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Diagnosis and Therapeutic Management of Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia in a Caprine farm.

Introduction

Mycoplasmas are the smallest fastidious bacteria leading to various diseases in animals as well as man. In small ruminants, they may cause respiratory disease, arthritis, eye infections, genital disease and sometimes mastitis (Jain et al., 2012; Kumar et al., 2014). Amongst various diseases, respiratory diseases are common in goats (Tariq, 1980). Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) is caused by an intracellular bacteria Mycoplasma capricolum sub sp. capri pneumoniae (MCCP) which can infect domestic as well as wild breeds of goats (Ostrowski et al., 2011). In most animals, mycoplasma are herd problems with high morbidity and relatively low mortality and healthy carriers are an important part of epidemiology of mycoplasma (Radostitis et al., 2007). Recent reports suggest presence of high number of mycoplasma in carriers in herds (Mercier et al., 2007; Amores et al., 2010). The purpose of our study was to investigate the etiology of pneumonia in naturally infected goats and describe the macroscopic changes.

History and Observations

A flock of 390 goat heads aged between six months to three years exhibited clinical signs of respiratory disease. A thorough clinical examination was performed on all the animals. The signs in clinical case of infection were observed and recorded. Factors associated with outbreak were small poor ventilated house, the crowd and dust in environment. Complete necropsy were performed on the died goat exhibiting respiratory signs. For bacteriological examination, nasal swabs and samples from trachea, lung and heart were collected aseptically and transported to laboratory at refrigeration temperature.

Treatment

Ailing goats were segregated from healthy flock and treated symptomatically. Enrofloxacin (Quinintas (a)), was advocated to treat ailing animals @ 10 mg/kg/day for three days. In addition to that, they were administered with Tylosin tartrate (Dysine (b)) @ 20 mg/kg b.wt. I/M for five days, Chlorpheneramine maleate (Anistamin (a)) and Vitamin supplement (Tribivet (a)) 1ml, I/M were also given as supportive therapy for five days.

Results and Discussion

Almost all ailing goats exhibited predominant clinical signs included fever, nasal discharge, coughing, sneezing, respiratory distress, tachycardia, lacrimation and depression. Out of 390 goat in flock 122 (31.3 percent) were infected and 18 goat died acutely (4.6 percent) which are corroborating with the findings of Pavan Kumar et al. (2015). In necropsy findings viz. thoracic cavity showed large quantity of clear straw coloured transudate containing fibrin strands (Fig.1). Lung lobes had areas of severe congestion and fibrinous pleuritis (Fig.1). In severe and advanced cases, tracheal congestion and pleural adhesions between lungs and thoracic wall were observed (Fig. 2). In some cases, lungs depicted areas of grey to black hepatisation and abscessation (Fig.1) and affected lung areas were dark red to purple and firm (Fig.1). The samples were processed for isolation and confirmatory diagnosis found to be positive for Mycoplasma by PCR at Central University Laboratory, Chennai. Post-mortem lesions like fibrino pleural layer over the lungs, straw coloured pleural fluid with pleural adhesion were also reported by Sadique et al. (2012). The prevalence was highest in goats of more than 12 months of age as compared to less than six months and of age between 6-12 months. Enrofloxacin is an ultimate drug works well against respiratory associated pathogens. Tylosin is a macrolide bacteriostatic antibiotic used in sheep, goat, cattle and swine for treatment of local and systemic infections caused by Mycoplasma. The goats treated with Tylosin within 2-3 days post infection, responded well and recovered after fifth day. El-Mahi and EL-Nasri (1982) reported efficacy with Tylosin @ 20 mg/kg for 5 days in naturally affected goats with promising results. Treatment of ailing goat in the flock will reduce the chances of latent carriers in flock thus perpetuation of disease in the herd. Since there is no incidence of mortality on post treatment, improvement in general body condition as well as return of leukocyte counts, heart rate, respiratory rate and body temperature to normal range, it was considered that treatment protocol was effective (Pavan Kumar et al., 2015).

Conclusion

Non descriptive goats showing respiratory distress with pyrexia, bilateral nasal discharges, coughing and mortality were confirmed as cases of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia and were successfully treated with Tylosin and thus controlled the horizontal spreading of the disease within the flock.

References

Amores, J., Juan, C., Corrales, Angel, Gomez Martin, Antonio Sanchez, Antonio Contreras, Christiande la Fe. (2010). Comparison of culture and PCR to detect Mycoplasma agalactiae and Mycoplasma mycoides sub sp. capri in Ear Swabs taken from goats. 140: 105-08.

El-Mahi, M.M. and El-Nasri, M. (1982). Isolation of mycoplasmas from goats in the sudan. Tropical Anim. Hlth Prod. 14: 31-32.

Jain, U., Verma, A.K. and Pal, B.C. (2012). PCR based detection of Mycoplasma bovis from bovine clinical specimens. Indian Vet. J. 89: 61-63.

Kumar, A., Rahal, A., Chakraborty, S., Verma, A.K. and Dhama, K. (2014). Mycoplasma agalactiae, an Etiological Agent of Contagious Agalactia in Small Ruminants - A Review. Vet. Med. Int. p. 1-13.

Mercier, P., Pellet, M., Morignat, E., Calavas, D. and Poumarat, F. (2007). Prevalnce of Mycoplasma in external ear canal of goats: influnece of the sanitary sataus of the herd. Small Rumin Res. 73: 296-99.

Ostrowski, S., Thiaucourt, F., Amirbekov, M., Mahmadshoev, A., Manso-Silvan, L., Dupuy, V., Vahobov, D., Ziyoev, O. and Michel, S. (2011). Fatal outbreak of Mycoplasma capricolum pneumonia in endangered markhors. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 17: 2338-41.

Pavan Kumar, C., Sudhakar Goud, K., Syaama Sundar, N. and Devi Prasad, V. (2015). Diagnosis and Management of Contagious Caprine Pleuro Pneumonia. Intas Polivet 16: 404-06.

Radostitis, O.M., Gay, C.C. and Hincheliff, W.W. (2007). Veterinary Medicine - A Textbook of the disease of Cattle, Horse, Sheep, Pig, Goat, Tenth Edn. Saunders Elseveir, Baillier Tind Ball.

Sadique, U., Chaudhry, Z.I., Younus, M., Anjum, A.A., Idrees., Qureshi, M.S., Sajid, A., Hassan, Z.U., Mushtaq, M. and Subtain (2012). Clinico-pathological study of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) in small ruminants. J. Anim Plant Sci. 22: 45-50.

Tariq, M.A. (1980). Studies on the incidence, epizootology and development of effective vaccines for the control of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia, contagious agalactia in sheep and goats in Balochistan. Annual Report, Livestock Department, Government of Balochistan, Quetta, Pakistan.

M.S. Murugan (1), S.P. Malarkannan and R. Uma Rani

Veterinary University Training and Diagnostic Centre

Tamil Nadu Veterinary Animal Sciences University (TANUVAS)

Thirupparankundram

Madurai - 625005 (Tamil Nadu)

(1.) Assistant Professor and Corresponding author. E-mail: drmsmurugan@gmail.com

a - Brand of Intas Animal Health, Ahmedabad

b - Brand of Doctors Pharma, Vijayawada
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Title Annotation:Clinical Article
Author:Murugan, M.S.; Malarkannan, S.P.; Rani, R. Uma
Publication:Intas Polivet
Date:Jul 1, 2018
Words:1074
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