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Diagnosis and management of pseudomonas associated canine otitis.

Introduction

Chronic otitis externa is inflammation of the outer ear and ear canal epithelium and it may develop anywhere from tympanic membrane to pinna (Radostits et al., 2007). Although young ones and adults of all animal species are susceptible to otitis, it is more common in dogs, cats, calves and pigs and occasional in adult cattle. Otitis externa has a multifactorial etiology and bacteria play an important role in otic disease (Lis et al., 2008). Chronic inflammation damage the epithelial migration pattern, affecting the normal cleaning mechanism of ear and if untreated leads to otitis media and otitis interna (Watson, 2003). Otitis media has been found to be present in 80-85% of dogs with chronic otitis externa (Michael, 2009). Identification and correction of underlying primary, predisposing and perpetuating causes along with antimicrobial therapy and ear cleaning are the commonly practiced treatment methods. Usually it takes several weeks to months for recovery from infection. Non-responsive cases are managed by surgical procedure (Zepps operation) (AL-Farwachi and Al-Hassan, 2009). The present paper describes about successful medical management of chronic otitis externa in two dogs.

History and Observations

A Golden Retriever male aged 1 year and 6 months, weighing approximately 41 kg was presented with head shaking, rubbing left ear and tilting head towards left side for last 10-15 days. After two days a German Shepherd breed, female aged approximately 8 years weighing about 30 kg was also presented with the same clinical findings.

On examination, the ear was erythematous, hyperpigmented and lichenification. The pus was yellow in color. The sample was taken using sterile swab and was sent for culture and sensitivity test (CST) to a microbiology laboratory.

Results and Discussion

Both dogs were treated with Fortivir (a) (Enrofloxacin) @ 5mg/kg b.wt., Gentamicin (b) @ 4mg/kg b.wt. and Vetalginc (Analgin) @ 4mg/kg b.wt. The ear canals were cleaned properly by flushing with Epiotic Solution (a). The less infected one (the right ear) was cleaned first and then the left ear. Then around 12-16 drops of Pomisol (d) ear drops was poured in both the ears. Neomec (d) (Ivermectin injection) @ 0.2mg/kg b. wt. was given on second day to treat the mange on ears and all over the body, which has to be repeated fortnightly. Virtraz (a) 12.5% w/v (Amitraz) solution in dilution with water @ 3ml/litre was applied on the ear flabs on first and fifth day of treatment. Spectrapil ointmentd was applied on other days.

The Golden Retriever dog showed recovery from the first day of treatment itself. On 3rd day of the treatment, the report for CST arrived revealing Pseudomonas spp. as the causative agent showing sensitivity to Enrofloxacin, Gentamicin, Amikacin, Tobramycin, Ceftazidime/ Clavulanic acid, Cefoperazone, Cefoperazone/ Sulbactam, Ofloxacin, Imipenem, Moxifloxacin, Ceftriaxone, Ciprofloxacin, Levofloxacin, Netilin and Meropenem. On the other hand, the German Shepherd female showed less improvement. For this case also the causative agent was found to be Pseudomonas spp. but showing sensitivity to Amoxycillin/Sulbactam, Ceftriaxone/Sulbactam, Ceftazidime/Calvulanic acid, Cefoperazone/ Sulbactam, Imipenem, Ciprofloxacin, Gentamicin, Ceftriaxone/ Tazobactam, Meropenem and Mild Sensitivity (MS) to Rifampicin and Tobramycin.

The first case showed relief by the third day of treatment and continued for five days and thereafter was advised for oral medication by Tab. Bayrocin (e) 150 mg and 50 mg one tablet each once daily for 14 days for follow up treatment at home. The Pomisol (d) ear drops was advised twice daily in both ears and the application of Spectrapil ointment (d) locally.

The medication for the second dog was changed after the arrival of CST reports. She was treated with Petromaxf (Amoxycillin and Sulbactam) @ 20mg/kg b. wt., Gentamicin and Analgin with the above mentioned dosage regimen. Tablet Moxipil-CV (g) pet 500mg along with Pomisol drops and the ointment were advised as follow up treatment.

Both dog showed complete recovery. It has been reported that otitis media is present in as many as 83% of dogs with chronic otitis externa (Cole et al., 1998). In animals, P. auruginosa has been assigned as the cause of otitis externa in dogs (Columbini et al 2000).

Summary

A successful management of otitis externa & otitis media in dogs of bacterial origin along with the treatment for mange is reported.

References

AL-Farwachi, M.I. and Al-Hassan, M.M. (2009). Study of some aspects of otitis externa in calves in Mosul city. Iraqi. J. Vet. Sci. 23: 69-74.

Cole, L.K., Kwochka, K.W., Kowalski, J.J. et al. (1998). Microbial flora and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of isolated pathogens from the horizontal ear canal and middle ear in dogs with otitis media. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 212:534-38.

Colombini, S., Merchant, R.S. and Hosgood, G. (2000). Microbial flora and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns from dogs with otitis media. Vet. Dermat. 11: 235-39.

Lis, C.O., Carlos, A. L., Leite, R., Brilhante, S. and Cibele, B.M. (2008). Comparative study of the microbial profile from bilateral canine otitis externa. Can. Vet. J. 49: 785-88.

Michael Schaer (2009). Clinical Medicine of the Dog and Cat. 2nd ed. CRC Press. p. 40.

Radostits, O.M., Gay, C. C., Hinchcliff, K.W. and Constable, P.D. (2007). Veterinary Medicine--A Textbook of the diseases of cattle, horses, sheep, pigs and goats. 10th Edn. London, Saunders Elsevier, p.966-94.

Watson, P.J., Watabe, M. and Moore, J.E. (2003). Purulent rhinitis and otitis caused by Pseudomonas auruginosa in sheep showed with contaminated shower wash. Vet. Rec. 153: 704-07.

(1.) Junior veterinary Consultant and Microbiologist and Corresponding author.

E-mail: drtiny.2007@gmail.com

(2) Senior Veterinary Consultant

(3) Veterinary Consultant and Specialist Canine Surgery

a--Brand of Virbac Animal Health, Mumbai

b--Brand of Ranbaxy Ltd., Delhi

c--Brand of MSD Animal Health, Pune

d--Brand of Intas Animal Health, Ahmedabad

(e) --Brand of Bayer Ltd., Mumbai

(f) --Brand of Novartis Pharma, Mumbai

(g) --Brand of PIL Co., Mumbai

Yanglem Pushpa (1), R.K. Anand (2) and Gautam Anand (3)

Dr. Anand's Pets Clinic

C-2-C/12/132

Janakpuri

New Delhi--110058
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Title Annotation:Short Communication
Author:Pushpa, Yanglem; Anand, R.K.; Anand, Gautam
Publication:Intas Polivet
Article Type:Report
Date:Jul 1, 2015
Words:992
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