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Differences in selection of medicinal plants between folk and tribal medicine: a case study of a Santal tribal and a non-Santal folk medicinal practitioner in two adjoining districts of Bangladesh.

Introduction

The Santals are one of the largest indigenous communities or tribes and inhabit various districts of northwestern Bangladesh. They can also be found in the various districts of India adjoining the north-western districts of Bangladesh. They are considered to be the earliest settlers of the land, living in their present habitat for possibly thousands of years. They are also credited with clearing the original forests and making the land suitable for habitat and cultivation. The Santal community has various sects or clans. While some communities live in their own exclusive villages, other communities live within villages of the mainstream Bengali-speaking population. Even though there is quite a lot of intermixing between the Santal and the mainstream Bengali-speaking community, the Santals still retain quite extensively their own traditions and culture including treatment with their own traditional or tribal medicinal practitioners. These practitioners are called by the Santals 'Ojhas'. The word 'Ojha' is also present in the Bengali language but in this language it is referred to the group of people who treat snake bites through a mixture of medicinal plants, incantations, and sucking out of poisoned blood.

Bangladesh has a number of traditional medicinal systems, of which the majority of practitioners belong to the folk medicinal system. These practitioners are known as Kavirajes. Medicinal plants form the main ingredient in the formulations of Kavirajes used for treatment of a diverse variety of ailments. Santal tribal practitioners also use medicinal plants as their main ingredient in their traditional medicinal formulations. We had been conducting ethnomedicinal surveys among Kavirajes of different districts of Bangladesh as well as various tribes of Bangladesh over a number of years (Nawaz et al., 2009; Rahmatullah et al., 2009a-c; Chowdhury et al., 2010; Hasan et al., 2010; Hossan et al., 2010; Mollik et al., 2010a,b; Rahmatullah et al., 2010a-g; Akber et al., 2011; Biswas et al., 2011a-c; Haque et al., 2011; Islam et al., 2011; Jahan et al., 2011; Rahmatullah et al., 2011a,b; Sarker et al., 2011; Shaheen et al., 2011; Das et al., 2012; Rahmatullah et al., 2012a-d). Since the Santals and the mainstream population has co-existed side by side over centuries, it was of interest to determine whether the medicinal practices, particularly the medicinal plants used by the two groups of practitioners, namely the Ojhas and the Kavirajes have influenced each other, or still remain as separate entities. This documentation is important for not only it can lead to a more comprehensive knowledge of the medicinal plants of Bangladesh, but also can lead to knowledge of how folk and tribal medicine has evolved over the centuries. Notably, such close observations of indigenous practices have led to the discovery of a number of important allopathic medicines (Balick and Cox, 1996; Cotton, 1996; Gilani and Rahman, 2005). Traditional medicines, in recent years, have made a come-back and are proving their usefulness in the treatment of newly emergent diseases and diseases, which have developed drug-resistant vectors against the allopathic medicines used to treat them.

Materials and Methods

The present study area comprised of two villages. Dabidubi village was in Dinajpur district, while Goreya Bazaar village was located in Thakurgaon district. Although falling in separate districts, the two villages were adjacent to each other. The population of Dabidubi village was around 1400 of which the majority comprised of the Santal people, the rest being mainstream Bengali-speaking population. Goreya Bazaar population was around 3500 of which the majority comprised of the mainstream Bengali-speaking population and the rest being Santals. Dabidubi village had a Santal tribal practitioner, named Shitaram Soren of age 52 years. Goreya Bazaar village had a practicing Kaviraj belonging to the mainstream folk medicinal practitioners and aged more than 80 years. Both practitioners were males.

Informed consent was first obtained from both practitioners, who were apprised of the nature of our visit and consent obtained to disseminate any information provided in both national and international publications. The Santal practitioner could speak Bengali fluently. Actual interviews were conducted in the Bengali language with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and the guided field-walk method of Martin (1995) and Maundu (1995). In this method, the practitioners took the interviewers on guided field-walks through areas from where they collected their medicinal plants, pointed out the plants, and described their uses. Plant specimens as pointed out were photographed and collected on the spot, dried, and brought back to Dhaka for complete identification at the Bangladesh National Herbarium.

Results and Discussion

Altogether 76 formulations were obtained from the two healers, the Santal healer providing 44 formulations and the mainstream folk healer providing 32 formulations. Both healers used medicinal plants as the chief ingredient in their formulations. The Santal healer used a total of 50 plant species in his formulations, while the non-Santal healer used a total of 44 plant species in his formulations. The results are shown in Table 1. The plant species used by the Santal healer were distributed into 27 families. However, two more plant species and their families could not be identified, and may be new to science. The plant species used by the non-Santal healer were distributed into 36 families. Thus although the non-Santal healer used much lesser number of formulations and lesser number of plant species in his formulations for treatment, the plant species used by him were more diverse and belonged to more families. The results are shown in Table 2.

Both Santal and non-Santal healer was observed to use medicinal plants in multiple ways for treatment. A single plant species or a single plant part could be used for treatment of one or multiple diseases. For instance, the non-Santal healer used the leaves of Adhatoda vasica for treatment of both body ache as well as coughs. The Santal healer used the root of Typhonium roxburghii to treat bone fracture, and whole plants of Scindapsus officinalis to treat impotency and stomach ache. Occasionally, different plant parts from the same plant were used for treatment of different ailments. To give one example, the leaves of Amaranthus spinosus was used by the non-Santal healer to treat edema, fever, diarrhea, and menorrhagia; the seeds of the same plant was used to treat bone fracture, while roots of the plant were used to treat meho, which in folk medicine is indicated as urinary problem arising from endocrinological disorder. Similarly, the Santal healer used the leaves of Crinum latifolium to treat fever and jaundice, but used the fruits of the same plant to treat dyspepsia. These multiple uses indicate that both the Santal and the non-Santal healer possessed quite extensive knowledge on the medicinal properties of various parts of any given plant.

Both the Santal and the non-Santal healer were observed to occasionally use a combination of plants for treatment. To cite one instance of each, the non-Santal healer used a combination of seeds of Mangifera indica and seeds of Syzygium cumini to treat diabetes. To stop hair fall, the Santal healer used the fruits of Areca catechu boiled in water to wash hair followed by application of a mixture of sulfur, juice from leaves of Coccinia grandis and juice from bulb of Allium cepa to hair. Incidentally, the use of sulfur was the only instance of use of an inorganic substance by both healers. A plant part used frequently by the Santal and the non-Santal healer in combination formulations was the use of seeds of Nigella sativa. The seeds of this plant were used by the Santal healer in combination with leaves of Justicia gendarussa to treat rheumatism and feverishness, with leaves or fruits of Phyllanthus reticulatus to treat any recurrent chronic disease, and with leaves or bark of Litsea glutinosa to treat diabetes. The non-Santal healer also used the seeds of this plant; in combination with Allium sativum bulb, the seeds were used to treat post-natal uterus pain, and body pain; while in combination with leaves of Polygonum hydropiper, the seeds were used for treatment of diarrhea, edema, and menorrhagia. The fruits of Piper nigrum were also used in a number of combination formulations by the Santal healer. In combination with leaves and fruits of Heliotropium indicum, the fruits were used to treat snake bite; in combination with leaves of Momordica charantia, the fruits of Piper nigrum were used to treat malaria; in combination with leaves and fruits of Antidesma ghasembilla, the fruits were used to treat tonsillitis; in combination with roots of Ficus racemosa, the fruits were used to treat flatulence; in combination with roots of Pteris vittata, the fruits were used to treat dysentery, and in combination with whole plants of Scoparia dulcis, the fruits were used to treat excessive dysentery. By comparison, the fruits of Piper nigrum were used only in one combination formulation by the non-Santal healer; in combination with bark of Abroma augusta, the fruits were used to treat menstrual problems.

A total of four plants were used in common by both the Santal and the non-Santal healer. These four plants were Aegle marmelos, Piper nigrum, Nigella sativa, and Syzygium cumini. The results are shown in Table 2. However, apart from Aegle marmelos, which was used by both healers as a stomachic and for treatment of dysentery (even then the formulations were different) the other three common plants were used in totally different formulations for treatment of different diseases. The differential uses of Nigella sativa and Piper nigrum by the two healers have been discussed above with respect to differences in formulations and differences in diseases treated. Syzygium cumini was used by the non-Santal healer for treatment of diabetes, dysentery, and stomach ache, and as a stomachic, but used by the Santal healer to stop bleeding from cuts and wounds, and to stop vomiting.

Several ailments were treated in common by both the Santal and the non-Santal healer. These ailments included body ache, head ache, itch, eczema, fever, edema, bone fracture, meho, dysentery, stomach ache, stomachic, piles, diabetes, cuts and wounds (to stop bleeding), skin disease, pimples, hepatic disorders, jaundice, vomiting, and gonorrhea. The results are shown in Table 3. Although the ailments treated were common, and despite the adjacent nature of the villages in which the healers resided and the similar type of floral species available in both villages, surprisingly the plant species and formulations used for treatment of the aforementioned diseases were totally different between the two healers. For instance, gonorrhea was treated with Ficus hispida by the Santal healer but with Tinospora cordifolia by the non-Santal healer. Jaundice was treated with Anthocephalus chinensis by the Santal healer but with Coccinia grandis by the non-Santal healer. Even when the same plant was used for treatment of a common ailment, the formulations differed between the two healers. Dysentery was treated with Aegle marmelos alone by the Santal healer, but with a combination of [Aegle marmelos + Syzygium cumini + Azadirachta indica] by the non-Santal healer. The Santal healer used Aegle marmelos alone as a stomachic, but the non-Santal healer used a combination of [Phyllanthus emblica + Moringa oleifera + Syzygium cumini + Aegle marmelos + Cynodon dactylon] as a stomachic. Overall, the results point to total dissimilarities in the plant species and formulations used by the two healers for treatment of diseases despite their practicing in villages in close proximity to each other.

The results obtained in the present study suggests that despite hundreds of years, if not thousands of years of side by side existence of mainstream folk medicine and Santal tribal medicine in the country, the two different practices have not influenced each other to any great extent. In fact, the present study shows that the two practices are quite distinct from one another. The Santal tribal practitioners according to historical records were the first to reside in their present residences along with their Santal communities. They were followed by mainstream Bengali-speaking settlers with their folk medicinal system administered by Kavirajes. The Bengali-speaking settlers, according to historical records have settled in these originally Santal areas for over a thousand years and have since then been in close proximity with the Santal community. However, the medicinal systems of the two communities have been and are presently still distinct from each other despite the use of medicinal plants as the major ingredient in the formulations of healers of both communities. The study results strongly support that to obtain a comprehensive view of the medicinal plants of Bangladesh, various tribal healers as well as Kavirajes need to be interviewed to obtain a clear picture of the medicinal plants and formulations used by various healers. Such information can enrich traditional medicinal literature by providing us information on the different ways that a medicinal plant species is used by different communities and can provide scientists with valuable information about all possible medical uses that can be obtained from a given plant species.

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Abdur Rahman, Jahirul Islam, Sharmin Jahan, Md. Shakhawat Hossain, Fatema Rehana, Wahid Mozammel Haq, Fariste Mawla, Shiblur Rahman, Shahnaz Rahman, Kallol Debnath, Mohammed Rahmatullah

Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Development Alternative, Dhanmondi, Dhaka-1205, Bangladesh.

Corresponding Author: Professor Dr. Mohammed Rahmatullah, Pro-Vice Chancellor University of Development Alternative House No. 78, Road No. 11A (new) Dhanmondi R/A, Dhaka-1205 Bangladesh

Phone: 88-01715032621 Fax: 88-02-8157339 E mail: rahamatm@hotmail.com
Table 1: Medicinal plants and formulations used by a Santal
tribal and a non-Santal folk medicinal practitioner in two
villages of Dinajpur and Thakurgaon districts, Bangladesh.

Serial        Scientific name             Family
no

1           Adhatoda vasica L.         Acanthaceae

2           Justicia gendarussa        Acanthaceae
                 (Burm.f)

3           Amaranthus spinosus       Amaranthaceae
                    L.

4          Crinum latifolium L.       Amaryllidaceae

5           Mangifera indica L.       Anacardiaceae

6               Holarrhena             Apocynaceae
          antidysenterica (Roxb.)

7           Catharanthus roseus        Apocynaceae
                    L.

8          Ervatamia divaricata        Apocynaceae
               (L.) Burkill

9           Carissa carandas L.        Apocynaceae

10          Colocasia esculenta          Araceae
                (L.) Schott

11        Scindapsus officinalis         Araceae
              (Roxb.) Schott

12               Typhonium               Araceae
           roxburghii (Schott.)

13           Areca catechu L.           Arecaceae

14       Calotropis procera Ait.f.    Asclepiadaceae

15       Stapelia gigantea N.E.Br.    Asclepiadaceae

16        Ageratum conyzoides L.        Asteraceae

17        Eupatorium odoratum L.        Asteraceae

18            Mikania cordata           Asteraceae
            (Burm.f.) Robinson
19           Tagetes erecta L.          Asteraceae

20             Aiternanthera            Asteraceae
            philoxeroides Lour.

21            Basella alba L.          Basellaceae

22         Heliotropium indicum        Boraginaceae
                    L.

23          Cleome viscosum L.         Capparaceae

24         Quisqualis indica L.        Combretaceae

25       Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.     Convolvulaceae
26           Kalanchoe pinnata         Crassulaceae
               (Lam.) Pers.

27         Coccinia grandis (L.)      Cucurbitaceae
                 J. Voigt

28          Momordica charantia       Cucurbitaceae
                    L.

29        Trichosanthes kirilowii     Cucurbitaceae
                  Maxim.

30            Cuscuta reflexa          Cuscutaceae
                   Roxb.

31          Diospyros peregrina         Ebenaceae
              (Gaertn.) Gurke

32              Phyllanthus           Euphorbiaceae
             reticulatus Poir.

33               Codiaeum             Euphorbiaceae
              variegatum (L.)
                  A.Juss.

34          Jatropha curcas L.        Euphorbiaceae

35               Antidesma            Euphorbiaceae
           ghaesembilla Gaertn.

36          Phyllanthus emblica       Euphorbiaceae
                    L.

37          Crotalaria pallida           Fabaceae
                   Ait.

38           Cassia fistula L.           Fabaceae

39         Senna tora (L.) Roxb.         Fabaceae

40           Ocimum americanum          Lamiaceae
                    L.

41             Leucas aspera            Lamiaceae
                 (Willd.)

42           Litsea glutinosa           Lauraceae
                  (Lour.)

43           Allium sativum L.          Liliaceae

44          Asparagus racemosus         Liliaceae
                  Willd.

45          Lawsonia inermis L.         Lythraceae

46            Hibiscus rosa-            Malvaceae
                sinensis L.

47            Urena lobata L.           Malvaceae
48         Azadirachta indica A.        Meliaceae
                   Juss.

49         Tinospora cordifolia       Menispermaceae
                 (Thunb.)

50          Artocarpus lakoocha          Moraceae
                   Roxb.

51          Ficus hispida L.f.           Moraceae

52           Ficus racemosa L.           Moraceae

53           Moringa oleifera          Moringaceae
                   Lam.

54          Psidium guajava L.          Myrtaceae

55         Syzygium cumini (L.)         Myrtaceae
                  Skeels

56           Argemone mexicana         Papaveraceae
                    L.

57           Cynodon dactylon            Poaceae
                (L.) Pers.

58               Polygonum             Polygonaceae
              hydropiper (L.)
                  Delabre

59           Pteris vittata L.         Pteridaceae

60           Rosa damascena L.           Rosaceae

61             Anthocephalus            Rubiaceae
            chinensis (Lam.) A.
              Rich. ex Walp.

62       Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr.       Rutaceae

63         Citrus aurantiifolia          Rutaceae
            (Christm.) Swingle

64          Citrus grandis (L.)          Rutaceae
                  Osbeck

65         Glycosmis pentaphylla         Rutaceae
               (Retz.) Corr.

66          Murraya paniculata           Rutaceae
                 (L.) Jack

67          Litchi chinensis L.        Sapindaceae

68          Scoparia dulcis L.       Scrophulariaceae

69            Datura metel L.           Solanaceae

70        Solanum torvum Allioni        Solanaceae

71          Abroma augusta L.f.       Sterculiaceae

72        Centella asiatica (L.)       Umbelliferae
                   Urb.

73             Clerodendrum            Verbenaceae
              viscosum Vent.

74          Zingiber officinale       Zingiberaceae
                  Roscoe.

75             Unidentified            Unidentified

76             Unidentified            Unidentified

Serial        Scientific name           Local name
no

1           Adhatoda vasica L.           Harbaksha

2           Justicia gendarussa        Kalo megh (S)
                 (Burm.f)

3           Amaranthus spinosus         Kata khura
                    L.

4          Crinum latifolium L.        Bon-piaz (S)

5           Mangifera indica L.             Aam

6               Holarrhena             Endrojal, Hat
          antidysenterica (Roxb.)           (S)

7           Catharanthus roseus          Nayontara
                    L.

8          Ervatamia divaricata          Togor (S)
               (L.) Burkill

9           Carissa carandas L.          Karamcha

10          Colocasia esculenta            Kachu
                (L.) Schott

11        Scindapsus officinalis       Bon-kala (S)
              (Roxb.) Schott

12               Typhonium              Nirbish (S)
           roxburghii (Schott.)

13           Areca catechu L.           Supari, Goa

14       Calotropis procera Ait.f.      Dud Akondo

15       Stapelia gigantea N.E.Br.       Safin (S)

16        Ageratum conyzoides L.     Gondhani gach (S)

17        Eupatorium odoratum L.       Bagh-jhar (S)

18            Mikania cordata         Jeor, Pakistani
            (Burm.f.) Robinson           lota (S)
19           Tagetes erecta L.            Gandha

20             Aiternanthera             Helencha
            philoxeroides Lour.

21            Basella alba L.            Pui shak

22         Heliotropium indicum        Hati-soor (S)
                    L.

23          Cleome viscosum L.         Hur-hura (S)

24         Quisqualis indica L.          Karai (S)

25       Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.        Bon kolmi
26           Kalanchoe pinnata          Pathorkuchi
               (Lam.) Pers.

27         Coccinia grandis (L.)         Telakucha
                 J. Voigt

28          Momordica charantia         Korolla (S)
                    L.

29        Trichosanthes kirilowii       Mohakal (S)
                  Maxim.

30            Cuscuta reflexa          Shorno lota,
                   Roxb.               alok lota (S)

31          Diospyros peregrina          Deshi Gab
              (Gaertn.) Gurke

32              Phyllanthus            Simiter gach
             reticulatus Poir.              (S)

33               Codiaeum              Patabahar (S)
              variegatum (L.)
                  A.Juss.

34          Jatropha curcas L.           Venda(S)

35               Antidesma            Mattas-sure (S)
           ghaesembilla Gaertn.

36          Phyllanthus emblica           Amloki
                    L.

37          Crotalaria pallida          Bon sekenda
                   Ait.                     (S)

38           Cassia fistula L.          Sonalu (S)

39         Senna tora (L.) Roxb.       Deshi sekenda
                                            (S)

40           Ocimum americanum        Bon tulshi (S)
                    L.

41             Leucas aspera           Dulki, Durak
                 (Willd.)                   (S)

42           Litsea glutinosa           Khagor (S)
                  (Lour.)

43           Allium sativum L.             Rosun

44          Asparagus racemosus         Satomul (S)
                  Willd.

45          Lawsonia inermis L.           Mehedi

46            Hibiscus rosa-             Joba (S)
                sinensis L.

47            Urena lobata L.           Bonfora (S)
48         Azadirachta indica A.           Neem
                   Juss.

49         Tinospora cordifolia          Guloncho
                 (Thunb.)

50          Artocarpus lakoocha          Deua (S)
                   Roxb.

51          Ficus hispida L.f.           Dumur (S)

52           Ficus racemosa L.          Khoksha (S)

53           Moringa oleifera              Sojne
                   Lam.

54          Psidium guajava L.            Peyara

55         Syzygium cumini (L.)          Jaam (S)
                  Skeels

56           Argemone mexicana            Atkuta
                    L.

57           Cynodon dactylon           Durba-ghash
                (L.) Pers.

58               Polygonum               Biskutuli
              hydropiper (L.)
                  Delabre

59           Pteris vittata L.         Bis Dakia (S)

60           Rosa damascena L.             Golap

61             Anthocephalus            Kodom gach
            chinensis (Lam.) A.             (S)
              Rich. ex Walp.

62       Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr.        Bel (S)

63         Citrus aurantiifolia           Lebu(S)
            (Christm.) Swingle

64          Citrus grandis (L.)          Jaambura
                  Osbeck

65         Glycosmis pentaphylla        Meromet (S)
               (Retz.) Corr.

66          Murraya paniculata        Sandha roni (S)
                 (L.) Jack

67          Litchi chinensis L.            Lichu

68          Scoparia dulcis L.        Chini-ssar (S)

69            Datura metel L.             Dhutura

70        Solanum torvum Allioni         Tit-begun

71          Abroma augusta L.f.          Ulkombol

72        Centella asiatica (L.)         Thankuni
                   Urb.

73             Clerodendrum           Bait, Vati (S)
              viscosum Vent.

74          Zingiber officinale         Bon ada (S)
                  Roscoe.

75             Unidentified           Bir-morich (S)

76             Unidentified            Ledu gach (S)

Serial        Scientific name          Utilized
no                                       part

1           Adhatoda vasica L.           Leaf

2           Justicia gendarussa          Leaf,
                 (Burm.f)                root

3           Amaranthus spinosus          Seed,
                    L.                   leaf,
                                        flower

4          Crinum latifolium L.          Leaf,
                                        fruits

5           Mangifera indica L.          Leaf

6               Holarrhena               Bark,
          antidysenterica (Roxb.)    root, fruits

7           Catharanthus roseus          Leaf,
                    L.                   root

8          Ervatamia divaricata         Flower,
               (L.) Burkill              root

9           Carissa carandas L.         Fruits,
                                      leaf, root

10          Colocasia esculenta          Whole
                (L.) Schott              plant

11        Scindapsus officinalis         Whole
              (Roxb.) Schott             plant

12               Typhonium               Root
           roxburghii (Schott.)

13           Areca catechu L.           Fruits

14       Calotropis procera Ait.f.   Leaf, fruits

15       Stapelia gigantea N.E.Br.    Whole plant

16        Ageratum conyzoides L.        Fruits

17        Eupatorium odoratum L.         Leaf

18            Mikania cordata            Leaf
            (Burm.f.) Robinson
19           Tagetes erecta L.           Leaf

20             Aiternanthera             Leaf
            philoxeroides Lour.

21            Basella alba L.            Whole
                                        plant,
                                         seed

22         Heliotropium indicum          Whole
                    L.                  plant,
                                      leaf, fruit

23          Cleome viscosum L.           Leaf,
                                         seed

24         Quisqualis indica L.          Root

25       Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.        Leaf
26           Kalanchoe pinnata           Whole
               (Lam.) Pers.             plant,
                                         leaf

27         Coccinia grandis (L.)         Leaf,
                 J. Voigt                root

28          Momordica charantia          Leaf,
                    L.                   fruit

29        Trichosanthes kirilowii    Flower, root
                  Maxim.

30            Cuscuta reflexa            Stem
                   Roxb.

31          Diospyros peregrina          Leaf,
              (Gaertn.) Gurke            bark,
                                        fruits,
                                        skin of
                                        fruits

32              Phyllanthus             Fruits,
             reticulatus Poir.           leaf

33               Codiaeum                Leaf
              variegatum (L.)
                  A.Juss.

34          Jatropha curcas L.          Fruits

35               Antidesma              Fruits,
           ghaesembilla Gaertn.          leaf

36          Phyllanthus emblica         Fruits
                    L.

37          Crotalaria pallida           Seed
                   Ait.

38           Cassia fistula L.           Leaf,
                                     fruits, bark

39         Senna tora (L.) Roxb.         Leaf

40           Ocimum americanum           Leaf
                    L.

41             Leucas aspera             Leaf
                 (Willd.)

42           Litsea glutinosa            Bark,
                  (Lour.)                leaf

43           Allium sativum L.           Bulb

44          Asparagus racemosus          Root
                  Willd.

45          Lawsonia inermis L.          Leaf

46            Hibiscus rosa-            Flower,
                sinensis L.              leaf

47            Urena lobata L.           Fruits
48         Azadirachta indica A.         Leaf
                   Juss.

49         Tinospora cordifolia       Whole plant
                 (Thunb.)

50          Artocarpus lakoocha         Fruits,
                   Roxb.                 bark

51          Ficus hispida L.f.           Fruit

52           Ficus racemosa L.           Root

53           Moringa oleifera            Leaf,
                   Lam.                  seed

54          Psidium guajava L.           Bark,
                                         leaf

55         Syzygium cumini (L.)          Leaf
                  Skeels

56           Argemone mexicana           Root,
                    L.                   leaf

57           Cynodon dactylon            Leaf
                (L.) Pers.

58               Polygonum               Leaf
              hydropiper (L.)
                  Delabre

59           Pteris vittata L.           Root

60           Rosa damascena L.          Flower

61             Anthocephalus             Leaf,
            chinensis (Lam.) A.          bark
              Rich. ex Walp.

62       Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr.   Leaf, fruits

63         Citrus aurantiifolia          Fruit
            (Christm.) Swingle

64          Citrus grandis (L.)      Leaf, fruits,
                  Osbeck                flower,
                                        skin of
                                         fruit

65         Glycosmis pentaphylla        Fruits
               (Retz.) Corr.

66          Murraya paniculata           Leaf
                 (L.) Jack

67          Litchi chinensis L.         Fruits,
                                         seed,
                                         root,
                                        flower

68          Scoparia dulcis L.        Whole plant

69            Datura metel L.            Leaf

70        Solanum torvum Allioni      Fruit, leaf

71          Abroma augusta L.f.       Stem, bark

72        Centella asiatica (L.)         Leaf,
                   Urb.                  stem

73             Clerodendrum              Leaf,
              viscosum Vent.             root

74          Zingiber officinale          Root
                  Roscoe.

75             Unidentified              Leaf

76             Unidentified              Root

Serial        Scientific name                 Ailment/Uses
no

1           Adhatoda vasica L.        Body ache, cough. Leaves are
                                       boiled in 1000ml water and
                                        strained when the volume
                                      reaches 500ml. 1 glass of the
                                         resultant decoction is
                                         administered orally for
                                         adults and H glass for
                                       children along with 1-2 tea
                                         spoon crystalline sugar
                                       (mishri) twice daily on an
                                             empty stomach.

2           Justicia gendarussa         Itch. Juice from roots is
                 (Burm.f)             applied to the affected areas
                                       of body parts. Rheumatism,
                                        feverishness. Juice from
                                      leaves is mixed with seeds of
                                            Nigella sativa L.
                                      (Ranunculaceae) and rhizomes
                                      of Zingiber officinale Roscoe
                                       (Zingiberaceae) and taken.

3           Amaranthus spinosus        Diuretic, fever, diarrhea,
                    L.                   menorrhagia. Juice from
                                       leaves is taken regularly.
                                      Bone fracture. Crushed seeds
                                      are applied to the fractured
                                       bone. Meho (urinary problem
                                      arising from endocrinological
                                        disorder). Juice obtained
                                      from macerated roots is taken
                                           on an empty stomach
                                               regularly.

4          Crinum latifolium L.          Fever, jaundice. Juice
                                         obtained from macerated
                                       leaves is taken. Dyspepsia.
                                        4-10 drops of juice from
                                       fruits is taken until cure.

5           Mangifera indica L.         Dysentery. Juice obtained
                                        from macerated leaves is
                                       warmed and taken regularly.
                                       Diabetes. One tea spoon of
                                          powder from seeds of
                                      Mangifera indica and Syzygium
                                           cumini (L.) Skeels
                                      (Myrtaceae) is taken on empty
                                           stomach regularly.

6               Holarrhena            Kala azar (tropical fever of
          antidysenterica (Roxb.)     the deadly type). Juice from
                                       bark/roots/fruits is taken.

7           Catharanthus roseus        Diabetes. Juice from leaves
                    L.                is taken every morning on an
                                      empty stomach. Helminthiasis.
                                       Juice from roots is taken.

8          Ervatamia divaricata          Eye problem. Juice from
               (L.) Burkill             flower is applied to eye.
                                       Rheumatism. Juice obtained
                                      from macerated root is mixed
                                        with Zingiber officinale
                                       juice and is taken orally.

9           Carissa carandas L.        Bleeding. Juice from green
                                      fruits is applied to cuts and
                                        wounds to stop bleeding.
                                        Chronic fever. Leaves are
                                      boiled in water and decoction
                                           is taken regularly.
                                        Helminthiasis. Juice from
                                             roots is taken.

10          Colocasia esculenta        Rheumatism, Debility. Whole
                (L.) Schott           plant of Colocasia esculenta
                                      is mixed with bulb of Allium
                                       sativum L. (Liliaceae), and
                                       bark of Cinnamomum verum J.
                                        Presl. (Lauraceae) (5:2:1
                                      ratio) and cooked with other
                                        spices like turmeric and
                                       ginger. After one hour, the
                                          water is strained and
                                      reserved in a bottle. Then it
                                       is taken thrice daily for 5
                                                  days.

11        Scindapsus officinalis      Impotency, Stomachic. One cup
              (Roxb.) Schott             of juice obtained from
                                       macerated whole plants with
                                        one spoon of crystalline
                                        sugar (mishri) is taken.

12               Typhonium              Bone fracture. Juice from
           roxburghii (Schott.)            roots is applied to
                                               fractures.

13           Areca catechu L.         Stop hair fall. 100g of Areca
                                       catechu fruits is boiled in
                                        1000g water. Then hair is
                                      washed with this water. Then
                                      10-12g sulfur powder, 20-24g
                                      juice from leaves of Coccinia
                                          grandis (L.) J. Voigt
                                       (Cucurbitaceae) and 8-10 gm
                                       juice obtained from bulb of
                                       Allium cepa L. (Liliaceae)
                                      are mixed and applied to hair
                                              twice daily.

14       Calotropis procera Ait.f.    Body ache. Crushed leaves are
                                      applied to affected areas of
                                        body. Asthma. Leaves are
                                       warmed with mustard oil and
                                      bulb of Allium sativum. Then
                                      the decoction is massaged to
                                      the chest. Juice from flowers
                                        is also taken for asthma.

15       Stapelia gigantea N.E.Br.    Bone fracture. Juice obtained
                                        from macerated leaves is
                                        massaged to the fractured
                                                  area.

16        Ageratum conyzoides L.      Abscess. Crushed fruits with
                                        coconut oil is burned and
                                      applied topically to affected
                                             areas of skin.

17        Eupatorium odoratum L.       Cuts and wounds. Juice from
                                       leaves is applied topically
                                           to cuts and wounds.

18            Mikania cordata          Bleeding. Juice from leaves
            (Burm.f.) Robinson        is applied to cuts and wounds
19           Tagetes erecta L.         to stop bleeding. Bleeding.
                                      Juice from leaves is applied
                                       to cuts and wounds to stop
                                                bleeding.

20             Aiternanthera         Piles. Leaves of Aiternanthera
            philoxeroides Lour.          philoxeroides, Centella
                                           asiatica (L.) Urb.
                                         (Apiaceae), and Murraya
                                          koenigii (L.) Spreng.
                                      (Rutaceae) are mixed in equal
                                       ratio and crushed and then
                                       made in tablet form and is
                                      taken twice daily. Menstrual
                                        irregularity. Juice from
                                       leaves with milk is taken.

21            Basella alba L.           For good health. Leaf is
                                           eaten as vegetable
                                         along with egg (duck).
                                       Burn lesion. Crushed seeds
                                        are applied topically on
                                       affected areas of the skin.

22         Heliotropium indicum       Snake bite. Juice from leaves
                    L.                  and fruits is taken with
                                          three Piper nigrum L.
                                          (Piperaceae) fruits.

                                      Abscess. Powdered whole plant
                                      is mixed with coconut oil and
                                        massaged to the affected
                                        areas of the body parts.

23          Cleome viscosum L.        Headache. Dry leaves or seeds
                                       are mixed with mustard oil
                                        and massaged to the head.

24         Quisqualis indica L.        Stomachic. Juice from roots
                                        is taken on empty stomach
                                       every morning for 1-2 week.

25       Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.       Skin disease. Leaves are
26           Kalanchoe pinnata        crushed and applied topically
               (Lam.) Pers.            to affected areas of skin.
                                       Diarrhea. Juice from whole
                                        plant is taken regularly
                                       until cure. Meho, stone in
                                        urinary tract. Juice from
                                       leaves is taken twice daily
                                              for 3 weeks.

27         Coccinia grandis (L.)        Diabetes, asthma, cough,
                 J. Voigt              jaundice, blood with vomit.
                                      Juice from leaves or roots is
                                                 taken.

28          Momordica charantia       Piles. One tea spoon ofjuice
                    L.                  from fruits with sugar is
                                       taken regularly until cure.
                                       Malaria. Three leaves with
                                      three Piper nigrum fruits are
                                       crushed and taken regularly
                                               until cure.

29        Trichosanthes kirilowii      Bodyache. Juice from flower
                  Maxim.                   or roots is taken.

30            Cuscuta reflexa          Rheumatic pain. Juice from
                   Roxb.               macerated stems is massaged
                                      to the affected areas of body
                                                 parts.

31          Diospyros peregrina         Dysentery. One tea spoon
              (Gaertn.) Gurke         powder of fruits and skin of
                                      fruits is taken twice daily.
                                      Diarrhea. Skins of fruits are
                                      boiled in water and decoction
                                           is taken regularly.
                                        Helminthiasis, diabetes.
                                       Leaves and barks are boiled
                                        in water and decoction is
                                            taken regularly.

32              Phyllanthus               Any recurrent chronic
             reticulatus Poir.        disease. Juice from fruits or
                                      leaves is mixed with seeds of
                                        Nigella sativa to prepare
                                         medicine which is taken
                                      thrice daily after meal until
                                                  cure.

33               Codiaeum               Leg, hand and neck pain.
              variegatum (L.)         Juice from leaves is massaged
                  A.Juss.             with mustard oil to affected
                                          areas of body parts.
                                        Abortifacient. Juice from
                                            leaves is taken.

34          Jatropha curcas L.          Muscle relaxant. Oil from
                                        fruits is massaged to the
                                       affected areas of the body
                                                 parts.

35               Antidesma              Tonsillitis (swelling of
           ghaesembilla Gaertn.        tonsils). Leaves and fruits
                                       are crushed and mixed with
                                       crushed Piper nigrum fruits
                                         and applied around the
                                                 throat.

36          Phyllanthus emblica       Antiemetic. Dried fruits are
                    L.                soaked in water for two hours
                                       and the water is taken with
                                      bark powder of Santalum album
                                       L. (Santalaceae) and sugar.

                                      Prevent hair fall. Juice from
                                      fruits is mixed with coconut
                                      oil and applied to hair. Itch
                                        and eczema. One tea spoon
                                          [250g fruit powder of
                                        Phyllanthus emblica mixed
                                        with 50g fruit powder of
                                        Terminalia chebula Retz.
                                       (Combretaceae) and 50g bark
                                      powder of Azadirachta indica
                                        A. Juss. (Meliaceae)] is
                                        taken thrice daily after
                                        meal. Besides cow milk is
                                       taken to get better result.

37          Crotalaria pallida          Flatulence, edema. Seeds
                   Ait.                 fried in mustard oil are
                                       taken regularly until cure.

38           Cassia fistula L.          Stomachic, constipation.
                                      Juice from leaves, fruits or
                                             barks is taken.

39         Senna tora (L.) Roxb.      Eczema. Dry leaves are mixed
                                      with coconut oil and applied
                                       topically to affected areas
                                                of skin.

40           Ocimum americanum          Skin diseases. Juice from
                    L.                 leaves is applied topically
                                       to affected areas of skin.
                                      Arthritis. Bark of Terminalia
                                       belerica (Gaertn.) Roxb. is
                                      mixed with bark of Terminalia
                                         chebula, leaf juice of
                                      Ocimum americanum and bark of
                                        Terminalia arjuna (Roxb.)
                                              Wight & Arn.

                                        (Combretaceae) to prepare
                                      tablets. One tablet is orally
                                      taken thrice daily after meal
                                               until cure.

41             Leucas aspera            Stomach ache. One cup of
                 (Willd.)             juice from leaves with   tea
                                      spoon of salt is taken twice
                                       daily on an empty stomach.

42           Litsea glutinosa          Diabetes. One cup of juice
                  (Lour.)               from leaves is mixed with
                                        Nigella sativa seeds and
                                       orally taken. Alternately,
                                      one tea spoon of bark powder
                                      with 2-3 Nigella sativa seeds
                                                is taken.

43           Allium sativum L.        Post-natal uterus pain, body
                                      pain. Allium sativum bulb and
                                       seeds of Nigella sativa are
                                       made into a paste and taken
                                        with fried rice and 2 tea
                                        spoon honey. Cold, cough,
                                        sore throat. 100g Allium
                                        sativum with 10g Curcuma
                                        longa L. (Zingiberaceae)
                                       rhizomes and the leaves of
                                          Tamarindus indica L.
                                        (Fabaceae) are boiled in
                                      1000g water. When the volume
                                         has reached 500 ml, the
                                        decoction is strained and
                                      taken twice daily for 1 week.

44          Asparagus racemosus       Meho, fever. One tea spoon of
                  Willd.                juice from roots is mixed
                                       with juice from rhizomes of
                                       Zingiber officinale and is
                                      poured into a glass of water
                                         and taken thrice daily.

45          Lawsonia inermis L.        Diabetes. Juice from leaves
                                           ofLawsonia inerms,
                                       Azadirachta indica, Psidium
                                       guajava L. (Myrtaceae) and
                                      stems of Cuscuta reflexa with
                                      the stems of Curcuma longa is
                                                 taken.

                                         Facial spot and pimple.
                                            25 g of leaves of

                                          Lawsonia inermis and
                                      Azadirachta indica with 100g
                                      rhizomes of Curcuma longa is
                                      crushed and used twice daily
                                      for one hour. Ear infection.
                                       Leaves are boiled in water
                                       and strained and is applied
                                       to ear canal (2-3 drops for
                                               4-5 days).

46            Hibiscus rosa-            Bleeding in uterus. Juice
                sinensis L.              from flower is applied
                                       topically to affected areas
                                              of body part.

                                      Premature ejaculation. 10-15
                                       leaves are soaked overnight
                                      in water and the decoction is
                                       taken with molasses in the
                                       morning on an empty stomach
                                       for 10-15 days until cure.

47            Urena lobata L.         Stomachic. Juice from fruits
48         Azadirachta indica A.         is taken thrice daily.
                   Juss.                Stomach ache, dysentery.
                                       Juice from young leaves of
                                        Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr.
                                       (Rutaceae), Syzygium cumini
                                        and Azadirachta indica is
                                         mixed and orally taken.

                                       Jaundice, post-natal fever.
                                       Bark of Alstonia scholaris
                                       (L.) R. Br. (Apocynaceae),
                                       bark of Aegle marmelos and
                                      the bark of Moringa oleifera
                                      Lam. (Moringaceae) is boiled
                                        in water and decoction is
                                        taken thrice daily after
                                                  meal.

49         Tinospora cordifolia       Gonorrhea, diabetes, gastric.
                 (Thunb.)              Juice from whole plants is
                                       taken regularly on an empty
                                                stomach.

50          Artocarpus lakoocha          Hepatic disorders. Ripe
                   Roxb.               fruits are taken regularly.

                                      Skin diseases, pimple. Powder
                                      from bark is massages on the
                                       skin for smoothness of skin
                                          and treatment of skin
                                         diseases. Also used for
                                            pimple treatment.

51          Ficus hispida L.f.        Gonorrhea, impotency. One cup
                                      of juice obtained from fruits
                                        is mixed with 2-3 pieces
                                           fruits of Elettaria
                                          cardamomum (L.) Maton
                                        (Zingiberaceae) and taken
                                       twice daily in the morning
                                               and night.

52           Ficus racemosa L.        Flatulence. One cup of juice
                                      from roots is mixed with 2-3
                                       fruits of Piper nigrum and
                                                 taken.

53           Moringa oleifera          Asthma, gastric, headache.
                   Lam.                Powder from leaves is taken
                                              thrice daily.

                                       High blood pressure. Powder
                                           from seeds is taken
                                               regularly.

54          Psidium guajava L.         Diabetes. Juice from leaves
                                      of Psidium guajava, Lawsonia
                                      inermis, Azadirachta indica,
                                        and Cuscuta reflexa along
                                        with the stem of Curcuma
                                             longa is taken.

                                       Dysentery. Bark of Psidium
                                       guajava is boiled in water
                                       and decoction of this water
                                                is taken.

                                      Antiemetic. Young leaves are
                                         boiled with2-3 cups of
                                           water and is taken.

55         Syzygium cumini (L.)       Antiemetic. Leaves are boiled
                  Skeels                in water and decoction is
                                        taken with 10-12 drops of
                                                 honey.

                                      Bleeding. Crushed leaves are
                                      applied to cuts and wounds to
                                             stop bleeding.

56           Argemone mexicana         Diuretic, vermicide. Juice
                    L.                    from leaves is taken.

                                      Increase eyesight. Juice from
                                        roots is taken regularly.

57           Cynodon dactylon          Stomachic, debility. Fruits
                (L.) Pers.             of Phyllanthus emblica are
                                         mixed with the bark of
                                       Moringa oleifera, bark of
                                       Syzygium cumini and bark of
                                        Aegle marmelos, boiled in
                                      water and strained. Then 50g
                                      juice from leaves of Cynodon
                                      dactylon is added to % kg of
                                       the strained decoction and
                                      taken twice daily after meal.

58               Polygonum                 Diarrhea, diuretic,
              hydropiper (L.)            menorrhagia. Juice from
                  Delabre             leaves with honey and fruits
                                       of Nigella sativa is taken.

                                      Bleeding. Leaves are crushed
                                       and are applied to cuts and
                                        wounds to stop bleeding.

59           Pteris vittata L.         Dysentery. One cup of juice
                                      from roots is mixed with 1.5
                                      tea spoon mustard oil and 10-
                                       12 Piper nigrum fruits and
                                        taken thrice daily until
                                                  cure.

60           Rosa damascena L.        Pimple, skin disease. Crushed
                                      flowers of Rosa damascena and
                                      rhizomes of Curcuma longa are
                                        topically applied to the
                                       affected areas of the skin.

61             Anthocephalus            Jaundice. Bark powder is
            chinensis (Lam.) A.       taken. Tumour, abscess. Young
              Rich. ex Walp.             leaves of Anthocephalus
                                      chinensis along with bulb of
                                      Allium sativum and fruits of
                                        Syzygium aromaticum (L.)
                                       Merr. and Perr. (Myrtaceae)
                                        are applied topically to
                                       affected areas of the body
                                                 parts.

62       Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr.      Feverishness, Dysentery,
                                      Stomachic. Juice from leaves
                                          and fruits is taken.
                                      Feverish, cold. One tea spoon
                                      of juice from leaves is taken
                                        regularly until cure. To
                                       increase memory. Leaves are
                                        fried in ghee (clarified
                                         butter) and taken with
                                       crystalline sugar (mishri).
                                      Dysentery. Powder from sliced
                                        dry green fruits is taken
                                        with ghol (churned milk)
                                               until cure.

63         Citrus aurantiifolia       Urticaria. Juice from fruits
            (Christm.) Swingle             with 'hypo' (sodium
                                         thiosulfate) is applied
                                       topically to affected areas
                                        of skin. Influenza. Warm
                                       juice from fruits is taken.
                                        Piles. Juice from fruits
                                        mixed with fresh milk is
                                       taken regularly until cure.
                                       Abscess. Juice from fruits
                                        mixed with mustard oil is
                                      applied topically to affected
                                             areas of skin.

64          Citrus grandis (L.)         Menstrual weakness. Juice
                  Osbeck               from fruits is taken in the
                                      afternoon regularly to remove
                                      weakness. Epilepsy, weakness,
                                           cough, cold, fever.

                                       Leaves, flower and skin of
                                       fruits are boiled in water
                                      and decoction is taken twice
                                                 daily.

65         Glycosmis pentaphylla      Impotency. Juice from fruits
               (Retz.) Corr.            is mixed with juice from
                                       whole plants of Scindapsus
                                       officinalis (Roxb.) Schott
                                      (Araceae). 1 to 1.5 tea spoon
                                       is taken of this decoction.

66          Murraya paniculata        Neck ulcer of cattle. Leaves
                 (L.) Jack             are fried with mustard oil
                                         and are applied to the
                                      affected area for seven days.

67          Litchi chinensis L.          Mental exhaustion. 8-10
                                       fruits are taken every day.

                                       Diabetes. One tea spoon of
                                       powder from seeds is taken
                                         twice regularly. Throat
                                         ulcer. Roots, seeds and
                                       flowers are boiled in water
                                         and then strained. The
                                      strained decoction is orally
                                         taken thrice in daily.

68          Scoparia dulcis L.        Excessive dysentery. One cup
                                      of juice obtained from whole
                                      plant is mixed with 34 Piper
                                       nigrum fruit powder and is
                                              taken orally.

69            Datura metel L.          Pain. Juice from leaves is
                                      applied topically to affected
                                      areas of the body parts with
                                            warm mustard oil.

70        Solanum torvum Allioni       Gastric, fever. Juice from
                                       fruits and leaves is taken
                                       with honey after meal twice
                                       daily. Pain. Crushed leaves
                                        are applied topically to
                                       affected areas of the body
                                                 parts.

71          Abroma augusta L.f.        Gastric, indigestion. Stems
                                         are soaked overnight in
                                      water, and the water is taken
                                       orally in the morning on an
                                        empty stomach. Menstrual
                                       problem. Juice from bark is
                                         mixed with Piper nigrum
                                         fruits and taken during
                                           menstrual problems.

72        Centella asiatica (L.)      Gastric. Juice from leaves is
                   Urb.                taken. Liver problem. Juice
                                      from leaves and stem is taken
                                      for liver disease. Menstrual
                                       problem. 15-20g juice from
                                      root with 'kaji' (rotten rice
                                        soaked in water) is taken
                                      twice in daily for two weeks.

73             Clerodendrum              Used to treat patients
              viscosum Vent.            resistant to multi drugs
                                      (MDR). Juice from leaves and
                                         roots is mixed with 2-3
                                       pieces fruits of Terminalia
                                       chebula, leaves of Cassia
                                        fistula L. (Fabaceae) and
                                           juice from Justicia
                                      gendarussa leaves to prepare
                                      medicine and this medicine is
                                        taken thrice daily after
                                                  meal.

74          Zingiber officinale       Gout, Arthritis. Powder from
                  Roscoe.               roots with mustard oil is
                                      applied topically to affected
                                                 areas.

75             Unidentified           Eye infection. 2- 3 drops of
                                      juice from leaves is applied
                                                 to eye.

76             Unidentified            Fever of cattle. One cup of
                                       juice from roots mixed with
                                       mustard oil, crushed Piper
                                        nigrum fruits and crushed
                                       Zingiber officinale rhizome
                                      and is taken thrice daily for
                                               seven days.

* (S in parenthesis) besides local/vernacular name signifies that
sample and information was collected from the Santal tribal medicinal
practitioner.

Table 2: Table listing the differences of plant species between
the Santal and non-Santal medicinal practitioner.

Serial    Plant species used by         Family
Number   the Santal practitioner

1          Justicia gendarussa       Acanthaceae
                (Burm.f)

2         Crinum latifolium L.      Amaryllidaceae

3         Ervatamia divaricata       Apocynaceae
              (L.) Burkill

4              Holarrhena            Apocynaceae
             antidysenterica
                 (Roxb.)

5              Scindapsus              Araceae
               officinalis
             (Roxb.) Schott

6         Typhonium roxburghii         Araceae
                (Schott.)

7           Stapelia gigantea       Asclepiadaceae
                 N.E.Br.

8        Ageratum conyzoides L.       Asteraceae

9        Eupatorium odoratum L.       Asteraceae

10           Mikania cordata          Asteraceae
           (Burm.f.) Robinson

11            Heliotropium           Boraginaceae
               indicum L.

12         Cleome viscosum L.        Capparaceae

13        Quisqualis indica L.       Combretaceae

14          Terminalia arjuna        Combretaceae
          (Roxb.) Wight & Arn.

15         Terminalia belerica       Combretaceae
             (Gaertn.) Roxb.

16       Momordica charantia L.     Cucurbitaceae

17            Trichosanthes         Cucurbitaceae
            kirilowii Maxim.

18        Cuscuta reflexa Roxb.      Cuscutaceae

19             Phyllanthus          Euphorbiaceae
            reticulatus Poir.

20         Codiaeum variegatum      Euphorbiaceae
              (L.) A.Juss.

21         Jatropha curcas L.       Euphorbiaceae

22              Antidesma           Euphorbiaceae
          ghaesembilla Gaertn.

23         Crotalaria pallida          Fabaceae
                  Ait.

24          Cassia fistula L.          Fabaceae

25           Senna tora (L.)           Fabaceae
                  Roxb.

26        Ocimum americanum L.        Lamiaceae

27            Leucas aspera           Lamiaceae
                (Willd.)

28          Litsea glutinosa          Lauraceae
                 (Lour.)

29         Asparagus racemosus        Liliaceae
                 Willd.

30           Hibiscus rosa-           Malvaceae
               sinensis L.

31           Urena lobata L.          Malvaceae

32         Artocarpus lakoocha         Moraceae
                  Roxb.

33         Ficus hispida L.f.          Moraceae

34          Ficus racemosa L.          Moraceae

35         Syzygium aromaticum        Myrtaceae
          (L.) Merr. and Perr.

36           Syzygium cumini          Myrtaceae
               (L.) Skeels

37           Piper nigrum L.          Piperaceae

38          Pteris vittata L.        Pteridaceae

39          Nigella sativa L.       Ranunculaceae

40            Anthocephalus           Rubiaceae
           chinensis (Lam.) A.
             Rich. ex Walp.

41           Aegle marmelos            Rutaceae
               (L.) Corr.

42        Citrus aurantiifolia         Rutaceae
           (Christm.) Swingle

43        Glycosmis pentaphylla        Rutaceae
              (Retz.) Corr.

44         Murraya paniculata          Rutaceae
                (L.) Jack

45         Scoparia dulcis L.      Scrophulariaceae

46        Clerodendrum viscosum      Verbenaceae
                  Vent.

47        Elettaria cardamomum      Zingiberaceae
               (L.) Maton

48         Zingiber officinale      Zingiberaceae
                 Roscoe.

49            Unidentified           Unidentified

50            Unidentified           Unidentified

Serial    Plant species used by         Family
Number       the non-Santal
              practitioner

1          Adhatoda vasica L.        Acanthaceae

2        Amaranthus spinosus L.     Amaranthaceae

3          Mangifera indica L.      Anacardiaceae

4        Alstonia scholaris (L.)     Apocynaceae
                 R. Br.

5        Catharanthus roseus L.      Apocynaceae

6          Carissa carandas L.       Apocynaceae

7          Colocasia esculenta         Araceae
               (L.) Schott

8           Areca catechu L.          Arecaceae

9          Calotropis procera       Asclepiadaceae
                 Ait.f.

10          Tagetes erecta L.         Asteraceae

11            Aiternanthera           Asteraceae
           philoxeroides Lour.

12           Basella alba L.         Basellaceae

13         Terminalia chebula        Combretaceae
                  Retz.

14          Ipomoea aquatica        Convolvulaceae
                 Forssk.

15          Kalanchoe pinnata        Crassulaceae
              (Lam.) Pers.

16          Coccinia grandis        Cucurbitaceae
              (L.) J. Voigt

17         Diospyros peregrina        Ebenaceae
             (Gaertn.) Gurke

18       Phyllanthus emblica L.     Euphorbiaceae

19        Tamarindus indica L.         Fabaceae

20         Cinnamomum verum J.        Lauraceae
                 Presl.

21           Allium cepa L.           Liliaceae

22          Allium sativum L.         Liliaceae

23         Lawsonia inermis L.        Lythraceae

24         Azadirachta indica         Meliaceae
                A. Juss.

25        Tinospora cordifolia      Menispermaceae
                (Thunb.)

26        Moringa oleifera Lam.      Moringaceae

27         Psidium guajava L.         Myrtaceae

28        Syzygium cumini (L.)        Myrtaceae
                 Skeels

29        Argemone mexicana L.       Papaveraceae

30           Piper nigrum L.          Piperaceae

31        Cynodon dactylon (L.)        Poaceae
                  Pers.

32        Polygonum hydropiper       Polygonaceae
              (L.) Delabre

33          Nigella sativa L.       Ranunculaceae

34          Rosa damascena L.          Rosaceae

35         Aegle marmelos (L.)         Rutaceae
                  Corr.

36         Citrus grandis (L.)         Rutaceae
                 Osbeck

37        Murraya koenigii (L.)        Rutaceae
                 Spreng.

38          Santalum album L.        Santalaceae

39         Litchi chinensis L.       Sapindaceae

40           Datura metel L.          Solanaceae

41       Solanum torvum Allioni       Solanaceae

42         Abroma augusta L.f.      Sterculiaceae

43       Centella asiatica (L.)      Umbelliferae
                  Urb.

44          Curcuma longa L.        Zingiberaceae

Plants used in common by Santal and non-Santal healer
are denoted by bold lettering.

Table 3: Ailments treated and differences in medicinal
plant selection between the Santal and the non-Santal healer.

Ailments           Medicinal plants used
treated by the     by the Santal healer
Santal healer

Body ache.         Trichosanthes kirilowii

Headache.          Cleome viscosum

Leg, hand and      Codiaeum variegatum
neck pain.

Influenza.         Citrus aurantiifolia

Tonsillitis.       Antidesma ghasembilla

Itch.              Justicia gendarussa

Eczema.            Senna tora

Rheumatism,        [Justicia gendarussa +
rheumatic pain.    Nigella sativa + Zingiber
                   officinale], Ervatamia
                   divaricata, Cuscuta
                   reflexa

Gout, arthritis.   Zingiber officinale

Feverishness.      [Justicia gendarussa +
                   Nigella sativa + Zingiber
                   officinale], Crinum
                   latifolium, [Asparagus
                   racemosus + Zingiber
                   officinale], Aegle
                   marmelos

Edema.             Crotolaria pallida

Bone fracture.     Typhonium roxburghii,
                   Stapelia gigantea

Meho.              [Asparagus racemosus +
                   Zingiber officinale]

Dyspepsia.         Crinum latifolium

Dysentery.         [Pteris vittata + Piper
                   nigrum], Aegle marmelos,
                   [Scoparia dulcis + Piper
                   nigrum]

Flatulence.        Crotolaria pallid, [Ficus
                   racemosa + Piper nigrum]

Stomachic (an      Scindapsus officinalis,
agent that         Quisqualis indica, Cassia
improves           fistula, Urena lobata,
appetite and       Aegle marmelos
digestion).

Stomach ache.      Leucas aspera

Constipation.      Cassia fistula

Piles              Momordica charantia,
(hemorrhoids).     Citrus aurantiifolia

Diabetes.          Litsea glutinosa

Kala azar.         Holarrhena
                   antidysenterica

Eye problem.       Ervatamia divaricata

Impotency.         Scindapsus officinalis,
                   [Glycosmis pentaphylla +
                   Scindapsus officinalis]

Abscess.           Ageratum conyzoides,
                   Heliotropium indicum,
                   Citrus aurantiifolia

Cuts and           Eupatorium odoratum,
wounds (to         Mikania cordata,
stop bleeding).    Syzygium cumini

Bleeding in        Hibiscus rosa-sinensis
uterus.

Snake bite.        [Heliotropium indicum
                   + Piper nigrum]

Skin disease.      Artocarpus lakoocha

Pimple.            Artocarpus lakoocha

Hepatic            Artocarpus lakoocha
disorders.

Jaundice.          Anthocephalus chinensis

Vomiting.          Syzygium cumini

Malaria.           [Momordica charantia
                   + Piper nigrum]

Premature          Hibiscus rosa-sinensis
ejaculation.

Impotency.         Ficus hispida

Gonorrhea.         Ficus hispida

Urticaria.         Citrus aurantiifolia

Ailments           Medicinal plants used
treated by         by the non-Santal
the non-Santal     healer
healer

Body ache.         Adhatoda vasica,
                   Calotropis procera,
                   [Allium sativum +
                   Nigella sativa]

Headache.          Moringa oleifera

Any type of        Datura metel, Solanum
pain.              torvum

Cough.             Adhatoda vasica, Coccinia
                   grandis, [Allium sativum
                   + Curcuma longa +
                   Tamarindus indica],
                   Citrus grandis

Asthma.            [Calotropis procera +
                   Allium sativum], Coccinia
                   grandis, Moringa oleifera

Itch.              [Phyllanthus emblica +
                   Terminalia chebula +
                   Azadirachta indica]

Eczema.            [Phyllanthus emblica +
                   Terminalia chebula +
                   Azadirachta indica]
                   [Colocasia esculenta +
                   Allium sativum +
                   Cinnamomum verum]

Fever.             Amaranthus spinosus,
                   Carissa carandas, Citrus
                   grandis

Diuretic (i.e.     Amaranthus spinosus,
for edema).        Argemone Mexicana,
                   [Polygonum hydropiper +
                   Nigella sativa]

Menorrhagia.       Amaranthus spinosus,
                   [Polygonum hydropiper +
                   Nigella sativa]

Menstrual          Alternanthera
irregularity.      philoxeroides, Abroma
                   augusta

Bone fracture.     Amaranthus spinosus

Meho.              Amaranthus spinosus,
                   Kalanchoe pinnata

Diarrhea.          Amaranthus spinosus,
                   Kalanchoe pinnata,
                   Diospyros peregrina,
                   [Polygonum hydropiper +
                   Nigella sativa]

Dysentery.         Mangifera indica,
                   Diospyros peregrina,
                   [Aegle marmelos +
                   Syzygium cumini +
                   Azadirachta indica],
                   Psidium guajava

Gastric            Tinospora cordifolia,
problems.          Moringa oleifera, Solanum
                   torvum, Abroma augusta,
                   Centella asiatica

Indigestion.       Abroma augusta

Stomachic.         [Phyllanthus emblica +
                   Moringa oleifera +
                   Syzygium cumini + Aegle
                   marmelos + Cynodon
                   dactylon]

Stomach ache.      [Aegle marmelos +
                   Syzygium cumini +
                   Azadirachta indica]

Piles              [Alternanthera
(hemorrhoids).     philoxeroides + Centella
                   asiatica + Murraya
                   koenigii]

Diabetes.          [Mangifera indica +
                   Syzygium cumini],
                   Catharanthus roseus,
                   Coccinia grandis,
                   Diospyros peregrina,
                   (Lawsonia inermis +
                   Azadirachta indica +
                   Psidium guajava + Cuscuta
                   reflexa + Curcuma longa],
                   Tinospora cordifolia,
                   Litchi chinensis

Helminthiasis.     Catharanthus roseus,
                   Carissa carandas,
                   Diospyros peregrina

Ear infection.     Lawsonia inermis

Debility.          [Colocasia esculenta +
                   Allium sativum +
                   Cinnamomum verum], Citrus
                   grandis

Epilepsy.          Citrus grandis

To stop            [Areca catechu + Coccinia
hair fall.         grandis + Allium cepa]

Cuts and           Carissa carandas, Tagetes
wounds (to         erecta, Polygonum
stop               hydropiper
bleeding).

Burns.             Basella alba

Skin               Ipomoea aquatica, Rosa
disease.           damascena

Facial spot        [Lawsonia inermis +
and pimple.        Azadirachta indica +
                   Curcuma longa], Rosa
                   damascena

Stone in           Kalanchoe pinnata
urinary
tract.

Hepatic            Centella asiatica
disorders.

Jaundice.          Coccinia grandis

Vomiting.          Psidium guajava

Blood with         Coccinia grandis
vomit.

Gonorrhea.         Tinospora cordifolia

High blood         Moringa oleifera
pressure.

Ailments treated in common by both Santal and non-Santal
practitioners have been denoted in bold lettering. Plants
in common used by both Santal and non-Santal practitioners
for treatment of the same ailment are also indicated in
bold lettering.
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Article Details
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Title Annotation:Original Articles
Author:Rahman, Abdur; Islam, Jahirul; Jahan, Sharmin; Hossain, Md. Shakhawat; Rehana, Fatema; Haq, Wahid Mo
Publication:American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9BANG
Date:Jan 1, 2013
Words:9018
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