypotheses in the study were verified.
The media of three types behaved totally differently when reporting on the issue. As "inclined to support the government's policy and collaborate with the government"(Chen, 2010a), Pro-government media was more likely to adopt the Main Frame of "Reasonable policy" and its Sub Frames, which have a more positive nature to define the "Retirement Package Bill" than the other two types of media. While, as the journalists of the commercial media identify their role as "watchdog", they peruse the value of news and monitor the government (Luo & Chen, 2004). Commercial media's position on the issue is similar to the "Anti-bill" party. With the Social Movement Organization media, it is more likely to focus on the flaw of the government with negative nature frames to define the "Retirement Package Bill", but commercial media behaves more neutrally.
The study took the time effect into the comparison between the competing media frame in the political arena, which can be seen as "a rare attempt in the frame study when comparing different types of media" (Chen, 2010a). Meanwhile, the transverse comparison across time panel can also better reflect the adjustment of frame strategies of each media.
Pro-government media was a "paradoxical" media. During the "Hot" period of the event, when government crisis emerged, it undertook the responsibility to calm down the controversial situation. While, as Chen (2010a) pointed out, "only show one side of a story may at the expense of long-term credibility for the price". When the event ended with the government's withdrawing the bill, the outcome was a foregone conclusion. To maintain the image of justice, the positive frame proposition declined dramatically, showed more neutrally, and became more and more consistent with the commercial media.
The pro-government's controversial side, social movement organization media, always tried to transmit the thought of "Anti-bill" party. As it is an official online platform for organizing the protests, when it came to "Warm-up" period, it showed zero level on the positive frame until the end of the event. The proportion of negative frame accounts for 100% from "Warm-up" period to the "Hot" stage. But when the "An-bill" party won finally, it adjusted the frame strategy from absolutely criticizing on the privilege of the government to holding neutral attitude towards the bill, which focuses on the flaw of the legislative procedure.
Commercial media showed a relatively steady position all along. It behaved like the information reflection mirror to show the information of all the related actors in the social movement.
Besides, we found that the specific online public opinion showed significant correlation with the social movement platform they choose to express their idea. The media strategies of the social movement organization media had effect on the opinion of its online audience.
There are two main limitations in our research. The first one is that as Macau is small and the online communication platform has not developed well, we cannot diagnose the online public widely. It is limed to detect the casual effect between social movement organization media and the online public opinion. What we can do is only to focus on the biased online public. The second one is due to the limitation of research method and time, we cannot examine the reaction of the public and furthermore study on the relationship between the public and the three types of media.
Our research started from a successful social movement to examine the structure of the media and finally found three logically explained media types. These types of media behaved differently as they had different standpoints. They utilized different media frame strategies to compete with each other on behalf of different interest and even changed their media frame weight across time. We took both the traditional media and the new media into consideration. As our analysis is based on one case, the results need to be examined under different circumstances and different cases. And if other scholars can solve the limitations we mentioned, the structure can be applied into more advanced framework.
Department of Communication, University of Macau, China
University of Macau, Macau
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Table 1. Data of offline platform Chinese Name English Name Area Number of news [TEXT NOT Macao Daily News Macau N=57 REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [TEXT NOT Jornal Cheng Pou Macau N=39 REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [TEXT NOT Hou Kong Daily Macau N=33 REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [TEXT NOT Jornal Tai Chung Pou Macau N=28 REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [TEXT NOT Jornal Va Kio Macau N=25 REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [TEXT NOT JORNAL SAN WA OU Macau N=25 REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [TEXT NOT Oriental Daily HongKong N=24 REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [TEXT NOT The-Sun HongKong N=23 REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [TEXT NOT Apple Daily HongKong N=21 REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [TEXT NOT Jornal Informacao Macau N=19 REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [TEXT NOT Jornal do Cidadao Macau N=43 REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Table 2. Data of online platform Chinese Name English Name Source Number [TEXT NOT Macau Posts on N=18 REPRODUCIBLE Conscience Facebook fan IN ASCII] pages [TEXT NOT Macau News on N=18 REPRODUCIBLE Concealers Facebook fan IN ASCII] pages [TEXT NOT Online public Comments on N=124 REPRODUCIBLE comments on Facebook fan IN ASCII] posts of Macau pages Conscience [TEXT NOT Online public Comments on N=362 REPRODUCIBLE comments on Facebook fan IN ASCII] posts of Macau pages Concealers Table 3. General introduction of the printed newspapers Newspaper Newspapers' Executive level Political Title or Political Stance Pro-government Jornal Tai Chung Ex-president Cai Ke Ming Member of Pou Consultative Committee for the Basic Law of Macao SAR. Member of Guangdong 6th and 7th CPPCC Jornal Cheng Pou President Kong Su Kan Member of Guangzhou CPPCC. Member of CPPCC Standing Committee Of Xinhui, Guangdong Province Jornal Va Kio Ex-president Chio Yu Nung Used to be member of Guangdong CPPCC. Macao deputy to the 7th and 8th National People's Congress, member of Preparatory Committee of the Macao Special Administrative Region Hou Kong Daily General Lio Hon San Member of manager Standing Committee Of Zeng Cheng, Guangdong Province Macao Daily News Chairman Lei Seng Chon Macao deputy to the Ninth National People's Congress (2000-2003). Member of Preparatory Committee of the Macao Special Administrative Region Ex-vice Lei Pang Chu Member of chairman Standing Committee of Guangdong province, Macao deputy to the Tenth National People's Congress JORNAL SAN WA OU President & Lam Chong Member of editor in CPPCC Of chief Zhanjiang, Guangdong Province Commercial The-sun Ex-chairman Ma Ching-kwan Oriental Press Group LTD Oriental Daily Apple daily Founder/ Jimmy Lai Being arrested ex-president Chee-ying for "Occupy Central with Love and Peace" on 11/December/2014. Used to donate to Pan- democracy Camp. Jornal President [TEXT NOT Jornal Informacao REPRODUCIBLE Informajao IN ASCII] Newspapers Ltd Jornal do President & Gong Men It has been Cidadao editor in purchased by chief gambling company- SOCIEDADE DE JOGOS DE MACAU in 2003 Table 4. News frame patterns and citation of symbols Issue define frames Symbols (Examples) Reasonable policy I am fat, but I will not feather myself/Institutional construction/Bridge the system gap/Security system/Attracting the elite/Perform official duties lawfully Flaw of the Legislative look before you leap procedure /Protective shield/Rational discussion /Cherish Macau's harmony/Unusual practice /The supervision of The Legislative Assembly is only an empty title/Black-box operation/The council is of no use Privilege feather their Retirement package for own nest High-ranking officials, too outrageous/Tailor-made fat chicken meal/Corrupt official feather their own nest/Abuse one's power to seek personal gain/Disregard people's will Table 5 Main media frames and sub frames Define problems F1 Reasonable policy F2 Flaw of the Legislative procedure Diagnose causes F4 lack of F5 The Legislative communication Assembly and other between government relevant and citizen institutions haven't fulfilled their dut Make moral judgment F7 Long-term F8 Whether the interest and legislative Short-term interest procedure was Conflict followed or not Suggest remedies F10 Help the public F11 Supplement the fully understand the legislative policy procedure Define problems F3 Privilege feather their own nest Diagnose causes F6 Self-Seeking Officer Make moral judgment F9 Whether the corruption exists or not Suggest remedies F12 Withdraw the bill, Punish the greedy officials Table 6 Coding sheet ID Date Area Source Source Type F1 F2 Name ID F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 Table 7. Frame factor composition Positive Nature "Pro-bill" F1 Reasonable F4 lack of Frame Factor policy communication between government and citizen Neutral Nature "Neutral F2 Flaw of the F5 The position" Legislative Legislative Frame Factor procedure Assembly and other relevant institutions haven't fulfilled their duty Negative Nature "Anti-bill" F3 Privilege F6 Frame Factor feather their Self-Seeking own nest Officer Positive Nature "Pro-bill" F7 Long-term F10 Help the Frame Factor interest and public fully Short-term understand the interest policy Conflict Neutral Nature "Neutral F8 Whether the F11 Supplement position" legislative the legislative Frame Factor procedure was procedure followed or not Negative Nature "Anti-bill" F9 Whether the Frame Factor corruption exists or not Table 8. Reliability of three-nature frame factor Factor Cronbach's N of Items Alpha "Pro-bill" Frame Factor Positive 0.669 4 "Neutral position" Frame Factor Neutral 0.718 4 "Anti-bill" Frame Factor Negative 0.686 3 Table 9. Factor analysis for the "negative" frame "Anti-bill" Frame Factor Component 1 2 F3 0.963 0.029 F6 0.962 0.048 F9 0.193 0.721 F12 0.123 -0.796 Table 10. Weights of each item in three frame types "Pro-bill" "Neutral position" "Anti-bill" Frame Factor Frame Factor Frame Factor Positive Neutral Negative Factor Weight Factor Weight Factor Weight F1 0.644 F2 0.349 F3 0.433 F4 0.583 F5 0.314 F6 0.432 F7 -0.212 F8 0.303 F9 0.135 F10 -0.014 F11 0.033 Table 11. Mean and STD of frame factor for each media types Media type Positive Neutral Negative N Pro-government media 0.570 0.494 0.182 207 (0.487) (0.611) (0.451) Commercial media 0.115 0.518 0.667 128 (0.299) (0.548) (0.651) Social movement 0.010 0.128 0.287 36 organization media (0.062) (0.388) (0.560) Table 12. The proportion of frame factor for each media types Media type Positive Neutral Negative Pro-government media 45.75% 39.65% 14.61% Commercial media 8.85% 39.85% 51.31% Social movement organization media 2.35% 30.12% 67.53% Table 13. The proportion of frame factor for different media types across stages Stage Pro-government media Positive Neutral Negative I 59.17% 33.10% 7.73% II 10.92% 48.13% 40.95% III 59.92% 29.76% 10.31% IV 35.55% 56.24% 8.20% Stage Commercial media Positive Neutral Negative I 24.59% 42.41% 33.00% II 0% 37.74% 62.26% III 10.77% 40.03% 49.19% IV 9.34% 40.33% 50.33% Stage Social movement organization media Positive Neutral Negative I 13.42% 24.01% 62.57% II 0% 0% 100% III 0% 0% 100% IV 0% 69.60% 30.40% Table 14. The proportion of media frame factor during and after event Time Pro-government media Positive Neutral Negative During event (1) 59.92% 29.76% 10.31% After event (2) 35.55% 56.24% 8.20% Dif(2-1) -24.37% 26.48% -2.11% Time Commercial media Positive Neutral Negative During event (1) 10.77% 40.03% 49.19% After event (2) 9.34% 40.33% 50.33% Dif(2-1) -1.43% 0.30% 1.14% Time Social movement organization media Positive Neutral Negative During event (1) 0% 0% 100% After event (2) 0% 69.60% 30.40% Dif(2-1) 0% 69.60% -69.60% Table 15. Correlation between social movement organization and specific online public opinion for negative frame Social movement Online public organization opinion Social movement organization 1 0.7826 *** Online public opinion 0.7826 *** 1 P<0.01 *** Figure 4. Line diagram for showing Frame Comparison for Pro-government media in different stages During event (1) After event (2) Pro-government media 10.31% 8.20% Positive frame Pro-government media 29.76% 35.55% Neutral frame Pro-government media 59.92% 56.24% Negative frame Note: Table made from line graph. Figure 5. Line diagram for showing Frame Comparison for commercial media in different stages During event (1) After event (2) Commercial media 10.77% 9.34% Positive frame Commercial media 40.03% 40.33% Neutral frame Commercial media 49.19% 50.33% Negative frame Note: Table made from line graph. Figure 6. Line diagram for showing Frame Comparison for social movement organization media in different stages During event (1) After event (2) Pro-government media 10.31% 8.20% Positive frame Pro-government media 29.76% 56.24% Neutral frame Pro-government media 59.92% 35.55% Negative frame Note: Table made from line graph.
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|Publication:||China Media Research|
|Date:||Jul 1, 2016|
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