Diagnostic analysis of CFR Regional--Constanta.
Human resources have become a strategic production factor, and at the same time the main component of performance for all domains and all organization levels. Such evolution allows us to appreciate that human potential is extremely important for the management of the organization both according to the efficient use, and quantitative and qualitative assurance.
As regards the diagnose of human resources for their evaluation, the management theory provided the use of two indicator categories: the indicator of human potential assurance and the indicator of human potential use.  Within this diagnostic, the knowledge of human resources is aimed from the perspective of evolution, structure, quality, efficiency of their use and indicators of reward management.
Assuring the necessary human resources represents one of the most important issues with which any organization is confronting, the manner in which such activity is being performed influencing the future results in a great extent. An important condition for complete and efficient use of human resources is assuring them greater stability. The mobility of manpower appears both under the form of inputs and outputs, no matter the generating cause, and modify the scriptic number of personnel in a certain period. When analyzing the movement of human resources, a distinction may be performed between their circulation, resulted from objective causes--employment, retirement, decease, invalidity, disease, and fluctuation of human resources from causes unknown by the Company in a certain period of time--better working conditions, greater salaries, facilities awarded to employees. According to Professor Dani Rodrik in a recent article:
"The message is that development economists should stop acting as categorical advocates (or detractors) for specific approaches to development. They should instead be diagnosticians, helping decision makers choose the right model (and remedy) for their specific realities, among many contending models (and remedies)". 
Subsequently, this paper is not meant to criticize the working manner of Constanta Regional, but to diagnose the current state of human resources and to support the management when taking decisions of improvement/removal of effects not wanted derived from the manifestation of weak points and threats identified at the level of Regional human resources.
2 WORKING METHOD AND INSTRUMENTS
In our approach to perform a diagnose of the human resources within Constanta CFR Regional, we have followed the following four main phases:
* acquisition of qualitative and quantitative information regarding the practices and procedures of insurance, use and recompense of railroad personnel within the analyzed regional;
* evaluation and structuring of information acquired in the first phase;
* analysis of results for the identification of both strong and weak points, needs of corrective actions and improvement opportunities;
* action planning for the correction of deficiencies and a proposal elaboration for efficiency raise of insurance actions of human resources.
Data and information sources necessary for the performed analyses have been represented by evidence of personnel of Human Resources service, Service of Technical Development Organization and Financial and Accounting Service of CFR Regional in Constanta for the January 2008-June 2011 period, structured on a content corresponding to the necessities. For non-structured evidence of such content, the information necessary for the analysis were obtained subsequent to a previous preparation of personnel data. Other instruments for data acquisition have been used, such as direct and indirect observation, photography of working day and databases of personnel evidence of CFR Regional of Constanta.
The system of indicators used in the analysis of human potential for CFR Regional of Constanta is presented below.
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
It seems that during the 1960's research conducted at the Stanford Research Institute by Robert Stewart, Albert Humphrey led to the development of the SWOT analysis tool. SWOT is an acronym for Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats. The SWOT method represents an investigation technique and analysis of de factum state in a moment of time, based on systematic study of four categories of contextual elements: strong points, weak points, opportunities and threats.  The diagnose of human resources based on the analysis of indicators system above has allowed the prominence of both strong and weak points, and is instituted in a benchmark for the management of regional regarding the planning of human resources from a quantitative and qualitative perspective.
The integrated pattern of the process regarding human resources assurance and use inside the Branch office ""CREIR CF" of Constanta is presented in the logical schema presented in Figure 2.
[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]
3 ANALYSIS OF HUMAN POTENTIAL ASSURANCE
According to the analysis scheme in Figure 1, the evaluation of assurance dimension with human resources within CFR Regional of Constanta has comprised three main phases: the analysis of total personnel, the analysis of personnel structure and its mobility.
For the adequate development of the administration activities of railway infrastructure and organization of train circulation, in the conditions of application of new restructuring and reorganization measures, the management of CFR Regional of Constanta shall assure the necessary adequate human resources, both from a quantitative and qualitative perspective. It implies on one hand numerical assurance of human resources for total and categories, and on the other hand, a level of training and professional specialization according to the specific of developed activity.
The quantitative reflection of human potential at regional level was expressed by two indicators: the scriptic total personnel present at work, expressing the number of employees p[resent at work, at a given moment, no matter the dimension or duration of effective working time, and the average total personnel, calculated on a monthly basis, as a simple arithmetic average resulted from the sum of daily total employees for that month, including the weekly days-off, legal holidays and other days off according to legal provisions, divided by the total number of calendar days. The average annual total personnel were determined as simple arithmetic average of total number of personnel for each month, in each of the three analyzed periods. In daily total number of employees were not included the employees on unpaid leave whose individual labour contracts were suspended or those working abroad, forming the total personnel number of the Regional. According to the provisions of Order 590/2008 issued by the Romanian Government , for the calculus of the average number of employees, for each day off during the week or for public holiday were taken into account the total number of employees in the previous working day, except for the persons whose individual labour agreements ceased that very day. The employees who were not employed full-time were included in the calculus of average personnel number rated to the working time provided by the Individual Labour Agreement.
The dynamics of personnel both as total and on categories is meant to reveal the dimension of technical and economic potential for such production factor, according to the performances of the previous period.
For the dynamics' analysis of the group of employees of CFR Regional of Constanta between 2008 and 2010, the data from table 1 was used.
As regards the dynamics of the total number of employees of CFR Regional of Constanta between 2008 and 2010, we can appreciate the following:
* in 2009, compared to 2008, there was registered a decrease of the total number of personnel;
* the ampleness of decrease of railway transport services is greater than that of personnel number decrease, fact which led to the productivity level. The limitation of activity in 2009 was mainly due to the decrease of national economy and financial crisis which reduced the volume of products produced and transported by railway operators on railroads.
* from the personnel structure perspective, there are no major differences in the two years, the working personnel representing 78% of total Regional personnel, and the specialty and administrative personnel representing 22%, but within this last category the decrease of execution personnel is 1,6% lower than the management personnel, of 6,8%, which denotes a rearrangement of the personnel structure with an increasing of balance at management level.
* in 2010, compared to the previous year, a raise of developed activity volume was registered; however, a non-favorable evolution was noticed of the personnel structure due to the decrease of working personnel, especially that of the exploiting activity, at the same time with the raise of management personnel. Another negative aspect is represented by the fact that the continuous decrease of exploitation personnel in the analyzed period affects the safety of railroad circulation, and travelers transported by railway.
* the indicator of the average personnel number registered in the same period a continuous decrease of 9,6%, this tendency being continued in 2011. Evolution of the average number of personnel compared to the evolutions of the volume indicators of the services performed by the CFR Regional of Constanta are presented in Figure 3.
The structural quantitative aspect of human potential is completed by the qualitative one, expressed in the performances of work as production factor. This second aspect is extremely important as the dimension of the production and the evolution of productivity depend directly on the level of labour force qualification.
[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]
The qualitative analysis of human resources at CFR Regional of Constanta has followed the prominence of the following aspects, essential for formulating future personnel strategies and politics:
* manpower structure on forms of qualification and development;
* evaluation on labors' qualification degree;
* analysis of conformity between the qualification degree of workers and the complexity degree of the executed works.
The analysis of manpower structure on forms of performance of qualification and development was realized by the use of statistic grouping of personnel depending on training and seniority, followed by the calculus of their balance in the total number of personnel or on its certain segment.
Table 2 presents the distribution of railway staff within Regional of Constanta, according to the studies carried out and the activity area.
The achievement of an adequate quality of the human potential, through the raise in the number of persons with advanced studies and their use in correspondent jobs, represents a decisive condition to realize best correlation between the increase of the degree of railway transportation services specialty and the increase of railway operators' requirements.
A frequent indicator used in special literature for the evolution of job structure under the aspect of qualification of the afferent personnel is the ISUP indicator, calculated as follows 
[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (1)
Where: SS1 = number of personnel with university studies in the current year, ET1 = total personnel number in the current year, SS0 = number of personnel with university studies in the previous year, ET0 = total number of employees in the previous year
A value of 110.3% of ISUP indicator reveals a raise of number of personnel with university studies of the total number of employees in 2010 comparative with the previous year and reflects the efforts of the Regional management to raise the qualitative level of the personnel used. This is also underlinedby the high-school education personnel, whose index calculated based on the same formula is over unitary, while for the general studies personnel and personnel with professional studies, the index obtained has an under unitary value, highlighting the preoccupation for diminishing the weak-prepared or qualified personnel.
Most of the personnel employed in CFR Regional of Constanta have an average qualification, being high school graduators of technical specialization for railroads. In 2010, the number of personnel with medium studies employed in the operating activity remained constant, although its part in the entire staff with medium studies rose with 1.8% considering the diminution of the number of employees from the techno-economic activity with 1.9%, from 130 persons to 110 persons. Maintaining the same number of personnel, the one with average studies, in the operation activity, it means to reach an inferior limit of the number of persons with performing functions in exploiting the railway infrastructure. A decrease of such number, without an improvement of the technical progress and working technologies, will be leading to serious damage on the Company by affecting the railway traffic safety.
The analysis of structure indicators on age categories or according to sex has great importance in knowing the assurance mode with human resources. In this direction, Table 3 presents the structure dynamics on age groups between 2008 and 2010, and Figure 4, the personnel structure according to sex, for the same period of time, in CFR Regional of Constanta
According to the data in Table 3, we observe the fact that the personnel of the regional is fairly aged, young people under twenty years, not having been employed from 2008. The most part, each of the three years, is held by the group of age between 40-49, both in the basic subunities in the territory and in the centre of the regional, part that rose from 41% in 2008 to 48.4% in 2010.
Equal distribution of the personnel in the two activity areas is also maintained for the other groups of age with the note that individuals over sixty are very few and the segment 30-30 years old decreased from 37.1% to 31% as a result of the reduction in the railway system in 2009 and 2010. Most part of the staff is grouped in the interval 30-50 years, which signifies the fact that in the regional analysed there is no major unbalance in the age pyramid, being very few individuals close to retirement and very few young people lacking the experience necessary to railway infrastructure exploitation. The right of females to work and professional equity between sexes are respected in CFR regional of Constanta because the number of females was continuous during the three years, comparative to the number of males. The degree of speciality of women hired in the railway transportation system has risen continuously, they being present in occupations of economic-executive character, as well in technique ones, infrastructure operation and railway traffic organisation. According to the values in Figure 3, the number of females registered a diminution, simultaneously to the number of men, but their quantity represents more than a third from the total number of employees.
As from the analysis of personnel on age and studies categories it was noticed that the directly producing personnel is weakly qualified from the point of view of the graduated form of education and a sufficient old age, we have considered as necessary and pertinent another aspect of the qualitative analysis of manpower in Regional, which was applied to the conformity between the qualification degree of labour personnel on categories and the complexity degree of the executed works.
Category Workers' distributions Distribution of the Disparity of terms of by categories of terms volume of works by between employment of employment categories the (ki) number of Number Procentage Number Procentage workers of of total of hours of total and that workers normed of the works I 4 3,03 1550 5,61 -2,58 II 5 3,79 1826 6,60 -2,82 III 3 2,27 950 3,44 -1,16 IV 28 21,21 4205 14,53 6,69 V 36 27,27 7059 25,53 1,74 VI 32 24,24 8040 29,08 -4,84 VII 24 18,18 4016 14,60 3,58 TOTAL 132 100,00 27646 100,00
The indicator based on which the qualification of the working personnel was analyzed on categories was the coefficient of average qualification, [K.sub.m], calculated as arithmetic average between the employment category [k.sub.i] and the operative personnel number Ni, as follows:
[K.sub.m] = [n.summation over (i=1)]([k.sub.i] x [N.sub.i])/[n.summation over (i=1)] [N.sub.i] (2)
For the analysis of use manner of the operative personnel was also determined the complexity degree of executed works, [K.sub.l], calculated as arithmetic average of the complexity of works category [k.sub.i] with volume of works for each category Vi, as follows:
[K.sub.l] = [n.summation over (i=1)]([k.sub.i] x [V.sub.i])/[n.summation over (i=1)] [V.sub.i] (3)
The situation in 2010 is reflected by the data in Table 4 being the basis for the calculation of the correspondence between the degree of working personnel qualification distributed on categories and the degree of complexity of the executed works.
In 2010 the coefficient of average qualification had a high value, [K.sub.m] = 5.1 and reached the maximum value of the category, which indicates the preoccupation of Regional management for the raise of quality of operative workers. In the same period of time, the complexity degree of executed works by the same personnel had a value inconsiderably inferior, [K.sub.l] = 4.93. By comparing the two average coefficients, there resulted a disparity between the qualification level of workers and the employment category of their executed works, situation considered non-corresponding with implication on the spending with employees' retribution, in the sense of their raise. The remuneration of railway personnel shall be performed depending on the employment on categories and salary classes, and not depending on the complexity of executed works, which leads to great spending of the retribution of the personnel, performing works with a smaller complexity degree than the qualification had by the employment category.
Because, per total, the average category of the works is outmatched with 0.61% by the average category of the working staff, we consider it necessary in the structure, that in some categories, such as categories IV and VI, they correct the great existent difference and we propose that the wage of this type of workers be made according to the work category, the salary cost being reduced, the quality being superior and high work productivity. The level of the employees qualification has great importance for the management of the regional, reflecting itself in the main indicators of the economic-financial performance, especially in the work productivity, the turnover or services quality, but also for the employees that, through the bonus offered, place them favorably in an appropriate social climate. An important condition for complete and efficient use of the human resources is represented by the assurance of their high as possible stability. The flexibility of the labour force appears both as in the form of inputs and outputs, no matter the generator cause and modifies the exact number of personnel during a certain time. In the human resources movement analysis, there is a distinction between their rotation, resulted from objective causes--hires, retirements, death, disability, disease, and human resources fluctuation from causes no longer known by the company at some time--better work conditions, bigger salaries, bonuses accorded to the employees.
The analysis of the established dynamics in the personnel's flexibility for 2008-2010 was realized based on the data in Table 5 and allowed the disclosure of the flexibility phenomenon tendencies and the adjustment of the most important measures for its control.
From the interpretation of data presented in Table 5, there was noted a decrease of hiring in 2009 compared to 2008 emphasized by the negative coefficient of inputs intensity of 0.07% because of the austerity measures imposed by the Government and of the hiring restrictions in the public sector to cover up the budget deficit, followed by an increase in 2010 of 37 new hired people, representing three times more staff hired compared to 2008, thanks to the assurance of necessary of personnel especially in the maintenance and railway infrastructure operation areas and less for leading and executive jobs.
Concerning the evolution of the outputs from the unity, it was noted their permanent rise from 2008 until 2010, the main causes being reductions in the system and retirements of personnel that operated in special work conditions and fulfilled the retirement criteria at an earlier age than established for the work in normal conditions. The excessive quantity of total outputs was represented by the justified outputs that registered the same trend of the total ones, while the unjustified outputs diminished gradually from 24 individuals representing 43.6% from the outputs total, in 2008, to 10 individuals, which meant 6.9% from the outputs total, in 2010. At the same time, the modifications interposed in the staff s structure during every year, led to the continuous reduction and to the average number of personnel, monthly calculated according to the purviews of the decree no. 590/2008, from 2027 employees in 2008, to 1834 employees in 2010.
The coefficient of total movement increased in 2009 with 3.08% compared to 2008, in 2010 compared to 2008, reaching the value of 6.61%, especially based on the raise of intensity of justified outputs in the Regional.
In conclusion, considering the interpretation of the values obtained by elaboration of data put at disposal by Human Resources Service of CFR Regional of Constanta, we hereby consider that the main directions on which the responsibility factors within the Regional are imposed, by especially reducing the outputs intensity are as follows:
* use of manpower according to professional specialization and abilities of each person;
* adequate salary for the employees and solving the social issues;
* raise of operative personnel qualification which is employed on inferior working categories;
* assuring the conditions for efficient performance of work.
4 ANALYSIS OF HUMAN POTENTIAL USE
The analysis of efficiency of manpower use within CFR Regional of Constanta, as regards the diagnose of human resources, was performed by the help of indicator systems of labour productivity reflection and analysis of reward management. In order to follow the dynamics of labour productivity at the Regional level, as well as to compare the results with those of the mother-company, activity sector and national economy the value indicators were used, built as cause and effect report.
As effect, two main indicators were used: train-kilometer and use tariff of railway infrastructure, TUI. The train-kilometer indicator expressed in conventional units the volume of developed activity, as it reflects the number of kilometers performed by each train every year, freight train or passenger train, belonging to public or private railway operators, which transited on railway infrastructure on Constanta Regional, in a certain period of time. The use tariff of railway infrastructure expresses valorically the volume of activity developed and represents incomes from the use fee of the public railway infrastructure, paid by the railway operators, freight or passenger; who perform railway transport operators.
As effort, the average annual personnel number was used from CFR Regional of Constanta and CFR S.A., calculated as simple arithmetic average of the average monthly number of personnel. For an adequate appreciation of labour productivity evolution in dynamics, they operated with value indexes to express the effect of evolution of comparable units.
The intensive use of human potential, to complete the extensive use regarding labour time, is expressed by labour productivity which, in special literature, is defined by the efficiency with which work is consumed. The work productivity presents two components which characterize; each of them separately, a particular relationship between the human factor and activity object.
As regards the calculus of labour productivity, the volume of production is expressed in valoric units, and usually, the rate of turnover or added value, but because of the fact that they are in the service sector in which CFR Regional of Constanta develops its activity, no added value is produced, therefore we used in out calculi a complementary indicator expressed in conventional units, named train-kilometer. This is a specific indicator for the railway activity and we consider that it renders a real dimension of the activity volume in the sector of railway transport.
The analysis of human potential use indicators was achieved based on the data and information obtained from the specialty subdivisions of CFR Regional of Constanta for 2008 and 2010. The evolution of the indicator that highlighted the best the volume of the activity operated in the regional analyzed, is presented in table 6, on categories of users of the railway infrastructure.
All three indicators have had the same evolution during the analyzed period, more specifically a diminution in 2009 compared to 2008, more accentuated in the case of kilometer number of the passenger trains and freight trains and the tariff obtained following these traffic values, followed by an increase in 2010, both for values of the TUI valoric indicator, and the two indicators expressed in conventional units, train-kilometer, respectively, net tones kilometers. As regards the indicator net tones kilometer, we consider that t does not reflect unitarily and consequently the real volume of the activity and, subsequently we did not use it in our calculi.
As seen in Figure 5, in which I presented the evolution of activity volume indicators, in 2009, both the number of kilometers of passengers and goods trains and the revenues obtained by the regional as a result of their transit, registered values smaller values comparative to the other two years, this fact being justified by the reduced activity of the economic agents that carried fewer goods by railway.
[FIGURE 5 OMITTED]
The analysis on traffic categories highlights a more accentuated passenger traffic within the regional for every year, comparative with the freight one, while the incomes obtained are greater from the activity of freight railway operators, as the cost was of fourteen RON for kilometer for each freight train using a railway infrastructure, comparatively to a value of nine RON per kilometer for passenger traffic.
The average annual productivity of labour for an employee was calculated as a report between the volume of production expressed conventionally by the indicator train-kilometer and average number of employees each year, as follows:
[bar.W] = TKM/[bar.N] (4)
As we consider that the analysis of labour productivity is incomplete without an analysis of marginal productivity, we also calculated the values of this indicator, with which we interpreted better the evolution of production curve depending on the used human factor.
The marginal productivity of labour was determined as a report between the production variation and variation of average personnel number used for the regional activities, as follows:
[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (5)
For an adequate evaluation of efficiency of human resources use in CFR Regional of Constanta, we hereby consider that it is necessary a comparison of average productivity in the Regional to that total company for the adequate identification of the evolution of human factor potential.
Within the Regional, the level of annual average productivity for employee registered a decrease in 2009 compared to the previous year, followed by an accentuated increase in 2010 of 24.26%, due to amplification of quality of remained personnel and used following the layoff in 2009 and 2010, but also to the raise of activity volume, expressed in traffic volume. Compared to the values of average productivity at the national level of the Company, the average labour productivity in Regional of Constanta was smaller, representing approximately 57%, in 2008, 2009 from national average and reaching approximately two thirds of average productivity of the Company in 2010, due to a superior increase rhythm, of 15%.
The main cause of the average productivity differences between the regional and Company, we consider that it is represented by the volume of the activity expressed in train-kilometers and not the human resources component, as the Regional of Constanta has the smallest total, in total of Company, from the perspective of the occupied surface and kilometer distances between final stations.
Such evolutions mean that in 2010, from an economic perspective, the decisions of management of Regional regarding the qualitative clearance of the personnel were efficient although from a social perspective such decisions met the sustained opposition of the syndicates.
The diagnosis indicators of the rewarding management have an important role in the human resources management analysis, because, through their instrumentality the efficiency and the effectiveness of an organization reward system are quantified. The diagnosis indicators system of the rewarding management comprises evolution and structure indicators but also relative and absolute indicators.
Table 7 presents the expenditure structure with human work between 2008 and 2010, expressing the total expenditure with the personnel divided on expenses categories, such as direct and indirect.
The main indicator in the direct rewarding management is represented by the evolution of the wages annual fund which, for the employees of the regional, represented a rise in 2009, comparative to the year 2008, on the background of the reduction of the employees meaning a salary increase with 4.08%. Pursuing the evolution of the number of employees, in 2010, the direct salary expenses diminished on the background of maintaining the classification salary at the same level of the anterior year, in the salary system of the railway transportation without registering salary increases from October 2009. Obviously, the other expenditure categories that represent the contributions to the pension, health and unemployment funds or indirect expenditure categories had similar evolutions to the wages fund. We consider that the decision to remove the dining vouchers, in 2010, from the rewarding system, together with the elimination of some bonuses specific to the rough railway conditions led to the increase of the dissatisfaction degree of the personnel., with serious consequences to its maintaining in the future in the activities specific to the public railway system.
From the point of view of the rewarding management, we appreciate the evolution of the direct expenses with the personnel, represented by the wages fund, as favorable to the employees of the regional only in 2009, because in that period took place the last wages increases, the augmentation in 2010 being obtained based on the diminution measures of the number of the railway personnel and not through increase measures of the direct or indirect rewards.
The superior value of the annual average salary in Regional of Constanta, compared to the average of the company, between 2008 and 2010, illustrated in figure 6, it was registered because of the action enlargement of the two factors involved in the calculation formula of the average salary, that is: the seniority along with the operational personnel with a superior qualification that needs, according to the remuneration classification, a bigger amount of the wages fund and to the small amount, of 7.5% of the average number of the employees of the regional in the total number of employees of the company.
[FIGURE 6 OMITTED]
The tendency that manifests in the company in 2011 is of diminution of the wage average from 2338 lei to 2219 lei specified through the current budget, as a result of the decrease in this year as well of the employees' number, simultaneously with the amount of the expenditure with the personnel in the total of the company's expenses, in order to obtain better productivity and especially, according to the Government's forecast, to make the company's activity efficient in view of attaining profit, after a period of thirteen years of negative financial results. This decrease of the average salary in the regional is possible under the terms where, the value of the same indicator in 2010, at the level of the activity sector, was smaller with 18.4%, and at the national economy level was observed a value smaller with 29.9%.
We appreciate that it is necessary that human resources managers and managers of other areas of the CFR Regional of Constanta, as well as those at the central level of the national company, emphasize not only the personnel assurance that have superior quality characteristics but also its motivation, through an suitable rewarding system, in order to voluntarily use those characteristics to achieve company's objectives.
Following the evolution of personnel number and structure, professional reconversion between certain jobs which become redundant to other where the training process is longer, as well as the supervision of pensioning perspective, represent the main aspects contributing to the development of pertinent personnel politics which, at the level of Human Resources Service in CFR Regional of Constanta, we consider that it is insufficiently harmonized with current modifications in the structure and quality of human resources.
The SWOT analysis of railway infrastructure and use and insurance activities of the human potential is presented in Table 8.
For the efforts deposed as regards the correlation of personnel number with the level of service to be followed by adequate results, we consider that it is necessary that the human potential in Regional of Constanta to be judicially used. The professional training activity developed until current day by the Human Resources Service viewed assuring the necessary qualified manpower, the professional reconversion of over plus personnel, professional training development of an important number of employees and elaboration of specific regulations. At the same time, we appreciate that the main objectives of the professional training of manpower must view the adoption of attraction strategies of manpower towards all sectors registering a personnel deficit, by the following: attracting the candidates with special university studies, payment of university fees, organization of certain actions of populating the railway activity fields in social categories able from university education perspective, contacting certain decision factors within the university education to analyze the improvement modalities of bilateral relationships for the use of both parties.
Professional development within the Human Resources Service of a specialist group to implement an objective evaluation system of individual performance for every employee category and to sustain the transparency in compensation practice, we consider that shall stimulate the implication of the personnel to reach the economic and financial performance objectives of the company, and to raise the flexibility in award management.
The SWOT analysis was carried out as a consequence of the interpretation of the results obtained for the analyzed indicators, and validated, afterwards during the debates and the meetings with the regional director and chiefs of divisions. This represents, consistently all aspects presented during the study, but also analysis elements of the railway infrastructure potential.
Finally, we appreciate the main advantage of the use of SWOT analysis as being represented by the identification of the necessary opportunities and threats to the management of the regional in the corroboration of the strategies and decisions of human resources, emphasizing a deterrent manner of activities approach by the human resources management in the future.
[1.] Becker G. S. and Tomes N. (1986). "Human Capital and the Rise and Fall of Families", Journal of Lab or Economics, 4(3): S1-39.
[2.] The Government of Romania. Order no. 590/2008 regarding the approval of the Instruction for application of article 78 of law no. 448/2006, published in the Official Gazette of Romaniano.817 of 5 December 2008.
[3.] The Government of Romania. Government resolution no. 258/2011 concerning the income and expenditure budget approval of CN CFR SA on 2011, published in Official Gazette no. 215/29.03.2011.
[4.] Manolescu A., Marin I., Marinas. C.V. (2004). "Managementul resurselor umane. Aplicatii", Bucharest: Economica Publishing house, p.227.
[5.] Marin, I., (2011). Auditul resurselor umane. Bucharest: Economica Publishing house.
[6.] Radu, P. (2004). Potenfialul uman al firmei. Asigurare si utilizare. Iasi: Polirom Publishing House.
[7.] Rodrik, D. (2010), "Diagnostics before Prescription", Journal of Economic Perspectives, 24(3): 33-44.
[8.] Rosca, C., Varzaru, M., Rosca, I. Resurse umane. Management si gestiune. Bucharest: Economica Publishing house.
Daniel Daneci-Patrau, Laura Patache
Spiru Haret University, Constanta/Romania, Faculty of Accounting and Financial Management
Table 1. Dynamics' analysis of the group of employees from CFR Regional of Constanta 2008 2009 No. Personnel Crr. Categories No. % No. % 1 Workers 1649 78,3 1563 78 a. Workers skilled 146 6,9 143 7,1 by categories b. Workers from the 1462 69,4 1381 68,9 operating activity c. Workers of 41 0,04 39 1,9 general use 2 Specialty and 456 21,6 439 22 administrative personnel a. Performing 262 12,4 258 12,8 personnel b. Leadership 194 9,3 181 9,2 personnel 3 Total general 2105 100 2002 100 personnel 4 Average number 2027 x 1910 x personnel 5 Train--Kilometer 5.172.151 x 4.727.973 x 6 Incomes from IUT 58.220.234 x 52.427.327 x [ron] 2010 2009/2008 No. Personnel Crr. Categories No. % No. % 1 Workers 1477 77,9 -86 94,7 a. Workers skilled 132 6,9 -3 97,9 by categories b. Workers from the 1307 69 -81 94,4 operating activity c. Workers of 38 2 -2 95,1 general use 2 Specialty and 418 22,1 -17 96,2 administrative personnel a. Performing 235 12,4 -4 98,4 personnel b. Leadership 183 9,7 -13 93,2 personnel 3 Total general 1895 100 -103 95,1 personnel 4 Average number 1834 x -117 94,2 personnel 5 Train--Kilometer 5.641.275 x -444.178 91,4 6 Incomes from IUT 63.946.850 x -5.792.907 90,05 [ron] 2010/2009 No. Personnel Crr. Categories No. % 1 Workers -86 94,5 a. Workers skilled -11 92,3 by categories b. Workers from the -74 94,6 operating activity c. Workers of -1 0,06 general use 2 Specialty and -21 95,2 administrative personnel a. Performing -23 91 personnel b. Leadership 2 101,1 personnel 3 Total general -107 94,6 personnel 4 Average number -76 96 personnel 5 Train--Kilometer 913.302 119,3 6 Incomes from IUT 11.519.523 122 [ron] Source: Personnel records of Human resources Service and activity records in Traffic Division Table 2. Personnel structure according to the studies carried out Year 2009 Tehno-economic Operation Studies Total Personnel personnel No. % No. % No. % Advanced 213 11 79 37,09 134 62,91 College 33 1,6 14 42,42 19 57,58 High school 1015 51 130 12,81 885 87,19 Training school 382 19 61 15,97 321 84,03 Primary school 359 18 39 10,86 320 89,14 Total personnel 2002 100 323 16,13 1679 83,87 Year 2010 Tehno-economic Operation Studie Total Personnel personnel No. % No. % No. % Advanced 222 11,7 79 35,59 143 64,41 College 30 1,58 11 36,67 19 63,33 High school 995 52,5 110 11,06 885 88,94 Training school 342 18 55 16,08 287 83,92 Primary school 306 16,1 33 10,78 273 89,22 Total personnel 1895 100 288 15,2 1607 84,8 Table 3. Personnel structure evolution on age groups Year 2008 2009 Age categories Total BS CR Total BS CR No. % No. No. No. % No. No. < 20 years 1 0,05 1 0 0 0 0 0 20-29 years 136 6,46 123 13 105 5,24 101 4 30-39 years 782 37,1 706 76 642 32,1 580 62 40-49 years 862 41 784 78 922 46,1 844 78 50-59 years 321 15,2 268 53 326 16,3 259 67 > 60 years 3 0,18 0 3 7 0,31 3 4 Total personnel 2105 100 1882 223 2002 100 1787 215 Year 2010 Age categories Total BS CR No. % No. No. < 20 years 0 0 0 0 20-29 years 95 5,01 91 4 30-39 years 587 31 528 59 40-49 years 917 48,4 840 77 50-59 years 288 15,6 228 60 > 60 years 8 0,42 5 3 Total personnel 1895 100 1692 203 Note: BS = basic subunities from the territory, CR = Central regional Table 4 Distribution of workers on classification categories and according to the volume of executed works Average rate Kl=136519/27646=4,93 0,61 Source: Registries of the working personnel qualification of Organization Technique Development Service, the calculations and interpretations being made by the authors Table 5 Personnel's flexibility analysis between 2008 and 2010 No. crr. Annual indicators 2008 2009 2010 2009/2008 2010/2008 1. Total inputs 11 9 37 -2 26 2. Total outputs, 55 112 144 57 89 from which: - justified 31 91 134 60 103 - unjustified 24 21 10 -3 -14 3. Average number of 2027 1910 1834 -117 -193 personnel 4. Coefficient of 0,54 0,47 2,02 -0,07 1,47 inputs intensity [%] 5. Coefficient of 1,53 4,76 7,31 3,24 5,78 outputs intensity [%] 6. Fluctuation 1,18 1,10 0,55 -0,08 -0,64 coefficient [%] 7. Coefficient of 3,26 6,34 9,87 3,08 6,61 total circulation [%] Table 6 Indicators of the volume of the activity operated by the CFR Regional of Constanta Use of infrastructure Railway operators TRAIN KM tax [lei] NET TONS KM Year 2010 CFR GOODS--traffic goods 1.257.817 17.609.438 898.969.912 CN CFRSA--traffic goods 11.100 155.400 1.350.361 CFR PASSENGERS--traffic passengers 2.890.300 26.012.700 3.981.938 REGIOTRANS--traffic passengers 115.900 1.043.100 1.670 Private railway operators--traffic goods 1.366.158 19.126.212 1.519.314.877 Total--year 2010 5.641.275 63.945.850 2.423.618.758 Year 2009 CFR GOODS--traffic goods 865.276 12.113.864 572.013.749 CN CFRSA-traffic goods 6.579 92.106 329.853 CFR PASSENGERS--traffic passengers 2.646.871 23.821.839 3.870.317 REGIOTRANS--traffic passengers 105.988 953.892 1.550 Private railway operators--traffic goods 1.103.259 15.445.626 1.308.831.624 Total--year 2009 4.727.973 52.427.327 1.885.047.093 Year 2008 CFR GOODS--traffic goods 1.157.617 16.206.638 888.769.912 CN CFRSA-traffic goods 10.400 145.600 1.160.361 CFR PASSENGERS--traffic passengers 2.770.366 24.933.294 981.938 REGIOTRANS--traffic passengers 67.610 608.490 1.437 Private railway operators--traffic goods 1.166.158 16.326.212 999.314.877 Total--year 2008 5.172.151 58.220.234 1.890228.525 Source: Activity reports of the Traffic Division between 2008 and 2010 Table 7 Expenditure structure with the personnel 2008 2009 2010 No. [thousands [thousands [thousands crr. Indicators ron] ron] ron] 1. Wages annual fund, WF 54.427,80 56.651,11 55.377,30 2. Social fees, including 10.979,35 11.663,56 11.517,59 holidays and pay benefits 3. Health fund 2.978,20 3.427,38 3.350,33 4. Unemployment fund 519,21 283,02 276,62 5. Dining vouchers 3.536,28 295,22 -- 6. Other expenses 783,89 580,50 565,56 7. Total expenses with 73.224,73 72.900,79 71.087,40 the personnel Source: Income and expenditure budget of the CFR Regional of Constanta during the years 2008, 2009 and 2010 Table 8. SWOT analysis of human potential assurance and use at CFR Regional of Constanta STRENGHTS WEAKNESSES -the existence highly qualified -fluctuation of labour personnel, able to assure the productivity indicators; adequate implementation of modernizing measures imposed by -integral neutralization of labour assuring the interoperability and time; intermodal transport; -minimum salary of the first -qualitative filtering of railway salary class is inferior to the personnel in the last two years, minimum salary; with favorable effects of labour productivity raise; -existence of a deficit between the employment category of workers -promotion of professional and level of executed works; equality between sexes; -massive concentration of -promotion of a reward system and personnel in groups of old age and motivational stimulants the existence of a small total of established annually by the personnel with university studies, collective labour agreement especially in the exploiting concluded at the level of the activities; Company -there are no methods of employees -the level gross average income is identification with raised superior to the Company average, potential for the efficient use of activity sector and national adequate functions; economy. -not covering the personnel necessary depending on exploitation of railway infrastructure, due to repeated layoffs and employment freeze. OPPORTUNITIES THREATS -possibility to access non- -qualified personnel migration reimbursable external funds towards private railway transport necessary for the maintenance and operators, especially due to modernization of railway reward system; infrastructure, not affecting the salary fund; -insufficient correlation of labour productivity with the raise -the possibility to participate to of salary fund; certain personnel categories to experience exchanges of personnel -diminution of interest of in other regionals or in countries economic agents for railway of the European Union, for the transport, due to the raise of improvement of professional private road transport means and qualities and experience; accelerating the construction rhythm on highways; -annual training and certification of the personnel with -deficient recruiting action of responsibilities regarding the new manpower favoring the safety of train circulation; personnel aging process; -introduction of a differentiated -non-correlation of inflation rate monitoring system of each with the level of employment employee's performances, for the salary every year; professional development or function promotion. -adopting new restriction measures for restructuring and reorganization of the company which led to the decrease of personnel number and apparition of conflicting states. Figure 4. Structure according to the sex of the railway personnel in the CFR Regional of Constanta male female 2008 1394 711 2009 1313 689 2010 1254 641 Note: Table made from bar graph.
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|Author:||Daneci-Patrau, Daniel; Patache, Laura|
|Publication:||International Journal of Emerging Sciences|
|Date:||Mar 1, 2012|
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