Diagnostico del sector de plantas medicinales y aromaticas en Marruecos: cooperativas y asociaciones de Meknes- Tafilalt.
The particular orography of Morocco confers the country specific soils and climatic conditions that are very diversified and favorable for the development of a rich and varied flora, including an important potential in often endemic Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (MAP). Morocco, one of the countries of the Mediterranean region, has a genuine phytogenetic tank with 41 ecosystems and 7000 plant species, including 4500 species of vascular plants. Among this floristic diversity, 600 species are famous for their aromatic and traditional medicine use (ANON., 2006a).
However, only 280 plants are currently exploited (HMAMOUCHI, 1997). Morocco is one of the Mediterranean countries which have a long medical tradition and a traditional know of medicinal herbs (SCHERRER & al., 2005; HSEINI & al, 2007; SAHLI & al, 2010). The exploitation of the potential of MAP became an important and promising sector for the country. Indeed, Morocco exports approximately the equivalent of 300 million dirhams in MAP in various forms, and approximately 165 million dirhams of essential oils. That is to say, a total of approximately 465 million dirhams (ANON., 2006a).
The activity makes possible to generate important incomes, to create thousands of work days, in particular for the wedged populations of the rural environment, and to consolidate their commercial balances.
The importance of this sector for the rural and marginalized populations pushed the State to create cooperatives and associations which operate in this sector in order to ensure a suitable exploitation of the resources, to encourage the private sector investment and to improve the living conditions of the local populations by making them profit from the added-value generated by the valorization and the transformation of MAP (ANON., 2008).
The Meknes-Tafilalt area remains an example that represents the commercial exploitation of MAP by the cooperatives and associations. This area was selected for the study because of its climatic and geographical diversity which led a remarkable botanical diversity. Several ethnobotanical studies, carried on the plants of this area, showed that certain species are used for the treatment of the diabetes (EDDOUKS & al, 2002; TAHRAOUI & al, 2007; El AMRANI & CHAKIR, 2010), hypertension (TAHRAOUI & al, 2007), cardiac diseases (EDDOUKS & al, 2002) and other illness (GONZALEZ & al, 2012; MARTINEZ-PORRES & al, 2014).
However, the cooperatives and associations operating in the sector of MAP have neither managed to capitalize the potential of the these plants in the area to answer the increasing demand of the markets, nor to improve the incomes of the marginalized populations by a production of quality and a better integration of the sector. They have not yet managed to preserve the environment by a rational management of the aromatic resources, to support the marketing of MAP towards the growing markets, or optimize synergies between the various partners and initiatives being interested in the field of MAP. Moreover, the techniques of exploitation and transformation of MAP present several weak links, upstream and downstream the sector. Upstream, the systems of adjudication, exploitation and transformation often relate to mining and must be revised. Downstream, the sector does not have any price policy nor of technological survey of technological accompaniment and only large transformers take profit from this way of managing.
To improve the competitiveness and the capacity of the cooperatives and associations to support the sector of MAP by enhancing the richness of the local products of soil and improving the standard of living of the disadvantaged rural populations of this region, the diagnosis of the situation up and downstream the sector seems necessary. The present study aims at prospecting, analyzing and assessing the processes of the cooperatives and associations in the sector MAP from the point of view of the exploitation of phytogenetic resources richness and the socio-economic impact.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
DESCRIPTION AND GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION OF THE STUDY ZONE
The Meknes-Tafilalt area constitutes one of the great areas of Morocco. It extends on a surface of 79210 km2, that is to say approximately 11% of the national surface (ANON., 1996). It is characterized by a diversity of the phytogenetic, climatic and hydro-geographical resources. In fact, the Meknes-Tafilalt region is characterized by a bioclimatic stage extending from wet in Ifrane (1100 mm of rain) to pre-saharian in Er-rachidia (250 mm). Thus, one distinguishes different plains and zones favorable to agriculture (the plain of Saiss, the plain of Tigrigra, the oasis of the Ziz river and the plain of Tafilalet, the solid mass of Zerhoun, the plateaux of El Hajeb, the central plate, the middle atlas chain and the pre-saharian zone of Tafilalet) (ANON., 2000). These geographical distributions support the production of a very varied range of cultures (ANON., 1996).
Located upstream the watersheds, this area have been granted the status of a zone rich in water. However, because of the lack of necessary installations, the majority of these zones know increasingly worrying water deficits. The flows in the rivers are primarily generated by floods which are rare and violent (some risings a year). These floods are of short duration, but produce important volumes of water (EL RHAFFARI & al., 2008).
INVENTORY AND DATA COLLECTION
The analysis of the activities of the cooperatives and associations of the area of Meknes-Tafilalt in the sector of the aromatic and medicinal plants was conducted during the period from July to September 2010 and covered five provinces: Meknes, El Hajeb, Khenifra, Ifrane and Er-rachidia. In each province, we contacted associations and cooperatives (Table 1) operating in the sector of MAP. The total number was 11 associations and cooperatives. Then, we began the technical and socio-economic data-gathering within each organization. The investigation was performed on the basis of a questionnaire, which is a synthesis of other questionnaires from studies on the use of the phytogenetic socio-economic resources carried out in Morocco (MEHDIOUI & KAHOUADJI, 2007; LAHSISSENE & KAHOUADJI, 2010; EL RHAFFARI & al, 2008).
The questionnaire states the coordinates of the organization contact and those of the informant, the identification of the exploited species, the type of harvest and the authorization of the concerned directions. Regarding the socio-economic inventory, we considered the prices, quantities produced and all information about the market and the social status of the owners. In addition, we took into account the analysis of the technical processes namely: the modes of treatment of the plants, the kinds of products and environmental conditions, the qualification of staff, the equipment used, the quality aspect, the traceability and biological certification.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The investigation covered 11 cooperatives and associations in the area of Meknes-Tafilalt. These organizations operate in the sector of the aromatic and medicinal plants by exploiting and marketing the potentially available species in this area. The main results of the questionnaire are summarized in Table 2.
IDENTIFICATION OF THE EXPLOITED SPECIES
Various species are frequently exploited by the cooperatives and associations of this area. There are about 30 species belonging to 12 families (Table 3). Thus, the family of Lamiaceae is very exploited with a number of 10 species: Salvia officinalis L., Lavandula angustifolia Mill.., L. stoechas L., Thymus vulgaris L., Origanum vulgare L., Mentha spicata L., M. piperita L., M. pulegium L., Melissa officinalis L. and Rosmarinus officinalis L. The family of Asteraceae is represented by five exploited species: Calendula officinalis L., Santolina rosmarinifolia L., Matricaria chamomilla L., Anacyclus pyrethrum L. and Artemisia herba-alba Asso. Apiaceae is represented by four exploited species: Pimpinella anisum L., Cuminum cyminum L., Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and Carum carvi L. By only two species is represented Fabaceae: Trigonella foenum-graecum L. and Medicago sativa L. Finally with only one species we can mention: Cupressaceae (Juniperus communis L.), Geraniaceae (Pelargonium capitatum Ait.), Iridaceae (Iris germanica L.), Lythraceae: (Lawsonia inermis L.), Papaveraceae (Papaver rhoeas L.), Rutaceae (Citrus aurantium L.), Verbenaceae (Verbena officinalis L.), Rosaceae (Rosa centifolia Mill.) or Chenopodiaceae (Chenopodium ambrosioides L.).
All these exploited species show the significant phytogenetic wealth not only in the Meknes-Tafilalt area, but in Morocco in general (Benabid, 2000). To face the increasing demand for this wealth of phytogenetic resources, the use of sustainable harvesting methods is detrimental. (Wahid, 2012).
TYPE OF HARVEST OF THE EXPLOITED SPECIES
The results of the inventory near the operators show that most species collected for marketing are of spontaneous rather than cultivated origin. The Figure 1 shows that the exploitation of the species from crop fields is low (34%) in comparison with those in natural state (wild, 66%). This type of harvest adopted by cooperatives and associations can lead to dramatic decrease in natural resources. Caution should be exercised by the operators in the region to operate the MAP species. Especially since previous studies have shown that the consumptive use of species for commercial purposes may lead to overexploitation, genetic erosion and finally extinction, especially if such use is not wisely managed. (CAUVIN & al, 1997; Wahid & al, 2009, 2010).
For sustainable exploitation, improving productivity, producing the sufficient quantity and quality required, and respecting the constraints of delivery, cooperatives and associations in the sector of MAP should incorporate the cultivation of genetically improved species well suited to the environmental conditions of the region (Wahid & al., 2012) They also should be able to master the agricultural cultivation techniques (irrigation system, irrigation amounts, ...)
AUTHORIZATION OF HARVEST AND DATA SHEET OF THE EXPLOITED SPECIES
The inventory results show that only 27% of farmers have permission from the sector officials to harvest the species in natural state (Figure 1). In addition, the vast majority of farmers do not exercise good collection practices: only three out of eleven cooperatives have the data sheet of collection of the exploited species. This shows that the organization of cooperatives and associations is still unregulated and illegal. This practice of collecting contributes more to the depletion of the natural resource wealth of MAP and therefore to lowering its economic value.
ANNUAL MASS PRODUCTION OF THE EXPLOITED SPECIES
The total annual production of all species operated by cooperatives and associations in the region is about 494 tons of dried plants (Table 4). This amount is very small given the richness of this area, in number and types of phytogenetic resources. According to the annual quantities of harvested species, we note that the rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) are the most productive, each with an annual production of 117 and 72 tons / year. The lowest quantities of mass production (1% of the total production) returns to the following species: Papaver rhoeas , Origanum vulgare, Citrus aurantium, Iris germanica, Juniperus communis, Mentha spicata, M. piperita, Verbena officinalis, Pelargonium capitatum, Rosa centifolia, Potentilla anserina, Cuminum cyminum, Foeniculum vulgare, Pimpinella anisum, Santolina rosmarinifolia and Carum carvi.
The low yield of these spontaneous species can be explained by the weak natural regeneration of the species which originates in the general degradation of the ecosystems in Morocco, (Saidi & al., 2007). Consequently, the economic demand and the price of these species decrease with the increasing degradation of the natural environment. This encourages the cooperatives and associations to cultivate these species. In addition, they should improve the action plan upstream the sector of the MAP and support the competitiveness of products in order to maintain food security and increase the socio-economic income of the rural and marginalized population.
YIELDS OF PRODUCTS BY COOPERATIVE AND ASSOCIATION
Figure 2 shows that the Ajaaboo cooperative in the rural district of Ain Louh is leading the exploitation of the species with a total annual quantity of 120 tons, that is 19% of the total production of the area. The Ikiss cooperative in the Tatiouine zone near Midelt also produces 112 tons/year (18% of the total production of the area).
The third position is occupied by the Ayedji association by an exploited quantity of 92.4 tons/ year of plants and a percentage of 15% of the total production of the area. These very important resources must be directed towards a comprehensive industrial exploitation. The private companies can be interested in this operating process since they can work with several cooperatives to ensure regular supplies. The role of state authorities consists in guaranteeing the improvement of the flow of information through the organization of several workshops and seminars which will allow the encounter between different actors of the sector. (Anon., 2006b).
It should be noted that most producers do not have a clear idea on the price of the products (the dried sheets) and sell them at weak price. The price varies according to the availability of the product, the market demand and the lack of traceability. So, the sector must be the object of a national debate implying all the stakeholders, in particular, the High Commission with National Forestry Com mission and the Fight Against the Desertification, the Ministry for Agriculture and Maritime fishing, the Department of Rural Affairs under the Ministry of the Interior, the professionals, the herbalists and the cooperatives, to provide support in the labeling and marketing to advertise the MAP products and to revive the Morocco label of quality. These actions would certainly make it possible to set a program that contributes efficiently to the emergence of a new MAP industry by ensuring technical support for the producers to enable them to put products of good quality in the market at very competitive prices (Anon., 2006a).
QUALIFICATION OF STAFF
The inventory on the qualifications of staff shows that only two cooperatives, El Khair and Tazemmourite, that is to say 18% of all cooperatives and associations, received training qualification for their staff. The lack of knowledge of best practices in harvesting can damage the quality of the collected products and productions of the following year (ASSOUMOU-NDONG, 2010) affecting, thus, the income of the population.
Harvesting practices will have to ensure the long-term survival of wild populations and habitats associated with them. Reinforcement of national competences and training of a sufficient qualified staff in the concerned (central, regional and local) administrations or on the ground (sensitizers) is a vital and critical need to achieve the goals of conservation and durable use of the living resources (Anon., 2004). Those responsible for harvesting must also receive instructions on all matters relating to environmental protection and the conservation of plant species as well as the benefits from the social point of view to ensure sustainable harvesting of wild medicinal plants. The prevention of environmental degradation is essential for the sustainable use of medicinal plant resources (Zhang, 2003). The qualification of staff must also take into account the management and operation of the production units of MAP and their derived products. This training will be provided in the vocational training institutions and is largely based on practice (preparation of phyto-mass for the processing operations, use of distillation equipment, filtering and packaging of processed products, essential oils and extracts) (ANON., 2008).
TECHNIQUES OF TREATMENT, CONDITIONING AND VALORIZATION OF THE EXPLOITED SPECIES
All the cooperatives and associations carry out a sorting of the collected vegetable matter but only one cooperative, Ait Libio-Ait Waka, performs a specific treatment of the plants. The treatment under shade is, however, the most used means for drying the plants (Figure 3). Some producers have a drying machine but do not master the techniques of drying, which can affect chemical composition of the plants (SILOU & al., 2002). Only two producers use the drying by sun method, which remains the less recommended means.
The valuation of exploited species is limited to the production of dry matter by the majority of producers. This type of operation exceeds 64% of harvested plants (Figure 3). Less than 36% of farmers value the species essential oils. No cooperative and no association have a data sheet on the quality and quantity of essential oils by species.
To make better use of exploited species, it is necessary first of all to take care of the production of the biomass. This can only be achieved through submission of operating with government regulations that allow a better management of the species and a protection of the resources, preserving the already exploited species and developing the exploitation of species with very poor yield. The processing methods are the key to a good valorization. in the case of our study, almost all of the essential oil extraction units are traditional, except cooperatives Libio Ait Ait-Waka and Ayedji which feature modern stainless steel extractor unit, equipped with a boiler for generating steam. This differential extraction technique is due to the cost of modern equipment for extracting oil and weak financial capacity of these organizations.
Therefore, state authorities must ensure the equipment of these operators with modernized distillation equipment necessary for their activity. This operation will certainly guarantee a competitive quality product. The authorities are also required to develop partnership agreements with donors to provide the necessary financial support for the purchase of distillation equipment (Anon., 2008). other forms of valorization are also common, such as the use of derivatives of the species in some local products of local soil as part of medicinal and / or culinary recipes such as herbal teas, bread, sauce, butter, honey, dates and couscous flavored with plants (El Rhaffari & al, 2008). An adequate packaging of the products can also lead to a better valorization. The plants recovered after distillations are used as fuels for a new distillation. Mixed with some other products, they can also represent an interesting source of food for cattle that can be particularly developed in the period of welding. (Anon., 2006a).
Biological certifications would add value to MAP products of production/exploitation areas. it therefore becomes imperative to establish the Moroccan regulations of biological certification and the national certification of management systems. These regulations shall specify the procedures for certification and control of MAP and their biological derivatives. Progress in terms of routes management and traceability systems can lead to improvements in quality, food safety and environmental protection (Anon., 2006c).
Traceability and biological certification of products associated with adequate quality management can ensure industrial development of these products. This value is the primary objective of the operators. In fact, many plants can justify industrial exploitation as food flavors, fragrance components or cosmetic compositions, intermediaries of synthesis, herbal recipes or natural pesticides (Bissangou, 1997).
QUALITY ASPECTS OF THE COMMERCIAL AND SOCIAL PRODUCT
The results of the questionnaire for this section show that all producers do not practice a system of traceability for their products or biological certification. They also lack a clear vision for the promotion and improvement of the sector, do not target the international market and do not have a vision of conservation of natural resources. It also shows that the sector is characterized by the presence of intermediaries who are the first to benefit from the present situation. Despite their creation by the state, these organizations still suffer from lack of support and assistance for technical guidance and research channels of marketing. For all these reasons, these organizations do not draw the benefits that allow populations to have a sufficient and steady income. Thus, improving the standard of living of the population through the development of the sector of MAP remains far from being achieved and is still binding under these adverse conditions.
In this study, the deep diagnosis allowed us to detect anomalies plaguing the sector of medicinal and aromatic plants in cooperatives and associations of the Meknes-Tafilalt region in Morocco. The results of this study show that 66% of harvested species are spontaneous and there is no request for permission to harvest and qualification of staff for almost all operators. This kind of exploitation and management of the harvest of the species can threaten the abundance and the durability of certain phytogenetic resources, namely: Rosmarinus officinalis and Matricaria chamomilla which respectively account for 23% and 14% of the total production. The type of exploitation of spontaneous plant resources may also contribute to the depletion and / or the disappearance of certain species of significant economic interest and medicinal importance as Foeniculum vulgare, Pimpinella anisum, Santolina rosmarinifolia or Carum carvi. A program of management and conservation of genetic resources must be considered in the sector of medicinal and aromatic plants. To support the competitiveness of products, meet market demand and increase socio-economic income of the rural and marginalized population, cooperatives and associations should incorporate culture in the sector of MAP. In the same sense, it is very useful to integrate training programs for the staff of the cooperatives and associations regarding good practice of harvest and quality, valorization, treatment and conditioning of the products of the exploited species, techniques of extraction, systems of certification and marketing and marketing of the final products.
Received: 5 July 2013
Accepted: 15 September 2014
The authors extend their special thanks to Professor Nadia Wahid from the National Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants and for anonymous reviewers for their invaluable contribution to the improvement of this manuscript. The authors want Also to thank the administrative responsible of the Regional Directorate of Agriculture of Meknes Tafilalet area for their assistance in the collection of information on cooperatives and associations.
Anonymous--1996--L'agriculture Dans La Region Meknes-Tafilalet Potentialites & Opportunites D'investissement --Min. Agric. Marit. Fish. Dir. Prov. Agric., Meknes. Maroc.
Anonymous--2000--Publication du plan de developpement de la region de Meknes-Tafilalt 2000-2004--High Comm. Plann. Rep. Dev. Econ., Rabat.
Anonymous--2004--Strategie nationale pour la conservation & l'utilisation durable de la Diversite Biologique --Min. Reg. Plann. Water Environ., Rabat.
Anonymous--2006a--Projet Filiere Des Plantes Aromatiques & Medicinales, Mission de l'USAID au Maroc --Agric. Agrobuss. Int. Chemonics Int. Inc. Maroc.
Anonymous--2006b--Maroc PAM, Lettre Bimensuelle d'Information sur les Plantes Aromatiques & Medicinales --Un. St. Agen. Int. Dev., Rabat.
Anonymous--2006c--Amelioration de la competitivite soutenable au Maroc, Mission de l'USAID au Maroc --Agric. Agrobuss. Int. Chemonics Int. Inc. Maroc.
Anonymous--2008--Strategie nationale de developpement du secteur des plantes aromatiques & medicinales --Miss. US. Maroc. Agric. Agrobuss. Int. Chemonics Int. Inc. Maroc.
Assoumou-Ndong, F.--2010--Promotion d'une economie d'entrepreneurs par la valorisation de la filiere des plantes romatiques & medicinales (PAM) au Gabon --Gabon. Sol. Int. Otawa, Canada.
Benabid, A.--2000--Flore et ecosysteme du Maroc. Evaluation & preservation de la biodiversite--Ibis Press. Paris.
Bissangou, M.F. & Oljamba, J.M.--1997--Valorisation chimique de quelques especes aromatiques & medicinales du Congo--Pharm. Med. Trad. Afr. 9: 70-84.
Cauvin, B., Marien, J.N. & El-Yousfi, S.M.--1997--Protection, conservation & gestion de ressources genetiques forestieres au Maroc--An. Rech. For. Maroc. 1: 178195.
Eddouks, M., Maghrani, M., Lemhadri, A., Ouahidi, M.L. & Jouad, H.--2002--Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants used for the treatment of Diabetes mellitus, hypertension and cardiac diseases in the south-east region of Morocco (Tafilalet)--J. Ethnopharmacol. 82: 97-103.
El Amrani, F. & Chakir, S.--2010--Etude ethnopharmacologique de quelques plantes utilisees dans le traitement du diabete dans la region de Meknes-Tafilalet (Maroc) --Phytother. 8: 161-165.
El Rhaffari, L., Allaoui, R., Benhssain, K. & Sellam, K.--2008--Valorisation des plantes aromatiques et medicinales des montagnes d'Er-Rachidia enquete ethnobotanique et socioeconomique--Errachidia Org. Non Gov., Italy. 39pp.
Gonzalez, J.A., Garcia-Barriuso, M., Ramirez-Rodriguez, R., Bernardos, S. & Amich, F.--2012--Plants used in folk cosmetics and hygiene in the Arribes del Duero Natural Park (western Spain)--Lazaroa 33: 9-18.
Hmamouchi, M.--1997--Plantes alimentaires, aromatiques, condimentaires, medicinales & toxiques au Maroc--Cah. Opt. Medit. 23: 89-110.
Hseini, S., Kahouadji, A., Lahssissene, H. & Tijane, M. --2007--Etude ethnobotanique de la flore medicinale dans la region de Rabat (Maroc occidental)--Lazaroa 28: 79-93.
Lahsissene, H. & Kahouadji, A.--2010--Analyse ethnobotanique des plantes medicinales & aromatiques de la flore marocaine: cas de la region de Zaer--Phytother. 8: 202-209.
Mehdioui, R. & Kahouadji, A.--2007--Etude ethnobotanique aupres de la population riveraine de la foret d'Amsittene: cas de la Commune d'Imi n'Tlit (Province d'Essaouira)--Bull. Inst. Sci. 29: 11-20.
Porres-Martinez, M., Carretero M.E. & Gomez-Serranillos, M.P.--2013--Pharmacological activity of Salvia lavandulifolia Vahl. and chemical components of its essential oil--Lazaroa 34: 237-254
Saidi, S., Sebbata, O., Bencherqi, A., Mrabet, R. & Oukabli, A.--2007--Rapport National Sur L'etat des ressources phytogenetiques pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture --Inst. Natl. Rech. Agron., Rabat.
Salhi, S., Fadli, M., Zidane, L. & Douira, A.--2010--Etudes floristique et ethnobotanique des plantes medicinales de la ville de Kenitra (Maroc)--Lazaroa 31: 133-146.
Scherrer, A.M., Motti, R. & Weckerle, C.S.--2005--Traditional plant use in the areas of Monte Vesole and Ascea, Cilento National Park (Campania, Southern Italy)--J. Ethnopharmacol. 97: 129-143.
Silou, T., Taty-Loumbou, F. & Chalchat J.C.--2002 --Etude de l'effet du sechage solaire sur le rendement & la composition chimique des huiles essentielles extraites des feuilles d'Eucalyptus citriodora--Ann. Falsif. Expert. Chim. Toxicol. 960: 287-301.
Tahraoui, A., EL-Hilaly, J., Israili, Z.H. & Lyoussi, B. --2007--Ethnopharmacological survey of plants used in the traditional treatment of hypertension and diabetes in south-eastern Morocco (Errachidia province)--J. Ethnopharmacol. 110: 105-117.
Wahid, N., Heuertz, M., Alia, R., Boulli, A. & Garcia-Martinez, S.C.--2009--Exploration & conservation des ressources genetiques du Pin maritime au Maroc--For. Medit. 3: 245-256.
Wahid, N., Naydenov, K.D., Kamari, S., Boulli, A., Tremblay, F.--2010--Structure genetic of Pinuspinaster Ait. populations in Morocco revealed by nuclear microsatellites --Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 38: 73-82.
Wahid, N., Andre, R., Lamhamedi, M.S., Beaulieu, J., Margolis, H.A. & De Blois, J.--2012--Genetic parameters and performance stability of white spruce somatic seedlings in clonal tests--For. Ecol. Manag. 270: 45-53.
Wahid, N.--2012--La diversite genetique des ressources naturelles a l'epreuve de la satisfaction des besoins ecologique & economique--Journees National de Substances Naturelles et Developpement Durable, 22-23 Juin 2012, Rabat. Maroc.
Zhang, X.--2003--Directives OMS sur les bonnes pratiques agricoles et les bonnes pratiques de recolte (BPAR) relatives aux plantes medicinales--Dep. Med. Ess. Polit. Pharm. WHO. Geneve.
Mouhcine Fadil (*,**), Abdellah Farah (**), Taoufik Haloui (*, **) & Saad Rachiq (*)
* Faculty of Science and Technology Fez Sais. Department of Biology, Laboratory of Functional Ecology and Environment. Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University. PO Box 2202. Road Imouzzer. Fez 30000. Morocco. Email: email@example.com
** National Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. Laboratory of Medicinal, Aromatic Plants and Natural Substances. Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University. PO Box 159. Taounate 34025. Morocco.
Table 1 Cooperatives and associations considered to diagnose the sector of MAP in the Meknes-Tafilalt area District N. Name Address El Hajeb 1 Ayedji assoc. Rural district Iqadar Khenifra 4 MAP's develop. Rural district EL assoc. Hammam Mrirt Ait Libio-Ait Rural district Alt Ishak Waka coop. Ikiss coop. Tateouine village beside Midelt El Khair assoc. Ait Oufella village Rural district Itzer Ifrane 5 Initiative of the Hay essalam- Ifrane, women coop. center of the female cooperatives EL Amal coop. Rural district Alt Yahaya Oualla Azrou Toufestalt village Ajaabou coop. Rural district Ain Louh Achifae coop. Rural district Bensmim Prod. MAP Temihdit Temihdit Er-rachidia 1 Tazemmourite assoc. Rural district EL Khang District Year Organism El Hajeb 2004 -- Khenifra 2007 National Initiative Human Development 2009 Participative project MEDA Rural Developpement average central Atlas (Khenifra project) 2005 -- 2006 National Initiative Human Development Ifrane 2006 -- 2005 -- 2005 Development Reinforcement Program Local Assoc. Coop. 2006 -- 2010 -- Er-rachidia 2000 -- Table 2 Summary table of the main results of the questionnaire Name Authorization Data sheets Use of of harvest for the phytosanitary products products Ayedji No No No association MAP's Development No No No association Ait Libio-Ait Yes Yes No Waka Cooperative Ikiss cooperative No No No El Khair No No No association Cooperative of No No No initiative of the women ELAmal cooperative Yes No No Ajaabou cooperative No No No Achifae cooperative Yes No No Production of MAP No No No Temihdit Tazemmourite No No No association Name Inspection Specific Mode of or sorting sorting drying Ayedji Yes Yes Shade association MAP's Development Yes No Dryer association Ait Libio-Ait Yes Yes Dryer/ Shade Waka Cooperative Ikiss cooperative Yes No Shade El Khair Yes No Dryer/ Shade association Cooperative of Yes No Shade initiative of the women ELAmal cooperative Yes No Shade Ajaabou cooperative Yes No Shade Achifae cooperative Yes No Shade Production of MAP Yes No Sun Temihdit Tazemmourite Yes No Sun association Name Traceability Qualification of the staff Ayedji No No association MAP's Development No No association Ait Libio-Ait No No Waka Cooperative Ikiss cooperative No No El Khair No Yes association Cooperative of No No initiative of the women ELAmal cooperative No No Ajaabou cooperative No No Achifae cooperative No No Production of MAP No No Temihdit Tazemmourite No Yes association Name Types of products Modern Market Dried Plants and stainless essential oils equipments Ayedji Yes Local/National association MAP's Development Dried Plants and No Local/National association essential oils Ait Libio-Ait Dried Plants and Yes Local/National Waka Cooperative essential oils Ikiss cooperative Dried Plant only No Local/National El Khair Dried Plants and No Local/National association essential oils Cooperative of Dried Plants and No Local/National initiative of essential oils the women ELAmal cooperative Dried Plant only No Local/National Ajaabou cooperative Dried Plants and No Local/National essential oils Achifae cooperative Dried Plant only No Local/National Production of MAP Dried Plant only No Local/National Temihdit Tazemmourite Dried Plants and No Local/National association essential oils Name Biological certification Ayedji No association MAP's Development No association Ait Libio-Ait No Waka Cooperative Ikiss cooperative No El Khair No association Cooperative of No initiative of the women ELAmal cooperative No Ajaabou cooperative No Achifae cooperative No Production of MAP No Temihdit Tazemmourite No association Table 3 Main species exploited by the cooperatives and associations of the Meknes-Tafilalt area for marketing Family English name Scientific name Lamiaceae Sage Salvia officinalis L. Lavender Lavandula angustifolia Mill. Common thyme Thymus vulgaris L. Oregano Origanum vulgare L. Lavender Stoechade Lavandula stoechas L. Spearmint Mentha spicata L. Peppermint Mentha piperita L. Lemon Balm Melissa officinalis L. Pennyroyal Mentha pulegium L. Rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis L. Asteraceae Pot Marigold Calendula officinalis L. Santoline Santolina rosmarinifolia L. Chamomile Matricaria chamomilla L Pyrethrum Anacyclus pyrethrum L. Sagebrush Artemisia herba-alba Asso. Apiaceae Green Anise Pimpinella anisum L. Cumin Cuminum cyminum L. Common Fennel Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Caraway Carum carvi L. Fabaceae Fenugreek Trigonella foenum-graecum L. Alfalfa Medicago sativa L. Rosaceae Rosebush Rosa centifolia Mill. Chenopodiaceae Wormseed Chenopodium ambrosioides L. Cupressaceae Juniper Juniperus communis L. Geraniaceae Geranium Rosat Pelargonium graveolens L. Iridaceae Iris Iris germanica L. Lythraceae Henna Lawsonia inermis L. Papaveraceae Poppy Papaver rhoeas L. Rutaceae Petitgrain Citrus aurantium L. Verbenaceae Verbena, Vervain Verbena officinalis L. Family Vernacular name Lamiaceae Salmia; Tilsas; Tamazzut khzama beldiya z'itra; Azukenni Zatar Halhal Naana lbeldi Naana felfli Hbak tranj Fliou Azir; Yazir Asteraceae Jemra; Ahmer rras; Azwiwel Ouezouaza;Tayrart Babounj Tignest; Aoujdem Chih; Izri Apiaceae Habbet hlawa Kamoun Nafaa; Bessbass; Irden Karwiya Fabaceae Halba; Tifidas Fassa Rosaceae Lward lbeldi Chenopodiaceae Mkhinza Cupressaceae Araar Geraniaceae ifer laatar Iridaceae Tafzout Lythraceae Henna Papaveraceae Bellamane Rutaceae Range Verbenaceae Lwiza Table 4 Annual produced quantity of the species exploited by the cooperatives and associations of the Meknes-Tafilialt area based in dried plant Exploited species Prod. Quantity (kg/year) Rosmarinus officinalis 117000 Matricaria chamomilla 72000 Calendula officinalis 50000 Melissa officinalis 43000 Lavandula officinalis 35600 Thymus vulgaris 34000 Artemisia herba-alba 32000 Mentha pulegium 31000 Lavandula stoechas 13000 Lawsonia inermis 10000 Anacyclus pyrethrum 10000 Medicago sativa 10000 Salvia officinalis 5400 Trigonella foenum-graecum 5000 Papaver rhoeas 3500 Origanum vulgare 3200 Citrus aurantium 3000 Iris germanica 2500 Juniperus communis 2500 Mentha spicata 2000 Verbena officinalis 2000 Pelargonium capitatum 1500 Mentha piperita 1000 Rosa centifolia 1000 Chenopodium ambrosioides 1000 Cuminum cyminum 1000 Foeniculum vulgare 800 Pimpinella anisum 500 Santolina rosmarinifolia 400 Carum carvi 200 Total annual prod.(kg/ Year) 494100 Figure 1.--Distribution of the exploitation type (wild or cultivated) and percentage of those with or without authorization of harvest of MAP species.0 Wild 66% Cultivated 34% Without authorization 73% of harvest With authorization 27% of harvest Nota: Tabla derivada de grafico segmentado. Figure 2.--Percentage of total annual production in mass of the species exploited by the cooperatives and associations of the Meknes-Tafilalt area. Tazemmourite association 8% El Khair association 5% Ikiss cooperative 18% Production of MAP Temihdit 10% Achifae cooperative 8% Ajaabou cooperative 19% EL Amal cooperative 11% Cooperative of initiative 4% of the women Ait Libio-Ait Waka 2% Cooperative MAP's Development 0.4% association Nota: Tabla derivada de grafico segmentado. Figure 3.--Percentage of use of the various modes of treatment for the drying of the plants and percentages of valorization of the species exploited by the studied organizations. Dryer 23% Sun 15% Shade 62% Dried Plants and 64% essential oils Dried Plant only 36% Nota: Tabla derivada de grafico segmentado.
|Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback|
|Author:||Fadil, Mouhcine; Farah, Abdellah; Haloui, Taoufik; Rachiq, Saad|
|Date:||Jan 1, 2014|
|Previous Article:||Peculiaridades taxonomicas sobre robles marcescentes (Quercus, Fagaceae) en el sur de Portugal.|
|Next Article:||Comunidades alpinas de los macizos calizos de los Picos de Europa (norte de Espana).|