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Diagnostico del sector de plantas medicinales y aromaticas en Marruecos: cooperativas y asociaciones de Meknes- Tafilalt.

Diagnosis of the aromatic and medicinal plant sector in Morocco: Case of the cooperatives and associations of the Meknes-Tafilalt area

INTRODUCTION

The particular orography of Morocco confers the country specific soils and climatic conditions that are very diversified and favorable for the development of a rich and varied flora, including an important potential in often endemic Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (MAP). Morocco, one of the countries of the Mediterranean region, has a genuine phytogenetic tank with 41 ecosystems and 7000 plant species, including 4500 species of vascular plants. Among this floristic diversity, 600 species are famous for their aromatic and traditional medicine use (ANON., 2006a).

However, only 280 plants are currently exploited (HMAMOUCHI, 1997). Morocco is one of the Mediterranean countries which have a long medical tradition and a traditional know of medicinal herbs (SCHERRER & al., 2005; HSEINI & al, 2007; SAHLI & al, 2010). The exploitation of the potential of MAP became an important and promising sector for the country. Indeed, Morocco exports approximately the equivalent of 300 million dirhams in MAP in various forms, and approximately 165 million dirhams of essential oils. That is to say, a total of approximately 465 million dirhams (ANON., 2006a).

The activity makes possible to generate important incomes, to create thousands of work days, in particular for the wedged populations of the rural environment, and to consolidate their commercial balances.

The importance of this sector for the rural and marginalized populations pushed the State to create cooperatives and associations which operate in this sector in order to ensure a suitable exploitation of the resources, to encourage the private sector investment and to improve the living conditions of the local populations by making them profit from the added-value generated by the valorization and the transformation of MAP (ANON., 2008).

The Meknes-Tafilalt area remains an example that represents the commercial exploitation of MAP by the cooperatives and associations. This area was selected for the study because of its climatic and geographical diversity which led a remarkable botanical diversity. Several ethnobotanical studies, carried on the plants of this area, showed that certain species are used for the treatment of the diabetes (EDDOUKS & al, 2002; TAHRAOUI & al, 2007; El AMRANI & CHAKIR, 2010), hypertension (TAHRAOUI & al, 2007), cardiac diseases (EDDOUKS & al, 2002) and other illness (GONZALEZ & al, 2012; MARTINEZ-PORRES & al, 2014).

However, the cooperatives and associations operating in the sector of MAP have neither managed to capitalize the potential of the these plants in the area to answer the increasing demand of the markets, nor to improve the incomes of the marginalized populations by a production of quality and a better integration of the sector. They have not yet managed to preserve the environment by a rational management of the aromatic resources, to support the marketing of MAP towards the growing markets, or optimize synergies between the various partners and initiatives being interested in the field of MAP. Moreover, the techniques of exploitation and transformation of MAP present several weak links, upstream and downstream the sector. Upstream, the systems of adjudication, exploitation and transformation often relate to mining and must be revised. Downstream, the sector does not have any price policy nor of technological survey of technological accompaniment and only large transformers take profit from this way of managing.

To improve the competitiveness and the capacity of the cooperatives and associations to support the sector of MAP by enhancing the richness of the local products of soil and improving the standard of living of the disadvantaged rural populations of this region, the diagnosis of the situation up and downstream the sector seems necessary. The present study aims at prospecting, analyzing and assessing the processes of the cooperatives and associations in the sector MAP from the point of view of the exploitation of phytogenetic resources richness and the socio-economic impact.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

DESCRIPTION AND GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION OF THE STUDY ZONE

The Meknes-Tafilalt area constitutes one of the great areas of Morocco. It extends on a surface of 79210 km2, that is to say approximately 11% of the national surface (ANON., 1996). It is characterized by a diversity of the phytogenetic, climatic and hydro-geographical resources. In fact, the Meknes-Tafilalt region is characterized by a bioclimatic stage extending from wet in Ifrane (1100 mm of rain) to pre-saharian in Er-rachidia (250 mm). Thus, one distinguishes different plains and zones favorable to agriculture (the plain of Saiss, the plain of Tigrigra, the oasis of the Ziz river and the plain of Tafilalet, the solid mass of Zerhoun, the plateaux of El Hajeb, the central plate, the middle atlas chain and the pre-saharian zone of Tafilalet) (ANON., 2000). These geographical distributions support the production of a very varied range of cultures (ANON., 1996).

Located upstream the watersheds, this area have been granted the status of a zone rich in water. However, because of the lack of necessary installations, the majority of these zones know increasingly worrying water deficits. The flows in the rivers are primarily generated by floods which are rare and violent (some risings a year). These floods are of short duration, but produce important volumes of water (EL RHAFFARI & al., 2008).

INVENTORY AND DATA COLLECTION

The analysis of the activities of the cooperatives and associations of the area of Meknes-Tafilalt in the sector of the aromatic and medicinal plants was conducted during the period from July to September 2010 and covered five provinces: Meknes, El Hajeb, Khenifra, Ifrane and Er-rachidia. In each province, we contacted associations and cooperatives (Table 1) operating in the sector of MAP. The total number was 11 associations and cooperatives. Then, we began the technical and socio-economic data-gathering within each organization. The investigation was performed on the basis of a questionnaire, which is a synthesis of other questionnaires from studies on the use of the phytogenetic socio-economic resources carried out in Morocco (MEHDIOUI & KAHOUADJI, 2007; LAHSISSENE & KAHOUADJI, 2010; EL RHAFFARI & al, 2008).

The questionnaire states the coordinates of the organization contact and those of the informant, the identification of the exploited species, the type of harvest and the authorization of the concerned directions. Regarding the socio-economic inventory, we considered the prices, quantities produced and all information about the market and the social status of the owners. In addition, we took into account the analysis of the technical processes namely: the modes of treatment of the plants, the kinds of products and environmental conditions, the qualification of staff, the equipment used, the quality aspect, the traceability and biological certification.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The investigation covered 11 cooperatives and associations in the area of Meknes-Tafilalt. These organizations operate in the sector of the aromatic and medicinal plants by exploiting and marketing the potentially available species in this area. The main results of the questionnaire are summarized in Table 2.

IDENTIFICATION OF THE EXPLOITED SPECIES

Various species are frequently exploited by the cooperatives and associations of this area. There are about 30 species belonging to 12 families (Table 3). Thus, the family of Lamiaceae is very exploited with a number of 10 species: Salvia officinalis L., Lavandula angustifolia Mill.., L. stoechas L., Thymus vulgaris L., Origanum vulgare L., Mentha spicata L., M. piperita L., M. pulegium L., Melissa officinalis L. and Rosmarinus officinalis L. The family of Asteraceae is represented by five exploited species: Calendula officinalis L., Santolina rosmarinifolia L., Matricaria chamomilla L., Anacyclus pyrethrum L. and Artemisia herba-alba Asso. Apiaceae is represented by four exploited species: Pimpinella anisum L., Cuminum cyminum L., Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and Carum carvi L. By only two species is represented Fabaceae: Trigonella foenum-graecum L. and Medicago sativa L. Finally with only one species we can mention: Cupressaceae (Juniperus communis L.), Geraniaceae (Pelargonium capitatum Ait.), Iridaceae (Iris germanica L.), Lythraceae: (Lawsonia inermis L.), Papaveraceae (Papaver rhoeas L.), Rutaceae (Citrus aurantium L.), Verbenaceae (Verbena officinalis L.), Rosaceae (Rosa centifolia Mill.) or Chenopodiaceae (Chenopodium ambrosioides L.).

All these exploited species show the significant phytogenetic wealth not only in the Meknes-Tafilalt area, but in Morocco in general (Benabid, 2000). To face the increasing demand for this wealth of phytogenetic resources, the use of sustainable harvesting methods is detrimental. (Wahid, 2012).

TYPE OF HARVEST OF THE EXPLOITED SPECIES

The results of the inventory near the operators show that most species collected for marketing are of spontaneous rather than cultivated origin. The Figure 1 shows that the exploitation of the species from crop fields is low (34%) in comparison with those in natural state (wild, 66%). This type of harvest adopted by cooperatives and associations can lead to dramatic decrease in natural resources. Caution should be exercised by the operators in the region to operate the MAP species. Especially since previous studies have shown that the consumptive use of species for commercial purposes may lead to overexploitation, genetic erosion and finally extinction, especially if such use is not wisely managed. (CAUVIN & al, 1997; Wahid & al, 2009, 2010).

For sustainable exploitation, improving productivity, producing the sufficient quantity and quality required, and respecting the constraints of delivery, cooperatives and associations in the sector of MAP should incorporate the cultivation of genetically improved species well suited to the environmental conditions of the region (Wahid & al., 2012) They also should be able to master the agricultural cultivation techniques (irrigation system, irrigation amounts, ...)

AUTHORIZATION OF HARVEST AND DATA SHEET OF THE EXPLOITED SPECIES

The inventory results show that only 27% of farmers have permission from the sector officials to harvest the species in natural state (Figure 1). In addition, the vast majority of farmers do not exercise good collection practices: only three out of eleven cooperatives have the data sheet of collection of the exploited species. This shows that the organization of cooperatives and associations is still unregulated and illegal. This practice of collecting contributes more to the depletion of the natural resource wealth of MAP and therefore to lowering its economic value.

ANNUAL MASS PRODUCTION OF THE EXPLOITED SPECIES

The total annual production of all species operated by cooperatives and associations in the region is about 494 tons of dried plants (Table 4). This amount is very small given the richness of this area, in number and types of phytogenetic resources. According to the annual quantities of harvested species, we note that the rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) are the most productive, each with an annual production of 117 and 72 tons / year. The lowest quantities of mass production (1% of the total production) returns to the following species: Papaver rhoeas , Origanum vulgare, Citrus aurantium, Iris germanica, Juniperus communis, Mentha spicata, M. piperita, Verbena officinalis, Pelargonium capitatum, Rosa centifolia, Potentilla anserina, Cuminum cyminum, Foeniculum vulgare, Pimpinella anisum, Santolina rosmarinifolia and Carum carvi.

The low yield of these spontaneous species can be explained by the weak natural regeneration of the species which originates in the general degradation of the ecosystems in Morocco, (Saidi & al., 2007). Consequently, the economic demand and the price of these species decrease with the increasing degradation of the natural environment. This encourages the cooperatives and associations to cultivate these species. In addition, they should improve the action plan upstream the sector of the MAP and support the competitiveness of products in order to maintain food security and increase the socio-economic income of the rural and marginalized population.

YIELDS OF PRODUCTS BY COOPERATIVE AND ASSOCIATION

Figure 2 shows that the Ajaaboo cooperative in the rural district of Ain Louh is leading the exploitation of the species with a total annual quantity of 120 tons, that is 19% of the total production of the area. The Ikiss cooperative in the Tatiouine zone near Midelt also produces 112 tons/year (18% of the total production of the area).

The third position is occupied by the Ayedji association by an exploited quantity of 92.4 tons/ year of plants and a percentage of 15% of the total production of the area. These very important resources must be directed towards a comprehensive industrial exploitation. The private companies can be interested in this operating process since they can work with several cooperatives to ensure regular supplies. The role of state authorities consists in guaranteeing the improvement of the flow of information through the organization of several workshops and seminars which will allow the encounter between different actors of the sector. (Anon., 2006b).

It should be noted that most producers do not have a clear idea on the price of the products (the dried sheets) and sell them at weak price. The price varies according to the availability of the product, the market demand and the lack of traceability. So, the sector must be the object of a national debate implying all the stakeholders, in particular, the High Commission with National Forestry Com mission and the Fight Against the Desertification, the Ministry for Agriculture and Maritime fishing, the Department of Rural Affairs under the Ministry of the Interior, the professionals, the herbalists and the cooperatives, to provide support in the labeling and marketing to advertise the MAP products and to revive the Morocco label of quality. These actions would certainly make it possible to set a program that contributes efficiently to the emergence of a new MAP industry by ensuring technical support for the producers to enable them to put products of good quality in the market at very competitive prices (Anon., 2006a).

QUALIFICATION OF STAFF

The inventory on the qualifications of staff shows that only two cooperatives, El Khair and Tazemmourite, that is to say 18% of all cooperatives and associations, received training qualification for their staff. The lack of knowledge of best practices in harvesting can damage the quality of the collected products and productions of the following year (ASSOUMOU-NDONG, 2010) affecting, thus, the income of the population.

Harvesting practices will have to ensure the long-term survival of wild populations and habitats associated with them. Reinforcement of national competences and training of a sufficient qualified staff in the concerned (central, regional and local) administrations or on the ground (sensitizers) is a vital and critical need to achieve the goals of conservation and durable use of the living resources (Anon., 2004). Those responsible for harvesting must also receive instructions on all matters relating to environmental protection and the conservation of plant species as well as the benefits from the social point of view to ensure sustainable harvesting of wild medicinal plants. The prevention of environmental degradation is essential for the sustainable use of medicinal plant resources (Zhang, 2003). The qualification of staff must also take into account the management and operation of the production units of MAP and their derived products. This training will be provided in the vocational training institutions and is largely based on practice (preparation of phyto-mass for the processing operations, use of distillation equipment, filtering and packaging of processed products, essential oils and extracts) (ANON., 2008).

TECHNIQUES OF TREATMENT, CONDITIONING AND VALORIZATION OF THE EXPLOITED SPECIES

All the cooperatives and associations carry out a sorting of the collected vegetable matter but only one cooperative, Ait Libio-Ait Waka, performs a specific treatment of the plants. The treatment under shade is, however, the most used means for drying the plants (Figure 3). Some producers have a drying machine but do not master the techniques of drying, which can affect chemical composition of the plants (SILOU & al., 2002). Only two producers use the drying by sun method, which remains the less recommended means.

The valuation of exploited species is limited to the production of dry matter by the majority of producers. This type of operation exceeds 64% of harvested plants (Figure 3). Less than 36% of farmers value the species essential oils. No cooperative and no association have a data sheet on the quality and quantity of essential oils by species.

To make better use of exploited species, it is necessary first of all to take care of the production of the biomass. This can only be achieved through submission of operating with government regulations that allow a better management of the species and a protection of the resources, preserving the already exploited species and developing the exploitation of species with very poor yield. The processing methods are the key to a good valorization. in the case of our study, almost all of the essential oil extraction units are traditional, except cooperatives Libio Ait Ait-Waka and Ayedji which feature modern stainless steel extractor unit, equipped with a boiler for generating steam. This differential extraction technique is due to the cost of modern equipment for extracting oil and weak financial capacity of these organizations.

Therefore, state authorities must ensure the equipment of these operators with modernized distillation equipment necessary for their activity. This operation will certainly guarantee a competitive quality product. The authorities are also required to develop partnership agreements with donors to provide the necessary financial support for the purchase of distillation equipment (Anon., 2008). other forms of valorization are also common, such as the use of derivatives of the species in some local products of local soil as part of medicinal and / or culinary recipes such as herbal teas, bread, sauce, butter, honey, dates and couscous flavored with plants (El Rhaffari & al, 2008). An adequate packaging of the products can also lead to a better valorization. The plants recovered after distillations are used as fuels for a new distillation. Mixed with some other products, they can also represent an interesting source of food for cattle that can be particularly developed in the period of welding. (Anon., 2006a).

Biological certifications would add value to MAP products of production/exploitation areas. it therefore becomes imperative to establish the Moroccan regulations of biological certification and the national certification of management systems. These regulations shall specify the procedures for certification and control of MAP and their biological derivatives. Progress in terms of routes management and traceability systems can lead to improvements in quality, food safety and environmental protection (Anon., 2006c).

Traceability and biological certification of products associated with adequate quality management can ensure industrial development of these products. This value is the primary objective of the operators. In fact, many plants can justify industrial exploitation as food flavors, fragrance components or cosmetic compositions, intermediaries of synthesis, herbal recipes or natural pesticides (Bissangou, 1997).

QUALITY ASPECTS OF THE COMMERCIAL AND SOCIAL PRODUCT

The results of the questionnaire for this section show that all producers do not practice a system of traceability for their products or biological certification. They also lack a clear vision for the promotion and improvement of the sector, do not target the international market and do not have a vision of conservation of natural resources. It also shows that the sector is characterized by the presence of intermediaries who are the first to benefit from the present situation. Despite their creation by the state, these organizations still suffer from lack of support and assistance for technical guidance and research channels of marketing. For all these reasons, these organizations do not draw the benefits that allow populations to have a sufficient and steady income. Thus, improving the standard of living of the population through the development of the sector of MAP remains far from being achieved and is still binding under these adverse conditions.

CONCLUSION

In this study, the deep diagnosis allowed us to detect anomalies plaguing the sector of medicinal and aromatic plants in cooperatives and associations of the Meknes-Tafilalt region in Morocco. The results of this study show that 66% of harvested species are spontaneous and there is no request for permission to harvest and qualification of staff for almost all operators. This kind of exploitation and management of the harvest of the species can threaten the abundance and the durability of certain phytogenetic resources, namely: Rosmarinus officinalis and Matricaria chamomilla which respectively account for 23% and 14% of the total production. The type of exploitation of spontaneous plant resources may also contribute to the depletion and / or the disappearance of certain species of significant economic interest and medicinal importance as Foeniculum vulgare, Pimpinella anisum, Santolina rosmarinifolia or Carum carvi. A program of management and conservation of genetic resources must be considered in the sector of medicinal and aromatic plants. To support the competitiveness of products, meet market demand and increase socio-economic income of the rural and marginalized population, cooperatives and associations should incorporate culture in the sector of MAP. In the same sense, it is very useful to integrate training programs for the staff of the cooperatives and associations regarding good practice of harvest and quality, valorization, treatment and conditioning of the products of the exploited species, techniques of extraction, systems of certification and marketing and marketing of the final products.

doi: 10.5209/rev_LAZA.2014.v35.42697

Received: 5 July 2013

Accepted: 15 September 2014

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors extend their special thanks to Professor Nadia Wahid from the National Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants and for anonymous reviewers for their invaluable contribution to the improvement of this manuscript. The authors want Also to thank the administrative responsible of the Regional Directorate of Agriculture of Meknes Tafilalet area for their assistance in the collection of information on cooperatives and associations.

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Mouhcine Fadil (*,**), Abdellah Farah (**), Taoufik Haloui (*, **) & Saad Rachiq (*)

* Faculty of Science and Technology Fez Sais. Department of Biology, Laboratory of Functional Ecology and Environment. Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University. PO Box 2202. Road Imouzzer. Fez 30000. Morocco. Email: fadil.mouhcine@gmail.com

** National Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. Laboratory of Medicinal, Aromatic Plants and Natural Substances. Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University. PO Box 159. Taounate 34025. Morocco.
Table 1
Cooperatives and associations considered to diagnose
the sector of MAP in the Meknes-Tafilalt area

District      N.   Name                  Address

El Hajeb      1    Ayedji assoc.         Rural district Iqadar
Khenifra      4    MAP's develop.        Rural district EL
                     assoc.                Hammam Mrirt
                   Ait Libio-Ait         Rural district Alt Ishak
                   Waka coop.
                   Ikiss coop.           Tateouine village
                                           beside Midelt
                   El Khair assoc.       Ait Oufella village
                                           Rural district Itzer
Ifrane        5    Initiative of the     Hay essalam- Ifrane,
                   women coop.             center of the female
                                           cooperatives
                   EL Amal coop.         Rural district Alt
                                           Yahaya Oualla Azrou
                                         Toufestalt village
                   Ajaabou coop.         Rural district Ain Louh
                   Achifae coop.         Rural district Bensmim
                   Prod. MAP
                   Temihdit              Temihdit
Er-rachidia   1    Tazemmourite assoc.   Rural district EL Khang

District      Year   Organism

El Hajeb      2004   --
Khenifra      2007   National Initiative
                       Human Development
              2009   Participative project
                     MEDA
                       Rural Developpement
                       average central Atlas
                       (Khenifra project)
              2005   --
              2006   National Initiative
                       Human Development
Ifrane        2006   --
              2005   --
              2005   Development
                       Reinforcement Program
                     Local Assoc. Coop.
              2006   --
              2010   --
Er-rachidia   2000   --

Table 2
Summary table of the main results of the questionnaire

Name                  Authorization   Data sheets      Use of
                       of harvest       for the     phytosanitary
                                       products       products

Ayedji                     No             No             No
  association
  MAP's
Development                No             No             No
  association
Ait Libio-Ait              Yes            Yes            No
  Waka Cooperative
Ikiss cooperative          No             No             No
El Khair                   No             No             No
  association
Cooperative of             No             No             No
  initiative of
  the women
ELAmal cooperative         Yes            No             No
Ajaabou cooperative        No             No             No
Achifae cooperative        Yes            No             No
Production of MAP          No             No             No
  Temihdit
Tazemmourite               No             No             No
  association

Name                  Inspection   Specific     Mode of
                      or sorting   sorting       drying

Ayedji                   Yes         Yes         Shade
  association
  MAP's
Development              Yes          No         Dryer
  association
Ait Libio-Ait            Yes         Yes      Dryer/ Shade
  Waka Cooperative
Ikiss cooperative        Yes          No         Shade
El Khair                 Yes          No      Dryer/ Shade
  association
Cooperative of           Yes          No         Shade
  initiative of
  the women
ELAmal cooperative       Yes          No         Shade
Ajaabou cooperative      Yes          No         Shade
Achifae cooperative      Yes          No         Shade
Production of MAP        Yes          No          Sun
  Temihdit
Tazemmourite             Yes          No          Sun
  association

Name                  Traceability   Qualification
                                     of the staff

Ayedji                     No             No
  association
  MAP's
Development                No             No
  association
Ait Libio-Ait              No             No
  Waka Cooperative
Ikiss cooperative          No             No
El Khair                   No             Yes
  association
Cooperative of             No             No
  initiative of
  the women
ELAmal cooperative         No             No
Ajaabou cooperative        No             No
Achifae cooperative        No             No
Production of MAP          No             No
  Temihdit
Tazemmourite               No             Yes
  association

Name                  Types of products     Modern         Market
                      Dried Plants and    stainless
                       essential oils     equipments

Ayedji                                       Yes       Local/National
  association
  MAP's
Development           Dried Plants and        No       Local/National
  association          essential oils
Ait Libio-Ait         Dried Plants and       Yes       Local/National
  Waka Cooperative     essential oils
Ikiss cooperative     Dried Plant only        No       Local/National
El Khair              Dried Plants and        No       Local/National
  association          essential oils
Cooperative of        Dried Plants and        No       Local/National
  initiative of        essential oils
  the women
ELAmal cooperative    Dried Plant only        No       Local/National
Ajaabou cooperative   Dried Plants and        No       Local/National
                       essential oils
Achifae cooperative   Dried Plant only        No       Local/National
Production of MAP     Dried Plant only        No       Local/National
  Temihdit
Tazemmourite          Dried Plants and        No       Local/National
  association          essential oils

Name                   Biological
                      certification

Ayedji                     No
  association
  MAP's
Development                No
  association
Ait Libio-Ait              No
  Waka Cooperative
Ikiss cooperative          No
El Khair                   No
  association
Cooperative of             No
  initiative of
  the women
ELAmal cooperative         No
Ajaabou cooperative        No
Achifae cooperative        No
Production of MAP          No
  Temihdit
Tazemmourite               No
  association

Table 3
Main species exploited by the cooperatives and associations
of the Meknes-Tafilalt area for marketing

Family           English name         Scientific name

Lamiaceae        Sage                 Salvia officinalis L.
                 Lavender             Lavandula angustifolia Mill.
                 Common thyme         Thymus vulgaris L.
                 Oregano              Origanum vulgare L.
                 Lavender Stoechade   Lavandula stoechas L.
                 Spearmint            Mentha spicata L.
                 Peppermint           Mentha piperita L.
                 Lemon Balm           Melissa officinalis L.
                 Pennyroyal           Mentha pulegium L.
                 Rosemary             Rosmarinus officinalis L.
Asteraceae       Pot Marigold         Calendula officinalis L.
                 Santoline            Santolina rosmarinifolia L.
                 Chamomile            Matricaria chamomilla L
                 Pyrethrum            Anacyclus pyrethrum L.
                 Sagebrush            Artemisia herba-alba Asso.
Apiaceae         Green Anise          Pimpinella anisum L.
                 Cumin                Cuminum cyminum L.
                 Common Fennel        Foeniculum vulgare Mill.
                 Caraway              Carum carvi L.
Fabaceae         Fenugreek            Trigonella foenum-graecum L.
                 Alfalfa              Medicago sativa L.
Rosaceae         Rosebush             Rosa centifolia Mill.
Chenopodiaceae   Wormseed             Chenopodium ambrosioides L.
Cupressaceae     Juniper              Juniperus communis L.
Geraniaceae      Geranium Rosat       Pelargonium graveolens L.
Iridaceae        Iris                 Iris germanica L.
Lythraceae       Henna                Lawsonia inermis L.
Papaveraceae     Poppy                Papaver rhoeas L.
Rutaceae         Petitgrain           Citrus aurantium L.
Verbenaceae      Verbena, Vervain     Verbena officinalis L.

Family           Vernacular name

Lamiaceae        Salmia; Tilsas; Tamazzut
                 khzama beldiya
                 z'itra; Azukenni
                 Zatar
                 Halhal
                 Naana lbeldi
                 Naana felfli
                 Hbak tranj
                 Fliou
                 Azir; Yazir
Asteraceae       Jemra; Ahmer rras; Azwiwel
                 Ouezouaza;Tayrart
                 Babounj
                 Tignest; Aoujdem
                 Chih; Izri
Apiaceae         Habbet hlawa
                 Kamoun
                 Nafaa; Bessbass; Irden
                 Karwiya
Fabaceae         Halba; Tifidas
                 Fassa
Rosaceae         Lward lbeldi
Chenopodiaceae   Mkhinza
Cupressaceae     Araar
Geraniaceae      ifer laatar
Iridaceae        Tafzout
Lythraceae       Henna
Papaveraceae     Bellamane
Rutaceae         Range
Verbenaceae      Lwiza

Table 4

Annual produced quantity of the species exploited
by the cooperatives and associations of the
Meknes-Tafilialt area based in dried plant

Exploited species               Prod.
                                Quantity
                                (kg/year)

Rosmarinus officinalis          117000
Matricaria chamomilla           72000
Calendula officinalis           50000
Melissa officinalis             43000
Lavandula officinalis           35600
Thymus vulgaris                 34000
Artemisia herba-alba            32000
Mentha pulegium                 31000
Lavandula stoechas              13000
Lawsonia inermis                10000
Anacyclus pyrethrum             10000
Medicago sativa                 10000
Salvia officinalis              5400
Trigonella foenum-graecum       5000
Papaver rhoeas                  3500
Origanum vulgare                3200
Citrus aurantium                3000
Iris germanica                  2500
Juniperus communis              2500
Mentha spicata                  2000
Verbena officinalis             2000
Pelargonium capitatum           1500
Mentha piperita                 1000
Rosa centifolia                 1000
Chenopodium ambrosioides        1000
Cuminum cyminum                 1000
Foeniculum vulgare              800
Pimpinella anisum               500
Santolina rosmarinifolia        400
Carum carvi                     200
Total annual prod.(kg/ Year)    494100

Figure 1.--Distribution of the exploitation type (wild
or cultivated) and percentage of those with or without
authorization of harvest of MAP species.0

Wild         66%
Cultivated   34%

Without authorization   73%
  of harvest
With authorization      27%
  of harvest

Nota: Tabla derivada de grafico segmentado.

Figure 2.--Percentage of total annual production
in mass of the species exploited by the cooperatives
and associations of the Meknes-Tafilalt area.

Tazemmourite association     8%
El Khair association         5%
Ikiss cooperative            18%
Production of MAP Temihdit   10%
Achifae cooperative          8%
Ajaabou cooperative          19%
EL Amal cooperative          11%
Cooperative of initiative    4%
  of the women
Ait Libio-Ait Waka           2%
  Cooperative
MAP's Development            0.4%
  association

Nota: Tabla derivada de grafico segmentado.

Figure 3.--Percentage of use of the various modes of
treatment for the drying of the plants and percentages
of valorization of the species exploited by the studied
organizations.

Dryer   23%
Sun     15%
Shade   62%

Dried Plants and   64%
  essential oils
Dried Plant only   36%

Nota: Tabla derivada de grafico segmentado.
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Author:Fadil, Mouhcine; Farah, Abdellah; Haloui, Taoufik; Rachiq, Saad
Publication:Lazaroa
Date:Jan 1, 2014
Words:5436
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