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Diagnosis and therapeutic management of puerperal metritis in a buffalo.

Introduction

Puerperal metritis occurs during initial ten days following parturition with or without retention of fetal membranes in all species (Roberts, 1971). It usually follows dystocia resulting in damage to vulva or birth canal. The condition also associated with uterine inertia, premature calving, twin births or retention of fetal membranes (RFM).

Relieving dystocia or RFM using unsanitary practices predispose to puerperal metritis. The prognosis was never better than guarded unless treatment is initiated early (Noakes et al., 2009).The present report discusses therapeutic management of puerperal metritis in a primiparous graded Murrah buffalo that retained fetal membranes at the time of calving.

History and Clinical observations

A primiparous graded Murrah buffalo aged 5 years calved a live male calf eight days back was brought with a complaint of discharging purulent material from vagina and persistent tenesmus. Decreased feed intake and milk yield but normal water intake was reported. The owner had attempted to remove retained fetal membranes after parturition. The clinical examination revealed a rectal temperature of 1060F, pulse rate of 102/ minute, respiration rate of 32/minute, dry muzzle and congested mucous membranes. Animal passed pasty loose feces and strained severely to expose congested cervix and vagina and discharged white and colorless exudates and cervix receded when animal stopped straining. The vaginal discharges were collected and sent to Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, Kadapa for ABST. Thus based upon history and clinical observations, the case was diagnosed as puerperal metritis. The antibiotic sensitivity test revealed bacterial sensitivity to Ceftriaxone (++++), Oxytetracycline (+ + +), Enrofloxacin (+ +), Gentamicin (++), Ampicillin (+) and Ciprofloxacin (+) after 48 hours of incubation.

Treatment and Discussion

The animal was given 5 ml of 2% Lignocaine hydrochloride epidurally to reduce straining, followed by1 liter of Normal saline 9% and 1 liter of DNS 5% intravenously (i.v) with subsequent administration of Enrofloxacin @ 5mg/kg b.wt. intramuscularly as initial antibiotic. To relieve pain, inflammation and allergic reactions, Melonexa (Meloxicam)@ 0.5 ml/kg b.wt.and Chlorpheniramine maleate @ 5mg/kg body weight were administered intramuscularly. As per the ABST report, inj. Intacef (a) (Ceftriaxone) 3 Gm was included in the treatment after 48 hours of initiation of therapy. The straining decreased with occasional discharge of white exudates and temperature of 101.2[degrees]F. The animal was given Calcium borogluconate 450 ml i.v. and antibiotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic drugs were continued for next five days. The recovery was marked by return of appetite, cessation of purulent discharges from vagina and straining with increased milk yield.

High mortality rate reported with toxic puerperal metritis in buffaloes during postpartum (Jainuddin, 1986). In puerperal metritis, bacterial invaders colonize in uterus resulting in pyaemia. Toxins produced by these bacteria are absorbed from uterus resulting in toxemia (Noakes et al., 2009). The first step in treating in these cases is to stabilize the circulatory system by giving fluids and non steroidal anti inflammatory drugs (Smith, 2005). In this case, intra uterine therapy not attempted due to possibility of uterine wall damage and toxin absorption as the uterine wall may be extremely friable.

The course of disease may last from 2-6 days with recovery or death occurring within that time. Unless treatment is begun early before the uterus is severely damaged, prognosis will be poor (Roberts, 1971). Azawi et al. (2008) conducted a study on treatment of toxic puerperal metritis in Iraqi buffalo cows and found bacterial sensitivity to Rifampicin and Oxytetracycline 73.8% and 67.9% respectively. In the present case, high bacterial sensitivity to Ceftriaxone (++++) was observed.

Cows recovered from toxic puerperal metritis may show prolonged open days and prolonged inter calving interval resulting in economic loses to farmer (Karimi et al., 2004). In the present case, the buffalo finally conceived by natural service and completed successful gestation with an inter calving interval of 21 months.

References

Azawi, O.I, Omran, S.N., Hadad, J.J. (2008). Treatment of toxic puerperal metritis in Iraqi buffalo cows. Vet. Arhiv 78: 487-99.

Jainudeen, M.R. (1986). Reproduction in water buffalo. In: Current Therapy in Theriogenology (Morrow, D.A. Ed.). W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, PA, pp. 443-49.

Karimi, H. I., H. A. I. Manspeaker, R. Anvari, A. F. Moradina, A. I. Neamattillahi, K. Niksam (2004). The study of important factors on reproduction of Azerbaijan buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). 23rd World Buiatrics Cong. Quebec & Eacute, Canada, p. 613.

Noakes ED, ParkinsonTJ and England GCW. (2009). Fetal dystocia-aetiology, incidence and prevention. Veterinary Reproduction and Obstetrics. 9th edn. Saunders Elsevier. p. 247-89.

Roberts SJ. (1971). Veterinary Obstetrics and Genital Diseases (Theriogenology), 2nd Ed. CBS publishers and Distributers, India. p. 255-57.

Smith, G.W. (2005). Supportive therapy of toxic cow. Vetclin North Am. Food Anim. Prac. 21: 595.

(1.) Assistant Professor, Department of Veterinary Gynaecology and Obstetrics, College of Veterinary Science, SVVU, Proddatur and Corresponding author. E-mail: jyothik100@gmail.com

(2.) Assistant Professor, Department of Microbiology, College of Veterinary Science, SVVU, Proddatur

(a)--Brand of Intas Animal Health, Ahmedabad

K. Jyothi (1) and T. Nagendra Reddy (2)

Veterinary Dispensary

Department of Animal Husbandry

Nagi Reddy Palli

Dist Cuddapah-516003 (Andhra Pradesh)
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Title Annotation:Short Communication
Author:Jyothi, K.; Reddy, T. Nagendra
Publication:Intas Polivet
Article Type:Report
Date:Jul 1, 2015
Words:835
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