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Diagnostic role of bone marrow aspiration and trephine biopsy in haematological practice.

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: ABSTRACT

Objective: To determine the usefulness of bone marrow aspiration and trephine biopsy in evaluation of the bone marrow in routine haematological practice.

Methodology: This study included 443 cases of bone marrow examination, referred to Pathology Department, Lady Reading Hospital Peshawar during the period extending from January 2012 till July 2013. All the bone marrow smears and bone biopsy sections were examined in detail. The diagnosis and findings on aspirate and biopsy were evaluated and compared with each other.

Results: In 73.8% of the cases the bone marrow aspiration and trephine biopsy showed same diagnosis i.e., bone marrow aspiration alone was sufficient for diagnosis in these cases. In the remaining 116 (26.2%) cases trephine biopsy sections or touch imprints were found to be necessary in for making final diagnosis. These cases were those of the hypoplastic / aplastic marrows, Myelofibrosis, lymphomatous infiltration and chronic granulomatous inflammation.

Conclusion: The study results suggest that both the aspirate and trephine biopsy complement each other. Nutritional anaemias, Haematological Malignancies and Immune Thrombocytopenia can be readily diagnosed by bone marrow aspiration alone. Trephine biopsy is necessary for diagnosing Granulomatous Inflammation and Hypoplastic/Aplastic Anaemia. Also trephine biopsy is required to diagnose Myelofibrosis and Lymphomatous infiltration.

Key Words: Bone marrow aspirate, Trephine Biopsy, Diagnostic usefulness.INTRODUCTION

Bone marrow examination is a useful and cost effective diagnostic procedure in haematological practice for the diagnosis of both neoplastic and non-neoplastic haematological diseases. These procedures are also employed for typing of anaemias, evaluation of cytopenias and pyrexia of unknown origin. The bone marrow examination may either confirm the clinically suspected disease or may provide the previously unsuspected diagnosis1-3. Bone marrow aspiration alone is usually sufficient to diagnose nutritional anaemias, most of the acute leukaemias and Immune Thrombocytopenias because of ease of the applying pearl iron stain and other cytochemical stains on aspirate smears but it does not provide important diagnostic information in patients with granulomatous disease, myelofibrosis and bone marrow infiltration4. Beside this the bone marrow examination is a commonly employed tool for staging and prognosis of various solid tumors5. The presence of metastasis in the bone marrow is usually incurable but not necessarily fatal. It is therefore considered imperative to rule out marrow involvement in any malignancy where curative treatment is considered6. When both the procedures are performed simultaneously, they complement each other. Bone marrow aspirate smear are more useful to study morphology and applying pearl iron stain whereas trephine biopsy sections are used to study the architecture and pattern of distribution of the cells in the bone marrow. This study was conducted to determine and compare the diagnostic efficacy of bone marrow aspiration and trephine biopsy done simultaneously.

METHODOLOGY

This study was conducted at haematology section of the Pathology department, Lady Reading Hospital Peshawar from January 2012 to July 2013. All patients who underwent simultaneous bone marrow aspiration and trephine biopsy (n=443) were included in this study.

After taking ethical approval and written informed consent about 0.5 to 1.0 cc bone marrow aspirates was taken from posterior superior iliac spine by using Salah's needle and employing standard technique. Bone trephine biopsy was taken using Jamshedi needle. The biopsy was fixed for 24 hours in 10 % buffered formalin and then decalcified overnight in a mixture of equal amounts of 8 % hydrochloric Acid and 10 % formic Acid. The fixation and decalcification of the biopsy was followed by automatic tissue processing, Paraffin embedding and sectioning. The bone marrow aspirate smears were stained by Geimsa stain while biopsy sections were stained by haemotoxyllin, eosin and reticulin. Pearl iron stain was performed for every case, while cytochemical stains were applied as and where required. All the bone marrow aspirate smear and trephine sections were reviewed for morphological details and compared for final diagnosis. RESULTS

A total of 443 cases underwent simultaneous bone marrow aspiration and trephine biopsy. Out of those bone marrow aspiration was sufficient in making diagnosis in 327 (73.8 %) cases as it matched with the final diagnosis made on trephine biopsy. Trephine Biopsy was diagnostic in 439 cases with diagnostic accuracy of 99 %. (Table 1) shows the cases diagnosed on bone marrow aspirate and trephine biopsy. It shows that none of the cases of Chronic Granulomatous Inflammation, Myelofibrosis and Aplastic Anaemia was diagnosed on bone marrow aspiration. All the cases of Anaemia of Chronic disorder were diagnosed on aspirate smear, while 04 out 30 cases were not diagnosed on trephine biopsy. 34 out 36 (94.4 %) cases of Nutritional Anaemias were diagnosed on aspirate. Table 2 shows cases showing matching between bone marrow aspiration and trephine biopsy. It shows that 73.8 % cases showed matching between bone marrow aspiration and trephine biopsy. Table 3 shows the cases where the final diagnosis was different on bone marrow aspirate or tre-

Table 1: Cases diagnosed on bone marrow aspirate and trephine biopsy

Diagnosis###No. of cases###Bone marrow aspirate###Bone marrow biopsy

Nutritional Anaemia###36###34 (94.4%)###36 (100%)

Granulomatous Inflammation###03###NIL (0%)###03 (100%)

Infections###08###06(75%)###08 (100%)

Malaria###04###04(100%)###04 (100%)

Leishmenia###04###04(100%)###04 (100%)

Immune Thrombocytopenia###24###20(83.3%)###24 (100%)

Anaemia of chronic Disorder###30###30(100%)###26 (86.6%)

Haematological Malignancy###99###89 (89.9%)###99 (100%)

Acute myeloblastic leukaemia###38###36 (94.7%)###38 (100%)

Acute myeloblastic leukaemia###31###29 (93.5%)###31 (100%)

Chronic myeloid leukaemia###16###11(68/7%)###16 (100%)

Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia###14###13(92.8%)###14 (100%)

Multiple. Myeloma###09###06 (66.6%)###09 (100%)

Lymphoma###18###03 (16.6%)###18 (100%)

Myelodysplastc syndrome###05###04 (80%)###05 (100%)

Metastatic Solid Tumors###10###09 (90%)###10 (100%)

Aplastic Anaemia###48###NIL (0%)###48 (100%)

Normal marrow###28###20 (71.4%)###28 (100%)

Myelofibrosis###07###NIL (0%)###07 (100%)

Miscellaneous###11###09 (81.8%)###11 (100%)

Total###443###327 (73.8%)###439 (99%)

Table 2: Cases showing matching or otherwise of

###bone marrow aspirate cytology with trephine biopsy

###Diagnosis###Percentage

###Nutritional Anaemia###94.4 %

###Granulomatous inflammation###00 %

###Infection###92 %

###Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura###83.3 %

###Anaemia of chronic Disorder###86.6 %

###Haematological Malignancies###89.9 %

###Multiple Myeloma###66.6 %

###Lymphoma###16.6 %

###Myelodysplastic syndrome###80 %

###Metastatic Solid Tumors###90 %

###Aplastic###00 %

###Normal marrow###71.4 %

###Myelofibrosis###00 %

###Miscellaneous###81.8 %

Table 3: Cases where diagnosis on bone marrow aspiration was different

###from the final diagnosis

###Diagnosis###Bone marrow cytology###No. of cases (%)

###Nutrition Anaemia###Failed Aspirate###02 (5.6%)

###Granulomatous inflammation###Normal marrow###03 (100%)

###Idiopathic thrombocytopenic

###Dry tap###04 (16.6%)

###purpura

###Chronic myeloid leukaemia###Dry tap due to fibrosis###05(31.3%)

###Acute myeloblastic leukaemia###Dry tap due to packed marrow###02 (5.3%)

###Acute lymphoblastic

###Dry tap due to packed marrow###02(6.5%)

###leukaemia

###Multiple Myeloma###Dry tap###02(22.2%)

###Lymphoma###Normal marrow###06 (33.3%)

###Hypercellular###03 (16.6%)

###Atypical cells###04 (22.2%)

###Dry Tap###02 (11.1%)

###Myelodysplastic syndrome###Megaloblastic Anaemia###01 (20%)

###Hypoplastic / Aplastic###Dry tap###08(16.6%)

###Hypocellular###34(70.8%)

###Normal marrow###06 (12.5%)

###Normal marrow###Hypocellular###03(10.7%)

###Dry tap###04 (14.3%)

###Lymphocytosis###01(3.6%)

###Metastatic solid tumour###Normal marrow###01(10%)

###Miscellaneous###Normal marrow###01(9 %)

###Hypocellular###01(9 %)

###Myelofibrosis###Dry tap###07 (100%)

phine biopsy. It shows 50% (9/18) cases of Lymphomatous infiltration and all the cases (3/3) of Chronic Granulomatous Inflammation were labeled as normal marrow on bone marrow aspiration. In some cases bone marrow aspirate was not successful in diagnosis mostly due to failed aspirate.

DISCUSSION

Examination of the bone marrow is one of the diagnostic pillars of haematological practice. Bone marrow aspiration and trephine biopsy are the two procedures done for the diagnosis of haematological and non haematological disorders. These procedures are also employed for follow up of patients on chemotherapy, bone marrow transplantation and other forms of treatment1,4, 5, 15.

Bone marrow aspiration and trephine biopsy complement each other and in many centers both the specimens are obtained at the same time and from the same site1, 11. In our study a comparative evaluation of bone marrow aspiration and trephine biopsy was done to determine the diagnostic usefulness of both the procedures. We observed 73.8% positive correlation between bone marrow aspiration and trephine biopsy. Chandra et al have reported 78% positive correlation between the two procedures whereas another study has reported 61.25% positive correlation2, 3. Good sensitivity of bone marrow aspiration (94.4 %) was found in diagnosing Nutritional Anaemia. Only 02 cases were not diagnosed on bone marrow aspirate smear due to failed aspirate. Cases of Anaemia of chronic disorder were easily diagnosed on bone marrow aspirate (100 %) as compared to trephine biopsy. The probable cause could be loss of iron during processing of biopsy sections. We found 92 % positive correlation in cases of infections and 83.3 % in cases of Idiopathic Thrombocytopenia (ITP). In 04 cases of immune thrombocytopenia the aspirate was dry. 89.9 % positive correlation was found in haematological malignancies as 89 out 99 cases were diagnosed on bone marrow aspirate. Out of 10 cases missed form diagnosis on aspirate, smear was dry tap due to fibrosis (05 cases of CML) and packed marrow (04 cases of Acute Leukaemia). We found bone marrow aspiration of comparable reliability to bone biopsy in diagnosing nutritional anaemia, ITP and haematological malignancies. The same finding was observed by Nauda et al3 and Chandra et al4.

In our study we observed 90 % positive correlation in cases of metastatic tumors which is higher than the other studies3, 12 who reported 70% and 33% positive correlation between the two. However trephine biopsy was found as gold standard for diagnosing the metastatic tumors as not only its diagnostic efficacy was 100%, but it was also helpful in search for the primary tumor. In the present study poor correlation was observed in cases of lymphoma (16.6 %). All the cases of lymphoma were diagnosed on trephine biopsy but the lymphoma cells were observed only in 04 out of 18 (22.2%) cases on bone marrow aspirate smear. Our findings correlated with those of Bird et al1and Schmid et al. 16

In our study 100 % case (03/03) of Granulomatous inflammation in the bone marrow were diagnosed on trephine biopsy and none of the case was diagnosed on bone marrow aspirate. This is mainly because of focal involvement of the marrow by granuloma which is very difficult to detect on aspirate smear. Other studies have also observed detection of granulomas more on trephine biopsy than aspirate3, 4.

All the cases of Myelofibrosis (07/07) were diagnosed on trephine biopsy and the bone marrow aspirate was unsuccessful in all cases due to marked fibrosis. About sixty six percent (6/9) cases of multiple myeloma showed a positive correlation in aspirate smear and trephine biopsy. All these cases of multiple myeloma were diagnosed on trephine biopsy, but the aspirate was dry in 02 cases and one case was reported as Normal marrow on aspirate, but showed localized clusters of plasma cells on trephine biopsy. Similar observations were made by Stifter et al in his study9.

Bone marrow biopsy remained the gold standard for diagnosing Aplastic Anaemia. In our study 34/48 cases showed hypo cellular marrow on aspirate smear, 08/48 were dry tap and 06/48 were diagnosed as cellular marrow, probably due to accidental aspiration from normal marrow space. About 71 % (20/28) of the normal bone marrow showed matching in aspirate smear and bone biopsy in our study. This was due to the fact that 08/28 cases were either diagnosed as hypo cellular marrow, Dry tap or lymphocytosis on bone marrow aspirate.

CONCLUSION

Bone marrow aspiration and trephine bone biopsy complement each for bone marrow evaluation. Both the procedures can be done simultaneously as bone marrow aspirate give better morphology of the cells and bone marrow biopsy give a good picture of the architecture and pattern of distribution of cells. Though bone marrow aspirate alone is usually sufficient in diagnosing nutritional anaemia most of the haematological malignancies and immune thrombocytopenia, we found bone marrow biopsy very useful in diagnosing Granulomatous inflammation, lymphomatous infiltrations, Myelofibrosis and Aplastic Anaemia.REFERENCES

1. Bird AR, Jacob P, Trephine biopsy of the bone marrow. S Afr Med J 1983;64:271-6.

2. Toi PC, Varghese RG, Rai R. Comparative evaluation of simulatenous bone marrow aspiration and bone marrow biopsy: an institutional experience. Indian J Hematol Blood Transfus 2010;26:41-4.

3. Chandra S, Chandra H. Comparison of bone marrow aspirates cytology, touch imprints cytology and trephine biopsy for bone marrow evaluation. Hematol Rep 2011;3:e22.

4. Winfield DA, Polacarz SV. Bone marrow histology. 3: valve of bone marrow core biopsy in acute leukaemia, myelodysplastic syndromes, and chronic myeloid leukaemia. J Clin Pathol 1992;45:855-9.

5. Syed NN, Moiz B, Adil SN, Khurshid M. Diagnostic importance of bone marrow examination in non haematological disorders. J Pak Med Assoc 2007;57:123-5.

6. Nanda A, Basu S, Marwaha N. Bone marrow trephine biopsy as an adjunct to bone marrow aspiration. J Assoc Physicians India 2012;50:893-5.

7. Varma N, Dash S, Sardo RR, Marwah N. Relative efficacy of bone marrow trephine biopsy sections and compared to trephine imprint and aspiration smear in routine haematological practice. Indian J Pathol Microbiol 1993;36:215-26.

8. Pasquale D, Chikkappa G. Comparative evoluation of bone marrow aspirate particle smear, biopsy imprints and biopsy sections. Am J Hematol 1986;22:381 -9.

9. Stifter S, Babarovic E, Volcovic T, Sili-Bekafigo I, Stemberger C, Nacinovic A, et al. Combined evaluation of bone marrow aspirate and biopsy is superior in the prognosis of multiple myeloma. Diagn Pathol 2010;5:30.10. Brown RSD, Dogan A, Ell PJ, Pyne HA, Master JRW, Harland SJ. The comparative value of bone marrow aspirate and trephine for obtaining bone scan targeted metastases from hormone refractory prostate cancer. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis 2002;5:144-51.

11. Naresh KN, Trividi P, Luqman A, Rehmatullah A. Bone marrows aspirate and trephine biopsy findings in lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma. Am J Hematol 2011;86:311-2.

12. Moid F, Palma LD. Comparison of relative value of bone marrow aspirates and bone marrow trephine biopsies in the diagnosis of solid tumor metastasis and Hodgkin lymphoma: institutional experience and literature review. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2005;129;497-501.

13. Musolino A, Guazzi A, Nizzoli R, Panebianco M, Mincini C, Ardizzoni A. Accuracy and relative value of bone marrow aspiration in the detection of lymphoid infiltration in non-hodgkin lymphoma. Tumorri 2010;96:24-7.

14. Mehdi SR, Bhatt ML. Metastasis of solid tumour in bone marrow: a study from northern India. Indian J Hematol Blood Transfue 2011;27:93-5.

15. Wilkins BS, Bostanci AG, Ryan MF, Jones DB. Haemopoietic regrowth after chemotherapy for acute leukaemia: an immunohistochemical study of bone marrow trephine biopsy specimens. J Clin Pathol 1993;46:915-21.

16. Schmid C, Isaacson PG. Bone marrow trephine biopsy in lymphoproliferative disease. J Clin Pathol 1992;45:746-50.
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Publication:Journal of Postgraduate Medical Institute
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9PAKI
Date:Jun 30, 2014
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