Printer Friendly

Diagnostic analysis of CFR Regional--Constanta.


Human resources have become a strategic production factor, and at the same time the main component of performance for all domains and all organization levels. Such evolution allows us to appreciate that human potential is extremely important for the management of the organization both according to the efficient use, and quantitative and qualitative assurance.

As regards the diagnose of human resources for their evaluation, the management theory provided the use of two indicator categories: the indicator of human potential assurance and the indicator of human potential use. [4] Within this diagnostic, the knowledge of human resources is aimed from the perspective of evolution, structure, quality, efficiency of their use and indicators of reward management.

Assuring the necessary human resources represents one of the most important issues with which any organization is confronting, the manner in which such activity is being performed influencing the future results in a great extent. An important condition for complete and efficient use of human resources is assuring them greater stability. The mobility of manpower appears both under the form of inputs and outputs, no matter the generating cause, and modify the scriptic number of personnel in a certain period. When analyzing the movement of human resources, a distinction may be performed between their circulation, resulted from objective causes--employment, retirement, decease, invalidity, disease, and fluctuation of human resources from causes unknown by the Company in a certain period of time--better working conditions, greater salaries, facilities awarded to employees. According to Professor Dani Rodrik in a recent article:

"The message is that development economists should stop acting as categorical advocates (or detractors) for specific approaches to development. They should instead be diagnosticians, helping decision makers choose the right model (and remedy) for their specific realities, among many contending models (and remedies)". [7]

Subsequently, this paper is not meant to criticize the working manner of Constanta Regional, but to diagnose the current state of human resources and to support the management when taking decisions of improvement/removal of effects not wanted derived from the manifestation of weak points and threats identified at the level of Regional human resources.


In our approach to perform a diagnose of the human resources within Constanta CFR Regional, we have followed the following four main phases:

* acquisition of qualitative and quantitative information regarding the practices and procedures of insurance, use and recompense of railroad personnel within the analyzed regional;

* evaluation and structuring of information acquired in the first phase;

* analysis of results for the identification of both strong and weak points, needs of corrective actions and improvement opportunities;

* action planning for the correction of deficiencies and a proposal elaboration for efficiency raise of insurance actions of human resources.

Data and information sources necessary for the performed analyses have been represented by evidence of personnel of Human Resources service, Service of Technical Development Organization and Financial and Accounting Service of CFR Regional in Constanta for the January 2008-June 2011 period, structured on a content corresponding to the necessities. For non-structured evidence of such content, the information necessary for the analysis were obtained subsequent to a previous preparation of personnel data. Other instruments for data acquisition have been used, such as direct and indirect observation, photography of working day and databases of personnel evidence of CFR Regional of Constanta.

The system of indicators used in the analysis of human potential for CFR Regional of Constanta is presented below.


It seems that during the 1960's research conducted at the Stanford Research Institute by Robert Stewart, Albert Humphrey led to the development of the SWOT analysis tool. SWOT is an acronym for Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats. The SWOT method represents an investigation technique and analysis of de factum state in a moment of time, based on systematic study of four categories of contextual elements: strong points, weak points, opportunities and threats. [5] The diagnose of human resources based on the analysis of indicators system above has allowed the prominence of both strong and weak points, and is instituted in a benchmark for the management of regional regarding the planning of human resources from a quantitative and qualitative perspective.

The integrated pattern of the process regarding human resources assurance and use inside the Branch office ""CREIR CF" of Constanta is presented in the logical schema presented in Figure 2.



According to the analysis scheme in Figure 1, the evaluation of assurance dimension with human resources within CFR Regional of Constanta has comprised three main phases: the analysis of total personnel, the analysis of personnel structure and its mobility.

For the adequate development of the administration activities of railway infrastructure and organization of train circulation, in the conditions of application of new restructuring and reorganization measures, the management of CFR Regional of Constanta shall assure the necessary adequate human resources, both from a quantitative and qualitative perspective. It implies on one hand numerical assurance of human resources for total and categories, and on the other hand, a level of training and professional specialization according to the specific of developed activity.

The quantitative reflection of human potential at regional level was expressed by two indicators: the scriptic total personnel present at work, expressing the number of employees p[resent at work, at a given moment, no matter the dimension or duration of effective working time, and the average total personnel, calculated on a monthly basis, as a simple arithmetic average resulted from the sum of daily total employees for that month, including the weekly days-off, legal holidays and other days off according to legal provisions, divided by the total number of calendar days. The average annual total personnel were determined as simple arithmetic average of total number of personnel for each month, in each of the three analyzed periods. In daily total number of employees were not included the employees on unpaid leave whose individual labour contracts were suspended or those working abroad, forming the total personnel number of the Regional. According to the provisions of Order 590/2008 issued by the Romanian Government [2], for the calculus of the average number of employees, for each day off during the week or for public holiday were taken into account the total number of employees in the previous working day, except for the persons whose individual labour agreements ceased that very day. The employees who were not employed full-time were included in the calculus of average personnel number rated to the working time provided by the Individual Labour Agreement.

The dynamics of personnel both as total and on categories is meant to reveal the dimension of technical and economic potential for such production factor, according to the performances of the previous period.

For the dynamics' analysis of the group of employees of CFR Regional of Constanta between 2008 and 2010, the data from table 1 was used.

As regards the dynamics of the total number of employees of CFR Regional of Constanta between 2008 and 2010, we can appreciate the following:

* in 2009, compared to 2008, there was registered a decrease of the total number of personnel;

* the ampleness of decrease of railway transport services is greater than that of personnel number decrease, fact which led to the productivity level. The limitation of activity in 2009 was mainly due to the decrease of national economy and financial crisis which reduced the volume of products produced and transported by railway operators on railroads.

* from the personnel structure perspective, there are no major differences in the two years, the working personnel representing 78% of total Regional personnel, and the specialty and administrative personnel representing 22%, but within this last category the decrease of execution personnel is 1,6% lower than the management personnel, of 6,8%, which denotes a rearrangement of the personnel structure with an increasing of balance at management level.

* in 2010, compared to the previous year, a raise of developed activity volume was registered; however, a non-favorable evolution was noticed of the personnel structure due to the decrease of working personnel, especially that of the exploiting activity, at the same time with the raise of management personnel. Another negative aspect is represented by the fact that the continuous decrease of exploitation personnel in the analyzed period affects the safety of railroad circulation, and travelers transported by railway.

* the indicator of the average personnel number registered in the same period a continuous decrease of 9,6%, this tendency being continued in 2011. Evolution of the average number of personnel compared to the evolutions of the volume indicators of the services performed by the CFR Regional of Constanta are presented in Figure 3.

The structural quantitative aspect of human potential is completed by the qualitative one, expressed in the performances of work as production factor. This second aspect is extremely important as the dimension of the production and the evolution of productivity depend directly on the level of labour force qualification.


The qualitative analysis of human resources at CFR Regional of Constanta has followed the prominence of the following aspects, essential for formulating future personnel strategies and politics:

* manpower structure on forms of qualification and development;

* evaluation on labors' qualification degree;

* analysis of conformity between the qualification degree of workers and the complexity degree of the executed works.

The analysis of manpower structure on forms of performance of qualification and development was realized by the use of statistic grouping of personnel depending on training and seniority, followed by the calculus of their balance in the total number of personnel or on its certain segment.

Table 2 presents the distribution of railway staff within Regional of Constanta, according to the studies carried out and the activity area.

The achievement of an adequate quality of the human potential, through the raise in the number of persons with advanced studies and their use in correspondent jobs, represents a decisive condition to realize best correlation between the increase of the degree of railway transportation services specialty and the increase of railway operators' requirements.

A frequent indicator used in special literature for the evolution of job structure under the aspect of qualification of the afferent personnel is the ISUP indicator, calculated as follows [8]


Where: SS1 = number of personnel with university studies in the current year, ET1 = total personnel number in the current year, SS0 = number of personnel with university studies in the previous year, ET0 = total number of employees in the previous year

A value of 110.3% of ISUP indicator reveals a raise of number of personnel with university studies of the total number of employees in 2010 comparative with the previous year and reflects the efforts of the Regional management to raise the qualitative level of the personnel used. This is also underlinedby the high-school education personnel, whose index calculated based on the same formula is over unitary, while for the general studies personnel and personnel with professional studies, the index obtained has an under unitary value, highlighting the preoccupation for diminishing the weak-prepared or qualified personnel.

Most of the personnel employed in CFR Regional of Constanta have an average qualification, being high school graduators of technical specialization for railroads. In 2010, the number of personnel with medium studies employed in the operating activity remained constant, although its part in the entire staff with medium studies rose with 1.8% considering the diminution of the number of employees from the techno-economic activity with 1.9%, from 130 persons to 110 persons. Maintaining the same number of personnel, the one with average studies, in the operation activity, it means to reach an inferior limit of the number of persons with performing functions in exploiting the railway infrastructure. A decrease of such number, without an improvement of the technical progress and working technologies, will be leading to serious damage on the Company by affecting the railway traffic safety.

The analysis of structure indicators on age categories or according to sex has great importance in knowing the assurance mode with human resources. In this direction, Table 3 presents the structure dynamics on age groups between 2008 and 2010, and Figure 4, the personnel structure according to sex, for the same period of time, in CFR Regional of Constanta

According to the data in Table 3, we observe the fact that the personnel of the regional is fairly aged, young people under twenty years, not having been employed from 2008. The most part, each of the three years, is held by the group of age between 40-49, both in the basic subunities in the territory and in the centre of the regional, part that rose from 41% in 2008 to 48.4% in 2010.

Equal distribution of the personnel in the two activity areas is also maintained for the other groups of age with the note that individuals over sixty are very few and the segment 30-30 years old decreased from 37.1% to 31% as a result of the reduction in the railway system in 2009 and 2010. Most part of the staff is grouped in the interval 30-50 years, which signifies the fact that in the regional analysed there is no major unbalance in the age pyramid, being very few individuals close to retirement and very few young people lacking the experience necessary to railway infrastructure exploitation. The right of females to work and professional equity between sexes are respected in CFR regional of Constanta because the number of females was continuous during the three years, comparative to the number of males. The degree of speciality of women hired in the railway transportation system has risen continuously, they being present in occupations of economic-executive character, as well in technique ones, infrastructure operation and railway traffic organisation. According to the values in Figure 3, the number of females registered a diminution, simultaneously to the number of men, but their quantity represents more than a third from the total number of employees.

As from the analysis of personnel on age and studies categories it was noticed that the directly producing personnel is weakly qualified from the point of view of the graduated form of education and a sufficient old age, we have considered as necessary and pertinent another aspect of the qualitative analysis of manpower in Regional, which was applied to the conformity between the qualification degree of labour personnel on categories and the complexity degree of the executed works.
Category      Workers' distributions  Distribution of the     Disparity
of terms of   by categories of terms  volume of works by       between
employment    of employment           categories                 the
(ki)                                                          number of
               Number    Procentage    Number    Procentage    workers
                 of       of total    of hours    of total    and that
              workers                  normed                  of the

I                4          3,03        1550        5,61        -2,58
II               5          3,79        1826        6,60        -2,82
III              3          2,27        950         3,44        -1,16
IV               28        21,21        4205       14,53        6,69
V                36        27,27        7059       25,53        1,74
VI               32        24,24        8040       29,08        -4,84
VII              24        18,18        4016       14,60        3,58
TOTAL           132        100,00      27646       100,00

The indicator based on which the qualification of the working personnel was analyzed on categories was the coefficient of average qualification, [K.sub.m], calculated as arithmetic average between the employment category [k.sub.i] and the operative personnel number Ni, as follows:

[K.sub.m] = [n.summation over (i=1)]([k.sub.i] x [N.sub.i])/[n.summation over (i=1)] [N.sub.i] (2)

For the analysis of use manner of the operative personnel was also determined the complexity degree of executed works, [K.sub.l], calculated as arithmetic average of the complexity of works category [k.sub.i] with volume of works for each category Vi, as follows:

[K.sub.l] = [n.summation over (i=1)]([k.sub.i] x [V.sub.i])/[n.summation over (i=1)] [V.sub.i] (3)

The situation in 2010 is reflected by the data in Table 4 being the basis for the calculation of the correspondence between the degree of working personnel qualification distributed on categories and the degree of complexity of the executed works.

In 2010 the coefficient of average qualification had a high value, [K.sub.m] = 5.1 and reached the maximum value of the category, which indicates the preoccupation of Regional management for the raise of quality of operative workers. In the same period of time, the complexity degree of executed works by the same personnel had a value inconsiderably inferior, [K.sub.l] = 4.93. By comparing the two average coefficients, there resulted a disparity between the qualification level of workers and the employment category of their executed works, situation considered non-corresponding with implication on the spending with employees' retribution, in the sense of their raise. The remuneration of railway personnel shall be performed depending on the employment on categories and salary classes, and not depending on the complexity of executed works, which leads to great spending of the retribution of the personnel, performing works with a smaller complexity degree than the qualification had by the employment category.

Because, per total, the average category of the works is outmatched with 0.61% by the average category of the working staff, we consider it necessary in the structure, that in some categories, such as categories IV and VI, they correct the great existent difference and we propose that the wage of this type of workers be made according to the work category, the salary cost being reduced, the quality being superior and high work productivity. The level of the employees qualification has great importance for the management of the regional, reflecting itself in the main indicators of the economic-financial performance, especially in the work productivity, the turnover or services quality, but also for the employees that, through the bonus offered, place them favorably in an appropriate social climate. An important condition for complete and efficient use of the human resources is represented by the assurance of their high as possible stability. The flexibility of the labour force appears both as in the form of inputs and outputs, no matter the generator cause and modifies the exact number of personnel during a certain time. In the human resources movement analysis, there is a distinction between their rotation, resulted from objective causes--hires, retirements, death, disability, disease, and human resources fluctuation from causes no longer known by the company at some time--better work conditions, bigger salaries, bonuses accorded to the employees.

The analysis of the established dynamics in the personnel's flexibility for 2008-2010 was realized based on the data in Table 5 and allowed the disclosure of the flexibility phenomenon tendencies and the adjustment of the most important measures for its control.

From the interpretation of data presented in Table 5, there was noted a decrease of hiring in 2009 compared to 2008 emphasized by the negative coefficient of inputs intensity of 0.07% because of the austerity measures imposed by the Government and of the hiring restrictions in the public sector to cover up the budget deficit, followed by an increase in 2010 of 37 new hired people, representing three times more staff hired compared to 2008, thanks to the assurance of necessary of personnel especially in the maintenance and railway infrastructure operation areas and less for leading and executive jobs.

Concerning the evolution of the outputs from the unity, it was noted their permanent rise from 2008 until 2010, the main causes being reductions in the system and retirements of personnel that operated in special work conditions and fulfilled the retirement criteria at an earlier age than established for the work in normal conditions. The excessive quantity of total outputs was represented by the justified outputs that registered the same trend of the total ones, while the unjustified outputs diminished gradually from 24 individuals representing 43.6% from the outputs total, in 2008, to 10 individuals, which meant 6.9% from the outputs total, in 2010. At the same time, the modifications interposed in the staff s structure during every year, led to the continuous reduction and to the average number of personnel, monthly calculated according to the purviews of the decree no. 590/2008, from 2027 employees in 2008, to 1834 employees in 2010.

The coefficient of total movement increased in 2009 with 3.08% compared to 2008, in 2010 compared to 2008, reaching the value of 6.61%, especially based on the raise of intensity of justified outputs in the Regional.

In conclusion, considering the interpretation of the values obtained by elaboration of data put at disposal by Human Resources Service of CFR Regional of Constanta, we hereby consider that the main directions on which the responsibility factors within the Regional are imposed, by especially reducing the outputs intensity are as follows:

* use of manpower according to professional specialization and abilities of each person;

* adequate salary for the employees and solving the social issues;

* raise of operative personnel qualification which is employed on inferior working categories;

* assuring the conditions for efficient performance of work.


The analysis of efficiency of manpower use within CFR Regional of Constanta, as regards the diagnose of human resources, was performed by the help of indicator systems of labour productivity reflection and analysis of reward management. In order to follow the dynamics of labour productivity at the Regional level, as well as to compare the results with those of the mother-company, activity sector and national economy the value indicators were used, built as cause and effect report.

As effect, two main indicators were used: train-kilometer and use tariff of railway infrastructure, TUI. The train-kilometer indicator expressed in conventional units the volume of developed activity, as it reflects the number of kilometers performed by each train every year, freight train or passenger train, belonging to public or private railway operators, which transited on railway infrastructure on Constanta Regional, in a certain period of time. The use tariff of railway infrastructure expresses valorically the volume of activity developed and represents incomes from the use fee of the public railway infrastructure, paid by the railway operators, freight or passenger; who perform railway transport operators.

As effort, the average annual personnel number was used from CFR Regional of Constanta and CFR S.A., calculated as simple arithmetic average of the average monthly number of personnel. For an adequate appreciation of labour productivity evolution in dynamics, they operated with value indexes to express the effect of evolution of comparable units.

The intensive use of human potential, to complete the extensive use regarding labour time, is expressed by labour productivity which, in special literature, is defined by the efficiency with which work is consumed. The work productivity presents two components which characterize; each of them separately, a particular relationship between the human factor and activity object.

As regards the calculus of labour productivity, the volume of production is expressed in valoric units, and usually, the rate of turnover or added value, but because of the fact that they are in the service sector in which CFR Regional of Constanta develops its activity, no added value is produced, therefore we used in out calculi a complementary indicator expressed in conventional units, named train-kilometer. This is a specific indicator for the railway activity and we consider that it renders a real dimension of the activity volume in the sector of railway transport.

The analysis of human potential use indicators was achieved based on the data and information obtained from the specialty subdivisions of CFR Regional of Constanta for 2008 and 2010. The evolution of the indicator that highlighted the best the volume of the activity operated in the regional analyzed, is presented in table 6, on categories of users of the railway infrastructure.

All three indicators have had the same evolution during the analyzed period, more specifically a diminution in 2009 compared to 2008, more accentuated in the case of kilometer number of the passenger trains and freight trains and the tariff obtained following these traffic values, followed by an increase in 2010, both for values of the TUI valoric indicator, and the two indicators expressed in conventional units, train-kilometer, respectively, net tones kilometers. As regards the indicator net tones kilometer, we consider that t does not reflect unitarily and consequently the real volume of the activity and, subsequently we did not use it in our calculi.

As seen in Figure 5, in which I presented the evolution of activity volume indicators, in 2009, both the number of kilometers of passengers and goods trains and the revenues obtained by the regional as a result of their transit, registered values smaller values comparative to the other two years, this fact being justified by the reduced activity of the economic agents that carried fewer goods by railway.


The analysis on traffic categories highlights a more accentuated passenger traffic within the regional for every year, comparative with the freight one, while the incomes obtained are greater from the activity of freight railway operators, as the cost was of fourteen RON for kilometer for each freight train using a railway infrastructure, comparatively to a value of nine RON per kilometer for passenger traffic.

The average annual productivity of labour for an employee was calculated as a report between the volume of production expressed conventionally by the indicator train-kilometer and average number of employees each year, as follows:

[bar.W] = TKM/[bar.N] (4)

As we consider that the analysis of labour productivity is incomplete without an analysis of marginal productivity, we also calculated the values of this indicator, with which we interpreted better the evolution of production curve depending on the used human factor.

The marginal productivity of labour was determined as a report between the production variation and variation of average personnel number used for the regional activities, as follows:


For an adequate evaluation of efficiency of human resources use in CFR Regional of Constanta, we hereby consider that it is necessary a comparison of average productivity in the Regional to that total company for the adequate identification of the evolution of human factor potential.

Within the Regional, the level of annual average productivity for employee registered a decrease in 2009 compared to the previous year, followed by an accentuated increase in 2010 of 24.26%, due to amplification of quality of remained personnel and used following the layoff in 2009 and 2010, but also to the raise of activity volume, expressed in traffic volume. Compared to the values of average productivity at the national level of the Company, the average labour productivity in Regional of Constanta was smaller, representing approximately 57%, in 2008, 2009 from national average and reaching approximately two thirds of average productivity of the Company in 2010, due to a superior increase rhythm, of 15%.

The main cause of the average productivity differences between the regional and Company, we consider that it is represented by the volume of the activity expressed in train-kilometers and not the human resources component, as the Regional of Constanta has the smallest total, in total of Company, from the perspective of the occupied surface and kilometer distances between final stations.

Such evolutions mean that in 2010, from an economic perspective, the decisions of management of Regional regarding the qualitative clearance of the personnel were efficient although from a social perspective such decisions met the sustained opposition of the syndicates.

The diagnosis indicators of the rewarding management have an important role in the human resources management analysis, because, through their instrumentality the efficiency and the effectiveness of an organization reward system are quantified. The diagnosis indicators system of the rewarding management comprises evolution and structure indicators but also relative and absolute indicators.

Table 7 presents the expenditure structure with human work between 2008 and 2010, expressing the total expenditure with the personnel divided on expenses categories, such as direct and indirect.

The main indicator in the direct rewarding management is represented by the evolution of the wages annual fund which, for the employees of the regional, represented a rise in 2009, comparative to the year 2008, on the background of the reduction of the employees meaning a salary increase with 4.08%. Pursuing the evolution of the number of employees, in 2010, the direct salary expenses diminished on the background of maintaining the classification salary at the same level of the anterior year, in the salary system of the railway transportation without registering salary increases from October 2009. Obviously, the other expenditure categories that represent the contributions to the pension, health and unemployment funds or indirect expenditure categories had similar evolutions to the wages fund. We consider that the decision to remove the dining vouchers, in 2010, from the rewarding system, together with the elimination of some bonuses specific to the rough railway conditions led to the increase of the dissatisfaction degree of the personnel., with serious consequences to its maintaining in the future in the activities specific to the public railway system.

From the point of view of the rewarding management, we appreciate the evolution of the direct expenses with the personnel, represented by the wages fund, as favorable to the employees of the regional only in 2009, because in that period took place the last wages increases, the augmentation in 2010 being obtained based on the diminution measures of the number of the railway personnel and not through increase measures of the direct or indirect rewards.

The superior value of the annual average salary in Regional of Constanta, compared to the average of the company, between 2008 and 2010, illustrated in figure 6, it was registered because of the action enlargement of the two factors involved in the calculation formula of the average salary, that is: the seniority along with the operational personnel with a superior qualification that needs, according to the remuneration classification, a bigger amount of the wages fund and to the small amount, of 7.5% of the average number of the employees of the regional in the total number of employees of the company.


The tendency that manifests in the company in 2011 is of diminution of the wage average from 2338 lei to 2219 lei specified through the current budget, as a result of the decrease in this year as well of the employees' number, simultaneously with the amount of the expenditure with the personnel in the total of the company's expenses, in order to obtain better productivity and especially, according to the Government's forecast, to make the company's activity efficient in view of attaining profit, after a period of thirteen years of negative financial results. This decrease of the average salary in the regional is possible under the terms where, the value of the same indicator in 2010, at the level of the activity sector, was smaller with 18.4%, and at the national economy level was observed a value smaller with 29.9%.

We appreciate that it is necessary that human resources managers and managers of other areas of the CFR Regional of Constanta, as well as those at the central level of the national company, emphasize not only the personnel assurance that have superior quality characteristics but also its motivation, through an suitable rewarding system, in order to voluntarily use those characteristics to achieve company's objectives.


Following the evolution of personnel number and structure, professional reconversion between certain jobs which become redundant to other where the training process is longer, as well as the supervision of pensioning perspective, represent the main aspects contributing to the development of pertinent personnel politics which, at the level of Human Resources Service in CFR Regional of Constanta, we consider that it is insufficiently harmonized with current modifications in the structure and quality of human resources.

The SWOT analysis of railway infrastructure and use and insurance activities of the human potential is presented in Table 8.

For the efforts deposed as regards the correlation of personnel number with the level of service to be followed by adequate results, we consider that it is necessary that the human potential in Regional of Constanta to be judicially used. The professional training activity developed until current day by the Human Resources Service viewed assuring the necessary qualified manpower, the professional reconversion of over plus personnel, professional training development of an important number of employees and elaboration of specific regulations. At the same time, we appreciate that the main objectives of the professional training of manpower must view the adoption of attraction strategies of manpower towards all sectors registering a personnel deficit, by the following: attracting the candidates with special university studies, payment of university fees, organization of certain actions of populating the railway activity fields in social categories able from university education perspective, contacting certain decision factors within the university education to analyze the improvement modalities of bilateral relationships for the use of both parties.

Professional development within the Human Resources Service of a specialist group to implement an objective evaluation system of individual performance for every employee category and to sustain the transparency in compensation practice, we consider that shall stimulate the implication of the personnel to reach the economic and financial performance objectives of the company, and to raise the flexibility in award management.

The SWOT analysis was carried out as a consequence of the interpretation of the results obtained for the analyzed indicators, and validated, afterwards during the debates and the meetings with the regional director and chiefs of divisions. This represents, consistently all aspects presented during the study, but also analysis elements of the railway infrastructure potential.

Finally, we appreciate the main advantage of the use of SWOT analysis as being represented by the identification of the necessary opportunities and threats to the management of the regional in the corroboration of the strategies and decisions of human resources, emphasizing a deterrent manner of activities approach by the human resources management in the future.


[1.] Becker G. S. and Tomes N. (1986). "Human Capital and the Rise and Fall of Families", Journal of Lab or Economics, 4(3): S1-39.

[2.] The Government of Romania. Order no. 590/2008 regarding the approval of the Instruction for application of article 78 of law no. 448/2006, published in the Official Gazette of Romaniano.817 of 5 December 2008.

[3.] The Government of Romania. Government resolution no. 258/2011 concerning the income and expenditure budget approval of CN CFR SA on 2011, published in Official Gazette no. 215/29.03.2011.

[4.] Manolescu A., Marin I., Marinas. C.V. (2004). "Managementul resurselor umane. Aplicatii", Bucharest: Economica Publishing house, p.227.

[5.] Marin, I., (2011). Auditul resurselor umane. Bucharest: Economica Publishing house.

[6.] Radu, P. (2004). Potenfialul uman al firmei. Asigurare si utilizare. Iasi: Polirom Publishing House.

[7.] Rodrik, D. (2010), "Diagnostics before Prescription", Journal of Economic Perspectives, 24(3): 33-44.

[8.] Rosca, C., Varzaru, M., Rosca, I. Resurse umane. Management si gestiune. Bucharest: Economica Publishing house.

Daniel Daneci-Patrau, Laura Patache

Spiru Haret University, Constanta/Romania, Faculty of Accounting and Financial Management,
Table 1. Dynamics' analysis of the group of
employees from CFR Regional of Constanta

                                    2008                2009
No.    Personnel
Crr.   Categories               No.        %        No.        %

1      Workers                  1649      78,3      1563       78

       a. Workers skilled       146       6,9       143       7,1
       by categories

       b. Workers from the      1462      69,4      1381      68,9
       operating activity

       c. Workers of             41       0,04       39       1,9
       general use

2      Specialty and            456       21,6      439        22

       a. Performing            262       12,4      258       12,8

       b. Leadership            194       9,3       181       9,2

3      Total general            2105      100       2002      100

4      Average number           2027       x        1910       x

5      Train--Kilometer      5.172.151     x     4.727.973     x

6      Incomes from IUT      58.220.234    x     52.427.327    x

                                    2010             2009/2008
No.    Personnel
Crr.   Categories               No.        %        No.         %

1      Workers                  1477      77,9      -86       94,7

       a. Workers skilled       132       6,9        -3       97,9
       by categories

       b. Workers from the      1307       69       -81       94,4
       operating activity

       c. Workers of             38        2         -2       95,1
       general use

2      Specialty and            418       22,1      -17       96,2

       a. Performing            235       12,4       -4       98,4

       b. Leadership            183       9,7       -13       93,2

3      Total general            1895      100       -103      95,1

4      Average number           1834       x        -117      94,2

5      Train--Kilometer      5.641.275     x      -444.178    91,4

6      Incomes from IUT      63.946.850    x     -5.792.907   90,05

No.    Personnel
Crr.   Categories               No.         %

1      Workers                  -86       94,5

       a. Workers skilled       -11       92,3
       by categories

       b. Workers from the      -74       94,6
       operating activity

       c. Workers of             -1       0,06
       general use

2      Specialty and            -21       95,2

       a. Performing            -23        91

       b. Leadership             2        101,1

3      Total general            -107      94,6

4      Average number           -76        96

5      Train--Kilometer       913.302     119,3

6      Incomes from IUT      11.519.523    122

Source: Personnel records of Human resources
Service and activity records in Traffic Division

Table 2. Personnel structure according to the studies carried out

     Year                             2009

                                 Tehno-economic  Operation
Studies           Total          Personnel       personnel

                   No.     %      No.      %     No.      %

Advanced           213     11     79     37,09   134    62,91
College            33     1,6     14     42,42    19    57,58
High school       1015     51     130    12,81   885    87,19
Training school    382     19     61     15,97   321    84,03
Primary school     359     18     39     10,86   320    89,14
Total personnel   2002    100     323    16,13   1679   83,87

     Year                             2010

                                 Tehno-economic  Operation
Studie            Total          Personnel       personnel

                   No.     %      No.      %     No.      %

Advanced           222    11,7    79     35,59   143    64,41
College            30     1,58    11     36,67    19    63,33
High school        995    52,5    110    11,06   885    88,94
Training school    342     18     55     16,08   287    83,92
Primary school     306    16,1    33     10,78   273    89,22
Total personnel   1895    100     288    15,2    1607   84,8

Table 3. Personnel structure evolution on age groups

     Year                    2008                        2009

Age categories        Total      BS     CR        Total      BS     CR

                  No.     %     No.    No.    No.     %     No.    No.

< 20 years         1     0,05    1      0      0      0      0      0
20-29 years       136    6,46   123     13    105    5,24   101     4
30-39 years       782    37,1   706     76    642    32,1   580     62
40-49 years       862     41    784     78    922    46,1   844     78
50-59 years       321    15,2   268     53    326    16,3   259     67
> 60 years         3     0,18    0      3      7     0,31    3      4
Total personnel   2105   100    1882   223    2002   100    1787   215

     Year                    2010

Age categories        Total      BS     CR

                  No.     %     No.    No.

< 20 years         0      0      0      0
20-29 years        95    5,01    91     4
30-39 years       587     31    528     59
40-49 years       917    48,4   840     77
50-59 years       288    15,6   228     60
> 60 years         8     0,42    5      3
Total personnel   1895   100    1692   203

Note: BS = basic subunities from the territory, CR = Central regional

Table 4 Distribution of workers on classification categories
and according to the volume of executed works

Average rate   Kl=136519/27646=4,93   0,61

Source: Registries of the working personnel qualification of
Organization Technique Development Service, the calculations
and interpretations being made by the authors

Table 5 Personnel's flexibility analysis between 2008 and 2010

crr.   Annual indicators   2008   2009   2010   2009/2008   2010/2008

1.     Total inputs         11     9      37       -2          26

2.     Total outputs,       55    112    144       57          89
       from which:

       - justified          31     91    134       60          103

       - unjustified        24     21     10       -3          -14

3.     Average number of   2027   1910   1834     -117        -193

4.     Coefficient of      0,54   0,47   2,02     -0,07       1,47
       inputs intensity

5.     Coefficient of      1,53   4,76   7,31     3,24        5,78
       outputs intensity

6.     Fluctuation         1,18   1,10   0,55     -0,08       -0,64
       coefficient [%]

7.     Coefficient of      3,26   6,34   9,87     3,08        6,61
       total circulation

Table 6 Indicators of the volume of the activity
operated by the CFR Regional of Constanta

                                            Use of
Railway operators           TRAIN KM      tax [lei]       NET TONS KM

Year 2010
CFR GOODS--traffic goods   1.257.817      17.609.438      898.969.912
CN CFRSA--traffic goods      11.100        155.400         1.350.361
  passengers               2.890.300      26.012.700       3.981.938
  passengers                115.900       1.043.100          1.670
Private railway
  goods                    1.366.158      19.126.212     1.519.314.877
Total--year 2010           5.641.275      63.945.850     2.423.618.758

Year 2009
CFR GOODS--traffic goods    865.276       12.113.864      572.013.749
CN CFRSA-traffic goods       6.579          92.106          329.853
  passengers               2.646.871      23.821.839       3.870.317
  passengers                105.988        953.892           1.550
Private railway
  goods                    1.103.259      15.445.626     1.308.831.624
Total--year 2009           4.727.973      52.427.327     1.885.047.093

Year 2008
CFR GOODS--traffic goods   1.157.617      16.206.638      888.769.912
CN CFRSA-traffic goods       10.400        145.600         1.160.361
  passengers               2.770.366      24.933.294        981.938
  passengers                 67.610        608.490           1.437
Private railway
  goods                    1.166.158      16.326.212      999.314.877
Total--year 2008           5.172.151      58.220.234     1.890228.525

Source: Activity reports of the Traffic Division between 2008 and 2010

Table 7 Expenditure structure with the personnel

                                   2008         2009         2010
No.                             [thousands   [thousands   [thousands
crr.   Indicators                  ron]         ron]         ron]

1.     Wages annual fund, WF    54.427,80    56.651,11    55.377,30
2.     Social fees, including   10.979,35    11.663,56    11.517,59
         holidays and pay
3.     Health fund               2.978,20     3.427,38     3.350,33
4.     Unemployment fund          519,21       283,02       276,62
5.     Dining vouchers           3.536,28      295,22         --
6.     Other expenses             783,89       580,50       565,56
7.     Total expenses with      73.224,73    72.900,79    71.087,40
         the personnel

Source: Income and expenditure budget of the CFR Regional
of Constanta during the years 2008, 2009 and 2010

Table 8. SWOT analysis of human potential assurance
and use at CFR Regional of Constanta

STRENGHTS                            WEAKNESSES

-the existence highly qualified      -fluctuation of labour
personnel, able to assure the        productivity indicators;
adequate implementation of
modernizing measures imposed by      -integral neutralization of labour
assuring the interoperability and    time;
intermodal transport;
                                     -minimum salary of the first
-qualitative filtering of railway    salary class is inferior to the
personnel in the last two years,     minimum salary;
with favorable effects of labour
productivity raise;                  -existence of a deficit between
                                     the employment category of workers
-promotion of professional           and level of executed works;
equality between sexes;
                                     -massive concentration of
-promotion of a reward system and    personnel in groups of old age and
motivational stimulants              the existence of a small total of
established annually by the          personnel with university studies,
collective labour agreement          especially in the exploiting
concluded at the level of the        activities;
                                     -there are no methods of employees
-the level gross average income is   identification with raised
superior to the Company average,     potential for the efficient use of
activity sector and national         adequate functions;
                                     -not covering the personnel
                                     necessary depending on
                                     exploitation of railway
                                     infrastructure, due to repeated
                                     layoffs and employment freeze.

OPPORTUNITIES                        THREATS

-possibility to access non-          -qualified personnel migration
reimbursable external funds          towards private railway transport
necessary for the maintenance and    operators, especially due to
modernization of railway             reward system;
infrastructure, not affecting the
salary fund;                         -insufficient correlation of
                                     labour productivity with the raise
-the possibility to participate to   of salary fund;
certain personnel categories to
experience exchanges of personnel    -diminution of interest of
in other regionals or in countries   economic agents for railway
of the European Union, for the       transport, due to the raise of
improvement of professional          private road transport means and
qualities and experience;            accelerating the construction
                                     rhythm on highways;
-annual training and certification
of the personnel with                -deficient recruiting action of
responsibilities regarding the       new manpower favoring the
safety of train circulation;         personnel aging process;

-introduction of a differentiated    -non-correlation of inflation rate
monitoring system of each            with the level of employment
employee's performances, for the     salary every year;
professional development or
function promotion.                  -adopting new restriction measures
                                     for restructuring and
                                     reorganization of the company
                                     which led to the decrease of
                                     personnel number and apparition of
                                     conflicting states.

Figure 4. Structure according to the sex of the railway personnel in
the CFR Regional of Constanta

       male   female

2008   1394    711
2009   1313    689
2010   1254    641

Note: Table made from bar graph.
COPYRIGHT 2012 Springfield Publishing Corporation
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2012 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Daneci-Patrau, Daniel; Patache, Laura
Publication:International Journal of Emerging Sciences
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:4EXRO
Date:Mar 1, 2012
Previous Article:The effect of monetary policy shock on employment and output: the case of Turkey.
Next Article:The influence of inflation factors on monetary policy in Romania.

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2019 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters