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Diagnosis and Management of Ocular Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Bovines.


Ocular squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is one of the most common neoplasms of eyelids and eye ball of cattle (Radostits et al., 2003). Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) alone accounted for 80.3 percent of all diagnosed tumor in cattle with incidence of 1.6 percent ocular and periocular lesions (Martins and Barros, 2014). The cause of ocular SCC is still poorly understood, however there are several factors including genetic susceptibility, nutrition levels, age, UV light, circumocular pigmentation and viruses that may contribute to its development (Tsujita and Plummer, 2010). The peak age incidence has been reported as 6-9 years. The incidence of ocular diseases justifying enucleation included squamous cell carcinoma (85%), retro bulbar lymphosarcoma (4%), proptosis of globe (4%) and rupture of globe (2%) (Schulz and Anderson, 2010). Keeping above facts in view, present study was carried out with aim of successful management of ocular squamous cell carcinoma in bovine.

Materials and Methods

The study was conducted on four Holstein Friesian cows and one Murrah buffalo presented with history of variable shaped neoplastic growths in eyes and apparent loss of vision. Tumors involved the complete eye ball and eye lid in four Holstein Friesian cows but in Murrah buffalo, no involvement of eye lid was observed. The representative tissue samples from surgically excised tumorous growths were collected in 10% buffered formalin and processed for routine histopathological examination by conventional procedure (Luna, 1968).

Result and Discussion

Clinically three animals were dull and depressed may be because of continuous suppurative lacrimation from affected eye while others were apparently healthy and alert at the time of routine examination. Similar finding were also reported by Fazili et al. (2001). On palpation, the tumorous growths were soft and ulcerated in three bovines. All hematological and physiological parameters were found to be within normal range.

Sedation was achieved using Xylazine hydrochloride @ 0.05 mg/kg b. wt. by intravenous route and animals were restrained in lateral recumbency by keeping affected eye upward in position. The hairs around the eye were clipped and skin was disinfected with Chlorohexidine scrub in all animals. After that 10 ml of 2% Lignocaine hydrochloride was given by Peterson nerve block and local infiltration was undertaken around eye as per requirement. Similar anesthetic procedure was followed up by Gami et al. (2017). A circumferential skin incision was given on eye lid one inch away from their edges. The medial and lateral canthus ligaments were cut to access the caudal aspect of orbit. Blunt dissection was undertaken around the globe and transection of optic nerve was done to the extent possible. The globe along with orbital fat and extra ocular muscles were removed. After complete removal of affected eye, opening was left open on medial canthus in all animals for daily dressing with Povidone iodine seton (Fig. 2). Daily dressing was done for seven days with Povidone iodine and Exoheal (a) spray. Broad spectrum antibiotics (Intacef Tazo (a) 4.5 gm) and analgesics (Melonex (a) 20 ml) were given for five days. All patients recovered successfully followed by post-operative period up to two months. Similar finding was also observed by Kamalakar et al. (2014).

Grossly, the tumorous growths were of variable size and shape. The growths in eyes involved conjunctiva and covered almost whole cornea making the animals apparently blind (Fig. 1). Microscopically, all cases were diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma characterized by islands of neoplastic epithelial cells with keratinized layers (cell nests) in the centre and well developed fibrous connective tissue stroma in adjacent areas (Fig. 3 and 4). The neoplastic cells were pleomorphic and showed increased nuclear cytoplasmic ratio. Occasionally, a few mitotic figures were also evident. Present histological findings were in accordance Gami et al. (2017).


On the basis of present study, it can be concluded that ocular squamous cell carcinoma can be successfully managed by eye extirpation.


Fazili, M.R., Buchoo, B.A. Darzi, M.M. and Hussain, S.S. (2001). Occular squamous cell carcinoma in a cow. Indian J.Vet. Surg. 22: 132.

Gami, M.S., Patel, P.B., Parmar, J.J., Joshi, K.N. and Avasthi, H.A. (2017). Surgical management of eye tumours in cattle. Indian J.Vet. Surg. 38: 52-53.

Kamalakar, G., Prasad, D.V., Mahesh, R., Devaratnam, J. and Kumar, S.R.V. (2014). Surgical management of irreparable orbital disorders in ruminants - A report of two cases. International J. Livestock Res. 4: 48-51.

Luna, L.G. (1968). Manual of Histogic Staining methods of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, 3rd Edn., McGraw Hill Book Company, New York.

Martins, T.B. and Barros, C.S.L. (2014). Fifty years in the blink of an eye - A retrospective study of ocular and periocular lesions in domestic animals. Pesq. Vet. Bras. 34: 1215-22.

Radostits, O.M., Gay, C.C., Blood, D.C. and Hinchcliff, K.W. (2003). In: Veterinary Medicine, 9th Edition, W.B. Saunders, Elsevier Science Ltd., Philadelphia, USA., p. 1813: 7.

Schulz, K.L. and Anderson, D.E. (2010). Bovine enucleation - A retrospective study of 53 cases (1998-2006). Can. Vet. J. 51: 611-14.

Tsujita, H. and Plummer, C.E. (2010). Bovine ocular squamous cell carcinoma. Vet. Clin. Food Anim. 26: 511-29.

Sandeep Kumar (1), Babu Lal Jangir (2), Sandeep Saharan (3), Maneesh Sharma (3) and Neeraj Arora (4)

Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology College of Veterinary Sciences Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences (LUVAS) Hisar - 125004 (Haryana)

(1.) Scientist and Corresponding author.


(2.) Assistant Professor, Department of Veterinary Pathology

(3.) Assistant Professor, Department of Veterinary Clinical Complex

(4.) Assistant Professor

(a) - Brand of Intas Animal Health, Ahmedabad
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Title Annotation:Clinical Article
Author:Kumar, Sandeep; Jangir, Babu Lal; Saharan, Sandeep; Sharma, Maneesh; Arora, Neeraj
Publication:Intas Polivet
Date:Jul 1, 2018
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