Printer Friendly

Dietary effects of 17-[beta] estradiol on sex reversal of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in early larval stage.


Introduce the fish: The scientic name of this type is " ancorhynchus mykiss" that aften" kapour" fish is oldest piscicultural fishs. This type of fish has a wide stripe like florid in the both sides of it's body. The period time of oviposition (laring egg) is from ending of winter since ending of springe and the number of eggs is between 1 to 5 hundred. Today florid ancor hynches, is famous as number one fish in any pisei culture & increasing fish loom (the cold- watu fish in whole world.

Sexual maturity process in this fish because of energy consumption to produce sexual materials and energy division between sexual activities cause to produce meat. So, growth rate, special in male genus will be reduced, in addition to, generic maturity process cause to decrease meat quality and have bad effects on tissues and color. Furthermore, in sexual maturity process time, the fish are more sensitive to pathogenic deseases and stresses.

These changes are more clearer in male genus and are emerged earlier, because, male genus become mature one year earlier simpson [14], in Solar et al [39], so, the production of female genus single is one of the methods in fish breeding. sexuality change in the special time span that fish according to phenotype not depend on male and female are not applicable. Piferrer [33]. So, if treatment hormone in this sensitive period (labile period) is applied, we should notice that maximum sensivity to estrogen is occurred earlier than maximum sensivity to androgen. Piferrer and Donaldson [35]. The labile period is different among different specieses and just this state is seen in some relative speciese. Kavumpurath and Pandian [23] hormone introduction: stradiol such as the after steroids is originated from cholostrol in physiologic reaction, androstendion is converted to testestron and testestron is changed by anortaz enzyme to stradiol, in the other direct, androtendion is converted to stron by aroatase and finally changed to estrodiol this hormone is in both genus female and male.

In female, this hormone as a growth hormone for reproductive tissues is applied. and is a essential material to preduce ovule and ovary. In males stradiol (esterogen) is produced in sertoli cells. Documents shows that: stradiols prophene the natural death of sperms. Pentikaient et al [32]. Because, this hormone is a natural substance, so, theire application is acceptable sanitarily.

In comparisian of other female-mauls hormone that use for dexual change in free type of fish. This combination has less side effect.

Review of the history of produce community of single generic. Still stight female--making use at least in 54 mind of free and skeletal fishs. that are related to 24 different family. The first study in connection of femal-making in florid ancorhynchus done at 1937. that during this study "poda and his colavge" helpof natural estrogen [estron] and with immerse method went to produce female community in this type; also, the other researcher such as: by and Lincoln [7], Johonston [22], Simpson [38] and Okoda [30] help of natural & industrial estrogen in feeding- ration went to produce single- generation of florid oncorhynchus fish.

Material and methods

The stages of hormone treatment and treatment prescription and inspection of gonads and tissues was done in the center of fish breeding and genetic in yasoj.

The fish that selected in reproductive season were 3 to 5 years and their weight were between 4 to 6 kg. after breeding, 80% of green eggs were converted to ied eggs. Surviving of green eggs until eye opening stage is complete common.

During ancubation, in order to preserve eggs from saprogelina funge, the eggs were disinfected with betadin 10% daily and were preserved from direct light until eye opening. The average diameter of ied eggs was 5.5 mm and the weight of each was 10-11 grams. The weight of larves that have your sac after eye opening was 120-125 mg.

Investigation Stages:

In this investigation, we used nutritive prescription hormone to change sexuality. This project have 6 treatments, 3 repetitions and treatment having 1500 larve slices. In first, traf were applied, in such away, each [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] has 3 trays and in each tray, 500 larve slices have been released. This project has 2 treatments.

Food Charastrictics:

The food in different weights were abtained from food concentration plant. efore thelarves reached to 2 grames, they were nutished by the product of biomar company from france. These food in amount of, fish food pretraining were abtained from chine plant. For larve stage nurshing, we used 3 sizes: 0.3, 0.5, 1.1 mm.

Adding hormone to food: specific amount of 17 B stradiol hormon was solved into etanol (70 degree) and, in front of 1 kilogram food, 100 cc etanol with hormone sprayed into the food.

The food with thin diameter and spread was spreaded on the plastic and after spraying the solution, one repletion was done.

This action repeated several times until all of the food was mixed with hormone, then. Food was dryed with cool air and then was stored in refrigerator. In the first of nurshing stage, larves were received foods 15 times but little. along with growth, the times of nurshing was decreased and after complete absorbtion, youk sac each 3 days was disinfected by formalin (2 grams).

When we started giving vitamin and minerals subsidiaries as a daily mixing, subsidiary diet help to survive hormone treatment. when treatment hormone was finished, the conditions of treatements such as nurshing, disin fection, density and light were the same.

Bio metery after treatment hormone, each is days was done and oxygen, temperature, ph records were recorded.

Description 8 identification sexuality.

The size of oncorhynchus mykiss to indentify sexuality was 30 grams. Piferrer and Donaldson [35]. In this size by description, stomach and gonads in both side of swimming sac were being gone out and by microscope, the sexuality was identified.

Putting worm during 1 month under hormone therapy and after that keep them for 6 month. evaluation of indexes:

In this exam computate the nutrition and development base on below formula:

Legend : [w.sub.1] : first weight [w.sub.2]: second weight

[T.sub.1] - [T.sub.2] : time of training

A: specific growth rate (SGR):

SGR: [L.sub.n][w.sub.2] - [L.sub.n][w.sub.1]/[T.sub.2] - [T.sub.1]

B: food convertion ratio:

FCR uded food/weight gain(g)

Wa = find weight - first weight

On the all of the information, accrving on different measurement doing necessary statistic calculate with help of excel and SPSS soft ware. For analysis of statistic data we use unilut and bilateral a nova varicense analysis. Thus for compure for evaluation difference & unique in statistic of counted foctors in "durian" exam it's useful. For compore sextual ratio in curative sumples and witness group. We can use "K Square" exam


After 6 months and when the treatments reached to 30 grames, nearly 50 slices of fish baby from each treatment randomely were separated and investigated. By contrasting, the amount of sexulity change among hormone treatment with testifier shows that: application of 17B stradiol as a food was effective on sexulity of fish baby. Fourth treatment has been the most hormone and has the most sexuality change. Larves have consumed hormone food for a month and after that, the recording of length and weight was done.


The worm during 1 month use hormany diet. And when herman therapy get over. We stort recording weight and length.

Compare weight overage of curative group togother (between carative group just) 180 days aften being alive the curative sumple named "D" has top value of weight guin average of (31.6 g).

According to the mortality because of using horman in sumplenamed "D" and decreme accumulation of this curative in training tunck. Inspite of decreasing the volume of watch for equal the situation of grouth, the more growth related to accumulation, decreased.

Biomefery graphs show curative "D" with (40 mg/ kg) has most final growth. "Rathen than often curative samples is more fig [3] show length growth of "D.

In fig [4] show specific growth coefficient in hormonal curative that the most growth is related to "D"curative sample. The coefficient of obesity in "B" curative sample is more the other but rasn't meaningful different.





At the ending of period of 10 days (1930) and at the beginning of (1940) pened of ten days it indicated that sextual indocreine of fishes can be impessed by hormans.

In this way, with decrease in produce a type special physiologic, morphologic & etiologic criterics. it can brings many benefit with it's self. Schreck [37].

Some of the result of sex control (fernal making)

In fishs is involse: increase in numbu of eggs & baby fishs if train real & certain female sex. Finding the sex with mast growth benefits. Prevent of premature maturity, increase quality of fish's corps. Hunted and Donaldson [18]

Population control with help of "estrogen" is limiting to skeletal fishes. Because most of the fishes in sex determination during their life haven't sex stability also most of time they study on "gonocorist" type, althought there is some example of esterogen effect on circle mounth bealk (river's fishs) and sterliad" fish. Ramajaki [21].

Just as are indicate in the bigining, the fishs befor sex determination, rather than internal esterogen, are more sensitive and after this step, sex controlling needs more time and eteroide Nakomura and Takuhshi, [27]. At this way, sex determination critical period that named "labile period" is important for successful sex determination. Due to this stage has first historogic symptoms, and some times name this stage "physiological sex determination", this event isn't viseable. hackmano & reinboth [16] and with different examination in different time of development we can detect this step in different type of fishs [34]. These is many factor that impren on " labile period" that sex is one of them for example this period appear in female earlier than male. Bruste [6]. Type and quiddify of hormones is influence on this period and more extent of hormone increase this period (labile period). Nacamora in [26] was demonstrated that labile period in " o. masou" fish is under 15 c and between 15-22 days befor laying seedo. Piffer and Donaldson [35].

The studys show " ghinok" free fish isn't sensitive to exogen hormones in hatch time. Baker [2]. This topic shows even in kinds with close relationship the labile period is different Piffer [33] believe that labile period in florid oncorhynchus mykiss is in some time as altive nutrition during 1 month. Is in same time as laible period in oncorhynchus mykiss, too. 17-[beta] esteridol (eg) hormone such a natural esterogen is one of most common esterogens for induction female--sextuality in fishs amd rather than E1 estrogen and 17-[beta] ethinel esteridol ([EE.sub.2]) has more effect of female- making and hasn't negative effect on survival-such as often hormone ([E.sub.1] and [EE.sub.2]).

Okada and his colouge [30] with use of draly esterogen with (10-100 mg lkgf) value has many mortality in curative group and has decreased growth in florid oncorhynchus mykiss. okadu [30] Jalabest and his colauge use of oral esterogen diet reported 30% half way sextuality Jalabert [20].

Piffer and Donaldson [34]. After plunging the worm of free fish, type (coho) with 400 mgg per lit of [EE.sub.2] for pour hour, reported 100% mortality. In caoe with use of [E.sub.2] dose of (400 mgg/ lit) for 8 hour in this type produce near to 100% female population. And survival didn't deereased. Jhonston & his colauge [22] with using [E.sub.2] oral diet with dose (10 mg/kg (of food)) during 30 days, produce 100% female population. Although the growth of curative group after treatment decreased. Johonston [22]. Hunter and his colauge [18] with use of two ways: plunging (100-400/mg) and orally (smg/kgf) of [E.sub.2] hormon could produce 80-100% pemale o-kisutch in since of maturity and razmi and his colauge with use of (20 mg/kgf) [EE.sub.2] orally diet succed to produce 100% female population of oncorhynchus mykiss.

The upon result show the best dose (40 mg hormone [EE.sub.2] in 1 kilogram food) [E.sub.2] hormon approximally is near to exams and studys. This point is discripable that the method of esteroid in pluning and orally methods is different. In pluming method, absorbtion is often from skin, you (in worm with that has yolk sack and lung) and in orally method obsorbtion often accure by ganstric--intestinal system. Also irreqular food intake by immature worm at the bigrining days of nutrition, increase use of esteroid and alittle make mistake in examination (razmi and his colauge).

In many kinds, esterogen has negative effect on survival for example in free kinds (COHO) we observe that o that putice period with 800mg/lit of esteridol hormone increase mortality suddenly. In often exam, in "Cishlasoma nigrofasciatum" type ater intaking food diet of 200 mg/ kgf of 17-[beta] esteridol during 20 days, aurvival decreased so much. [31] we should appointed to this point that the survival has close relation to used horman, duration of treatment and the type of hormone. But it's clear that, treatment with estrogen never increase survival. Piferes [33]. Use of high dose of hormones often lead to more mortality and low growth. But use of industrial (no natural) esteroids in low dose, increase growth of fishs [25]. Piffer and Donaldson [35] indicated using of [EE.sub.2] for 2 hours by plunging method with 400 mg/ lit dose lead to weight gain and increase in length in cotto free fishs. Although goeiz and his colauge understood when they used high dose of esteridols, the growthing decrease.

Blazques and his colauge [4] confirmed the effect of esteridol on "boss" growthing. This study show even in kind that fernal- sex growth is faster than male, the esterogen decerease the growth rate.

The stages of sextual- detection done with help of a lot of study about destroying and remove exercion esteroid. Sextul esteroids after hepatic-metabolism get out put. A part from the way of use of exercion esteroids, it destroyed naturally.

The application of esteroid that use for fish's sexual-controlling has abviouse different with esteroid that use for fattending in animals. In animals (domestic animals) such as cow use industerioal--esteroid usually but in fishs use natural esterogen. because the target of using hormon in animal is fattending also use it in longu theroputic period but fishs treatment is just for same hours or days. Theraputice period get over ofter same months and years after going for sale and when fishing them, they havn't anymore of this compound in their body. Of course there is this situation that, use indirect method for femal making so that the shopped fishs be directly expouse to excursion esteroids. Piffer [33].


[1.] Baker, I.J., 1987. Treatment protocols for hormonal sex control of salmonids in aquaculture. Program of technology transfer of sex control techniques for aquaculture under DFOrSyndel labs. Health and Welfare Canada, pp: 10.

[2.] Baker, I.J., I.I. Solar, E.M. Donaldson, 1988. Masculinization of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) by immersion treatments using 17a-methyltestosterone around the time of hatching. Aquaculture, 72: 359-367.

[3.] Billard, R., 1989. Endocrinology and fish culture. Fish Physiol. Biochem., 7: 49-58.

[4.] Bla'zquez, M., F. Piferrer, S. Zanuy, M. Carrillo, E.M. Donaldson, 1995. Development of sex controltechniques for European sea bassZDicentrarchus labrax L..aquaculture: effects of dietary 17a-methyltestosterone prior to sex differentiation. Aquaculture, 135: 329-342.

[5.] Bromage, N. and K. Cumarantungo, 1988. Egg production in the rainbow trout. Recent advances in aquaculture. 3. F. Muir and J. Robert (Editors), Croom Helm.. pp : 63-138.

[6.] Brusle', J., S. Brulse, 1983. La gonadogene'se des Poissons. Reprod., Nutr., De'v., 23: 453-491.

[7.] Bye, V.J., R.F. Lincoln, 1986. Commercial methods for the control of sexual maturation in rainbow trout)Salmo gairdneri R. (Aquaculture 57: 299-309.

[8.] Colombo, G., G. Grandi, 1990. Gonad sex differentiation of Anguilla anguilla by sex steroids. Int. Rev. Hydrobiol., 76: 763-773.

[9.] Colombo, G., G. Grandi, 1995. Sex differentiation in the European eel: histological analysis of the effects of sex steroids on the gonad. J. Fish Biol., 47: 394-413.

[10.] Crim, L.W., 1985. Methods for acute and chronic hormone administration in fish. In: Lee, C.S., Liao, I.C. ZEds.., Reproduction and Culture of Milkfish. Oc. Institute and Tung Kang Mar. Lab., Hawaii and Taiwan, pp: 1-13.

[11.] Folmar, L.C., M. Hemmer, R. Hemmer, C. Bowman, K. Kroll, N.D. Denslow, 2000. Comparative estrogenicity of estradiol, ethynyl estradiol and diethylstilbestrol in an in vivo, male sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon Oariegatus), vitellogenin bioassay. Aquat. Toxicol., 49: 77-88.

[12.] George, T., T.J. Pandian, 1995. Production of ZZ females in the female-heterogametic black molly, Poecilia sphenops, by endocrine sex reversal and progeny testing. Aquaculture, 136: 81-90.

[13.] George, T., T.J. Pandian, 1996. Hormonal induction of sex reversal and progeny testing in the zebra cichlid Cichlasoma nigrofasciatum. J. Exp. Zool., 275: 374-382.

[14.] Goetz, F.W., E.M. Donaldson, G.A. Hunter, 1979. Effects of estradiol-17b and 17a-methyltestosterone on gonadal differentiation in the coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch. Aquaculture, 17: 267-278.

[15.] Gorbman, A., 1990. Sex differentiation in the hagfish Eptatretus stouti. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol., 77: 309-323.

[16.] Hackmann, E., R. Reinboth, 1974. Delimitation of the critical stage of hormone-influenced sex differentiation in Hemihaplochromis multicolor (Hilgendorf Cichlidae). Gen. Comp. Endocrinol., 22: 42-53.

[17.] Hendry. C.I., D.J. Martin-Ribochaud. and T.J. Benfey., 2006. Hormonal sex reversal of Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.). Aquaculture., 219: 769-781.

[18.] Hunter, G.A., E.M. Donaldson, 1983. Hormonal sex control and its application to fish culture. In: W.S. Hoar.

[19.] Hunter, G.A., E.M. Donaldson, F.W. Goetz, P.R. Edgell, 1982. Production of all female and sterile coho salmon, and experimental evidence for male heterogamety. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc., 111: 367-372.

[20.] Jalabert, B., R. Billard, B. Chevassus, 1975. Preliminary experiments on sex control in trout: production of sterile fishes and simultaneous self-fertilizable hermaphrodites. Ann. Biol. Anim. Biochem. Biophys., 15: 19-28.

[21.] Johnstone, R., D.J. Macintosh, R.S. Wright, 1983. Elimination of orally administered 17a-methyltestosterone by Oreochromis mossambicus tilapia and Salmo gairdneri rainbow trout(juveniles. Aquaculture, 35: 249-257.

[22.] Johnstone, R., T.H. Simpson, A.F. Youngson, 1978. Sex reversal in salmonid culture. Aquaculture, 13: 115-134.

[23.] Kavumpurath, S., T.J. Pandian, 1993c. Masculinization of Poecilia reticulata by dietary administration of synthetic or natural androgen to gravid females. Aquaculture, 116: 83-89.

[24.] Komen, J., M. Yamashita, Y. Nagahama, 1992. Testicular development induced by a recessive mutation during gonadal differentiation of female common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Develop Growth Differ., 34: 535-544.

[25.] McBride, J.R., U.H.M. Fagerlund, 1973. The use of 17a-methyltestosterone for promoting weight increases in juvenile Pacific salmon. J. Fish. Res. Board Can., 30: 1099-1104.

[26.] Nakamura, M., 1984. Effects of estradiol-17b on gonadal sex differentiation in two species of salmonids, the masu salmon, Oncorhynchus masou, and the chum salmon, O. keta. Aquaculture, 43: 83-90.

[27.] Nakamura, M., H. Takahashi, 1973. Gonadal sex differentiation in Tilapia mossambica with special regard to the time of oestrogen treatment effective in inducing feminization of genetic fishes. Bull. Fac. Fish., Hokkaido Univ., 24: 123.

[28.] Nakamura, M., 1978. Morphological and experimental studies on sex differentiation of the gonad of several teleost fishes. PhD Thesis. Fac. Fish., Hokkaido Univ., pp: 174.

[29.] Nagahama, Y., 2000. Gonadal steroid hormones: major regulators of gonadal sex differentiation and gametogenesis in fish. In: Norberg, B., Kjesbu, O.S., Taranger, G.L., Andersson, E., Stefansson, S.O. (Eds)., Proc. Sixth Int. Symp. Reprod. Physiol. Fish. Univ. Bergen, pp: 211-222.

[30.] Okada, H., 1973. Studies on sex differentiation of salmonidae. I. Effects of estrone on sex differentiation of the rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri irideus, Gibbons). Sci. Rep. Hokkaido Fish Hatchery, 28: 11-212.

[31.] Pandian, T.J., S.G. Sheela, 1995. Hormonal induction of sex reversal in fish. Aquaculture 138: 1-22.

[32.] Pentikainen, V., K. Erkkila, L. Suomalainen, M. Parvinen, L. Dunkel, 2006. Estradiol Acts as a Germ Cell Survival Factor in the Human Testis in vitro. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 85: 2057-67.

[33.] Piferrer, F., 2001. Endocrine sex control strategies for the feminization of teleost fish Aquaculture, 197: 229-281.

[34.] Piferrer, F., E.M. Donaldson, 1989. Gonadal differentiation in coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch, after asingle treatment with androgen or estrogen at different stages during ontogenesis. Aquaculture, 77: 251-262.

[35.] Piferrer, F., E.M. Donaldson, 1992. The comparative effectiveness of the natural and a synthetic estrogen for the direct feminization of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Aquaculture, 106: 183-193.

[36.] Rothbard, S., Y. Zohar, N. Zmora, B. Levavi-Sivan, B. Moav, Z. Yaron, 1990. Clearance of 17a-ethynyltestosterone from muscle of sex-reversed tilapia hybrids treated for growth enhancement with two doses of the androgen. Aquaculture, 89: 365-376.

[37.] Schreck, C.B., 1974. Hormonal treatment and sex manipulation in fishes. In: Schreck, C.B. (Ed.), Control of Sex in Fishes. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Sea Grant Program, pp: 84-106.

[38.] Simpson, T.H., 1976. Endocrine aspects of salmonid culture. Proc. R. Soc. Edinburgh (B) 75: 241-252.

[39.] Solar, I.I., I.J. Baker, E.M. Donaldson, 1987. Experimental use of female sperm in the production of monosex female stocks of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) at commercial fish farms. Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 1552: 14.

[40.] Yamamoto, T., 1969. Sex differentiation. In: W.S. Hoar, D.J.Randall, ZEds. Fish Physiology, vol. III, Reproduction, Academic Press, New York, pp: 117-175.

[41.] Yamazaki, F., 1983. Sex control and manipulation in fish. Aquaculture, 33: 329-354.

(1) H. Hosseinzade Sahafi, (2) A.khaje Rahimi, (3) F.Askari, (4) T.Bashti, (4) D. Zargham

(1) Iranian Fisheries Research Organization.

(2,3) Islamic Azad University

(4) Iranian Fisheries Organization.

Corresponding Author

Farzane Askari, Islamic Azad University.

Ph: +989171789408

Table 1: The number of evaluated samples and the value of
sextual--change in hormonal lurative and witnesses group.

18/6/88   11.4   16.9   4/53%   22   26   48   2    50   A
22/6/88   11.8   15.9   7/54%   19   23   42   8    50   B
16/6/88   12.1   18.5   6/82%   8    38   46   4    50   C
16/6/86   14.2   32.5   94%     3    46   49   1    50   D
23/6/88   13.3   23.6   5/37%   25   15   40   10   50   (E,F)

Fig. 1: Compared weight average of fish babies 180 days after first
active swimming.

Hormon Treatment

A     17.6
B     15.9
C     19.3
D     31.6
E,F   21.3

Note: Table made from bar graph.
COPYRIGHT 2011 American-Eurasian Network for Scientific Information
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2011 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Title Annotation:Original Article
Author:Sahafi, H. Hosseinzade; Rahimi, A.khaje; Askari, F.; Bashti, T.; Zargham, D.
Publication:Advances in Environmental Biology
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:7IRAN
Date:Jul 1, 2011
Previous Article:Effect of different intensities water deficit stress on some of agronomical characteristics of autumn rapeseed cultivars (Brassica napus L.).
Next Article:Effect of salicylhydroxamic acid on relative levels of catalase, peroxidase and ascorbic acid peroxidase in bold and small grains of wheat.

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2018 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters