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Diagnosis and management of contagious caprine pleuro pneumonia.

Introduction

Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia is a highly contagious, fatal disease of caprines which poses a major threat to the goat farming community particularly in developing countries like India and other Asian countries. The disease is included in the list of notifiable diseases by World Organization of Animal Health (OIE, 2008) because of very high morbidity and mortality rates causing significant socio-economic impact. Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) is caused by an intracellular bacteria Mycoplasma capricolum sub sp. capri pneumoniae (MCCP) which can infect domestic as well as wild breeds of goats (Nicholas 2002a; Arif et al., 2007; Ostrowski et al., 2011). The disease is characterised by hyper pyrexia, 100% morbidity, mortality (60-80%). The important clinical signs includes dyspnoea, grunting, snoring, continuous nasal discharges, anorexia and abortions (Nicholas 2002a). In per acute cases, goat may succumb to death within 1 -3 days without exhibiting and major clinical manifestations (OIE, 2008). Typical post-mortem lesions like conspicuous pleuritis with abundant pleural exudates (Thiacourt and Bolske, 2011), excessive quantities of straw coloured fluid with fibrinous flakes (Kaliner and Mac Owan, 1975; Wesonga et al., 1993; OIE, 2008) with adhesions between pleura and lung lobes (Mac Owan and Minette, 1977) may be present in pleural cavity. Various therapeutic trials were reported by different workers by using different antibiotics of variable efficacy like Streptomycin, long acting Oxytetracycline (Giadinis et al., 2008). Among them Tylosin (Onoviron, 1974) in naturally infected goat and Danofloxacin (Ozdemir et al., 2006) in experimentally infected goat showed promising results. The present study reports the occurrence of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia and its successful treatment by using Tylosin injection.

History and Observations

Non-descriptive adult goats were reported to be showing signs of high fever, sero-mucous nasal discharges, respiratory distress and death in some cases. Upon clinical examination, ailing goat were showing hyper pyrexia (105-106[degrees]F), increased respiration rate (40/min) and pulse rate (66/min). Two to three days after onset of pyrexia, the goat were exhibiting serous nasal discharges gradually turning into thick muco-purulent nasal discharges (Fig. 1) and ocular discharges (Fig.2). Faecal samples were found to be negative for parasitic ova and nasal swabs and heart blood swabs were found to be negative for pasturella. Auscultation of lungs revealed dull sounds indicating consolidation and pleural adhesions. The other signs included frequent lying down, lagging and fixed nosy posture. In terminal stages, the goat were unable to move with abducted fore limbs, extended stiff neck with continuous salivation. Death was observed after 4-7 days.

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Necropsy findings

In the present study, thoracic cavity showed large quantity of clear straw coloured transudate containing fibrin strands (Fig.3). Lung lobes had areas of severe congestion and fibrinous pleuritis. In severe and advanced cases tracheal congestion and pleural adhesions between lungs and thoracic wall (Fig. 4) were observed. In some cases, lungs depicted areas of hepatisation and abscessation. Aliquots of pleural fluid and lung tissue were collected and sent to the laboratory for confirmatory diagnosis which was found to be positive for Mycoplasma on culture.

Treatment

Ailing animals were isolated from healthy flock and treated symptomatically. They were administered with Tylosin tartrate (Dysine (a)) @ 10 mg/kg b.wt. I/M for 5 days (Tsu, 2008), Tolfenamic acid (Maxxtol (b)) @ 2mg/kg b.wt. and Chlorpheneramine maleat (Anistamin (b)). Liver tonics (Livotas (b)) @ 7ml and Vitamin supplements (Tribivet (b)) 1ml, I/M were given as supportive therapy for 5 days.

Results and Discussion

During the study, almost all the ailing goats exhibited predominant clinical signs with high fever, muco-purulent nasal discharges, cough, respiratory distress and lacrimation which are corroborating with the findings of Sadique et al. (2012). Post-mortem lesions like fibrino pleural layer over the lungs, straw coloured pleural fluid with pleural adhesion were also reported by Smith and Sherman (2009); Sadique et al. (2012). Tylosin is a macrolide bacteriostatic antibiotic used in sheep, goat, cattle and swine for treatment of local and systemic infections caused by Mycoplasma (Hsu, 2008). The goats treated with Tylosin within 2-3 days post infection, responded and recovered after 3rd day. Similar findings were also observed by Onovarion (1974) in which Tylosin administration as an early intervention for 5 days yielded promising results. Similar success was reported with Tylosin @ 20 mg/kg for 5 days in naturally affected goats (El-Mahi and EL-Nasri, 1982) as well as 11 mg/kg for five days two weeks has been reported to be more rapidly effective for treatment than Oxytetracycline @ 15 mg/kg (Smith and Sherman, 2009). Treatment of ailing goat in the flock will reduce the chances of the latent carriers in the flock thus perpetuation of the disease in the herd. Prognosis was found to be fair with prompt treatment showing 87% recovery (Rurangirwa et al., 1981).

Summary

Non descriptive goat showing respiratory distress with pyrexia, nasal discharges and mortality were confirmed as cases of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia and were successfully treated with tylosin and thus controlled the horizontal spreading of the disease within the flock.

References

Arif, A., Schulz, J., Thiaucourt, F.,Taha, A and Hammer, S. (2007). Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia outbreak in captive wild ungulates at al wabra wildlife preservation, State Qatar. J. Zoo Wildlife Med. 38: 93-96.

El-Mahi, M.M and El-Nasri, M. (1982). Isolation of mycoplasmas from goats in the sudan. Tropical Anim. Hlth Prod. 14: 31-32.

Giadinis, N.D., Petridou, E.J, Sofianidis, G., Filioussis, G., Psychas, V., Hatzopoulous, E and Haratzias, H. (2008). Mortality in adult goats attributed to Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capricolum. Vet. Record. 163: 278-79.

Hsu, W.H. (2008). Handbook of Veterinary Pharmacology. Wiley-Blackwell publication, USA. p. 359.

Kaliner, G. and MacOwan, K.J. (1976). The pathology of experimental and natural contagious caprine pleuropneumonia in Kenya. J. Vet. Med. Series B. 23: 652-61.

MacOwan, K.J and Minette, J.E. (1977). The role of Mycoplasma strain F38 in contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) in Kenya. Vet. Record 101: 380-81.

Nicholas Raj. (2002). Contagious Caprine Pleuro Pneumonia. International Veterinary Information Service, Ithaca, Newyork,USA.

OIE. (2008). Contagious caprine pleuro pneumonia. Manual of standards for diagnostic tests and vaccines. Office of International Epizootics, Paris.1000-12.

Onovarian, O. (1974). The comparative efficacy of some antibiotics used to treat experimentally induced mycoplasma infection in goats. Vet. Record. 94: 418-20.

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D., Ziyoev, O and Michel, S. (2011). Fatal outbreak of Mycoplasma capricolum pneumonia in endangered markhors. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 17: 2338-41.

Ozdemir, U., Loria, G.R, Godinho, K.S., Samson, R., Rowan, T.G, Churchward, C., Ayling, R.D and Nicholas RAJ. (2006). Effect of danofloxacin (Advocin A180) on goats affected with contagious caprine pleuropneumonia. Tropical Anim. Hlth Prod. 38:533-40.

Rurangirwa, F.R., Masiga, W.N., Muriu, D.N., Muthomi,

E., Murila, G., Kagumba, M and Nandhoka, E. (1981). Treatment of contagious caprine pleuro-pneumonia. Tropical Anim. Hlth Prod. 13:177-82.

Sadique,U., Chaudhry, Z.I., Younus, M., Anjum, A.A., Idrees., Qureshi, M.S., Sajid, A., Hassan, Z.U., Mushtaq, M. and Subtain (2012). Clinico-pathological study of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia(CCPP) in small ruminants. J. Anim Plant Sci. 22: 45-50.

Smith, M.C. and Sherman, D.M. (2009). Goat Medicine. Wiley-Blackwell Publication,USA. p. 352-53.

Thiaucourt, F., Manso-Silvan, L., Salah, W., Barbe, V., Vacherie, B., Jacob, D., Breton, M., Dupuy, V., Lomenech, A.M., Blanchard, A and Sirand-Pugnet, P. (2011). BMC Genomics. 12: 114.

Wesonga, H.O., Litamoi, J.K., Kagumba, M and Wakhusama, E. (1993). Relationship between clinical signs and early lesions of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia caused by Mycoplasma strain F38. Small Rumin. Res. 10: 45-54.

(a)--Brand of Doctors Pharma, Vijayawada

(b)--Brand of Intas Animal Health, Ahmedabad.

C. Pavan Kumar (1), K. Sudhakar Goud (2), N. Syaama Sundar (3) and V. Devi Prasad (4)

Department of Veterinary Medicine

College of Veterinary Science

Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University (SVVU)

Proddatur--516360

YSR Kadapa (Andhra Pradesh).

(1.) Assistant Professor and Corresponding author E-mail : pavancvet@gmail.com.

(2.) Assistant Professor, CVSc, Korutla.

(3.) Professor and Head

(4.) Associate Professor
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Title Annotation:Clinical Article
Author:Kumar, C. Pavan; Goud, K. Sudhakar; Sundar, N. Syaama; Prasad, V. Devi
Publication:Intas Polivet
Article Type:Report
Date:Jul 1, 2015
Words:1332
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